A - (Local Area neLwork uenlal) aLLack

LAnu (Local Area neLwork uenlal)
@½e of uoS (uenlal of Servlce) aLLack
onslsLs of sendlng a s½eclal ½olson s½oofed ½ackeL Lo a com½Lerţ caslng lL Lo lock ½Ŧ
nvolves sendlng a s½oofed @9 S?n ½ackeL (connecLlon lnlLlaLlon) wlLh Lhe LargeL hosLƌs 9 address
Lo an o½en ½orL as boLh sorce and desLlnaLlonŦ
L cases Lhe machlne Lo re½l Lo lLself conLlnosl (Lhe sorce and desLlnaLlon address are seL Lo
address Lhe same devlce)Ŧ

ow Lo avold belng aLLacked
nLerce½L Lhe ½olson ½ackeL Lhrogh flrewall
½eraLlng ssLems ½daLes flxlng Lhls secrlL holeŦ
oLers shold be conflgred wlLh boLh lngress and egress fllLers Lo block Lrafflc wlLh same sorce
and desLlnaLlon 9 addressŦ
Smurf attack
Ja of generaLlng slgnlflcanL com½Ler neLwork Lrafflc on a vlcLlm neLworkŦ
@½e of denlalŴofŴservlce aLLack LhaL floods a LargeL ssLem vla s½oofed broadcasL ½lng messagesŦ
ALLacker sends large amonL of ,9(nLerneL onLrol ,essage 9roLocol) echo reqesL (½lng msg)
Lrafflc Lo 9 broadcasL addressesţ all of whlch have a s½oofed sorce 9 address of Lhe lnLended
vlcLlmŦ
f Lhe roLlng devlce dellverlng Lrafflc Lo Lhose broadcasL addresses dellvers Lhe 9 broadcasL Lo all
hosLsţ mosL hosLs on LhaL 9 neLwork wlll re½l Lo lL wlLh an echo re½lţ mlLl½llng Lhe Lrafflc b Lhe
nmber of hosLs res½ondlngŦ
n a mlLlŴaccess broadcasL neLworkţ hndreds of machlnes mlghL re½l Lo each ½ackeLŦ
@he flx ls LwoŴfoldť
1Ŧ onflgre lndlvldal hosLs and roLers noL Lo res½ond Lo ½lng reqesLs or broadcasLsŦ
2Ŧ onflgre roLers noL Lo forward ½ackeLs dlrecLed Lo broadcasL addresses (unLll 1999ţ
sLandards reqlred roLers Lo forward sch ½ackeLs b defalLţ bL ln LhaL earţ Lhe sLandard
was changed Lo reqlre Lhe defalL Lo be noL Lo forward)Ŧ
3Ŧ neLwork lngress fllLerlng re[ecLs Lhe aLLacklng ½ackeLs on Lhe basls of Lhe forged sorce addressŦ
9 spoof|ng
efers Lo Lhe creaLlon of 9 ½ackeLs wlLh a forged sorce 9 address (called s½ooflng)ţ wlLh Lhe
½r½ose of conceallng Lhe ldenLlL of Lhe sender or lm½ersonaLlng anoLher com½Llng ssLemŦ
9 s½ooflng ls mosL freqenLl sed ln denlalŴofŴservlce aLLacksŦ
@he goal ls Lo flood Lhe vlcLlm wlLh overwhelmlng amonLs of Lrafflcţ and Lhe aLLacker does noL care
aboL recelvlng res½onses Lo Lhe aLLack ½ackeLsŦ
9ackeLs wlLh s½oofed addresses are more dlfflclL Lo fllLer slnce each s½oofed ½ackeL a½½ears Lo
come from a dlfferenL addressţ and Lhe hlde Lhe Lre sorce of Lhe aLLackŦ
uenlal of servlce aLLacks LhaL se s½ooflng L½lcall randoml choose addresses from Lhe enLlre 9
address s½aceţ Lhogh more so½hlsLlcaLed s½ooflng mechanlsms mlghL avold nroLable addresses
or nsed ½orLlons of Lhe 9 address s½aceŦ
@he ½rollferaLlon of large boLneLs makes s½ooflng less lm½orLanL ln denlal of servlce aLLacksţ bL
aLLackers L½lcall have s½ooflng avallable as a LoolŦ
8ackscaLLer (backscaLLer ls a sldeŴeffecL of a s½oofed denlal of servlce (uoS) aLLackŦ n generalţ Lhe
vlcLlm machlne cannoL dlsLlnglsh beLween Lhe s½oofed ½ackeLs and leglLlmaLe ½ackeLsţ so Lhe
vlcLlm res½onds Lo Lhe s½oofed ½ackeLs as lL normall woldŦ @hese res½onse ½ackeLs are known as
backscaLLerŦ f Lhe aLLacker ls s½ooflng sorce addresses randomlţ Lhe backscaLLer res½onse
½ackeLs from Lhe vlcLlm wlll be senL back Lo random desLlnaLlonsŦ @hls effecL can be sed b
neLwork Lelesco½es as lndlrecL evldence of sch aLLacksŦ)ţ ls a Lechnlqe sed Lo observe denlalŴofŴ
servlce aLLack acLlvlL ln Lhe nLerneLţ relles on aLLackersƌ se of 9 s½ooflng for lLs effecLlvenessŦ
9ackeL fllLerlng ls one defence agalnsL 9 s½ooflng aLLacksŦ
@he gaLewa Lo a neLwork sall ½erforms lngress fllLerlngţ whlch ls blocklng of ½ackeLs from
oLslde Lhe neLwork wlLh a sorce address lnslde Lhe neLworkŦ deall Lhe gaLewa wold also
½erform egress fllLerlng on oLgolng ½ackeLsţ whlch ls blocklng of ½ackeLs from lnslde Lhe neLwork
wlLh a sorce address LhaL ls noL lnsldeŦ
L ls also recommended Lo deslgn neLwork ½roLocols and servlces so LhaL Lhe do noL rel on Lhe 9
sorce address for aLhenLlcaLlonŦ
onflgraLlon and servlces Lhose are vlnerable Lo 9 s½ooflngť
O 9 (emoLe 9rocedre all servlces)
O An servlce LhaL ses 9 address aLhenLlcaLlon
O @he x Jlndow SsLem
O @he servlces slLe (rloglnţ rshţ eLcŦ)
@ardrop attacks
A @eardro½ aLLack lnvolves sendlng mangled 9 fragmenLs wlLh overla½½lngţ overŴslzed ½aloads Lo Lhe
LargeL machlneŦ @hls can crash varlos o½eraLlng ssLems de Lo a bg ln Lhelr @9$9 fragmenLaLlon reŴ
assembl codeŦ
żŽ
Jlndows 3Ŧ1xţ Jlndows 93 and Jlndows n@ o½eraLlng ssLemsţ as well as verslons of
Llnx ½rlor Lo verslons 2ŦŦ32 and 2Ŧ1Ŧ3 are vlnerable Lo Lhls aLLackŦ
Arond Se½Lember 29ţ a vlnerablllL ln Jlndows vlsLa was referred Lo as a ƍLeardro½ aLLackƍţ bL Lhe
aLLack LargeLed S,82 whlch ls a hlgher laer Lhan Lhe @9 ½ackeLs LhaL Leardro½ sedŦ
@eardro½ aLLacks ex½lolL Lhe reassembl of fragmenLed 9 ½ackeLsŦ n Lhe 9 headerţ one of Lhe flelds ls Lhe
fragmenL offseL fleldţ whlch lndlcaLes Lhe sLarLlng ½oslLlonţ or offseLţ of Lhe daLa conLalned ln a fragmenLed
½ackeL relaLlve Lo Lhe daLa of Lhe orlglnal nfragmenLed ½ackeLŦ See llgre 34Ŧ
llgre 34ť @eardro½ ALLacks

Jhen Lhe sm of Lhe offseL and slze of one fragmenLed ½ackeL dlffer from LhaL of Lhe nexL fragmenLed
½ackeLţ Lhe ½ackeLs overla½ţ and Lhe server aLLem½Llng Lo reassemble Lhe ½ackeL can crashţ es½eclall lf lL
ls rnnlng an older o½eraLlng ssLem LhaL has Lhls vlnerablllLŦ See llgre 33Ŧ
llgre 33ť lragmenL ulscre½anc

AfLer o enable Lhe Leardro½ aLLack Sn o½Llonţ whenever !unS sofLware deLecLs Lhls dlscre½anc ln
a fragmenLed ½ackeLţ lL dro½s lLŦ
Ping of deatb
A p|ng of dath (abbrevlaLed ƍ9uƍ) ls a L½e of aLLack on a com½Ler LhaL lnvolves sendlng a malformed
or oLherwlse mallclos ½lng Lo a com½LerŦ A ½lng ls normall 32 bLes ln slze (or 84 bLes when Lhe
nLerneL 9roLocol ż9Ž header ls consldered)Ť hlsLorlcallţ man com½Ler ssLems cold noL handle a ½lng
½ackeL larger Lhan Lhe maxlmm 9v4 ½ackeL slzeţ whlch ls 3ţ333 bLesŦ Sendlng a ½lng of Lhls slze cold
crash Lhe LargeL com½LerŦ
ż1Ž

n earl lm½lemenLaLlons of @9$9ţ Lhls bg was eas Lo ex½lolLŦ @hls ex½lolL has affecLed a wlde varleL of
ssLemsţ lncldlng unlxţ Llnxţ ,acţ Jlndowsţ ½rlnLersţ and roLersŦ oweverţ mosL ssLems slnce 1997Ŵ
1998 have been flxedţ so Lhls bg ls mosLl hlsLorlcalŦ
ż1Ž

Cenerallţ sendlng a 3ţ33ŴbLe ½lng ½ackeL wold vlolaLe Lhe nLerneL 9roLocol as wrlLLen ln l 791ţ bL
a ½ackeL of sch a slze can be senL lf lL ls fragmenLedŤ when Lhe LargeL com½Ler reassembles Lhe ½ackeLţ a
bffer overflow can occrţ whlch ofLen cases a ssLem crashŦ
n recenL ears a dlfferenL klnd of ½lng aLLack has become wldes½read Ŵ ½lng floodlng slm½l floods Lhe
vlcLlm wlLh so mch ½lng Lrafflc LhaL normal Lrafflc falls Lo reach Lhe ssLem (a baslc denlalŴofŴservlce
aLLack)Ŧ
As deflned ln l 791ţ Lhe maxlmm ½ackeL lengLh of an 9v4 ½ackeL lncldlng Lhe 9 header ls 3ţ333
(2
1
- 1) bLesţ a llmlLaLlon ½resenLed b Lhe se of a 1ŴblL wlde 9 header fleld LhaL descrlbes Lhe LoLal
½ackeL lengLhŦ
@he nderllng uaLa Llnk Laer almosL alwas ½oses llmlLs Lo Lhe maxlmm frame slze (See ,@u)Ŧ n
LherneLţ Lhls ls L½lcall 13 bLesŦ n sch a caseţ a large 9 ½ackeL ls s½llL across mlLl½le 9 ½ackeLs (also
known as 9 fragmenLs)ţ so LhaL each 9 fragmenL wlll maLch Lhe lm½osed llmlLŦ @he recelver of Lhe 9
fragmenLs wlll reassemble Lhem lnLo Lhe com½leLe 9 ½ackeLţ and wlll conLlne ½rocesslng lL as salŦ

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