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Now a days home security has become one of the most essential requirements, both in antitheft perspective and in anti-accident perspective. Every house is to be equipped with an intelligent system that monitors all the essential parameters so that an efficient monitoring and control can be implemented. The monitoring of parameters can be done using a wireless sensor network system. Different sensors are installed at various measuring points in a home that is being secured. The sensed data from the sensors is transmitted over a wireless personal area network that is established using a zigbee protocol. The received data is then addressed and placed over the internet using transmission control protocol / internet protocol (IP) of the internet protocol suite, using socket programming techniques of the national instruments using LABVIEW. Using the respective IP address generated the concerned security official or the house owners alerted about any variations in the measured parameters or any security breach in the house. In this way the efficient security system is established because, the concerned person is alerted exactly at the time of occurrence of accident. The official can vary the parameters from his location using the same TCP/IP protocol. Therefore the parameters considered from home security are intensity of propane gas (liquefied petroleum gas ) and motion detection.

The TCP/IP Protocol Architecture Two protocol architectures have served as the basis for the development of interoperable Communications standards: the TCPI/P protocol suite and the OSI reference model. TCP/IP is the most widely used interoperable architecture, and OSI has become the standard model for classifying communications functions. In the remainder of this section, we provide a brief overview of the two architectures; TCP/IP is a result of protocol research and development conducted on the experimental packet-switched network, ARPANET, funded by the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and is generally referred to as the TCP/IP protocol suite. This protocol suite consists of a large collection of protocols that have been issued as Internet standards by the Internet Architecture Board I(IAB). I There is no official TCPIIP protocol model as there is in the case of OSI. However, based on the protocol standards that have been developed, we can organize the communication task for TCPIIP into five relatively independent layers: Application layer Host-to-host, or transport layer Internet layer Network access layer Physical layer The physical layer covers the physical interface between a data transmission device (e.g., workstation, computer) and a transmission medium or network. This layer is concerned with specifying the characteristics of the transmission medium, the nature of the signals, the data rate, and related matters. The network access layer is concerned with the exchange of data between an end system and the network to which it is attached. The sending computer must provide the network with the address of the destination computer, so that the network may route the data to the appropriate destination. The sending computer may wish to invoke certain services, such as priority, that might be provided by the network. The specific software used at this layer depends on the type of network to be used; different standards have been developed for circuit-switching, packet-switching (e.g., X.25), local area networks (e.g., Ethernet), and others. Thus, it makes sense to separate those functions having to do with network access into a separate layer. By doing this, the remainder of the communications software, above the network access layer, need not be concerned about the specifics of the network to be used. The same higher-layer software should function properly regardless of the particular network to which the computer is attached. The network access layer is concerned with access to and routing data across a network for two end systems attached to the same network. In those cases where two devices are attached to different networks, procedures are needed to allow data to traverse multiple interconnected networks. This is the function of the internet layer. The internet protocol

(IP) is used at this layer to provide the routing function across multiple networks. This protocol is implemented not only in the end systems but also in routers. A router is a processor that connects two networks and whose primary function is to relay data from one network to the other on its route from the source to the destination end system. Regardless of the nature of the applications that are exchanging data, there is usually a requirement that data be exchanged reliably. That is, we would like to be assured that all of the data arrive at the destination application and that the data arrive in the same order in which they were sent. Thus, it makes sense to collect those mechanisms in a common layer shared by all applications; this is referred to as the host-to-host layer, or transport layer. The transmission control protocol (TCP) is the most commonly-used protocol to provide this functionality. Finally, the application layer contains the logic needed to support the various user applications. For each different type of application, such as file transfer, a separate module is needed that is peculiar to that application. TCP/IP protocols are implemented in end systems and relate this description to the communications model of Figure Note that the physical and network access layers provide interaction between the end system and the network, whereas the transport and application layers are what is known as end-to-end protocols; they support interaction between two end systems. The internet layer has the flavour of both.

Transport Layer There are two main protocols in this layer TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) UDP (User Datagram Protocol) Among the above two protocols, TCP protocol is the most commonly used protocol.

Transmission Control Protocol: TCP ensures the data transfer is reliable and error free. This protocol is responsible for checking and detecting errors. It is responsible for correct delivery of data in proper sequence. It is responsible for congestion control. It is a connection-oriented protocol. It uses sliding-window flow control method.

TCP is the protocol that major Internet applications such as the World Wide Web (www), email, remote administration and file transfer rely on.

UDP Alternative to TCP is User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Not guaranteed delivery Connectionless No preservation of sequence No protection against duplication

UDP header

Internet Layer The internet layer is very important as it helps in communicating over the internet. The protocol used in this layer is the Internet Protocol (IP). The IP portion of the TCP/IP is dealt in this layer. This is the layer where IP addressing is done to indentify a specific system connected to the network. (Eg: Its responsible for routing the data from source to destination over diversified networks.

Comparison of OSI model and TCP/IP model:

The TCP/IP protocol suite is made of five layers: physical, network interface, internet, transport, and application. The first four layers provide physical standards, network interface, internetworking, and transport functions that correspond to the first four layers of the OSI model. The three topmost layers in the OSI model, however, are represented in TCP/IP by a single layer called the application layer. INTERNETWORKING

A network of computer networks is called as an internetwork. When two or more workstations are connected to share data and resources its called as a network and when such networks are connected to each other its called as an internetwork. The process of exchanging data and resources over two or more diversified networks is called as Internetworking.

Requirements of Internetworking: Link between networks Minimum physical and link layer Routing and delivery of data between processes on different networks Accounting services and status info Independent of network architectures

Challenges in Internetworking: When two or more networks are to be connected to form a internetwork then the challenges faced are.. The devices of the two networks may not be compatible with each other. They may differ in terms of topologies, transmission medium, wiring etc. For example connecting a token ring LAN with a bus LAN.

Internetworking Devices

Repeater: Also called as a regenerator, is an electronic device that simply regenerates a signal. Bridges: A bridge is used to divide a big network into smaller sub-networks. Routers: A router is termed as an intelligent device. A router is useful for interconnecting two or more networks. It determines the best possible transmission path from source to destination. Gateway: It is a powerful device compared to others. It is typically used to connect huge and incompatible networks.

Routing with Bridges

Bridges can also perform the function of routing. Routing is nothing but to choose the appropriate transmission path from source to destination. A bridge decides whether to forward data from one sub-network to another. Consider the following figure.. Suppose if station 1 wants to transmit data to station 6. Once the data is put on the bus, bridges 101, 107, and 102 can read the data, but all these three bridges need not transmit the data to their respective connected LANs. Therefore only bridge 102 repeats the data on to LAN C. From there it forwards to LAN F through bridge 105 only. The other bridges like 103, 104 and 106 are not concerned with station 6 and hence do not forward the data on to their LANs. Hence a bridge takes routing decisions.