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Al Farabi - 1991 Ibn e Nafis - 1991
Hovering Satellite – 1994 Communication satellite – 2005 Satellites – 2007 Supernova – 2008 Synchronous satellite - 2009 Big Dipper - 2009 Nebula - 2009
Hazards of Sciences
Water pollution – 1995, 2000, 2001, 2005 Global warming – 1998, 2004, 2006 Acid rain – 1990, 2002 Water logging – 1989
Heavy water – 1989, 1985 Minerals – 2002, 2009 Lightening – 1985 Seismograph – 2004 Volcanoes – 1999 International Date Line – 1998
Photosynthesis – 1987, 1988, 1998, 2001 Nitrogen cycle – 1992 Cellulose – 1992 Transpiration – 1997 Glycolysis – 1997 Phototaxis – 1997
Hemophilia – 1987, 1989, 1992 Excretory system – 1995, 2000 DNA – 1990
2009 Enrichment of Uranium .2009 Diseases Virus –1987. 1998. 1994 Pollen allergy – 2006 Bird flu – 2006 Short sightedness – 1998 Dengue Virus .2009 Aqua Regia . 1998. 2006 Radio waves – 1990 Superconductivity – 2004 Supersonics – 2006 Short circuit – 1998 Shockwaves – 2005 Solar cell – 2005 Reaction time – 1998 Allele – 2002 . Blood pressure – 1987 Immunity – 1987 Ovulation – 2003 Gene – 2006 Receptors and receptor organs in human body . 2000 Fermentation . 2001 Fusion – 1986. 2001 Radioactivity – 1989. 1998. 2001. 1987. 2005 Plaster of Paris – 1998. 2008 Conductor – 1998 Escape velocity – 1999 Optic fiber – 2003 Miscellaneous Ultrasonic waves – 1986.2009 Chemistry Polymer (synthetic) – 1994. 2002 Heavy water Soft water Carbon cycle – 1992.2009 Allotropy .2009 Physics Nuclear fission – 1986.
fruits. cycles. Some pollen grains are trapped by the pollen drop. and corn. which grows down through the style. and trees must be pollinated and fertilized to produce seed or fruit. and pollination is vital for the production of critically important agricultural crops. birds. The pollen grain germinates and produces a short tube. insects. the egg-containing structure that becomes the seed. The seed remains tucked in the closed cone scale until it matures and the cone scales open. pollen is transferred from the stamens to the stigma. wildflowers. and the female sex cells. are ultimately released by bacterial and fungal . biogeochemical Energy flow fuels the biogeochemical. or many ovules are embedded deep within the ovary. Virtually all grains. In plants with flowers. and into the ovary. the pistil. located at the base of the pistil. or eggs. oranges. transfer of pollen grains from the male structure of a plant to the female structure of a plant. and the outer wall of the ovule hardens into a seedcoat. The pollen grains contain cells that will develop into male sex cells. The ovule thus becomes a seed—a tough structure containing an embryonic plant and its food supply. after passing through the decomposer food web. Because most plants and animals go uneaten. Pollination Pollination. The cycling of nutrients begins with their release from organic matter by weathering and decomposition in a form that can be picked up by plants. The female structure of a plant contains the female sex cells. or eggs. apples. A sperm cell moves through the tube to the egg where it unites with it in fertilization. Each ovule contains one egg. such as roses. are produced within the female part of the plant. rice. called the stamens. Depending on the species. tomatoes. or small mammals. or sperm. several. and the events leading to fertilization begin. vegetables. a sticky surface on the pistil. pollen is produced within the male parts of the plant. and at the same time. nutrients contained in their tissues. maple trees. it draws a pollen grain through a tiny hole into the ovule. With the help of wind. As the pollen drop dries. or nutrient. and squash. or neck of the pistil. the union of the male and female sex cells. Pollination may be followed by fertilization. The fertilized egg develops into an embryonic plant. a pollen tube. The nutrients are transferred from one trophic level to another through the food web. including corn. a sticky substance produced by the ovule. Pressure cooker – 2001 Paramagnetism and diamagnetism – 2001 Photovoltaic cell – 2005 2. Pollination prepares the plant for fertilization. Process Pollination occurs in cone-bearing plants when the wind blows pollen from the male to the female cone. Plants incorporate nutrients available in soil and water and store them in their tissues. water. one. The inner tissues become food for the embryo. Each scale of a cone bears two seeds on its upper surface. The pollen on the stigma germinates to produce a long pollen tube. wheat. which grows through the tissues of the ovule and contacts the egg. tissues in the ovule undergo complex changes.
the fertilized egg is called a zygote. permitting the chromosomes from the egg and sperm to mix within a common space. A zygote is formed. The egg extends cytoplasmic fingers to surround the sperm and pull it into the egg's cytoplasm.decomposition. Specific proteins on the surface of the sperm appear to induce this fusion process. After fusion of the cell membranes the sperm is motionless. In others. the eggs secrete a chemical substance that attracts the sperm toward the eggs. Fertilization occurs in both plants and animals that reproduce sexually—that is. to help dispose of industrial wastes. Genetic engineering is used to increase plant and animal food production. a single sperm and the egg become one cell. Genetic Engineering. but the exact mechanism is not yet known. in a process that is also poorly understood. This process takes only seconds. producing a single cell that develops into an adult organism. when a male and a female are needed to produce an offspring (see Reproduction). and produce vaccines and other useful drugs. This article focuses on animal fertilization Fertilization is a precise period in the reproductive process. Finally. and development of an embryo begins. Ways to apply: . the process in which gametes—a male's sperm and a female's egg or ovum—fuse together. Included in genetic engineering techniques are the selective breeding of plants and animals. or hereditary. After nuclear fusion. When the membranes fuse. All animal eggs have surface coats. it is called an embryo. This attachment step may last for just a few seconds or for several minutes. a process that reduces complex organic compounds into simple inorganic compounds available for reuse by plants. material to eliminate undesirable characteristics or to produce desirable new ones. the egg and sperm nuclear envelopes fuse. and it is directly observable by researchers. and to diagnose disease. Fertilization. Fertilization is not instantaneous. sperm just swim randomly toward the egg . Process Fertilization is complete when the sperm's nucleus fuses with the egg's nucleus. It begins when the sperm contacts the outer surface of the egg and it ends when the sperm's nucleus fuses with the egg's nucleus. When the zygote divides to a two-cell stage. hybridization (reproduction between different strains or species). The first step is the sperm approaching the egg. The next step in fertilization—the fusion of sperm and egg cell membranes—is poorly understood. The second step of fertilization is the attachment of several sperm to the egg's surface coat. In some organisms. and recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). alteration of an organism's genetic. improve medical treatment.
. one or more genes of an organism are introduced to a second organism. In recent decades. In gene splicing. Applications 1. In selective breeding. which scientists use to directly alter genetic material to form recombinant DNA. still used today. members of the same species with different characteristics) or members of different species in an effort to combine the most desirable characteristics of both. usually for increased food production. . Recombinant DNA also can be used to monitor the breakdown of pollutants. Genetically altered bacteria can be used to decompose many forms of garbage and to break down petroleum products.The first-known genetic engineering technique. genetic engineering has been revolutionized by a technique known as gene splicing. only those plants or animals with desirable characteristics are chosen for further breeding Hybridization (crossbreeding) may involve combining different strains of a species (that is. Genes consist of segments of the molecule DNA. Food production Recombinant DNA is used to combat one of the greatest problems in plant food production: the destruction of crops by plant viruses or insect pests. was the selective breeding of plants and animals.
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