The Game

Overview

Chess, unlike many other games, does not involve chance. Ìt does not hinge on
the roll of dice or which card is drawn. The outcome completely depends on the
decisions of both the players. However, because of its vast complexity, the far-reaching
consequences of some decisions are practically unforeseeable.

One player ("White") has the white pieces while the other ("Black") has the black
pieces. Ìn friendly games the choice of colors can be made by any method, such as
flipping a coin - if there is no coin at hand, another typical way of deciding would be to
conceal a black piece in one hand and a white piece in the other and ask one's
opponent to select a hand, the colored piece selected will be the opponent's color. Ìn
competitive games the players are assigned their colors.
Order of play

Once all the pieces have been arranged, White makes the first move. White
,w,8 makes the first move; this is important for notation, and any chess player will
insist upon it. After White has made their move, Black will then make a move. The game
play will continue in alternating fashion, White making a move, followed by Black.

Gener, movement rue8

O A move consists of moving a single piece, in accordance with its rules of
movement, to a square that is unoccupied or occupied by an enemy piece.

O Ìf a piece is moved onto a square occupied by an enemy piece, the latter piece is
removed from play and the first piece replaces it. The removed piece is said to
have been .,5tured or t,en.

O With the exception of the knight, no piece may make a move to a non-adjacent
square unless all the intervening squares are vacant (pieces may not 'jump over'
other pieces).

O No player may make a move that leaves their king in check (see below).

There are some exceptions to these rules, where a player's turn can consist of
two pieces moving (castling), where a piece moves to an unoccupied square but still
captures (en passant capture), or where a piece moves to a square and becomes a
different unit (promotion), all of which are covered below.

The board

Traditionally, the game is played on a board of 64 alternating black and white
squares turned with a white square to each player's far right. "White on right" is a helpful
saying to remember this convention. The light and dark squares on the chessboard and
the light and dark chess pieces are traditionally referred to as "white" and "black"
respectively, although in modern chess sets almost any colors may be used. The
horizontal rows of squares are called ranks and are numbered 1-8; the vertical rows of
squares are called files and given the letters a-h.

The pieces

The movement of the individual pieces is described below. Ìn all the board
diagrams shown, the squares to which the piece in question can move are indicated
with x's.

King


The king can move one square at a time in any direction, with certain restrictions.

The king is the most important piece belonging to each player, though not the most
powerful. Ìf a player moves a piece such that it threatens to capture his opponent's king,
that king is said to be in .e.. Ìf a player's king is in check, he must immediately
remove the check by moving the king, blocking the check with another piece, or
capturing the checking piece. As mentioned above, players may not place their own
king in check; however, they may check their opponent's king. Two kings may never
occupy adjacent squares, since they would have put themselves in check by moving
there.

Ìf the king is placed in check and cannot escape, it is said to have been .e.m,ted (or
"m,ted" for short). The first player to checkmate the opponent's king wins the game.
Note that the king is never actually captured, since it is obliged to move out of check
whenever possible (and the game ends when it is impossible).

The White king in the following diagram cannot move upwards or to the left since it
would be in check from the bishop, or diagonally downwards which would leave it
adjacent to the Black king.

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