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Advantages of gravity die casting

Gravity Die Casting Gravity die casting is a process wherein the liquid metal is poured into metallic moulds without application of any external pressure. The liquid metal enters the cavity by gravity. Gravity die casting (GDC) is different from High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC), where the liquid metal is injected into the metal mould under very high pressures for production of thin walled smaller castings with better dimensional accuracy and surface finish.

Gravity die casting is a manufacturing process for producing accurately dimensioned, sharply defined, smooth or textured-surface metal parts. It is accomplished by gently pouring molten metal into reusable metal dies under the force of gravity. The term, "die casting," is also used to describe the finished part.

To begin the process, a cast iron mould capable of producing tens of thousands of castings must be made in at least two sections to permit removal of castings. These sections are mounted securely to a solid base and are arranged so that one is stationary (fixed die half) while the other is moveable (ejector die half).

To begin the casting cycle, the die caster clamps the two die halves tightly together. Molten metal is poured into the die cavity where it solidifies quickly. The die halves are drawn apart and the casting is ejected. Die casting dies can be simple or complex, having moveable slides, cores, or other sections depending on the complexity of the casting.

The main advantage of gravity die casting over sand casting is the high speed of production. The reusable die tooling allows for many hundreds of castings to be

The GDC process is capable of achieving 20% higher mechanical properties than that of a sand casting because of faster rate of solidification imparting better grain size.0 mm can be cast. die tooling is considerably more expensive than sand tooling so an optimum number of castings need to be produced to make the process cost effective in the long run. There are reports of some foundries producing cylinder blocks of around 300 Kgs by GDC. The process can be automated and also can produce semi-gravity diecastings employing sand or plaster of paris cores for production of interior details. Advantages of gravity die casting The process is suitable for mass production with better reproduction. dimensional accuracy and surface finish than conventional sand castings. Castings ranging from few grams to 100 Kgs of Aluminium alloy can be cast. A minimum wall thickness of 3. High definition parts reduce machining costs and superior surface finish reduces finishing costs.produced in a day. As the component size and complexity increases the process becomes more expensive and becomes uneconomical. Read More on . Exceptionally. It will also cause difficulty in handling the die and in extracting the casting from the die with reduction in dimensional accuracy and soundness of the casting. Although die-castings are in most cases cheaper than sand castings. 2mm wall thickness is cast over small areas.

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with smooth or textured surfaces. History.as opposed to casting by gravity pressure .. Die castings are among the highest volume. commercial and industrial products. Die cast parts are found in many places around the home. can be designed to produce complex shapes with a high degree of accuracy and repeatability. called dies. .occurred in the mid-1800s.MaterialsEnvironmentalEffective DesignGlossaryIntroduction to Die Casting Online CourseAbout NADCAPress ReleasesStatistics. The process was limited to printer’s type for the next 20 years. A patent was awarded to Sturges in 1849 for the first manually operated machine for casting printing type. highly accurate components that can be produced with today’s modern die casting. By 1892. and are suitable for a wide variety of attractive and serviceable finishes. but development of other shapes began to increase toward the end of the century. Parts can be as simple as a sink faucet or as complex as a connector housing. and they can be found in thousands of consumer. Parts can be sharply defined. Die casting is a versatile process for producing engineered metal parts by forcing molten metal under high pressure into reusable steel molds. Click Play above to see the video . The earliest examples of die casting by pressure injection .About Die Casting FAQ Introduction. plated zinc die casting in this kitchen faucet illustrates one of the many finishes possible with die casting. .. The polished. These molds. mass-produced items manufactured by the metalworking industry. Die cast parts are important components of products ranging from automobiles to toys. These connector housings are examples of the durable.Introduction.

. durable and dimensionally precise.History. A magnesium seat pan shows how complex.commercial applications included parts for phonographs and cash registers. The first die casting alloys were various compositions of tin and lead. expanding die casting applications into almost every known market. These modern processes are capable of producing high integrity. lightweight die cast components can improve production by replacing multiple pieces. shapes and wall thicknesses that are strong.... and by the 1930s.. The die casting process has evolved from the original low-pressure injection method to techniques including high-pressure casting — at forces exceeding 4500 pounds per square inch — squeeze casting and semi-solid die casting. many of the modern alloys still in use today became available. . . and mass production of many types of parts began in the early 1900s. Click Play above to see the video . near net-shape castings with excellent surface finishes. today’s die casters can produce castings in a variety of sizes. Magnesium and copper alloys quickly followed. The Future. . but their use declined with the introduction of zinc and aluminum alloys in 1914. Refinements continue in both the alloys used in die casting and the process itself. Once limited to simple lead type. .

High-speed production . Parts have long service life and may be designed to complement the visual appeal of the surrounding part. Little or no machining is required and thousands of identical castings can be produced before additional tooling is required.Die casting produces parts that are durable and dimensionally stable. The basic die casting process consists of injecting molten metal under high pressure into a steel mold called a die. . the strength is that of the alloy rather than the joining process... Die casting is an efficient. economical process offering a broader range of shapes and components than any other manufacturing technique. and they are easily plated or finished with a minimum of surface preparation.Die casting provides complex shapes within closer tolerances than many other mass production processes. Thin wall castings are stronger and lighter than those possible with other casting methods. Dimensional accuracy and stability .. while maintaining close tolerances.. such as bosses and studs. Plus. Multiple finishing techniques . Designers can gain a number of advantages and benefits by specifying die cast parts. Holes can be cored and made to tap drill sizes.The Advantages of Die Casting. They are also heat resistant.Die castings provide integral fastening elements. Die casting machines are typically rated in clamping tons equal to the amount of pressure they can exert on the die.. or external threads can be cast. Strength and weight .Die cast parts can be produced with smooth or textured surfaces.Die cast parts are stronger than plastic injection moldings having the same dimensions. . Simplified Assembly . Die Casting Process. because die castings do not consist of separate parts welded or fastened together.

forging . Click Play above to see the video . Die casting vs. . Die Casting vs. plastic molding . permanent mold . sand casting . Other Processes. resulting in reduced assembly time..Die casting offers the same advantages versus permanent molding as it does compared with sand casting...Die casting produces more complex shapes with closer tolerances. The two methods are hot chamber or cold chamber. Die casting vs. closer dimensional limits and smoother surfaces. the only fundamental difference in die casting machines is the method used to inject molten metal into a die.Die casting produces complex shapes with variations possible in section thickness. Regardless of their size. stamping .Die casting produces stronger parts with closer tolerances that have greater stability and durability. Die casting vs. Die casting vs. Production is faster and labor costs per casting are lower. . One casting may replace several stampings.Die casting produces parts with thinner walls.Process. Finishing costs are also less. to two-to-three minutes for a casting of several pounds. Die casting vs.. thinner walls and lower finishing costs.Machine sizes range from 400 tons to 4000 tons. A complete die casting cycle can vary from less than one second for small components weighing less than an ounce. making die casting the fastest technique available for producing precise non-ferrous metal parts... Die cast parts have greater resistance to temperature extremes and superior electrical properties. Cast coring holes are not available with forging.

Die casting produces shapes that are difficult or impossible from bar or tubular stock. has a low melting point and promotes long die life. as well as strength at high temperatures. . Zinc . Click Play above to see the video . with strength approaching that of steel parts. Each of the metal alloys available for die casting offer particular advantages for the completed part. Aluminum . high corrosion resistance and the highest mechanical properties of alloys cast.. high thermal and electrical conductivity. while maintaining tolerances without tooling adjustments. It offers excellent wear resistance and dimensional stability. Choosing the Proper Alloy..These alloys offer high density and are capable of producing parts with extremely close dimensions. Die casting requires fewer operations and reduces waste and scrap.. Magnesium . magnesium has an excellent strength-to-weight ratio and is the lightest alloy commonly die cast.The easiest alloy to cast. Aluminum has good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. high impact strength and is easily plated. Lead and Tin .The easiest alloy to machine.This alloy is lightweight.Die Casting vs Other Processes.. it offers high ductility. Copper . Zinc is economical for small parts. . They are also used for special forms of corrosion resistance..This alloy possesses high hardness..Die casting vs. screw machine products .. while possessing high dimensional stability for complex shapes and thin walls.

. are made of alloy tool steels in at least two sections. Single cavity to produce one component. Multiple cavity to produce a number of identical parts.. Modern dies also may have moveable slides. Dies also include locking pins to secure the two halves.There are four types of dies:. . the two die halves are locked and held together by the machine’s hydraulic pressure. or cover half. When the die casting machine closes. to permit removal of castings. ejector pins to help remove the cast part. and the pressure required of the machine to inject metal into the die cavity governs the clamping force of the machine. The ejector half usually contains the runners (passageways) and gates (inlets) that route molten metal to the cavity. 2." The total projected surface area of the part being cast. 3. or die casting tooling. 1. the fixed die half. Dies. The surface where the ejector and fixed halves of the die meet and lock is referred to as the "die parting line. Unit die to produce different parts at one time.Die Construction. Sprue holes in the fixed die half allow molten metal to enter the die and fill the cavity. and the ejector die half. . measured at the die parting line. cores or other sections to produce holes. and openings for coolant and lubricant. threads and other desired shapes in the casting.

magnesium. allowing molten metal to fill the cylinder. A hydraulically operated plunger seals the cold chamber port and forces metal into the locked die at high pressures. The molten metal is poured into a "cold chamber.. Click on the image to see an animation. . After the metal has solidified in the die cavity. Click on the image to see an animation. manually by a hand ladle or by an automatic ladle. As the injection cylinder plunger rises. Hot Chamber Machines. a port in the injection cylinder opens. the plunger is withdrawn. As the plunger moves downward it seals the port and forces molten metal through the gooseneck and nozzle into the die cavity. Cold chamber machines are used for alloys such as aluminum and other alloys with high melting points. lead and other low melting point alloys that do not readily attack and erode metal pots. ." or cylindrical sleeve.. copper. 4.. the die opens and the casting is ejected. cylinders and plungers.. The furnace is attached to the machine by a metal feed system called a gooseneck. Hot chamber machines are used primarily for zinc. The injection mechanism of a hot chamber machine is immersed in the molten metal bath of a metal holding furnace. . Cold Chamber Machines. Combination die to produce several different parts for an assembly. .

dense. .. ladle metal into cold chamber machines and integrate other functions.. Squeeze casting . shot rod position. .High Integrity Die Casting Methods. heat treatable components. Automated systems can be used to lubricate dies. . heat treatable castings with low porosity. such as quenching and trimming castings. . Click on the image to see an animation.Semi-solid molding . assuring consistent castings shot after shot. Microprocessors obtain metal velocity. There are several variations on the basic process that can be used to produce castings for specific applications. Modern die casters use a number of sophisticated methods to automate the die casting process and provide continuous quality control. hydraulic pressure and other data that is used to adjust the die casting machine process. Die Casting Design. . These process control systems also collect machine performance data for statistical analysis in quality control.. Automation and Quality Control. These include:.A procedure where semi-solid metal billets are cast to provide dense.A method by which molten alloy is cast without turbulence and gas entrapment at high pressure to yield high quality.

providing overall economies. Environmental. Consulting with the die caster during the design phase will help resolve issues affecting tooling and production. For instance. Additional sources of information are listed in the "Resources" section of this brochure. These savings may offset the cost of tooling.. depending upon the production quantities. . Die casting is one of the fastest and most cost-effective methods for producing a wide range of components.. trade journals and professional associations. While this section is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of all the factors involving die casting design. to achieve maximum benefits from this process.. it will highlight some of the primary considerations. However.. Many sources are available for information on die casting design. the relatively greater strength of metals generally allows thinner walls and sections and consequently requires fewer cubic inches of material than plastics for a given application. Slides increase the cost of the tooling. The cost of materials is another important design consideration. technical papers.. while identifying the various trade-offs that could affect overall costs. including textbooks.. . Typical properties for the most commonly used alloys are shown on the linked charts. parts having external undercuts or projections on sidewalls often require dies with slides. uniform casting wall thickness or other advantages. For instance. Comparing Materials. Alloy Properties One of the first steps in designing a die cast component is choosing the proper alloy. but may result in reduced metal use. Accurate comparisons require looking beyond the cost per pound or cost per cubic inch to fully analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each competing process. it is critical that designers collaborate with the die caster at an early stage of the product design and development.

Wheeling. © 2011 The North American Die Casting Association 241 Holbrook Drive. Effective Design Load example illustrations to help show how design and engineering can affect final production. Daniel L. . Ask NADCA .279..0001 Fax: 847.MyNADCA Your Cart | Login | Help. Advertising . Advertise with NADCA.. . -------------------------------------------------------------------------------. . Twarog 847. .279.. .Environmental.Contact Us | Careers | Ask NADCA | Advertising .0002 Email: nadca@diecasting. IL 60090 Phone: 847. .org .Click Play above to see the video .3162 President.808. Glossary and Additional Resources. .

good dimension and fine surface finish. The time exposure provided for themolten metal to plunge the walls of the mold is less. Hot Chamberprocess: In the hot chamber process method of die casting. a cold chamber ofeach module is filled with molten metal. Cold Chamberprocess: In the cold chamber category of die casting. copper. tin and lead. This results in a more uniform part. die casting method is generally used forapplications in which a large quantity is medium or small sized parts arerequired with detail. These die casting modulesare also called as “dies’ . The die casting molds which are used in this method areexpensive and take usually take long production time. Die casting is the method used for forcing molten metal intomold cavities under high pressure. the inlet port connected to the pressurizing cylinder isuncovered. copper and metals that easilyalloy with iron at high temperatures. magnesium. This clod chamber processmethod is very useful for metals like aluminum.As the plunger moves towards the open position that is towards the non -pressurized area. Die casting is same as permanentmold casting the only difference is that the metal is injected into the mouldat very high pressure of 10-210 Mpa. . Ferrous metals canalso be used for die casting. The different metals and alloys that can be used in diecasting are zinc.. aluminum. Die casting is very versatile and hence.Site Map | Disclaimer | Security | Email to a Friend | Share on Facebook | RSS . There are namely two equipments used for die casting coldchamber and hot chamber process. the pressurethat is connected to the die cavity is forever and permanently in molten metal. .usually good dimensional accuracy and also good surface finish. isthe widest used method for casting a metal.

Die-casting can be done using a cold chamber or hot chamber process. In the Die Casting method thethickest section needs to be less than 13mm or 0. There is less time exposure of the melt to the plunger walls or the plunger. highstrength bearing surfaces and heating elements can also be inserted using theDie Casting method. It offers tensile strength as high as 415 MPa that is 60ksi.Die casting alsohelps in reducing or even completely eliminating the use of secondary machiningoperations. Disadvantages ofDie Casting: The casting weight is very less hardly between 30 gramsand 10 kgs.Advantages of DieCasting: The method of die casting gives excellent dimensionalaccuracy. as good as 0. This is particularly useful for metals such as Aluminum.500) psi . For many parts. The dimensional accuracy is as good as 0. zinc. Die Casting methodmakes the metal porous up to some extent. Inserts like thread insert. This allows a new charge of molten metal to fill the cavity and thus can fill the cavity faster than the cold chamber process.75mm approximately can be casted. This results in a more uniform part. The use of Die Casting method also helps to reduce the productiontime and a huge number of articles can be produced in a very short time. generally good surface finish and good dimensional accuracy. Diecasting method also helps to retain as well as increase the tensile strength ofthe metal.005 for the first inch. The inlet port of the pressurizing cylinder is uncovered as the plunger moves to the open (unpressurized) position. post-machining can be totally eliminated. and Copper (and its alloys) that alloy easily with Iron at the higher temperatures. • In a hot chamber process the pressure chamber is connected to the die cavity is immersed permanently in the molten metal.5 inches. • In a cold chamber process. Die casting also provides with smooth cast surfaces.5cms and0. The hot chamber process is used for metals of low melting point and high fluidity such as tin.1mm for the first 2.2 % of casting dimension. Die-casting is similar to permanent mold casting except that the metal is injected into the mold under high pressure of 10-210Mpa (1. or very light machining may be required to bring dimensions to size. and lead that tend not to alloy easily with steel at their melt temperatures.450-30. the molten metal is ladled into the cold chamber for each shot. the process of Die Castingrequires high budget and can pile up high initial cost. .Small and thin walls and can be made using the method of die casting walls astiny as 0. Also the size of the material that needs to be casted using the DieCasting method needs to small say around 600mm.

A high silicon alloy is used in automotive engines for cylinder castings. reduces machinability.Die casting molds (called dies in the industry) tend to be expensive as they are made from hardened steel-also the cycle time for building these tend to be long. Common aluminum alloys for die casting are summarized as follows: . pure Aluminum is rarely cast due to high shrinkage.6%) the chemical resistance is improved. and susceptibility to hot cracking. which increases hardness. AA 360 (UNS A03600) is formulated for use in marine environments. reduces ductility. On the other hand. It is alloyed with Silicon 9% and Copper about 3. Zinc and Copper alloys are the materials predominantly used in die-casting. and reduces corrosion resistance.ajt-inc. AA 390 (UNS A03900) with 17% Silicon for high wear resistance.comAluminum. Also the stronger and harder metals such as iron and steel cannot be die-cast Top of Page Common Alloys in Die Casting Ads by Google Friction Stir Welding Engineering and Manufacturing Provider of FSW products & service www. Copper is another alloying element.5% to form the Aluminum Association 380 alloy (UNS A03800). Silicon increases the melt fluidity. It is alloyed with Silicon. reduces machinability. thus. which increases melt fluidity. Copper increases hardness and reduces the ductility. By greatly reducing the amount of Copper (less than 0. Aluminum is cast at a temperature of 650 ºC (1200 ºF).

The casting is done at a fairly low temperature of 425 ºC (800 ºF) so the part does not have to cool much before it can be ejected from the die.5 % 0.Material Silicon Copper Tensile Strength MPa (ksi) Properties AA 380 (UNS A03800) 8. and connector housings.5 % 324 (47) Fair easy to fill AA 384 (UNS A03840) 11 % 4 % 331 (48) Easy to fill AA 386 (UNS A03860) 9. This. which adds strength and hardness. gears. Minimum wall thicknesses and minimum draft angles for die casting are . fast cooling (and ejection) and a short cycle time.5 % 283 (41) Good wear resistance Zinc can be made to close tolerances and with thinner walls than Aluminum. Copper alloys are used in plumbing. Zinc is alloyed with Aluminum (4%). due to its high melt fluidity.6 % 317 (46) Good corrosion resistance AA 390 (UNS A03900) 17 % 4. electrical and marine applications where corrosion and wear resistance is important. in combination with the fact that Zinc can be run using a hot chamber process allows for a fast fill.5 % 3. Zinc alloys are used in making precision parts such as sprockets.

for Magnesium. it is best to design parts with uniform wall thicknesses and cores of simple shapes.25 Copper alloys (Brass) 1. for Zinc. The porosity problem can be somewhat overcome by vacuum die casting From a design point of view. trapped gases causing porosity.035 in) 0. Draft Angle (º) Aluminum alloys 0.5 Zinc alloys 0. to 35 kg (77 lb) max. Heavy sections cause cooling problems.9 mm (0.Material Min.025 in) 0. All corners should be radiused generously to avoid stress concentration.25 mm (0.7 Die-castings are typically limited from 20 kg (55 lb) max. Draft allowance should be provided to all for releasing the parts-these are Language: English (US) Deutsch EspañolSEARCH: Investor RelationsHistoryPoliciesMission StatementValuesPartnersExecutive ManagementCareers Zinc Die CastingAluminum Die CastingMagnesium Die CastingFind the Right MaterialMaterial ComparisonCasting DesignSecondary OperationsCasting design ~ Fillet radii . and the melt solidifying before it gets to the furthest extremities of the die-cast cavity. Large castings tend to have greater porosity problems. due to entrapped air. Thickness mm (in) Min.050 in) 0.6 mm (0.

. The extra material is used to force additional metal into the die cavity to supplement the shrinkage that takes place during solidification.000 KPa can be obtained from this type of machine. Injection pressures over 10. The principle components of a coldchamber die casting machine are shown below. where a hydraulically operated plunger pushes the metal into the die.000 psi or 70.Case StudiesIndustries ServedProcessesSave MoneyQualityGlobal EngineeringManufacturingBusiness DevelopmentRequest A Quote News ArticlesExhibitions Case Studies Industries Served TelecommunicationsComputers & PeripheralsConsumer ElectronicsConnectorsAutomotiveOther Industries Processes Hot-Chamber Cold-Chamber Multi-Slide Hot-Chamber Save Money Quality Advanced Quality PlanningProcess Control & SPCAwards Global Engineering DesignRapid PrototypingToolingProject Management Manufacturing Die castingMachining OperationsSurface Treatments Business Development Request A Quote In cold-chamber die casting the molten charge (more material than is required to fill the casting) is ladled from the crucible into a shot sleeve.

Ejector pins push the casting out of the ejector die and the plunger returns to its original position.The die is closed and the molten metal is ladled into the cold-chamber shot sleeve. 2. .The plunger pushes the molten metal into the die cavity where it is held under pressure until solidification. 4. retract. to ensure that the casting remains in the ejector die.Operating Sequence of the Cold-Chamber Die Casting Process 1.The die opens and the plunger advances. Cores. 3. if any.

BENEFITS OF DYNACAST PRECISION DIE CASTING High volume cost-effective production with consistent qualityValue engineered parts save money by eliminating costly post-casting operationsEasily manufacture complex net shaped parts with tight tolerancesLower tool cost and longer tool lifeLowest total acquisition cost E-NEWSLETTER Check out our online Newsletter.25º to 0. Sign up Dynacast Copyright 2011 | Privacy Policy | Disclaimer | Certifications | Sitemap typically 0. .75º per side depending on the material.