OPTICAL FIBER

ohn Tyndall in England (1870) firs demonstrated that “ Light can be guided by total internal reflection” inside a water jet flowing down from a

HI ST O

RY

Water

Light

Men behind fiber optics

Robert Maurer, Donald Keck ,Peter C.Shultz

In 1950 the first flexible fiberscope is developed to transmit the pictures along an aligned bundle of flexible glass fibers. Now a days optical fibers are used to transmit voice, picture and digital data signals across the world.

Because of their tremendous capacity to carry information greater than electronic communication systems (Coaxial cables)

Optical fiber is

What is Optical Fiber:
a long, thin transparent dielectric material made up of glass or plastic

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which carries electromagnetic waves of optical frequencies from one end of the fiber to the other by means of multiple total internal reflections.

STRUCTURE OF OPTICAL FIBER
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CORE

: Thin glass center of the fiber where light travels

CLADDING : Outer optical material surrounding core BUFFER COATING : Plastic coating that protects the fiber.

NOTE: CLADDING DOES NOT ABSORB ANY LIGHT FROM CORE

Outer Jacket Polyethylene Aramid strength Elements Flooded Core Central E-Glass Strength member Thermoplastic Tube

Moisture Blocking Gel Multiple 250 Micron Fibers

Principle : Total Internal Reflection
When a light ray travels from optically dense medium to less dense medium, it will bend away from the Normal. The angle of refraction θ given by the Snell’s law

n1>n2 n2

n1>n2

n1>n2

n1
When I < θc When I = θc When I > θc

TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION IN OPTICAL FIBER

ACCEPTANCE ANGLE
For a Light ray to enter into Fiber and undergo Total Internal Reflection and forms the Acceptance Cone that angle Is Called Acceptance Angle

ACCEPTANCE ANGLE AND ACCEPTANCE CONE

A Ray That Undergone Total Internal Reflection Is Rotated Keeping The Angle Of Incidence Constant Then It Forms A Conical Surface This Conical Surface Is Called Acceptance Cone. Only Those Rays Which Fall In This Cone Under Go Total Internal Reflection.

ACCEPTANCE CONE

TYPES OF OPTICAL FIBERS
SINGLE MODE FIBERS

MULTI MODE FIBERS

Again classified into :

ENDOSCOPY DEVICE

APPLICATIONS
OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION:
Optical Fiber can be used as a medium for Tele- communication and in Computer Networking. ADVANTAGES:
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Fiber is also immune to electrical interference there is no cross talk between signals in different cables. No pick up of environmental noise. They do not conduct electricity. It is useful in protecting communication equipment in high voltage environments Low power consumption. High carrying capacity and Less signal degradation.

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APPLICATIONS

FIBER OPTIC SENSORS:
Fibers Have Many Uses In Remote Sensing Devices. In Some Devices Optical Fiber Itself Is The Remote Sensing Device.
THEY ARE USED TO MEASURE: § Strain , temperature , pressure, intensity
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Phase, polarization, wave length of given light ray Fiber optic gyroscope-senses changes in orientation. Transmitting broadband signals. For transmission of data.

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Asst Prof in Physics GVP College of Engineering VIZAG.

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