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Style Sheet 2011/2012
ES Style Sheet
BA European Studies
ES Style Sheet
CONTENTS Preface 1. Format 1.1 General features 1.2 Order of components 2. Mechanics 2.1 Spelling 2.2 Punctuation 2.3 Numbers 2.4 Italics (or underlining) 2.5 Quotations 2.6 Abbreviation 2.7 Capitalisation 3. Documentation 3.1 In-text references 3.2 List of References 3.3 APA guidelines 3.4 Footnotes or Endnotes 3.5 Abbreviations used in notes 4. Plagiarism 4.1 Copying your own work? 4.2 SafeAssign 4.3 An Example Annex A: SafeAssign Report Annex B: Title page References 3 4 4 4 6 6 6 10 10 10 11 11 13 13 14 15 18 19 20 21 22 22 25 30 31
BA European Studies
ES Style Sheet
This style sheet describes the house style used in the Bachelor European Studies of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences of Maastricht University. It lists all the relevant rules with regard to the format, mechanics, and documentation of the writing that students do as part of their coursework. A style sheet is meant to ensure the formal consistency of the writing produced in a given context or community. As such, it has a purely pragmatic function: it is more convenient to process and evaluate papers that all rely on the same principles of, for example, spelling, punctuation, and acknowledging sources. Working with a style sheet also contributes to improving the consistency of the formal features of a single text. Furthermore, it familiarises student writers with a fixed set of rules and conventions that experienced writers who are active in the same discourse or academic discipline rely on. Finally, the uniformity that results from working with a style sheet reduces the chance of misunderstandings and miscommunications. It is perfectly acceptable, for instance, to use abbreviations in footnotes, but agreement on which abbreviations ought to be used or when to use them can only raise the transparency of a footnote’s meaning. For these various reasons students are required to use the faculty’s house style in all writing they do as part of their coursework. This style sheet is divided into four sections: format, mechanics, documentation, and plagiarism. It also includes two annexes: an example of a SafeAssign report and an example of a title page.
but a longer research paper also consists of a table of contents and a list of references. though one-sided printed papers are accepted line spacing: 1. the contents page and the page with list of illustrations).1 General features All writing that is turned in must be typed and carefully proofread (for spelling and other errors) and meet the following formal standards: paper size and colour: use A4 and white paper only print: for environmental reasons. Use capitals for the first and last word and all other main words. FORMAT 1. Do not add a footnote reference to your title (use the first or last sentence of your paper if you need a footnote for explaining or acknowledging). except the first paragraph of your paper or after a blank line. (cf. final).) margins: leave 1 inch at the top and bottom and on both sides of the main text hyphenation: turn off your word processor’s automatic hyphenation feature justification: do not justify the lines of your paper at the right margin indention: indent the first line of each new paragraph one-half inch from the left margin. pigeonhole number (and if relevant group number). double-sided printing is preferred.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet 1. Put your supervisor’s name in the lower left-hand corner. use Roman numerals for the page numbers of the preface. preface. number.2 Typically. The preface contains relevant introductory remarks and/or acknowledgments. second. Always use a title page. If your paper has a preface of more than one page. These various components should be arranged in the following order: title page. a short paper consists of a title page and the main text. In most cases a preface is redundant. date. approximately 2 inches from the top. while a long preface 4 . If there is also a subtitle. if applicable. use a colon to separate title and subtitle. and. indent setoff quotations as a whole one inch from the left margin page numbers: use Arabic numerals for numbering all pages consecutively. You may use bold typeface. Title page Annex B). Order of components 1. In the lower right-hand corner of the title page you list the following items: your name.5 throughout (except quotations and footnotes or endnotes). but no underlining or italics (the latter should only be used in the title if it contains a foreign word). a foreword (preface) and a list of illustrations. Put the page number preferably at the centre of the top or the bottom of the page. except the title page (and. lettering: 12-point (except footnotes or endnotes. Type the title horizontally centred.D. draft version (first. your I. name of the assignment. if applicable.
To give you an idea of the format you are expected to adhere to. but sections or subsections do not have to be numbered and they do not need to begin on a new page. If it seems relevant to classify primary and secondary sources. and conclusion. For a short paper a table of contents is not necessary. Especially in longer essays a set of interrelated paragraphs should be presented as a chapter or a (sub)section thereof. of which the first and last word and all other main words are capitalised. It contains a listing of all parts of the text. 1. see Annex B. and (5) source. illustrations. If it seems useful to number sections and subsections.5. if you need more than one page. use small Roman numerals for page numbering. (b) the caption (summarised). For a sample of what a title page should look like. Use a separate page for listing the “Contents”. references. in short essays (sub)sectioning should be avoided. called “Illustrations”.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet may seem pretentious. use Arabic numerals (example: 1. main text. (c) the number of the first page of each part and/or chapter. This page is not numbered and follows the “Contents” page.1 refers to the first section of Chapter 1. Separate text from subsequent title or heading by a line spacing of two times 1. (2) title. Separate heading from subsequent text by a line spacing of 1. The list should be arranged alphabetically. however. Each chapter begins on a separate page. The caption contains the following information: (1) name artist. (3) year. If the section or chapter has a heading.2 refers the second subsection of section 1 of Chapter 1). the text on plagiarism (Section 4) is formatted according to the European Studies and faculty’s house style. except the title page and the contents page. starting with the author’s last name.1. the number is first followed by a space and then the title. The main text consists of an introduction. called “References. The entries listed all follow the APA style (see below). 5 . Be sure to use well-organised paragraphs and generally avoid very brief or very long paragraphs. (4) description and commentary (if applicable). Chapters and sections have numbers and/or headings. consult your supervisor. body. The list consists of complete bibliographic entries of all sources used in both the main text and the footnotes or endnotes. It contains the following information: (a) the number of each illustration. If illustrations are used they should be listed on a separate page. At the end a listing of all the sources used.” is added. and (c) the number of the page on which the illustration is found. contents. (b) the title of each chapter and/or other formal part of the main text. This page is not numbered.5.
Their improper usage may cause misunderstandings and suggests a lack of control or sophistication on the writer’s part.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet 2. and always use a spelling checker. apostrophes. there are different ways of spelling English correctly.1 Spelling The spelling used in your research paper should be consistent throughout. it is. or misplacing them. question marks. dashes. Punctuation marks clarify the sentence structure and can also affect the tone or meaning of a sentence. in fact. 2. quotation marks. MECHANICS 2. The usage of periods. Rely on a good dictionary (Oxford for UK English. An exclamation point follows a word group or sentence that expresses exceptional feeling or deserves special emphasis. one section of the “Guidelines for Academic Writing” from the Maastricht University Language Centre is specifically devoted to it (cf. A question mark is indicative of a question the writer articulates. The differences between these systems are minor. while over the years the various systems tend to become more alike. rarely used in research papers. “Punctuation guide”). Not using commas. brackets. though. colons. can complicate their understanding of an entire sentence. while other punctuation marks – semicolons. A period indicates the end of a sentence and is also used in abbreviations. except in quotations. Of course. commas are a crucial element in academic writing.2 Punctuation The main role of punctuation is to ensure the clarity and readability of writing.1 Commas The comma is a major tool for helping readers.2. but an indirect question must be ended with a period rather than a question mark. The most widely practiced in the world is US spelling. is that your spelling be consistent. and hyphens – are important as well. parentheses. Moreover. By contrast. 6 . ellipsis marks. even within a single spelling system a word may have variant spellings. and exclamation points is obvious in most cases. which must retain the spelling of the original. you must use punctuation in a consistent manner. What is most relevant. Webster’s Collegiate for US English). then. 2. but in Europe UK spelling is perhaps more prominent. As a rule. Because proper comma usage is so important in English.
nevertheless. for. however. so.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet 2. To use merely a comma in these instances creates an error known as comma splice. between independent clauses if the second summarises or explains the first (example: This we are forced to conclude: The EU must be expanded). If the noun is singular and ends in – s. a European Convention member.2. Belgium. 7 . a European Council member). Germany. but if the noun is plural and ends in –s. (example: The EU is an ambiguous political institution. I never understood why it is such an important issue. however. or.) In the first example the assumption is that the two countries hold the same view. 2. moreover) or a transitional expression such as for example or in fact (example: I have read many studies about the EU democratic deficit. Use a semicolon: between closely related independent clauses not joined by a coordinating conjunction like and. It must be preceded by a full independent clause. a professor of European Studies. therefore. Peter Barrett. Use a colon: after an independent clause to direct attention to a list (example: The first European Union consisted of six countries: France.). and Lucia Pavese. between items in a series containing internal punctuation (example: Present at the conference were Sandra Johnson. and the Netherlands). when independent clauses have been joined with a conjunctive adverb (e. yet.4 Apostrophes Use an apostrophe: to indicate that a noun is possessive (example: Only a minority of the European Parliament was present at today’s meeting). after an independent clause to direct attention to an appositive (a noun or noun phrase that renames a nearby noun) (example: Two of the original member states vetoed the new directive: Belgium and Luxemburg). Luxemburg.2. but. 2. to indicate joint possession (example: What is France and Belgium’s view on this issue?) or individual possession (example: Germany’s and Belgium’s views on this issue could not have been more different. add’s.2 Semicolons The semicolon is used to separate major sentence elements of equal grammatical rank.3 Colons The colon is primarily used to call attention to the words that follow it. it lacks democratically elected leadership).g. nor. Italy. after an independent clause to direct attention to a quotation (example: In a recent interview the party leader said: “We favour a more active government”).2. add only an apostrophe (example: Most members’ feelings on this issue are predictable).
preferably: –.or. poems. to set off words as words (italics is also allowed here) (example: The meaning of “integration” is obvious. 2. use a single dash to introduce words that summarise a preceding series or to prepare for a list. around titles of articles. short stories. and abbreviations (example: You must ask to see their student I. songs. Their application may contribute to a sentence’s clarity or a more varied sentence structure. Or: The new commissioner from the Netherlands is polite.). and housing – are much more expensive than in some other European capitals). the 1960s. or a dramatic shift in tone or thought (example: Young and committed. motivated.”). 2. to set off an appositive that contains commas (example: In Brussels the basic needs of people – food.2. it is common to use references to specific decades without apostrophe (cf. well-educated.5 Quotation Marks Use quotation marks: to enclose direct quotations that are integrated in the text. and chapters or subdivisions of books. colons and semicolons must be placed outside quotation marks.’s.D.2.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet to pluralise numbers. words mentioned as words. use single quotation marks to enclose a quotation within a quotation. the 1850s). ardent and humorous – the star of the European Parliament’s new representative from Poland is rising quickly. a restatement. clothing. (example: The chairman told us that “the party leadership told him ‘to step down’ and that indeed he planned to do so.” do not use quotation marks for indirect quotations or to express irony or detachment.6 Dashes Dashes (-. thus not: -) should be used sparingly. and question marks and exclamation points must be put inside quotation marks unless they apply to the sentence as a whole. an amplification. television and radio programs. Or: We have heard enough maybe’s from the Commission). Use a pair of dashes: to set off parenthetical material that deserves emphasis (example: Everything that went wrong – from the policy’s initial design to its implementation – was blamed on the lack of cooperation from local governments). 8 . (example: In a recent interview the party leader said that he favoured “a more active government. internationally oriented – and a failure). but in many cases commas do just as well. clever and pragmatic. periods and commas must be placed inside quotation marks.
one word (waterproof). . planning. Hyphenate the written form of fractions and of compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine (example: Two-thirds of the Polish population voted in favour of their country’s accession to the EU).7 Parentheses Use parentheses: to enclose supplemental material. or an afterthought (example: After the new policy’s outlining. (b) a skilled communicator.10 Hyphen Consult a dictionary on how to treat a compound word.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet 2.2. 2. or two words (water table). to refer to a source (see below). the ellipsis mark should normally not be used at the end or beginning of a quotation. and (c) and excellent manager). the political stability of Europe”). periods (not: (…) or: …). 2.9 Ellipsis mark The ellipsis mark consists of three spaced . . the Latin word sic in brackets indicates that an error in a quoted sentence appears in the original source (example: He argued that the goal of integration is “to increase the security and political [sic] stability of Europe”).2. to enclose letters or numbers labelling items in a series (example: She is (a) a good writer. 9 . a minor digression.2.8 Brackets Use brackets [ ] only in direct quotations: to enclose any words or phrases that you insert for the sake of the quotation’s clarity or to fit the quotation into your own text smoothly (example: He argued that “the goal [of integration] is to increase the security and political stability of Europe”). 2. Use a hyphen to connect two or more words functioning together as an adjective before a noun (example: The new Agriculture Commissioner is not a well-known figure). Use it: to indicate that you have deleted material from an otherwise word-for-word quotation. It will tell you whether to treat a compound word as a hyphenated compound (water-repellent).2. . . Do not overuse parentheses for these purposes. This can be useful in cases where you only need part of a quotation as evidence or illustration (example: He argued that “the goal of integration is to increase . and drafting (all standard procedures). nor should it be enclosed in parentheses. the vote was a mere formality). If the compound word is not in the dictionary treat it as two words.
integration is quite vague.) (Quotation marks are also allowed here). magazines. Avoid dropping quotations into the text without warning.5 . pamphlets. percentages.3 2.. and internal punctuation. pages. addresses.and with the suffix -elect.4 Use italics for: the titles of books. The use of numbers is acceptable in dates. newspapers.C. self. journals. Use historical dates in a consistent manner. early-twenty-first-century EU politics. letters. identification numbers. pp. numbers of three figures or more are abbreviated according to the logic implied in the following examples: pp. Or: She is the first president-elect of the EU). 12345-47. decimals. Italics (or underlining) 2. pp. Use figures for numbers that require more than two words to spell out (unless the numbers form the beginning of a sentence). 500. from 1970 to 1975. pp. and musical compositions (example: The Abduction of Europa is a famous painting). 87-167. 10 2. 21-28. foreign words in English sentences (example: The German Bundeskanzler won the elections for the second time). 200 B. emphasis. ex-. Quotations Quotations must be copied accurately and correspond to the original in words. titles of articles or chapters. (example: Mistrust of European politics is all-pervasive in some member states. divisions of books. but not for the names of authors. works of visual art. 1008-74. the mid-nineteenth century. pp. Examples: the eighteenth century. pp. plays. long poems. films. Some examples: 16 August 1993. pp. The hyphen is used in some words to avoid ambiguity or to separate awkward double letters (example: There is a strikingly anti-intellectual attitude in Brussels). Spell out references to centuries or parts thereof. the thirties. spelling. statistics and other numerical results. and in references to time. 12345-447. fractions.D. but only sparingly (example: I really enjoy being in the European Studies Program). in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet Use the hyphen with the prefixes all-. instead. the 1980s. a late-nineteenth-century development. A. exact amounts of money. September 1900. and numbers mentioned as themselves (example: As a concept. In consecutive page numbers used in references. 200-10. words. 330-460. pp. scores. 345-46. Each adjustment needs to be accounted for explicitly. Numbers Spell out numbers of one or two words.
as Prodi has noted. (cf. Because these features already mark the words as quoted.” And: In a recent issue of European Studies a German professor wrote that “the EU is on the verge of meeting entirely new cultural challenges”). IBM.. but the following categories of abbreviations are common: titles immediately before and after proper names (like Mr. proper nouns and words derived from them. the first word of a quoted sentence unless it is blended into the sentence that introduces it (cf. especially when used frequently in a particular context.6 Abbreviations must be used sparingly in formal writing. a. allow you to keep quoted material to a minimum and to integrate it smoothly into your text (see above). the seasons and numbers of days of the month are not. two. E. and CIA. in formal writing only use the appropriate English phrases. (for example). and p. Consider.g.C. 1991. Dr. Capitalisation 2. days.D. “The EU is on the verge of meeting entirely new cultural challenges. e. and i.. Prof. follows the date). Within the quoted block use a line spacing of 1. Prodi points out that.: The author signals that “Schengen is about enlightened self-interest” (Van Es. UN.. and holidays are treated as proper nouns. Quotations of four lines or more must be set off from the main text by an extra line spacing of 1. USA. etc. Months. example below in Annex A).. Quotations of one.g. Jr. quotation marks are not necessary anymore. for instance. 11 . UNESCO.5 and indention (one inch or ten spaces from the left margin). (before Christ. as Prodi claims. (and so forth). under Documentation). usually including the author’s name.D.. M. (Latin anno Domini. or three lines must be incorporated into the main text between quotation marks. NB (note well). EU. 57). “after Christ” precedes the date). Latin abbreviations like cf. Abbreviation 2. (that is) are only used in comments in parentheses or in notes (see below.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet provide clear signal phrases. to prepare readers for the source.m.. p. Use phrases like: according to Prodi. (compare). the ellipsis mark and brackets.7 The following words must be capitalised: the first word of a sentence. Two useful marks of punctuation.) names of well-known organisations or countries. Note that the letters of these abbreviations are not followed by periods generally accepted abbreviations like A. B. In a recent issue of European Studies a German professor wrote.m. Mrs.e. The first word of a quotation that is a full sentence needs to be capitalised (even if this is not the case in the original).
the first. “Europe: A History of a Symbolic Quest”). major policies. abbreviations for departments. on the second of April). and movies when they are mentioned in the main text (cf. Johnson.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet (example: The next EU summit will take place in early spring. And: This we are forced to conclude: The [or the] EU must be expanded). EU.) do not capitalise the first word after a colon unless it begins an independent clause. and all major words in titles and subtitles of works like books. CAP. in which case capitalisation is optional (example: The European integration effort divides people into two groups: staunch believers and radical sceptics. The End of the Opera. corporations. And: I was asked a question by the professor). UN. organisations. and so on (cf. last. titles of persons only when used as part of a proper name (example: I was asked a question by Prof. articles. 12 .
. etc.g. A characteristic in-text reference directly following the quotation of a source is structured as follows: The author thus argues that “citizenship . p. 1988. 16. “citizenship . DOCUMENTATION Research papers are always in part based on information borrowed from sources. 67. Moreover. a list comprising all sources that are used in a particular paper. the quotation and reference can be formatted as follows: As Shore (2000) argues in his recent work on cultural politics in the European Union. 1982) would be the appropriate form to refer to an anonymous article titled: Study finds free care used more. not just with regard to texts.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet 3. year. 3. academic writers mainly relied on a set of footnotes or endnotes for acknowledging their sources. 1990. also. This information allows readers to identify the correct source(s) in the list of references at the end of the text. e. The complete bibliographic information of a source is only provided once: in the list of references. Delors. (“Study finds”. (1982. This specific borrowed information must be carefully acknowledged. Section 4 on plagiarism).1 In-text references It is crucial that in-text references are clear. year of publication. and parenthetical in-text references to this particular list. and concise. . Dehaene. Traditionally. a comma follows each of the elements. In-text references generally consist of three elements at most: last name(s) of the author(s). 2000. most disciplines rely on the socalled “author-year” (or author-date) system. Today. (see. 1994. is one of the defining characteristics of a state” (p. . A reference to a specific passage of a source retrieved from the internet with no page number mentioned takes the form of a subtitle or section number where the passage is found instead of the page number. avoid including the entire internet address in your running text! A reference to a source retrieved from the internet (or drawn from a newspaper) with no author mentioned takes the form of a short title instead of the author. 13 . correct. 83). APA Monitor. rather than in the main text or in footnotes or endnotes. and page number(s). . pp. This system consists of a bibliography. year) or (author. or when using other scholars data to present your own tables. 104-06). A single in-text reference may contain references to multiple sources: (Delors. 83). 14. but also when copying tables and graphs. page number). p. graphs. is one of the defining characteristics of a state” (Shore. p. April). In-text references to internet sources take the same form as regular references: (author. p. Alternatively.
for example. When using others scholars’ data to draft your own table or graph.2 List of References A research paper ends with an alphabetical list of sources. in case of a corporation as author.. are considered common knowledge and do not need to be acknowledged. called “Bibliography. 16).” “Works Cited. If the next reference is to (1982. Sources of more than 6 authors are always referred to by the first authors name plus et al. When directly copying from other scholars’ work. when you refer to a brief poem or to an alphabetically arranged source (like an encyclopedia). year. graphs. all names must be mentioned. but this reference does not always need to include an author’s name. the reader knows that you refer to the same source. if the next in-text reference refers to another page of the same source. (Delors. widely used in many disciplines. 14) is followed by the in-text reference to (p. the two major ones being the MLA style. Tables. references should be included in a similar way as other in-text references. In all other cases sources must be acknowledged in an in-text reference. 1988). after the final citation from that source. 3. this means that the reference is to another source from the same author. For example: when you summarise or paraphrase someone’s overall argument. see the APA Manual (University Library). 14 . the first time you refer to sources with 3-6 authors. For more detailed information on in-text reference. etc. One convention of the APA style. p. without specifying a particular page (Delors. There are several common systems for putting together the entries on the list. need to be numbered and references should be included below them. When.” “References. e.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet It is not necessary to acknowledge each and every piece of information in a text. various consecutive citations from the same source have to be acknowledged only once. 1988. you do not need to indicate line numbers or page numbers. p. it is perfectly acceptable to refer to that source in general. well-known quotations or established scientific views. or carefully check a recently published book or article that relies on the APA style. mostly used in the humanities. (De Groot et al. including the social sciences.g.” or some other similar designation. only the page number needs to be given. 25). 1987). in consecutive references only the abbreviation is used (APA. If you are not sure what this would look like. have a look at some books or journal articles for examples. p. p. while consecutive references to the same source will only mention the first name and then add et al. the in-text reference to (Delors. 78). the full name of the corporation and the abbreviation between brackets need to be spelled out in the first reference (American Psychological Association [APA]. and page. 1988. this should be acknowledged too. 16). for instance. 1987). for example: Based on Delors (1988. if applicable. 1987). and the APA style.
. Martin. ed. culture. 2-6 authors Davignon. is to call the list of sources “References. journal title. London: The Open University. (1995). (Ed. London: Arnold. K. (5th. J. publication information (place and publisher).) 3. E. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. B. issue. F.g.’ (e. date of publication. Modern Europe. (1998). Lamers. (1986).). Specific examples can be found below under “APA guidelines”. A geography of the European Union. 15 . London/New York: Routledge.” A basic entry has the following general structure: book: Author’s or editor’s name. van der (Eds. article title. & Vibert. What future for the European Commission? Brussels: Philip Morris Institute. Edited book Graham. N. & Dussen. E.3 APA guidelines Examples of references to books Book. The history of the idea of Europe. 1 author Hall.). book title. A. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association.. & Cole..BA European Studies ES Style Sheet on which we rely in this program. 2 editors Wilson. D. J. 2 authors Cole. F.). (For formatting your bibliography you can also make use of the Endnote program. (1993). K. article: Author’s name. see below under journals). Book. publication information (volume. NB In case of more than six authors only the first six names are mentioned... (1997). date of publication. corporation as author American Psychological Association (2001). rev. page numbers). Noël.. Edited book. Notice that your entries need to follow these guidelines exactly. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Ersbøll. J.. States in history. identity. Book. Place. Book. followed by ‘et al.
Since most journals make use of continuous pagination (starting with page 1 at the beginning of the year and numbering through). World Politics.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet Article or chapter in an edited book Nederveen Pieterse. A. or quarterly). 2 authors: Sandholtz. the issue number must be added (between parentheses) directly following the volume number. (1969). In Civilisation (pp. Journal article. once a month. K. Journal article.). P. Article in an encyclopedia Bergmann. Solotaroff. J. (1992). A.). 129-149). & Zysman. (Original work published 1965). Chapter in a book Clark. more than 6 authors. (1991). Trans. 26. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. R. Examples of references to periodicals Journal article. (1969).. How European is Europe? In A. Racism. New York: Harper. 1 author: Moravscik. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. there is no need to indicate the number of the specific issue an article comes from. modernity and identity on the western front (pp. English translation of a book Luria. Unpacking the West. 45. 651-688. Heroic materialism. Negotiating the single European Act. Rattensi & S. (1994). National interests and conventional statecraft in the European Community. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica. journal paginated by issue: 16 . Westwood (Eds. two weeks. The mind of a mnemonist (L. (1993). pp. NB In these examples the numbers 41 and 45 (like the journals’ titles in italics) refer to the “volume” (number of years since the journal’s first year of publication). New York: Avon Books. 95-128. 501-508). W. Relativity. G. 321-47). If a journal does start numbering pages every new issue again (some journals occuring every week. 41. J. International Organization. Recasting the European bargain. W.
April). Plaisant papers.nr. 57. ff. Alternative Health Care Practitioner. (1982. M. p. 3-6. C. Magazine article: Kundera. Reington. Secretariat general. A. inv... (COM (2001) 428). no author: Study finds free care used more. health behaviors. Electronic sources 17 . Government communication Commission of the European Communities. archival series. 14. but citations should be provided in a manner that allows readers to trace your sources.nr. Archives of the ministry of foreign affairs Paris. L.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet Lengacher. APA Monitor. M. A.. 7.. please be sure to ask if there is a correct way to cite their sources. folio number: The Schuman Declaration 9 May 1950. Newspaper article. f. European governance: a white paper. Shons. When referring to an archival source. be sure that your readers understand any abbreviations you may choose to use. (2001). Archives of the ministry of foreign affairs Paris. Gonzales. Brussels: European Commission. D. September 24). 69-75. 4(2). Cox. (1998). If you are conducting research in an archive. NB The first significant word in the title should be used to alphabetise the work. Som der subculturen. H. Bennett. The tragedy of central Europe. If not.. the order is as follows: nature of the source including date. inv. inventory number. (1997. New York Review of Books. Archival sources Each archive is organised differently. p. April). (1984. 1-14. 144. 48. J. pp. NRC Handelsblad.. Psychoneuroimmunology and immune system link for stress. et al. Newspaper article: Hofland. Some archives provide their users with standard guidelines for citing sources from their collection. depression. C. and breast cancer. Letter Robert Schuman to the president of the Council of the Republic’s foreign affairs commission 15 June 1950. archival institution.
General form for electronic references. while 1998 is the year of publication of the work.d. B. Most research papers have a set of explanatory notes. and Bijker. (producer).html NB In this example.psychrelig/psyrelpr.zeit. Retrieved May 5. no date: American Psychological Association (n. & Brown. Electronic source.B Make use of the first significant word in the title to alphabetise the work..).) Retrieved January 9. no date: Gender and society (n. However. from http://www. no author.de/bda/int/zeit/print/199851. from http://www. CA: Vader. E. Retrieved August 15. Ohne Schande. the former should be included as periodicals. A. September). Unpublished paper presented at a meeting Hendriks. a research paper commonly contains a set of notes. Additional information or explanation regarding a particular issue is generally put in a note to avoid breaking up the flow of the main argument or to provide more background to an issue.d.html N. Beyond the species barrier. (2003. 3.4 Footnotes or Endnotes In addition to a list of sources and in-text references. from http://www. Amsterdam.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet Electronic source with author and date: Wiesel.. 2000. Ejournals are essentially electronic versions of hardcopy journals. reference notes have basically become redundant after the 18 . R. 2004. A distinction can be made between explanatory notes and reference notes. R. The joys of inconsistency [videotape]. D. the Health Council of the Netherlands and the construction of objectivity. Die Zeit.trinity. Note that e-journals are not the same as online journals. Whereas the latter should be included as electronic sources.E.wiesel_. August 15 is the date you last visited the website. 2004. Visual source Green. C. Bal. (Director). (1998). W. Tiburon. Paper presented at the WTMC/NERDI workshop ‘Objects of objectivity’. (1991).html Electronic source.edu/~mkearl/gender.
. “compare” Chapter Dissertation Editor(s) Latin exempli gratia.5 Abbreviations used in notes Notes have to be as concise as possible. not followed by a period. Ch. figs. etc.” “and so on” Latin et alii. pp. cf. In general it is best to be selective about using notes. which is why standard abbreviations are frequently used. “p.. ed. “for example” Latin et cetera. “in the same place. n. NB No. the source of which the title is cited in the preceding note Latin id est. cit.g. Use an 11-point lettering. always right after a punctuation mark – except in the case of a colon. n. “and others” figure(s) Latin ibidem. Notes are numbered consecutively. 2”) no date of publication no place of publication. illus. fig. n. “that is” illustration. vol. Use a line spacing of 1 both in notes and between notes. The latter are generally used if the total number of notes is limited and they tend to be not very long. Ed. It is not required to explain everything in detail. There are a number of commonly used abbreviations in notes and documentation: anon. “in the cited work” page(s) revised edition volume(s) University Press 19 . ms.” i. The in-text reference to the note is in superscript. You only use a note to refer to a source if for some reason in-text reference would break up the flow of the main text too much.) op. 3.e. illustrator. and dash – and right after a quotation (never after the author’s name or colon that announces the quotation)... n. semicolon. “note well” number Latin opere citato. 56. Endnotes are preferable if there are many notes and/or they tend to be extensive.g. UP anonymous Latin confer. “and so forth. no publisher Latin nota bene. Only use Arabic numerals..BA European Studies ES Style Sheet introduction of the author-year system of documentation. or in combination with explanatory information.p. (or no. i. e. A second major distinction involves endnotes versus footnotes. Most word processors have an automatic note system. Diss. mss. nn. rev. illustrated by manuscript(s) note(s) (e. et al. p..e..d. vols. Eds. ibid.
. etc. or inventions of another person). Plagiarism is every form of use of ideas that are derived from an external source and that are not generally 20 . In the academic community plagiarism is not only considered a vulgar form of theft. Just as plundering or looting the possessions of someone else is unlawful.) to pass off as one's own the thoughts or work of (another). PLAGIARISM1 plagiarism: 1. the confidence of fellow students. etc.: to take and use as one's own (the thoughts. The action or practice of taking someone else's work. an act or product of plagiary. which has been plagiarised. members of the academic community subscribe to a basic code of conduct when it comes to quoting the work of other scholars or referring to scholarly and other sources. staff members. plagiarism is stealing the intellectual labour performed by others. etc. later also of composers. After all. 2. literary theft.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet 4. By robbing others of their ideas and subsequently behaving as if one has generated them on one’s own. artists. design. and the academic system at large is seriously undermined. piece of writing. which literally means “plunderer”. plundering someone else’s words or ideas is illegal. writings. to copy (literary work or ideas) improperly or without acknowledgement.. but also seen as an attack on fundamental academic values. Put simply. it entails more than just copying some other author’s work (or parts thereof) and putting your own name under it. idea. A particular idea. (occas. In order to avoid unintentional plagiarism it is important to know exactly what plagiarism is. professors. plagiarise: Originally of writers. and passing it off as one's own. Oxford English Dictionary Online The word “plagiarism” is derived from the Latin word “plagiarius”. As a matter of principle.
using the same sequence of ideas or line of reasoning. But this basic academic principle of striving to integrate our knowledge with that of others – as a crucial element of our common effort to contribute to a better and more advanced intellectual knowledge community – can only be effective if we always account for the source of specific information with as much care and detail as possible. rearranging words or sentences. Paraphrasing. You are invited to make use of primary sources of the preceding semester(s) and of secondary sources from the European Studies curriculum. who may very well be interested in actively using our knowledge in their own writing. and you can study topics you have worked on before. in effect. 4. you should always approach your topic and material from a new angle and develop an original argument. please consult Article 20 of the Teaching and Examination This section is formatted according to the European Studies and faculty’s house style. without acknowledging their origin. To avoid plagiarism make sure not to copy and paste from any of your previous work – your previous work is part of the SafeAssign database (see below) and copying it is likely to it being marked as plagiarism in SafeAssign reports and will be treated accordingly. for in many cases it will serve as excellent support for our own findings. 21 1 .1 Copying your own work? Each of your papers written during your studies should be an individually and independently written academic piece of work. For more information. to see whether sources are quoted correctly. we produce academic writing precisely because we want to share our views and findings with other individuals. After all.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet considered as common knowledge. summarising paragraphs. only then will we enable others to check information. or to find out if certain interpretations are justified or. Of course. it makes no difference whether you literally copy someone else’s words or whether you put them into your own words. contribute to a new understanding. Nevertheless. It is even expected that we as academic writers make generous use of the work of others. especially if the sources we rely on are widely seen as authoritative. When borrowing ideas. repeating specific formulations – these are all strategies for deriving ideas from others and incorporating them into your own text or argument.
4. An example of a so-called safe assignment report is included in Annex A. 22 .2 SafeAssign In order to check student’s papers on plagiarism. always refer to your source. Those who believe that these regulations can stop migratory movements will have a rude awakening. entitled Schengen. It is an attempt to protect Europe against chaos and poverty. Assume that you have read the following brief passage in a 1991 study by the Dutch author Andrée van Es. the codes that are inserted in the paper’s text refer back to these sources. it is useful to keep in mind the following rule of thumb: If you have specific knowledge or opinions about a topic prior to reading a particular source on that topic and writing about it. But the price is high. or the new division of Europe. A list of matching sources is given on top of the report. p. After all. The following example should clarify the difference between proper and improper use of ideas and phrases from other authors. Note that matching percentages as such are neutral: a proper quote – making use of quotation marks and referencing – also gives a matching percentage. 1991. the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences makes use of SafeAssign – a software programme that allows for the comparison of written work of students with a data-base of available sources on the internet and other students’ work. 57). In such a report suspected parts of the paper’s text are underlined and a percentage of matching with existing sources is given. Schengen is enlightened self-interest. you do not have to account for this source.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet Regulations of the Bachelor European Studies (ELEUM > My FASoS > Rules and Regulations > Teaching and Examination Regulations). of de nieuwe deling van Europa (Schengen. the basic challenge will be how to enforce these regulations. When in doubt.3 An Example In order to avoid unintentional plagiarism. Schengen shifts the balance of power between government and citizens in favor of government. Amsterdam: Van Gennep). (Van Es. 4.
as formulated. for instance. in the Schengen agreement. the power balance between citizens and government has shifted too much in favor of the latter. the parliamentary commission in charge fiercely debated the issue of additional regulations to “dam”. A further shifting of the balance of power will be seen as inevitable to enforce the regulations. A more acceptable way of using this particular source is the following: In the fall of 1998. People accepted this out of a sense of enlightened self-interest. the “growing 23 . One possible version reads as follows: In the wake of debates about the control of migratory movements and the ensuing sharpening of regulations. This is plagiarism as well. in the Schengen agreement. while in reality. but also did he use some of the exact same formulations without reference to the source. they are the individual views of Van Es. the power balance between citizens and government has shifted too much in favor of the latter. A second version reads as follows: In the wake of debates about the control of migratory movements and the ensuing sharpening of regulations. But recent debates about asylum policies support our thesis that those who believe that Europe can be protected against the chaos and poverty that is found elsewhere in the world will have a rude awakening. as it is called. as formulated. But recent debates about asylum policies demonstrate that those who believe that Europe can be protected against the chaos and poverty that is found elsewhere in the world will have a rude awakening. for instance.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet This information might be used in various ways in an essay about the argument presented by Van Es. the author does as if these ideas are the author’s own views (“support our thesis …”). Moreover. The author uses a number of ideas and some literal phrases without making any reference to Andrée van Es or the book from which these ideas and phrases are borrowed. A further shifting of the balance of power will be seen as inevitable to enforce the regulations. People accepted this out of a sense of enlightened self-interest. Thus the author pretends as if these ideas are more less facts that are unchallenged by anyone and that thus count as general knowledge. Not only did the author borrow specific ideas from Van Es. This is an unambiguous case of plagiarism.
In order to support his own view. in order to enforce the new regulations a constant shifting of the balance of power between government and citizens in favor of the former will turn out to be inevitable. in response to the decision process about Schengen. 24 . “It is an attempt to protect Europe against chaos and poverty. 1991.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet influx” of asylum seekers. “Schengen is about enlightened self-interest. These debates confirmed the views of Andrée van Es. as van Es argues. p. But the price is high. who. the author relies on Van Es as an authority and by making a very specific source reference he allows the reader to trace whether this interpretation of van Es’s views is correct and whether her words are quoted correctly. 57) After all.” she writes. already warned for citizens’ blind trust in the potential of new regulations and strong government to curb the migratory influx. In this last version the author accounts for the ideas and formulations presented through a direct reference to their source.” (Van Es.
foreignaffairs.html Another student's paper: Paper Text [Title paper removed] Introduction (…) 25 . but it can usefully assist a supervisor in making the case of plagiarism. Safe assignment cannot replace human judgement.com/meta/p253269_index.ch/serviceengine/FileContent?serviceID=PublishingHouse&fileid=9A8DFCB0-2844-E21652C0 http://www.g7. much of the underlined text seems to be directly derived from internet sources with codes 50 and 56.isn.com/lists/nato1/read/message.uchicago. SafeAssignment Report Report Information Author: Xxxxx Title: Xxxxx Matching: 18% Assignment: Xxxxx Submitted: Xxxxx Paper ID: Xxxxx Suspected Sources http://se1.pdf http://www.edu/graduate/orals/Cumings-InternationalHistory.pdf Another student's paper: http://history.org/document/RL31956 http://jsis.ca/citations.topica.org/20030101faessay10223/philip-h-gordon/bridging-the-atlanticdivide.washington.html?sort=d&mid=904407162 http://opencrs.edu/euc/448%20Brussels%20syllabus%20Summer%202007. The safe assignment check did not yield an especially high match with existing sources.utoronto.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet ANNEX A: SAFEASSIGN REPORT The example below concerns the paper of an ES student that was considered suspect by his/her supervisor.html http://www.html http://lists. Other sources were used and copied without proper quoting and referencing. On closer scrutiny.allacademic. however.cdt.
In an era of tough security against predictable military threats.181) and as a consequence the mission in Afghanistan is therefore very important for NATO's to show its importance and effectiveness. Snyder supports Mearsheimer's argument by stating that “with the incentives and the capabilities” they will feel in control. These classifications are that or “neorealism” as opposed to classical realism and a more precise category which is “structural realism. 2002p. [ 50 . Two categories of realism are recognized by Snyder. [ 50 . NATO has never been so critical (Lindberg. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was founded in1949 to provide a system of collective security for its members and to guarantee stability in the North Atlantic region by preventing the apparent threat of Soviet military power. 1979) and generalist realism (Axelrod. which have a significant impact on the way. However. For the next decade. Neoliberalism may have a wider conception of what those state interests are. 20-21). 76%] Offensive realism originated from an idealist argument that the lack of institutions or the lack of effective institutions which can extract power and form a structured hierarchy in the international system provides the incentives for states to maximize their power. 1997. states pursue their interests. [ 50 . 82%] The reason NATO continues its importance is because its members are obtaining not all but some of what they need to protect of their national interests. 2002 p. The EU has changed the nature power and decisionmaking for some states. 135). Before we take a look at the historical outline of the transatlantic relation since the end of the Cold War. 1979). less sufficient states or members of the EU support NATO which increases their power and can guarantee survival (Schroeder . offensive power they need NATO to influence events far from their capitals but close to their national political goals (Mearsheimer. 66%] This is because great powers maximize their relative power and become the hegemony i n the system (Mearsheimer. [ 56 . [ 50 . States seeking to balance against external military capabilities or threats is the most commonly accepted view of why states form alliances. In addition he observes recent generalist theory and neo-liberal theory. [ 50 . 2001). international organizations and institutions. Mearsheimer. 64%] Rosecrance states that specific realism is based “on conflict and material power capabilities conjoined with balancing of power”. Serfaty. [ 50 . The main focus of a state is not to maximize its strength but to maintain its power (Snyder. In addition. In addition. 78%] (Walt. Morgenthau. consider the state and its interests as the central subject of analysis. The importance of NATO has been questioned over the years (Lindberg. More recent work stresses the role of threats. 2005. [ 50 . 67%] It explains why middle to small scale states have compatible regimes or common economic interests within NATO when at the same time they are part of a high institutionalization like Europe. Traditional balance of power theory emphasized the role of alliances in balancing against military capabilities. Therefore. 1995. 2001 p.149-150). NATO had to deal with a threat that is entirely different from the one that the organization was created to deal with. three of “offensive realism” and several different types of “ defensive realism”(Snyder. 1996). [ 56 . 80%] However. as affecting state decisions to ally for balancing purposes. 79%] Rosecrance divides realism into specific realism (Kaplan. The neoliberal theory is focused on the neorealist's underestimation of "the varieties of cooperative behavior possible within a decentralized system such as NATO. and with many years of wars against WMDs and terrorists. 75%] A weak point in the argumentation is that they are based on historical paradigms and they do not take into account the new political formations. This section will show that NATO has been able to stay significant due to common fundamental values explained by realism and the varieties of cooperative behavior possible within a decentralized system such as NATO explained by neoliberals. member states want autonomy. such as the EU. When the Soviet Union collapsed and the Cold War ended in 1991. 1948. [ 50 . which are state intentions in addition to the distribution of military capabilities. weak or ambiguous commitments in some circumstances enhance a states bargaining position within an alliance to minimize its fears of `entrapment' by making it unclear whether a state will support its allies or not (Snyder. Both theories. Powell. 91%] In addition there is the binding hypothesis which is also used by neo-realists and argue s that “weaker states “bind” themselves to the institutions because they achieve greater voice within it” (Grieco. 1999). NATO found itself faced with an identity crisis. constraining the exercise of power (Ikenberry. 67%] Structural realism has two varieties. this next section will analyze the importance of NATO through a period of a changing international environment. [ 50 . the Origins of Alliances). “ structural realism ” or “ neo-realism ” tries to explain the modern structure of the world and recognizes the role of institutions as the force of power by bigger states (Waltz. 71%] Rosecrance also explain the main difference between generalists and neoliberal institutionalist in the way 26 . [ 50 . 84%] On the other hand “ defensive realism ” . for generalist realism he claims that it “is a much broader and inclusive notion of realism that involves no necessary balance of power” (Rosecrance . With the Cold War about a decade past. 2002). however. The explanation why bigger states support NATO is explained through offensive realism. 2001). 2001). 1984. 2001 p. [ 50 . 152). 2005). p. Waltz.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet Theoretical Basis The importance of NATO since 1989.
Symmetric conflict and bipolarity had come to an end. concerns of whether the EU can effectively tackle major international challenges without the US have been important ever since the end of the Cold war. 41). 2003).BA European Studies ES Style Sheet they explain the strengthening of intern ational organization. This however. On the other hand. 100%] NATO provides autonomy in two primary ways: it negotiates relocation of technology for improved enforcement of security and it grants legitimacy for offensive military operations. [ 50 . 68%] This way he argues that because of this perception plays a role to its behavior within every framework of an international organization. The clear advantage of the significance of NATO will be later explained in case study of the mission in Afghanistan. Due to the conflicts complexities. After the Cold war there was a period of searching for anew reality in the field of foreign security for both Europe and the United States. [ 50 . The instability in Russia and in the Balkans led to increasing disunity and chaos in the international environment (Cooper. 140 -1. In addition. The changing international environment needed to review its transnational cooperation. Cooper's concept of the EU as a post-modern post. p. America was its guardian and protector.S and European foreign policy diminished. Historical Overview Divergence EU-US after 1989 During the Cold War the United States saw Europe as one of its main priorities. the US believes that the EU lacks military strength which determines 27 . NATO is still a functional organization which gives members a source of control in a world of chaos. America's and Europe's immediate concerns increasingly diverged (Lindberg. [ 50 . 2005). A “creeping divergence of strategic interest” evolved which led to different security expectations and priorities across the Atlantic (Mackenstein & Marsh. NATO had to stand up and face this new reality of security and chaos especially in the Balkans. The old balance of power system had fallen apart and there was no longer the threat of the Warsaw pact. As the Soviet Union was no longer a threat. [ 56 . 92%] Others realists argue that in the modern world political formations go beyond “balancing” and “bandwagoning” and there are more strategies such as “bonding”. both Europe and the United States had to find new security priorities. religions. In Sum. What is interesting in Gourevitch's analysis is that he inserts the subjective perception of each state. In confrontation with the US. [ 50 . 1994). and whether this should be a multipolar or a unipolar international system (Cooper. 1999 p. p. chaos is inevitable when there is no order or civilization (Cooper. There was a loss of control on how to handle the arising chaos in a globalized world. 78%] It has also been said that the power struggle among NATO allies is fueled by members trying to use the alliance in different ways in order to obtain their preferred interests from the others at the lowest price possible. the generalists while argue that “bandwagoning” explains better the joining of smaller states to institutions and their function (Rosecrance. However. made civilization and order uncontrollable (Cooper. In addition. The neoliberal institutionalist theory argues that the states voluntary join and cooperate within the institution. 2003). there were major differences in how these goals should be reached. Europe was the main focus of the US confrontation with the Soviet Union. 2000. and institutions influence state behavior by shaping state preferences” (Moravscik 1997: 513). the necessity to integrate U. In addition. for Europe. 100%] As Moravscik puts it the strategy of an actor is complex. The Cold war ended the EU-US shared threat perceptions and their sharing interests in maintaining a Eurocentric security focus. [ 50 . 2003). European capabilities of handling the chaotic international environment were put into question. Although there were no disagreements on the final goals of foreign security policy. 2003). Gruber. Schweller. Also. interests. 2001 p. NATO has kept its importance through the willingness of states to keep their membership and protect their common interests next to their individual interests. To put the theoretical basis into context we will now look at the historical overview of the EU-US cooperation since 1989. NATO has given cooperation and reconstruction to the international order (Cooper. 41) However. 2003). 91%] “societal ideas. Gourevitch states that “. The impact of the end of the Cold war on the international system put the American unilateral security policy in question as to whether it could be sustained in the future. security expectations and priorities started to shift between the United States and Europe during the Cold War. [ 56 . European integration increased and the European Union developed itself into a postmodern/ post-sovereign model. “buffering” in the globalized world (Chong. did not go on the basis of transatlantic cooperation. an era had begun of asymmetric conflicts between regions. 2003). rebels and terrorist groups. Because of the loss of the main threat the balance of power system no longer worked and there was no clear focus anymore for the international security policy (Cooper. 71%] Institutionalists tend to agree more on the way international organizations function and the importance of the organizations. NATO is a poolof individual states and different interests affecting its behavior and at the same time keeping it balances. [ 50 . 2003). 141). Once the Cold War had come to an end. there were many concerns on how transnational cooperation should work. (Lindberg. As a consequence. “binding”. 82%] commitment to an institution requires a belief that it will bring benefits that outweigh the costs of membership” (Goure vitch. there was another contradiction as European unity increased together with disunity and chaos in the world. Within NATO there is said to a collective commitment for security and defense this would mean states join voluntarily on behave of this collective consensus.sovereign model believes that it adds another dimension to international security such as civilian power. As a consequence. Therefore. enabling it to emerge from the negative effects of war and providing it with the confidence which was needed to overcome the severe differences that had produced two world wars within three decades. Because civilization and order are based on control of violence.
[ 136 . military focused security perspective while the EU and different member states continued to articulate understanding of security policy mainly focused on diplomacy. causing it to act more cautious using preferably civilian power instead of militarily action. members of NATO had already invoked Article V of the Treaty to declare their full support for the United States. in the early days of the crisis. and the General Affairs Council. on the other hand. 2004) of the Treaty of Maastricht. However. and particularly differences over the environment and international law. The diverging priorities after the Cold war made the transnational cooperation complex but not necessarily less important. and widespread opposition to right-wing Republicanism." Columnist Charles Krauthammer has not been alone in asserting that NATO -. Because the United States started a range of increasingly controversial counter-measures. in 1990 was declaring the triumph of common Euro-American values and institutions to be the "end of history. accuse Europe of being unwilling to support U. pp. 2004). The EU has been constantly criticized over the last decade. that of organized violence (Hill. Although the fundamental notions of “support” and “cooperation” had been justified.once the centerpiece of the transatlantic alliance -. after a meeting attended by everyone except the Portuguese Foreign Minister (Hill. President Prodi.-European rift is "not just a transitory problem. for all the anti-Americanism that is present in different parts of Western Europe. 86%] . This point in time has also been seen as America's strategic shift away from Europe (Gordon. 70%] global strategic thinking. 2004).S. However. the President of the European Parliament. is nothing new. Europe and the United States view the international environment in a different way (Cooper. The shifting foreign-policy priorities and potential differences that do arise are accentuated by the diverging ways in which Americans and Europeans perceive the way in which they should achieve these common goals. 2004 p. A split between the “big Five” occurred as soon as military support to fight Al Qaeda was needed (Hill. 2003). 119-20). distorted by different values and a different perception of the world and international issues (Cooper. By 2 October this was proven and the commitment had been declared operational (Deighton. these tensions developed quickly again as the war against terrorism continued(Hill.is dead” (Gordon. Conceivably most significant was the Javier Solana's straightforward statement: `the European Union stands firmly and fully behind the United States' – even if some Americans thought later that the operative word here was `behind' (Hill. 2004). [ 136 . Both the Franco-German and the Anglo-Spanish-Italian axes wished to mobilize the EU in their favor. Considering 28 . the impact two world wars have had on Europe. The fundamental interests were there. however. 78%] What is remarkable today is that many significant observers are starting to conclude that the fundamental cultural and structural basis for a transatlantic alliance is diverging. [ 136 . Europeans frequently accuse the United States of a one-dimensional approach to foreign policy that reduces everything to the military portion of the war on terrorism (Cooper. As a consequence. 2004). Western European countries know which side they are on in any conflict between pluralism and theocracy (Hill.S. Europe has been “A pool of common values and interest which is embedded within a larger system of international relations subject to its own dynamics of action”(Smith.once a bastion of Atlanticism -. 2004). Even though. were willing to make such a fearless commitment showed that the EU was capable of performing under such high pressure and take security measures effectively (Hill. the two external relations Commissioners. and argued that their own position on Iraq was the best way of promoting Europe's long-term role in the world (Hill. matters became more complicated (Hill. Not to mention. In addition. there had been concerns about immediate cooperation. 2003). After September 11 the US returned to a more traditional. 72%] Today. 11 of them also in the EU. 96%] “Author Francis Fukuyama. 2003). Even though. the fact that NATO members. starting with the end of the Cold War up to the “highsounding language” (Hill. However. U.S efforts to defeat this new terrorist threat. apparently acting on a British suggestion.S. The change on policy grounds that had taken place is that Europe was no longer the object of American policy but that Europe had been given a supporting role. the EU's spokesmen had made formal statements within 36 hours after the attacks. the way to handle the counter action became a major issue of divergence. Due to different norms and cultural values. Americans. 2003). director of the Aspen Institute Berlin -. September 11: A significant turning point. 2004). 100%] and European views of security are now so different that "the old Alliance holds little promise of figuring prominently in U. 2003). if and when it could be shown that the attacks had been directed from abroad (Hill.talks about Europe's "pathology" regarding the use of force and argues that U. Including.European differences on matters of policy and global strategy or governance are certainly nothing new (Hill. [ 136 . were set aside. Transatlantic divergence was at its peak as the EU started to focus mostly on further internal integration and enlargement. after the attacks the outrage showed by European governments was in every respect genuine.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet power (Cooper. 2003). 2002. re-emphasizing the importance of the very instrument the EU does not command. 2004). democratic Europeans had not forgotten about the American sacrifices in two world wars. [ 136 . 87%] efforts to deal with hostile states such as Iraq or Afghanistan. transatlantic discord." now speaks of the "deep differences" within the Euro-Atlantic community and asserts that the current U. 2004). By the end of 12 September.S. 146). 2004)." Jeffrey Gedmin. this would only work under the circumstances that Europe would support the fundamental course of action that Washington had in mind(Gordon. 11 September 2001 seemed to be a particularly significant exposure of the EUs weaknesses. As had been mentioned above.S. by Javier Solana. [ 136 . M 2005). However. The American perspective included Europe as a crucial partner in U. 2003). the High Representative. [ 136 .2004). ideological tensions with the Bush administration.
significantly the US and EU are coming closer to one another as military and civilian power. Their desire to stabilize the country to prevent the return of a terrorist state has led to an ongoing “general” consensus.(…) 4. the United States and Europe have maintained basic unity of purpose in Afghanistan.BA European Studies ES Style Sheet the fact that there are policy differences. 29 . Case Study of Afghanistan: A Test of the Transatlantic Alliance. All rights reserved. or are they coming closer together? When looking at the developments in Afghanistan since September 11. Although their different mindsets might have been present. does this necessarily mean that the EU and US relations are diverging as well.1 Different Viewsin Afghanistan.(…) Conclusion (…) References: (…) ©2007 Blackboard Inc.
BA European Studies ES Style Sheet ANNEX B: TITLE PAGE THE CHALLENGE OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION Supervisor: Dr. R Hendriks Kim Holland ID 0176910 Pigeonhole 121 Date: 31-01-05 Paper Dossier I Final Version 30 .
BA European Studies ES Style Sheet REFERENCES American Psychological Association (2001). ed. 31 .). Washington DC: APA. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th. rev.
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