Cambridge Natural defence



H. K.





F. A.











[All Rights reserved.]



0. F.






purpose in this text-book


to set before the student

the views held at the present time as to the classification

of crystals

classification is

and the principles of symmetry on which the based to describe the forms which are a
' ' ;

consequence of the symmetry; to determine the geometrical relations of the forms and, finally, to explain the methods by

which the crystals are drawn and their forms represented The treatment has been as far as possible geographically.
metrical, and, with the exception of the formulae of plane


spherical trigonometry necessary for the solution of triangles,



analysis has been introduced into the



Seeing that good figures are important aids to the understanding
of the geometrical relations of crystals,

and that practice


drawing crystals develops the student's power of solving crystallographic problems, I have throughout given

prominence to

the methods used in

making diagrams.


principles of pro-

jection followed in the construction of such figures are therefore explained at

an early stage.




necessary in


parts of Chapters

VI and VII

to presuppose


and, knowledge of the crystals of the different systems should accordingly, those articles which refer to a given system



be read with the corresponding chapter, and with the examples which it contains. A brief sketch of the methods depending

on analytical geometry suitable for the treatment of graphic problems has been given in Chapter XIX.



generally held that each of the thirty-two possible

classes of crystals is a definite group, the forms in

which are

a direct consequence of the 'elements of symmetry' (p. 21) present in it. Some of these classes have certain geometrical and physical relations in

common, and form


groups called systems. In discussing the classes seriatim, I have taken first the crystals which have no symmetry; and,
in passing from one class to another, I have, in general, pro-

ceeded to that which involves the least addition to the sym-

metry of


predecessor, or follows from


on the addition of a
can be obtained

centre of symmetry.


no further



this process, a fresh start is

made with a

which has

the least symmetry of a



for instance,

acleistous tetragonal class, which has only a single tetrad axis,

comes third in Chapter XIV, whilst the two preceding classes of the tetragonal system have been derived from particular
combinations of dyad axes. The geometrical characters of rhombohedral and hexagonal crystals require special treatment, and, accordingly, their systems have been placed last.

The general order
at the

of discussion has involved




and, unfortunately, in almost every system

entails discussing

outset a class in which the geometrical relations do not lend themselves readily to elementary treatment. The beginner will therefore do well to read through the general
discussion of all the classes of a system before endeavouring
to master the geometrical relations

between the face-symbols
and appropriate names

and the

interfacial angles.

It is not easy to

find distinctive






Those which I have adopted


with one or two exceptions, intended to indicate the shape
of the 'general form' of the class.


based on physical
of the



to bring clearly before the

mind the shape

crystal, or to indicate the elements of

symmetry present


those based on particular substances may, with greater knowledge,

have to be changed,


the name-substance has to be

transferred from one class to another.

The simple notation
of geometrical

for the crystal-forms,

and the elegant

treatment by the stereographic projection and the anharmoiiic ratio of four tautozonal faces,
with which Miller's



indissolubly associated, have been

class of the rhomadopted throughout. bohedral system Naumann's symbols are so expressive of the

In the scalenohedral

geometrical relations of the various rhombohedra and scalenohedra, that I have used his notation as well as Miller's in the

representation of these forms.

Naumann, Haidinger, others. From the late
grapher, so that personal nature.

Free use has been made of the works of previous writers Miller, Story-Maskelyne, Groth, and

W. H.

Miller and Professor as a crystallo-

M. H. N. Story-Maskelyne I received

my training


debt to them

of a very special and

have drawn largely on the stores of informa;

tion in Professor E. S. Dana's System of Mineralogy, 1892


am indebted to him and to his publishers, New York, for cliches of several of the figures
for cliches of several of

Messrs. Wiley of
in that work.


have to thank Professor Groth and his publisher, Herr Engelthe figures in the Physikalische

Mr. Hilary Bauerman for the loan of the blocks of several of the figures in Miller's works and Dr. J. H.

Pratt, of the Geological

Survey of North Carolina, for several the cliches of which were kindly supplied by Professor



Dana, the editor of the American Journal of Science.

Miers of Oxford has permitted the use of the figure of the
student's goniometer designed

by him


and Herr Fuess of

Berlin generously placed at


disposal cliches of his cele-

brated instruments.

have had valuable help from numerous

friends, to








hearty thanks.




indebted to Mr. L. Fletcher, Keeper of the Minerals of the



to Mr. L. J. Spencer, also of the


Department of the British Museum to my colleague, Mr. A. and Hutchinson, Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge




Mrs. G. T. Pilcher;

who have


been good

enough to read



some parts of the

To, their care and the valuable suggestions made by them the book owes much and it is hoped that few errors The very full index is of any kind have escaped detection.

the work of Mr. Spencer.
I have much pleasure also in expressing my obligation to Mr. Edwin Wilson for the care exercised in the preparation of

the diagrams needed to illustrate the text.




28th September, 1899.

.. .. . VI. . . . . . 33 Face common to two zones .. V. ..v : 48 . ... ... 15 CHAPTER AXIAL REPRESENTATION The law of rational indices The equations of the normal IV. 8 CHAPTER SYMMETRY III. .CONTENTS.'. 23 26 29 . ..... 39 43 CHAPTER CRYSTAL-DRAWINGS .. vv Orthographic drawings Clinographic drawings . . . CHAPTER CRYSTALS AND THEIR FORMATION I.... . .. .'* . .. CHAPTER ZONE-INDICES AND RELATIONS OF ZONES Weiss's zone-law . PAGE 1 CHAPTER THE LAW OP CONSTANCY OF ANGLE II. 49 55 65 . Plans and elevations ...-. .

. . 148 154 161 Formulae connecting crystal-elements. XIII. . a {hkl} . 198 II.X CONTENTS. . XI. CHAPTER VII. Pediad class. . . 148 II. . . LINEAR AND STEREOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS . CONDITIONS FOR PLANES AND AXES OF SYMMETRY.181 CHAPTER THE PRISMATIC SYSTEM I. ' . . . . . PAGE . . 108 CHAPTER THE SYSTEMS AND SOME OF THE ASSOCIATED WITH THEM . X. . Acleistous pyramidal class p.. . RATIO OP FOUR TAUTOZONAL FACES 87 104 CHAPTER IX. II. Plinthoid class {hkl} .. . indices and angles CHAPTER THE OBLIQUE SYSTEM I. . class . 172 173 Hemimorphic Gonioid class . . XII. 197 ' Sphenoidal class . . . 177 178 III. . Y . Formulae and methods of calculation . 70 CHAPTER THE ANHARMONIC Transformation of axes VIII. K {hkl} . Bipyramidal class {hkl} . {hkl} . {hkl} Formulae and methods of calculation . a {hkl} . PHYSICAL CHARACTERS 138 Optical characters 140 CHAPTER THE ANORTHIC SYSTEM I. . . a{hkl} Pinakoidal class . -. AND RELATIONS BETWEEN THE ELEMENTS OF SYMMETRY . 205 III. . 209 211 .

xi CHAPTER THE TETRAGONAL SYSTEM I. .457 . . II. XVI. ... . pqr] = a {hkil} . ... . a {hkl..:. . 455 .... Tetrahedral class. .-. V. 350 360 365 IV.408 . ir{hkl} V. Plagihedral class a {hkl} Hexakis-octahedral class 284 . IV. . p.CONTENTS. 424 CHAPTER THE HEXAGONAL SYSTEM Rhombohedral axes Hexagonal axes I. 275 . VII. 344 Acleistous trigonal class . n{hkl. . Trapezohedral class VI. r{hkl. Trapezohedral class . 443 448 451 . II. . K {hkl} Diplohedral ditetragonal class . Diplohedral dihexagonal class.225 . '... pqr} VII. r{hkl. V.. pqr}=p {hkil} ft. fi{hkl} . 422 .. Acleistous (polar) tetragonal class. XIV. r{hkl} IV.. = Diplohedral hexagonal class. ft. 243 254 260 263 268 270 Sphenoidal class . . T {hkl} . a {hkl} Acleistous ditrigonal class. XVII. . . Diplohedral trigonal class Scalenohedral class . r{hkl] IV. V. . {hkl. Diplohedral tetragonal class a{hkl} Acleistous ditetragonal class : . . . . . . . 426 427 430 . Ta {hkl} CHAPTER XV. .328 333 340 To draw the general forms CHAPTER THE RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM I. . . pqr} = {hkil} Trapezohedral class. Ditrigonal bipyramidal class .. {hkl} . . Trigonal bipyramidal class. Tr{hkl} Hexakis-tetrahedral class. III. {hkl} .. III.pqr} ir $h\til} Acleistous dihexagonal class . . PAGE . {hkl} 303 311 . {hkl. {hkl} IT {hkl} . .. pqr}=r{bkil} . {hkl} . III.pqr} K {hkl. III.418 . Dyakis-dodecahedral class. . . VI. II. THE CUBIC SYSTEM I. Acleistous hexagonal class. 224 Scalenohedral class II. . . .

. vii.581 . .. PAGE . 557 573 585 . hexagonal system oblique system anorthic system Twin-axis a line in a face perpendicular to one of . .. . v.513 527 528 543 its On edges the method of determining the position of the twin- 554 axis 556 CHAPTER Some XIX.. ii. TWIN-CRYSTALS AND OTHER COMPOSITE CRYSTALS . prismatic system iv. CHAPTER XVIII. rhombohedral system . ANALYTICAL METHODS AND DIVERS NOTATIONS propositions relating to the rhombohedral system Grassmann's method of axial representation Weiss's...Xli CONTENTS.601 . Naumann's and Levy's notations .461 . ON GONIOMETERS The The vertical-circle * 589 goniometer 592 597 horizontal-circle goniometer Theodolite goniometers Three-circle goniometer . i. vi. . . CHAPTER XX..461 466 482 497 iii. 604 605 INDEX . Twins General introduction of the cubic system tetragonal system .

the property. I and I' form a second 3. CHAPTER I. 1. the planes of each of which intersect one another in parallel edges. elasticity. i. It is well shown in calcite. and (2) the arrangement of them in zones. CRYSTALS are homogeneous solid bodies bounded by plane : their surfaces arranged according to definite laws of symmetry physical properties. Examination of a few crystals of common substances. such as cohesion. of splitting along plane surfaces having certain directions. in sets. quartz (SiO 2 ).e. They are: (1) the parallelism of the planes in pairs. fluor and . 1. CRYSTALS AND THEIR FORMATION. The plane surfaces are called crystal. marked b. such (CaCO 3 ). characteristic j? IO> of many crystals. the faces zone. symmetry of the the the faces of 2. optical and thermal characters. The connection of the physical properties with external form is strikingly manifested in the case of the cleavage. and soda . gypsum (CaSO 4 2H 2 O).e. parallel to and those the planes marked b. A straight line drawn through some In Fig. m. brings to our notice two important characteristics of the external form. as calcite . (Na 2 CO 3 10H 2O). called the origin. are intimately connected with the external form. i. parallel to the edges of a set is called a zone-axis. fixed point.CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. them form a zone with a vertical zonef m axis.

can generally be easily distinguished from true crystals. and are not to be included amongst crystals as instances of such transformations we may mention the brownish translucent crystals of sulphur : By a possible face or edge of a crystal is meant one which satisfies the law development of the crystal. Experience in the criticism of the character of the crystal-faces will in most cases enable us to distinguish between them and For the natural those resulting from cleavage. which differ from the original crystals in no respect except in their mode of formation. for instance. A face possible on one crystal may actually exist on another crystal of the same substance. just as that of a crystal growing in a vessel is hindered by the sides and bottom . or without. crystal. are always parallel to actual or possible (Chap. or the internal structure. corrosion. such as gold. Fig. 2. and markings. faces sometimes occur in Nature. or both. perceived on a cleavage-face of a simple of the face. for may be due to several causes : instance. Art. change of substance. . as may have occurred in some True crystal-forms are is also found in which the internal structure not correlated with the external form. fec. 2. Imitations of crystals in glass. com- pletely bounded by cleavages. Such altered bodies. those of calcite and rock-salt are sometimes hard to distinguish from true crystals. no longer correspond with the external form. 1 faces of the crystal. FIG. False faces. or by the cutting of artificial on fragments of crystals or metal. Thus in the latter there is a good cleavage parallel to the plane marked b in Fig. and as. They often enable us to get fragments. of 1 . and are an important characteristic Thus the cubes of pyrites. faces often show coarse or fine markings striae. shortly called cleavages. to the growth of the crystal being hampered by the surface of some other body. 1. 9) gypsum. in which the substance. Such cleavagefragments as. are called pseudomorphs . of it. In such cases the originally formed crystal has undergone a change in its internal structure with. iv. The cleavage-planes. or to accidental cleavage followed by crystals of calcite. however. arise from the accidental interruptions in the continuity of the cleavage. which accord with the symmetry pittings. are frequently striated in the manner shown in the A perfect cleavage should be smooth diagram.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTALS.

4. each chemical Crystallography is the science which treats of the distribution of the faces on a crystal. and compound has a distinctive and characteristic crystalline form. phosphorus have been formed by volatilizing the substance in a hermetically closed tube heated at one end and cooled at the other. deposits crystals when it is allowed to cool freely. 3 formed by fusion. and numerous minute crystals of ice aggregated together.g. Thus.FORMATION OF CRYSTALS. salt and : sugar. on cooling. under favourable conditions. formed from solutions. It applies equally to crystals known as minerals and to the manu- factured in the laboratory. hold in solution at a definite temperature is limited. They are likewise formed by the mixture of two non-saturated solutions of different substances which react on one another chemically. Formation of Crystals. in In the larger number of cases crystals are which the liquid. gives six-faced consists of Crystals of crystals of bismuth. At this limit is said to be saturated. thus. Crystals are also obtained by the evaporation of a solution. Crystallization is a property common to almost every substance of which the structure is not the result of organic growth. and of the classification of crystals in groups depending on the distribution of the the natural bodies faces. of the geometrical relations to which their positions are subject. contains one or several substances. the solution saturated at 30 C. 5. The crystalline form is characteristic of the substance. Instances of crystallization are familiar to everyone e. from a fluid to a solid state. Crystals are formed during the passage of their substance. which after the lapse of a day or two change into aggregates of yellow sulphur. snow is the result of the rapid cooling of aqueous vapour. consequently a solution saturated at a high temperature will deposit Thus a solution of nitre (KNO 3 ) crystals as the temperature falls. which serves as solvent. Liquid bismuth. The higher the temperature the greater the quantity which can as a rule be held in solution . 12 . conversely. under ordinary circumstances. and the brown pseudoraorphs after pyrites (FeS 2 ) resulting from the conversion of the iron disulphide into a hydroxide. subject however to the modifying principles of isomorphism and polymorphism. The quantity of a substance which a given quantity of liquid can.

quartz and orthoclase (KAlSi 3 O 8) found in crevices in limestone and granite are instances of the second kind. and which at the same time supplies the material for to. Crystals can also be formed as a result of the chemical changes which a solution undergoes during the passage of an electric current. 2 calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) be mixed together crystals of gypsum are formed. however. It is . A method is to add glue or other viscid body to the solution. The attached crystals of calcite. if GROWTH OF CRYSTALS. and a solid base. as is manifested by the formation of complex individuals called twins. and form Such completely developed crystals will be the perfect individuals. (Chap. naturally incomplete. The Sugar. frequently turning the crystals so that they rest on the same side for only a short time. is which are often distinguished by re-entrant angles Another method of obtaining completely developed by floating the solution on a liquid of greater density. Crystals may grow whilst suspended in a fluid mass which is more or less mobile. is another. Another way of getting almost perfect crystals is by attaching a small crystal of the substance to a fine thread and suspending it in a solution which is third depositing similar crystals. Such a method. which are When a substance is only found in In the laboratory attached crystals are those most commonly obtained.). are possibly instances of the same kind. or they may be deposited on.4 for instance. and those of pyrites in slate. subjects of our consideration. for the growth is impeded by the sides or bottom of the In many cases the incompleteness can be prevented by dish. are generally completely developed on all sides. 6. casionally hailstones are instances of the former mode of formation. when they can only grow on the side their Snow and ocdirected towards the freely open space. dilute solutions of Epsom salts (MgSO 4 7H O) and . attached growth. crystals xvii. attached crystals. because gypsum is less soluble than either of the two salts. which is imbedded crystals of leucite so often found in Vesuvian lava. Imbedded crystals. which owe their origin to the first mentioned conditions. we determine their complete form by induction from examination of a large number of differently attached crystals. sometimes introduces restraints in the correct orientation of the particles which are passing into the solid state. crystallizing rapidly from a mass of syrup. In this way very perfect octahedra of alum can be made by the evaporation of a concentrated solution.

it may FIG. the faces present being the same. and very little is known of the conditions under which the latter have been. or very nearly Or.HABIT OF CRYSTALS. place. as is generally the case beginner has to encounter. the and therefore more perfect are the crystals formed. 3. in all \ the crystals. There seems in this case to be no essential difference in the growth of the crystal at different periods. barytes and calcite . In certain cases there is a tendency to grow more rapidly in particular directions or places. as is evidenced by the fact that some crystals are flat tablets. The crystals of some substances have : a fairly constant habit as. It has not been found possible to form in the laboratory crystals of all substances. 7. &c. as is often the case in calcite. of their Crystals have. for instance. produced. found that the more slowly the substance as a rule the is 6 deposited. This tendency affects the general aspect of the crystal and is described by the word habit. sulphur. the same form at every stage growth from the smallest to the largest. FIG. for the larger crystal has its faces and edges parallel to those of the nucleus. The growth here consists simply in the uniform deposition of the substance which This gives rise to a passes from the fluid to the solid state. on the exceptional development of particular faces at the expense of others so. in quartz. : and this variableness of habit is one of the greatest difficulties a It may depend. and those of the minerals more slowly evaporation takes common in Nature have in many cases not been obtained artificially. . and are being. The habit in other substances is often very variable as in quartz. in many cases. structure in which the layers parallel to a particular face are completely similar and similarly orientated to each other. others long and columnar. 4.

Other changes consist in the appearance of new faces. different faces present on the crystals . The relative position of the faces is the same as in the regular forms. These crystals are discussed and drawn habit is in Chap. The faces in these unequably developed crystals may be the same in number as in the equably developed crystals. Fig. the is and the specimen be then immersed in a crystallizing deficiency caused by the fracture made up and a complete and perfect crystal re-formed. Fig. itself. but connected with the conditions under which the crystals have been formed. thus the crystals occur as stout six-faced prisms ending in two faces. 13. the crystals become shown in Fig. 8. section it is (iii). i.6 TRANSFORMATIONS DURING GROWTH. xv. 6. The habit is not subject to crystallographic law. octahedra of alum (Fig. 5. 6. 4. The cause of the diversity of unknown. the angles between the several the disappearance of old ones. more exposed to irregular in appearance. Another repairing crystal. 5) be allowed to grow with certain faces sometimes take FIG. Occasionally some of the faces may be completely obliterated. During the growth of a crystal considerable transformations place. Fig.e. FIG. or again in crystals bounded by depend on the twelve equal scalene triangles. 3. or in very flat rhombohedra. and a full appreciation of it is only to be acquired by considerable familiarity with crystals. as the solution than others.' The first kind of change consists in the more Thus. or in In this way transformations occur . if regular rapid deposition on one part than on another. if a portion be irregularly broken from a solution of the substance. remarkable property of a crystal is its power of Thus. faces remain constant.

retain the parallelism of the earlier and later planes . therefore. in such a way that the symmetry is retained. 5) faces. under certain circumstances develop new Crystals of alum (Fig. and partly in the development of new faces. which result in a completely new form.TRANSFORMATIONS DURING GROWTH. however. completely obliterate certain faces. 7. . new faces appear during the growth of a crystal. or in the obliteration of old ones. corners may be cut off and replaced by squares as shown in Fig. partly in the together. In some exceptional cases the change may be so extensive as to When. they always come (allowance being made for accidental irregularities) in such a modify all similar corners and edges in the same Further. deposition of layers of uniform thickness on each face so as to way as to manner. in the disappearance of faces. The six replacing the edges and corners. like ones disappear The growth of crystals consists.

Thus Figs. are supplementary. as can be seen from and all lie in a plane Z BC perpendicular to the edge. ON. The (i. angles NflN^ and the fact that the lines ABC ONU ON AB .CHAPTER II. but that positions remain the Hence. also meet. The only difference between the two figures arises from the fact that in the latter the vertical planes meet in edges whilst in the former they meet in points where two other faces inclined to the vertical another. 1.e. are found on close inspection and measurement of the angles to be bounded by similar faces similarly orientated with respect to one same. may however take the angle to We the angle between the two perpendiculars OJ\\. . THE LAW OF CONSTANCY OF ANGLE. many crystals. FIG. For the be NiON z . 2. determined by the between two faces) angle which they make with This angle is that between the two lines in which a faces is two plane perpendicular to the edge of intersection meets the faces the angle ABC in Fig. which is supposed to be perpendicular to .2 drawn from a point within the crystal to meet the faces. 9. 10. relative position of dihedral one another. faces OBSERVATIONS made on the growth of crystals show that the when once formed can undergo considerable modifications in their relative their development. which seem strikingly dissimilar. 8 and 9 represent two crystals of garnet. FIG.

11. are not taken from Steno's work.ABC=\W. the paper. N. the phrase normal-angle will be used in contradistinction to that of face-angle used to denote the Euclidean angle such as ABC. through an arbitrary point within the crystal Simiare called the normals to the faces. N N NiONs+. m this was also the angle between similarly placed faces on other crystals. and those at and Hence 1 z are each 90. French mineralogists still employ the face-angle. The figure N^ON^B can be divided into two triangles NflB. 10. and normal-angles N N 0^ is . In the second series of sections and that mm i FIG. He cut a series of crystals of quartz of is (i) different habits one of which given in Fig. It in . 11. By lines carefully parallel to the edges placing the sections on paper and drawing he was able to measure the Euclidean angle. in two directions at right angles to each other. and (ii) perpendicular to one or other of the edges [mr]. larly the inclination of BC to .2 + 2 The angles given in most modern works on Mineralogy and Crystallography are those between the normals. When precision of statement is needed to avoid ambiguity. But the interior angles of a triangle make up two The angles of the figure NflN^B are therefore right angles.NICOLAUS STENO. [w*X]> [*W] ^ the figure. is hardly necessary to state that the figures and the values of /3 and 7. duced to E. he got figures which were not equiangular and of 1 An English translation of his work was published in London in 1671. and also Levy's modification of Haiiy's notation to represent the faces. a third plane CD in the zone is given The normal-angle between the faces AB by BCD or by 2 ON3 and CD is then clearly N^ON^ = N^ON. of crystals The first investigation into the values of the dihedral angles was made by Nicolaus Steno. The normal-angle is therefore 60. AC + EC=180. together equal to four right angles. perpendicular to the edge [mmj. given the text. whose work was published 1 in Florence in 1669. N^N^EBC. 3. The lines lt And AB being proTherefore 2. In the first set of sections he found that all the angles between the faces on the same crystal were equal to 120.2 OB. ON ON drawn FIG. will be given in this book when the contrary not stated.

the fundamental law of crystalloIGviz. the four fore. symmetry characteristic of the primitive form It was seen. to be a type. or the simplicity of character of the form. or magnitude of development. indicate the nature of the primitive form. When an edge or coign of the primitive form is modified by the introduction of one or more faces it is as fluor He necessary to repeat the same process on each like edge or coign . structure des crystaux' of the Abbe Haiiy fully established the correctness of Rome* de In the year 1784 the celebrated 'Essai d'une theorie sur la was published. may be taken. is due the credit of establishing. He. substance are always equal. and in the latter a rhombohedron one of whose face-angles is 105 5'. Thus. although his mode of interpreting the facts has long since been abandoned. 4. in fact to retain the be derived from different primitive forms. that cleavage-rhombohedra could be obtained which had identically . 1 ROM 2 DE L'ISLE. which he assumed in the former case to be a cube. however. Two of the angles at the vertices had the same value /3=7626' in all cases. This experimental law we shall denote as that of the constancy of angles between corresponding pairs of showed that the numerous suites of forms on such minerals (CaF2 ) and calcite may be developed by the modification of edges and corners of a primitive form. that the angles between corresponding of faces of similarly orientated crystals of one and the same pairs graphy. the cube or the regular octahedron. which 1'Isle's law and placed the science on a firm basis. that the same suites of forms could adopted. by an extensive series of measurements. 5. which led him to try a series of experiments on the He found cleavage of crystals of calcite of totally different shapes. whose Essai de ' Cristallo- graphie' was published in Paris in 1772.10 which Fig. thereinferred that in all crystals of quartz corre- sponding pairs of faces are inclined to one another at constant angles. Haiiy's attention was attracted to the cleavage of calcite by an accident which happened to one of his specimens. To Rom6 de 1'Isle. for instance. except frequency of occurrence. those of fluor may be derived with equal ease from either of the common There is nothing to forms. others had the same value y = 141 47'.

11 the same angles. and Fig. whose middle scale) edges are the same as those of Fig. for they have one face of the original prism as part of their A boundary. 14. whilst the fragments at the edges are not rhombohedra. is built up of layers of . or 'constituent molecules.HAUY S THEORY. 14 represents a model (drawn on a larger FIG. however different might be the shapes of the This suggested to him the idea that the crystals original crystals. cleavage-slice from a hexagonal prism of calcite. so that the fragments from the middle of the slice are rhombohedra. to assume either that the nuclei are very small and that the secondary face is of the nature of a slope produced by a series of extremely small uniform steps. FIG. It is necessary. 14 a large rhombohedron. Thus Fig. 3. therefore. Haiiy saw that the former assumption gave a simple solution of the derivation of secondary faces. 13. 13. by which such a crystal is by Haiiy derived from the cleavagerhombohedron. 13 shows a crystal of calcite of a shape frequent in Derbyshire.' which had the form of regular rhombohedra having the same angles as the cleavage-rhombohedron. or else that the secondary planes on crystals are due to a difference in their nuclei. were built up of small nuclei. Fig. In Fig. can be again cleaved in directions transverse to the original cleavage.

If now a series of exactly similar caps is placed in succession on the lower faces of the large rhombohedron. but it has one nucleus less in the edge than the face. Suppose now the nuclei to be very small. the lines joining the projecting corners would not have converged. then the discontinuity in the lines joining the corners of the caps. as The plates in shown in Fig. The same process is continued until the apex consist of is reached. successive caps. 13. and consequently two rows of nuclei in the face are left uncovered. the secondary faces from a square plate formed in one of two ways. Such a cap can easily be imitated by three equal rhombuses of thick card-board cut with angles of 101 55' and 78 5'. The sides of the cubic nuclei may be parallel to the edges of the (i) We plate in chessboard fashion. one nucleus thick. becomes imperceptible and we have the crystal shown in Fig.12 HAUY'S THEORY. In this way a hexagonal prism {10T} terminated by the primitive rhomhave been bohedron can be easily obtained. Each of the plates in this cap is one nucleus thick and has one nucleus less in the edge than the first cap. and placed on the upper faces of the A Each plate is a rhombus similar to the face of the rhombohedron on which it rests. 6. obtuse angles are at the apex. the last cap must clearly four nuclei. known as a scalenohedron of the rhombohedral system. Had the number of nuclei in the edges of the first cap placed on the large rhombohedron been the same as in its edges. 14. Crystals of galena (PbS) and rock-salt (NaCl) cleave along can in these cases derive planes parallel to the faces of a cube. regularly disposed nuclei. the model would present a similar aspect at the two ends. 14. or (ii) the sides of the nuclei may be In the latter the edges diagonally placed to the edges of the plate. but would The same will clearly be true of any number of parallel. as the ultimate molecules of bodies must be. cap is then formed of three plates. of the plate will resemble a staircase in which the height of the step . On this cap a similar cap of three plates is superposed in like manner so as to leave two rows of nuclei of the first uncovered. which is so conspicuous in the dotted lines of Fig. each nucleus being similar and similarly placed to the large rhombohedron. for in this case they have the same dimensions. and attached to one another along the edges so that the rhombohedron.

and not with a plate of single nuclei. Now the height of each layer is the edge of the and the breadth of the decrement is cube. which the secondary faces make with those of the primitive . is equal to the tread. we obtain a solid like that in Fig. and form a Had we. is equal Hence. gave an explanation of the constancy of the angles between corresponding pairs of faces.HAUY S THEORY. each face would be inclined at 26 34' to the cubic face. 16. and established the further fact that the angles. for tan 26 34' = 1 -r. when the nuclei are very small.2. 15. however. on each edge clearly one-half the diagonal of the cubic face =a -r- J2. The Euclidean angle between of the octahedron meeting in an edge 2x54 in 44' =109 The result of a decrement of one nucleus on each edge of a plate the arrangement (i) is shown in the rhombic-dodecahedron. the /. FIG. = 54 44'. In this the plates are shown unFig. whose breadth was double the height of the layer. The angle each face of the secondary form makes with that of the cube on which it is raised is 45. FIG. 0.^2. the faces 28'. given by is tan = height -j. and the figure is supposed to start with a large cube. xiv. the faces meeting at an edge of the large cube coalesce in one plane. which. for the height to the breadth of of each layer the decrement. and then to the outer surfaces of these plates similar plates with a like decrement of one nucleus are attached. 15. We then get a tetragonal pyramid on each face of the cube. Both these secondary forms are found on crystals of rock-salt. If now to a plate of this kind similar plates are attached on both sides with a decrement of one nucleus on each side of the plate. and the process repeated to the limit. 16. and the form is that fully described in Chap. divided into their constituent cubes. Hence. taken a decrement on each rhombus. In the manner illustrated by the preceding examples Haiiy 7.breadth . is in- clination of the face to the plane of the original plate. a. is the regular octahedron common on crystals of galena.

or two. if depend on whole numbers.14 HAUY'S THEORY. it It has not been polyhedra. 9). This relation of whole numbers is now expressed by the phrase 'the law of rational indices' (see Chap. but depend on the ratio of whole numbers involved in the decrements. Some all. bodies can be built up when the cleavage polyhedra are cubes as in galena. because a into definite polyhedra. and (2) that the secondary faces be explained as primitive. (1) that connected together. (2) accepting Haiiy's theory are serious. form are not accidental and arbitrary. or are four-sided prisms terminated by a pair of For in all these cases the constituent parallel faces as in barytes. Art. 8. of space. when arranged in like orientation. of we have a series different forms all Furthermore. the facts. and therefore stable. and the stable and be easily deformed. polyhedra can be arranged so as completely to fill a definite portion But in fluor the cleavage form is the regular octahedron. would still any other simple form of the suite were taken . It suffices to suppose that his nuclei are cells each of which contains a similarly placed molecule. or rhombohedra as in calcite. and some not at that fairly compact. iv. It is not essential to Hatty's theory that the nuclei should be solid polyhedra exactly filling the space. all crystals. nuclei. body breaks up by cleavage has been built up by layers of these possible to obtain cleavage crystals cleave only in one. (1) The difficulties in It does not follow that. (3) It seems reasonable to expect polyhedra of directions. will only touch one another at their edges and will leave a considerable portion of Such a structure would probably be very unspace unoccupied.

Thus. such as Fig. so that we may get different non-central figures. however. like the tetrahedron. Up to very has been usual to regard the parallel-faced crystal as the normal one and the non-central figure as caused by some recent times it deficiency in the symmetry. is that every face-normal through the centre terminates on opposite sides in a pair of faces perpendicular to it. 17. which is called the centre of symmetry. from the parallel-faced figure. by the omission of FIG. such that the form . 1 and 2 are diagrams of centro-symrnetrical crystals. 18.e. In more complex crystals there may be more than one way of selecting the faces to be omitted. Fig. in There are crystals. by drawing planes as indicated by the small triangles. 1. it is easy to derive a noncentral figure like Fig. the crystal said to be centro-symmetrical. or to be symmetrical with respect to a point within it. is Maskelyne expresses the relation by saying that the crystal diplohedral. striation or other marks. the same lustre. 17. 2. 5. When the two faces of each pair are coexistent and have the same physical i. 18.CHAPTER III. ATTENTION has been already called to the fact that the faces on crystals usually occur as pairs of parallel planes. Figs. can be obtained. From such figures it is easy to derive figures having parallel faces. 17. Professor character. Fig. which the faces do not occur as pairs of ^___ ___^ parallel planes. SYMMETRY.e. one of each pair of parallel planes. Conversely. a geometrical connection between different forms are also common. Other cases of PIG. the octahedron. i.

Again the geometric law connecting crystal faces. . of crystals From what we see has been said in Chapter I. as to the growth that. there be a lack of symmetry. called it contains half the number of faces in the holohehral form. the number of faces in the lower form only one-fourth of that in the holohedral form. 1 properties. and HSpa. a crystal growing freely in a liquid will grow equally well in opposite directions. In non-central crystals parallel faces. if the particles be themselves centro- symmetrical. like conditions take place with equal facility. lustre. the number observed on the most symmetrical cognate form the faces present . striations and other physical and boracite give good instances like that given in Fig. &c. and often differ in 8). Furthermore. iv. shows that parallel faces are always possible. or one-quarter. known as that of rational indices (Chap. as holohedral 1 . and likewise the forces which cause them to cohere. may be on one side may modify It has been already pointed out that accidents of various kinds the regularity of growth of a crystal. base. and HSpa base. or six-fold symmetry (Arts. All that is needed is that the physical characters. and also the resistance to corrosion. ptpos part. but does not require coexistence or identity of character. base. 17. and are only retained for the sake of convenience. Art. having fewest faces manifests one-half. and ZSpa. and ?5/>a base. the facility of growth very different from that on the other side. as indicated by the lustre. Hence the opposite and parallel faces of centro-symmetrical crystals need not be of the same dimensions. If. and still is. however. should be of an exactly like kind. which are not parallel to an axis of two-. T^ropros one-fourth. hemihedral* when whilst the partial form was. either in the particles or in the forces. From ^/xt- half. the partial form is said to be merohedral* These words do not accord with modern views on the symmetry of crystals. 9). it is clear that the deposition of matter on the opposite faces must under 4. exact numerical relation..16 CENTRO-SYMMETRY. stria tion. The minerals fahlerz of non-central crystals of shape Crystals of quartz often appear to be 2 3 4 From From From SXos whole. 3. four-. is When . the partial form is 3 said to be tetartohedral When it is not desired to express the . being arranged according to definite rules and not being due to The most highly developed form was denoted accident in growth. 7 and have to be regarded as quite distinct faces.

or two lines. and it frequently happens that the physical faces characters are not sufficiently marked to enable us to discriminate The symmetry those which belong to the same set of planes. 2. 7 and 8 the similar faces have the same shape and manifest this similarity magnitude. m in directions perpendicular to their mutual intersections. when the crystals are very regularly developed as 1. C. Such like faces are found to be symmetrically arranged with respect to certain planes. express the relation of two planes. 2 . The nature of the Fig. diagrams. 17 centro-symmetrical. such as the faces sively proved them s and x. In complicated and irregularly or edges of the crystal. 5. Fig. coign is meant the solid angle or corner at which three or more faces meet. and can only be established by measurement of the angles and careful criticism of the development of several of garnet are frequent in which the concealed by the unequal development of the faces. 8. or axes. By symmetry with respect to a plane is meant the similarity of position of like coigns'. A which are to one another as an object is mirror occupying the position of the plane. 6. in Fig. and is at once established by measurement of the angles between adjacent faces which are either 60 or 90. 1 1. but the physical characters of all untwinned crystals of the substance and also the development of certain subordinate faces on some crystals. developed crystals. 6 and 9. such as are represented in the preceding 5. or possible. 9 shows one type of such irregular growth. the faces in a most striking manner. such as Figs. however. plane of symmetry divides a crystal into two like halves. m. certain faces are observed to have the same physical characters. which are parallel to actual. for they are bounded by pairs of parallel faces. to its image seen in a It thus bisects the shall often angle between corresponding faces and edges.PLANES OF SYMMETRY. or both. to have no centre of symmetry. r and z. Dodecahedra symmetry is careful inspection of the physical characters of the faces and by comparison with a regularly grown dodecahedron like Fig. and. the similarity of shape of the faces is often lost. edges and faces on opposite sides of the plane. have conclu- In simple crystals. to a plane of 1 We By L. be generally perceived in such crystals by crystals. for they are almost invariably all striated in Figs. On quartz. becomes obscured. 11. figure can.

d. dicular to the paper: the one bisecting the faces o. to change. when held out palm to palm. that of a crystal of barytes given in Fig. An axis of symmetry is a straight line about which the edges and coigns are regularly disposed. . to turn round. c etc. that is.18 PLANES OF SYMMETRY. Thus the right and left hands are. two planes of symmetry are perpenFIG. indicated by the same letters. any particular face or edge in the new position occupies exactly the shall place of a similar face or edge in the original position. they are equally inclined to a plane of symmetry on opposite sides In a regular figure. symmetry bisecting the angle between them by the statement that shall also use the they are reciprocal reflexions in the plane. such as of it. the two halves of which are reciprocal reflexions. 2. I. and also the fact that when the face is perpendicular to the plane of symmetry there is but one face. o' . the other at right angles to the former and bisecting the faces u. of faces inclined to the planes of symmetry. will (if produced) meet in straight lines lying in the In the figure planes of symmetry. The figure illustrates the repetition.e. 19. i. faces. c. corresponding faces. phrase to express that two crystals are related to one another as an is to its image in a mirror in those classes of crystals in which such a relation exists. but to the relative angular position of corresponding faces and edges We object . and lying on opposite sides 7. so regularly developed as a plane of symmetry. edges We and coigns disposed about an axis of symmetry are interchangeable or metastrophic 1 . edges and coigns are interchanged . 19. reciprocal reflexions of one another. and the presence of proved by the equality of angles between faces having similar physical characters of 2. Symmetry does not refer in crystals to the actual position. in pairs. is is It is extremely rare to find crystals indicated in diagrams. generally express the relation by saying that the like faces. so that if the crystal be turned about it through a definite aliquot part of a complete revolution similar faces.

When the least angle which gives interchangeability is 90.e. edges and coigns. often associated with a set of n dyad 1 The degree of an axis of symmetry indicates the number of like things disposed around it. Such an axis of symmetry will be called a dyad axis. axis. 19 faces. 8. The line axis through the centre perpendicular to the paper in Fig. If the least angle of rotation giving interchangeability of like faces etc. the rotation can be effected four times before the crystal returns to its The axis is in this case a tetrad axis. 20. in triplets or triads. the edges and coigns are associated in pairs. Thus a triad axis is of degree 3. and The faces r. that is. and 9 are tetrad axes. occur at each end in sets of three which are interchangeable on The rotation about the vertical axis through 120. and a crystal face or edge can occupy in succession six different positions. s and x. 8 observed in well developed crystals of apatite and is shown in is Fig. 11. is symnot possible in crystals . [ma] and perpendicular to the face An metry. is such an axis. The original position. The only remaining axis of symmetry occurring in crystals is one of six-fold symmetry the hexad axis. be 120. or of different. and. vertical line The axis will be called a triad through the two apices of Fig. degrees' may occur together in one and the same crystal. an axis all axes of degree n perpendicular to is it. axis of so pentad in (five-fold) common flowers. 17. and it is clear that a second rotation brings the crystal back into its original position. Fig. Several of these axes of symmetry of the same. where the hexad axis parallel to the lines c. The least angle of rotation is 60. occur in sets of three. in fact. z. then the faces. or the number of times rotation giving interchangeability can be effected before the original position is regained. it would give a set of associated crystal-faces in- consistent with the laws which have been found to regulate the positions of faces. 22 . If the least angle of rotation about an axis be 180. i. parallel to the faces m. 19 is a dyad also the lines joining the middle points of the opposite edges . of the regular tetrahedron. Such an axis is vertical lines through the apices in Figs.AXES OF SYMMETRY.

the angles useful at a later stage. we shall find \m mk kb bk' 28 34 22 15 22 15 28 34 17 1 k'm' m'\' . 19. EXAMPLE OF SYMMETRY.20 9. Fig. raX 22 10 17 1 given. For the purpose of illustration the is following table of angles on the crystal of barytes.

of a crystal have been called the crystallometric angles. edges and coigns. on them from the centre are axes of dyad symmetry. in The student should bear which a crystal is mind that the two halves into divided by a plane of symmetry cannot. or 6. which are connected together by the symmetry of the crystal and which have like physical characters. or 30. are several planes of pair of symmetry in a crystal the angles between any them must be one of the four 90. 2. be brought into the same position. 4. 2. 60. These angles owing to their importance in determining the system. axes and centre of symmetry subject of Chapter ix. edges and coigns. The simple set of figure. whilst homologous faces 1 avTiffrptyfiv to turn to the other side. . As the crystal has parallel faces the plane of the paper occupies the position of a plane of symmetry. plane of symmetry must (2) A be perpendicular to a possible zone-axis and an axis of symmetry perpendicular to a possible face of the crystal. 10. 11. of the crystal. which consists of one will be called a form. 45. 120. (3) When there . and is confirmed by the equality of angles on opposite sides of it in zones (ii) and (iii). They are related to one another in a manner similar to that of the right and left hands. or type of symmetry. and may be said to be antistrophic Similarly the corresponding faces and edges may be said to be antistrophic. or zone-axes. will be called homologous faces. This may be stated otherwise that axes of symmetry can only have the degrees. line 21 That the through the centre perpendicular to the paper is an axis of dyad symmetry is clear from the figure. The angles of rotation possible about an axis of symmetry are 180. 3. Planes and axes of symmetry have been found to satisfy the following conditions: (1) They must be parallel to possible faces. represent single forms. or 60. such as Figs. as a rule. The set of like faces. The above and (4) : other relations between the elements of symmetry using this phrase form the to denote generally planes. 90. 8. 17. 1 .FORM. Many of the figures so far given. all the crystals which have been observed but in the case of a triad axis it is not capable of deduction from the purely geometric relations resulting from the rationality of indices. whether closed or not. The first relation has been found to be true in .

22 FOKM. given in books. for the most part. are. r. The dashes of parallel faces will be the same but placed at the top and the bottom respectively. and this is more especially the case where very faces . outwards or inwards. of one or more of the faces will clearly disturb this regularity of development. Fig. and. 5 and 6 is said to be and Figs. whose faces are denoted by the letters m. 11. represents five separate forms. Occasionally some of the faces are left unlabelled (as has been done in Fig. The new positions of these displaced faces are respectively parallel to those they would occupy in equably developed crystals. The same letter will be numerals used to denote the several faces of a form. Figs. dashes or will be used to distinguish the one from the other. If the faces of forms on a crystal are approximately equidistant from a point within it. such ideal representations of natural crystals. z. In the pairs of figures. In theoretic discussions we The crystal-figures consider the forms to be equably developed. as also crystal-models. 8 and 9. as a rule. 13) when no confusion is likely to arise from doing so. s and x. the belonging to the same form are similar in size and shape and each form equably developed. we see that the irregular figures are deduced from the regular ones by the displacement of some of the faces whilst they retain the constancy of their inclinations to the adjacent planes and therefore the parallelism of the edges. many like faces occur together. that of quartz. . Any displacement.

OA. which do not lie in one From what and the same plane. The projection on the plane of the paper. But the ratios of these lengths for all planes parallel to the face are constant. 2.CHAPTER IV. zone at a point within the crystal. shortly. and depend only on the angular relations of the fourth and the axial planes to one another. and It this point is called the oi-igin. the axes. or zone-axes. THE relative positions of faces on a crystal can be given by For this purpose three planes the axial method of geometry. AXIAL REPRESENTATION. is generally denoted by the letter 0. but are not in one and the same The lines in which they intersect are taken as axial planes. fourth face of the crystal. When they are shown in diagrams they will usually be given by interrupted lines consisting of strokes and dots. OB and OC. Art. : : . and are sometimes called the crystalloThe axes are supposed to meet yraphic axes or. faces Furthermore the angles between the similarly placed on crystals of the same substance are constant (Chap. Hence the angles between the axes and the ratios OA OB OC are constant for all crystals of the same substance. are the axes of reference. which depend A on the actual position of the face. the axes are necessarily parallel to three edges. parallel to three faces of the crystal which are inclined to one another at any finite angles. taken at any arbitrary distance from the origin and meeting all three axes at finite distances. or perspective view. II. cuts off from them respectively lengths. of such a set of axes is shown in Fig. 21. 4). and the axes by the letters OX. 1. OY and OZ. precedes.

OB and pounds. In theoretical and general discussions the three OC on the axes are denoted by a. 5. that on OY / negative. planes parallel to any three faces of the crystal. and which enables us to represent the set of faces constituting a form in the simplest manner. say) lengths OA. If. which Such crystals are not in a zone. is given as unity. provided the faces selected for this purpose be similarly placed on the several crystals. 21 have the intercepts on and OZ both OX positive. that lengths measured along are negative. from the angular relations between the fourth (parametral) plane and the three axial planes The angles between these several planes are in to one another. In crystals which manifest no symmetry. or be (as we shall. however. In sides of the crystal. systematic descriptive treatises on minerals and chemical comthe same faces. system. front would in Fig. whilst those along in the opposite and t t by the OX OX OY OZ Y OZ directions are negative. we must adopt the further convention of are positive. and those along t Similarly lengths along and are positive. In other are said to belong to the anorthic. several planes be so situated that they meet the axes on the same side of the origin. The combinations of these various signs of the intercepts enable us to represent a plane lying in any one of the Thus a plane in the upper left-hand octant to the eight octants. b and c In respectively. one of . and are called the parameters of the crystal. for the sake of brevity. symmetry. cases determined by direct measurement.24- PARAMETERS. It is. to axial planes. or only centro3. classes of crystals the faces of the crystals are arranged in sets of homologous faces (forms) in a manner dependent on the elements symmetry present. which will be given under the different systems. convenient to select the axial planes in a manner which accords with the symmetry. usually b. serve equally well as axial planes. one parameter. or are calculated from angles measured between other faces by methods depending on many the laws of crystallography. of 4. segments be able to represent planes on all and lying therefore in any one of the eight commonly called octants into which space is divided order. analytical geometry. and the other two are then the numbers which give the fixed ratios a b and c b. : : These ratios are determined by trigonometrical formulae. or triclinic. therefore. as is frequently the case.

two lines of the other. 23. Z The numbers h. OK' is : Similarly. by a simple change of indices. position of the new face HKL ABC. or the 1. are all known. + we are not concerned Hence are. are increased or diminished in any common ratio. parallel faces therefore. c 6. b -=- or by ran. such as in the same figure. on the axes . the two planes H'K'L' and . l. Prop. represent a face making intercepts. face. b -4- k. 24. the line K'L' and KL. The face can be equally well represented c by a -4- A.INDICES. to the axes and the parametral plane called the indices of They are and the FIG. Let HKL. OK = OL' OL parallel to HKL to have two lines of the one parallel thereFIG. on the crystal. : and by parallel Prop. -H k. Hence. i. c + on the multiplied by any common factor r. origin.e. depend -=. 22. And any other. as ABC in Fig. If and the ratios b b. the plane is simply displaced parallel to itself. Fig. and the positions be indicated by lines of Berlin wool. 23. on the axes OX.k. since with its actual distance from the origin. 22 can be selected to give the three parameters a. a -=. axes are the intercepts (a^-h.e. 25 them. be is This model of the axes. which on opposite sides of the can be deduced the one from the other by multiplying the intercepts.h. relative OH= a h. 15). by signs of all the intercepts or indices.b + k (97 and 0^ 1.A. made in cane or of the wire. rb -=. c + l. OK. can be represented HKL as intercepting lengths. : OH = OK' OK. and OL = c -e- on the respectively. rc + l. b and c. and let Then OH' Euclid vi. directly obvious if a similar to Fig. i. 4 the line H'K' : is to the line UK. two planes For . clearly fix its position when the a : positions of the axes 6. They are fore parallel planes (Euclid xi.

-=: : by the ratios 3a 4 b -f. c^-l.b -H k. Care must be taken in writing these latter that they are given in the positive or negative. b and intercepts. in a position to enunciate this law. the signs of the intercepts must correspond with the directions of the axes forming the edges of the octant.h. Amongst these commensurable numbers zero has to be included. in the case of planes first. 8. is and Miller brought into a.b k. where h. and that parameters the ratios giving the intercepts should be so arranged that they consist of these parameters divided by integers which may be two of them but not all three may The notation can then be simplified by omitting the parameters and writing only the integers which serve as divisors. a h. then the position of all other faces possible on the by -f- k. oo c. The symbol oo represents an infinitely large number. If a crystal be referred to three axes parallel to three edges of the crystal.26 7. a^-h. b k. 24 makes on the axes the intercepts. respectively. + 1. A HKL a h. ing octants and HKL I given by we can have planes HKL given by .c HI. nb. l. The three numbers are 10. The face through HKL the intercepts -a + h.a + h. plane can be represented as meeting the axes at ma. can equally well be given bya-f-4:6-^6:c-=-l. We have already pointed out that. a face passing through has the intercepts i -f- h. . Suppose a face to be parallel to one of the axes. given A representation proposed. . which do not all lie in one plane. . -f- -4- -H i I. according as we take multiples. RATIONAL INDICES. or at a -=. -c-~l.c + Q. . or submultiples. The latter plane's position. and if a face be We are now taken which meets crystal can be given all the axes at finite distances a. of the parameters to give the intercepts. - b H. called the indices of the face. the convention that the should always occupy the same order. indices. H- c H- -=- k. or one or be zero. Such a and therefore to meet axis at an infinite distance. this OZ (say). which is the same as that of decrements discovered by Haiiy. Whewell use. b + c + and the face HKL the intercepts. The law of rational 9. the latter being obtained by dividing each term of the first set by 3. which can also be expressed as 1 -H 0.a -r h.k. positive or negative. k and are commensurable (rational) numbers. -b + k. b + k. I. In the two remainc of Fig.2 3c. b. b c c. c convenient for the following reason. . Thus a face passing through meeting the axes in octants other than the HKL I.

single triad or Except in the case of certain classes of crystals having a hexad axis. all risk of ambiguity. b + 0. Haiiy's law excludes from crystal faces such planes as For the intercept on the axis of X has the a-^^/2. the face can be represented by the has the advantage of condensation and avoids When symbol (hkl). the sign must. b.c (201) (100) 11. The parameters themselves may have to one another any ratios commensurable or incommensurable . 3 <fcc. The sign must also be placed over the number when the intercept is This position of the minus sign is not essential.c a. if A simple curved bracket is is used to inclose the numbers there any likelihood of their being confused with other sets of integers.-6-2. by a judicious selection of the axial system and parametral plane. 27 order in which they refer to the axes of X. k and I are integers. 12.1. Thus on a crystal referred to definite axes plane. 6 -r k. respectively. essentially negative although this is not If. c -r- 0. the indices of all the faces of a form are easily determined when those of one of its faces are We known. or both . b : and c. negative. incommensurable surd ^/2 for the divisor of the parameter. all the remaining faces have the same indices as the given one.3. c a + 2. but it negative. a +2. shall see later on that. however. therefore known. Thus (hkl) is the symbol of the face parallel to (hkl). 6 -=- 0. c -f. 2. and a being definite parametral the parameters a. as is done in (121). b. c -4. they When letters are used to indicate numbers shown./i. c+ 2 a. the same letters apply to planes meeting the may be axes on opposite sides of the origin then the sign must be expressed. When particular if numbers such as 1. be always indicated. in general. or the order. the numbers h. No : surd can be the index (representing the submultiple of the parameter) of a crystal-face. 6^-3.FACE-SYMBOL. the intercepts have been arranged in the manner required by the convention. and it is lines easy to show that the lengths cut off by definite crystal faces on having different directions are in some systems to one another as the surds ^/2 and ^3. so that for the intercepts a -f. Y and Z. are involved. the following are possible faces (112) with intercepts (121) (231) a. but either the signs.

Thus the symbol use complex brackets. is known clearly sufficient to give the clear all symbol of one In order to make the connected faces are included we shall form. So far no limitation has been placed on the possible values of the parametral ratios. c are lengths. to denote the {kid} denotes the whole set of faces con- In the exceptional stituting the form of which (hkl) is one face. This is often easily done by inspection. it is it When that the rule governing this change face. when these are not already given by the symmetry. FORM-SYMBOL. however. the nature of the symmetry. b. and finally the first parametral plane must be selected and the angles it makes with the axial planes determined. by the 14. provided they are deduced from the same axial planes combined with a definite face of the crystal as parametral plane. or. HI. For this purpose. inches or millimetres. cases above mentioned some of the faces have the same indices in which sign and order may both be changed. Five constants are thus involved in the . angles between the chosen axial planes. but the The inference needs confirmation by goniometric measurement. but any other face of the crystal meeting It follows. {}. 11. The parameters a. what amounts to the same thing. Thus P (hkl} denotes the face labelled P whose symbol is (hkl). In most cases this latter face is selected arbitrarily with a view o assign the simplest letter serving as label or . 13. When we discuss these classes we shall use symbols such as pqr} to denote the form. whilst other faces have a second set of indices connected with the first by a simple rule. of the parameters given first plane. When by its symbol and we shall often join the two together. By the aid of the law of rational indices and the principle symmetry the faces of a crystal can be represented in a simple manner. must be changed. which can be expressed in terms of the units. indices all to three axes at the faces. must then be determined . the system and its subdivision must be of determined. Art. the faces are labelled in the manner described in Chap.28 signs and order. finite distances may be taken. from the law of rational indices that the parameters obtained by taking a new parametral plane are simple commensurable multiples. we shall often refer to a particular face or form by the {hkl. The parametral ratios are numbers which are constant for the same crystal. fractional or integral. which will be best discussed when we consider the several classes of crystals.

the determination of the symbols of the faces becomes easy without the knowledge of any angles. angular relations of another. They involve measurement of five of the angles between the four planes.b and c -=. When the five elements are known. or between the axes the latter being deducible from the former. OY and OZ be the three axes. Join HP. or and the two ratios a -=. be the face If. If. 29 complete determination of the character of a crystal as above indicated. These lines. Furthermore. solution of these problems involves some knowledge of geometry of plane and spherical trigonometry. The connection of the indices of faces with the angles between them will be the subject of much of our future discussion. 25. however. and it will be well to give at once the fundamental relations which 15. axial. (hkl) meeting the axes at the points and L respecand let OP be the normal on the tively and let P be the face from the origin point where the normal meets the face. and it often happens that even their determination illustrated involves only the measurement of two or three angles. the parameters on which are a. OX. Tlie equations of the normal. The converse problem is that of finding h. and the corresponding form by the symbol {hkl}. connect the normal on the face (hkl) with the axes. every face of the crystal can be represented by a symbol such as (hkl). KP and LP. the angles between the axes and the values of the parameters are supposed to be known . c respectively. viz. Let.CRYSTAL-ELEMENTS. the axial These five constants.b deduced from the vice versa and parametral planes to one or five angles from which they can be determined. the zones on the crystal be well marked and easily recognised. shown by interrupted strokes. . k and /. k and I from measurement The and of the angles between the faces actually present on the crystal. which will be by examples in the following chapters. planes of the crystal can be determined by comparatively simple formulae for all possible values of h. the angles which any face (hkl) makes with the or any other. in Fig. In such determinations. the three angles between the axial planes. Let HKL . 25. constitute the elements of the crystal. lie in the : K FIG. b.

plane at right angles to every line in for the perpendicular on a it. OL = c + a cos XOP 6 cos TOP c cos ZOP l. i. hence each of the terms But OP is otherwise quite an arbitrary length and depends on the accidents of the freedom of growth on particular portions of the crystal. or (b) the parameters.g. as the angle at the origin. or angles and parameters are given. Thus. XP may be taken to be the arc of a circle subtending When.. cos XOP. b. 31 are obtained by adding the squares of the numerators and denominators of the preceding terms after they have undergone a slight modification and then extracting the square root of the sums. In the systems in which rectangular axes are employed (viz. I are known. and are at right angles is to OP. when the parameters and indices are known. p.. the cubic...30 face EQUATIONS OF NORMAL.. and prismatic) the relation reduces to the very simple one indices. or its equivalent when the axes are not rectangular. Frost and Wolstenholme. OK=b^k. POK . when the The trigonometrical ratios. k. Hence in the right angled triangles POIf. are called the direction-cosines of the line OP. : when the angles and indices are known. a positive length. They are connected together by a constant relation. cos TOP.. The length OP is of equations (1) is also positive. and the two definite equations obtained from (1) enable us to completely determine the angles and therefore the direction of the normal when a.1.. Hence equations (1) give us only two definite equations which regulate (a) the angles. c and h. tetragonal. if P be the face (111) of cassiterite (Sn0 2 ) in which the axes are : rectangular and a = b a cos *XP = a cos FP = _ ' since cos 2 * XP + cos2 YP + cos 2 ZP . (2). cos ZOP 16. independent of the parameters and which is to be found in all treatises on Analytical Solid Geometry (e. Equation (2). and POL we have : But OH = a + h. : cos 2 XOP + cos TOP + cos ZOP = 2 2 1 . (c) the indices.. ... t This term and tbe similar one in p. Va' + # / 2" 1 is usually the case.. angles are measured at the origin we need not insert the letter 0. 19). Ed.

denominator of a fraction becomes zero. Then both the numerator and denominator of the term in (1) involving the axis of Y vanish together. k and L whatever 'be the values of the indices.(4). 29). true generally positive values of h. So far equations (1) have only been shown to hold for They are. as if in extracting the square root we might equally well take the negative sign. and the term has an indeterminate form. and I is zero. Suppose the face in Fig. and to pass through the same points OZ H on i Z \ L~ ] and K as before. and ZOP = 90. . OY (say). equations of the normal are given by a second axis. the to OP.. however. This is seen to be true from the fact that any number of lines can be drawn in the face parallel to OZ. But every line in the face is at right angles to the normal OP. OPL m is 90. But in the above instances OP and each term of equations (1) are positive and therefore the angles must be all less than 90 and their cosines positive. a finite FIG. then k is also and YOP = 90. 26 to be parallel to one of the axes. and cos ZOP = 0. cos ZOP = 0. 17. ZOP = 90. Whence cos 31 XP = cos YP = * i_ . finite when the numerator is also zero. Hence.EQUATIONS OF NORMAL. the axis of Z is Then the intercept c infinite. last -r- 1 j The equal ^ i denominator in the zero. at first sight. The normal is then given by If the face is parallel to zero . term of (1) becomes is Now each term of equations (1) But if the positive length. When therefore the face is (MO) the term can only remain Hence. and cos ZP = Similarly for z (321) of the same mineral 2 2 ^cos Xz + cos Yz + a cos Xz 8 _ a cos Yz _ c cos Zz _ 2 I cos 2 Zz l _ " 3c ' Z ~ 2c ' ~ It might seem. (say). But the interior angles ZOP + OPL^ Hence are together equal to two right angles (Euclid i. 26..

27. If the plane limit it 90 is become negative at the same time and the ratio remains positive. 16 when YOA and ZOA are made 90 and therefore cos AY = cos AZ = 0. Hence both numerator and denominator have be tilted beyond this must cut the axis on the negative side as in Fig. to the face (100). The proof can be easily given by the elementary geometry of For in the right-angled triangle LPO.OP + ZOP=l&0. The same holds for the other axes. ZOP > The index in the denominator must therefore be negative when 90. and therefore equations (1) 19. OB. in the to the of this of an angle greater than negative though equal in magnitude to the cosine of the supplementary angle. 27. But when the face was parallel to OZ the angle ZOP had exactly reached 90 and the additional tilt has made it exceed 90. which is all that is left of (1). Equation is (4). Here OL is a length c 1. normal The normal OA to (100) must make an angle greater than 90 with OX: for OA and OA t are in the same straight line. / -=- t Hence OP = . when the perpendicular to the axial plane YOZ. OP = OL cos LOP. and cos LOP = cos (180 .e. OC do not coincide with the axes OX. and LOP is less than 90. give the position of all possible normals. obtained from the general expression mentioned in Art.ZOP) = .32 18. without taking into consideration the But direction in which it is measured.OL t cos ZOP = C * P .cos ZOP. This normal we shall denote by OA. i. It is Z varies. The normals OA. The same reasoning applies to the normals OB (010) and t OC (001). and the student should therefore be careful to avoid confusing the two sets of lines. serves only to indicate that the normal to (100) makes an angle less than 90 with OX. L. OY and OZ. Fig. it clear that as the inclination of the plane to the axis the distance at which OZ and that case just discussed we have come limit possible on the positive side met by varies also. . of is EQUATIONS OF NORMAL. being both The exact value of XOA is perpendicular to the plane YOZ. But the cosine axis. except when the axes are at right angles to one another.

OB = b. we have remarked that crystalfaces are arranged in zones . as two gives. OZ XOZ. and the indices of a zone. where OT OA = a. 3 . it also meets the parallel to meets plane OY at B.CHAPTER ZONE-INDICES V. is known if the positions of the also clear that a limitation is placed faces meeting in the edge be given. It is on the position of a plane when it has to pass through a known line. The general method of finding the direction of a zone-axis. The two points B and M y common both faces. at L. a simple relation between the indices of a face 2. and therefore of the zone-axis. But the two easily line of intersection of faces cannot always be so found. is to construct is the with edges along the axes a parallelepiped of which OT This involves the determination of the lengths of the diagonal. Hence LUfsmd AC meet at M. are easily found. c. it is clear that the direction of an edge belonging to a zone. B and C. we shall see in Art. or. The edges of the parallelepiped OGMLB. has to lie in a known zone. and the line is then known. L. As a simple case of the intersection of two faces. OT. AND RELATIONS OF 1. or AOZ. 8. where in the line LM OA. Fig. in 28. IN the preceding Chapters. The second OL = c + 2. let. face meets the axes at A. shall illustrate the method by edges of the parallelepiped. ZONES. But the line AC is also in the plane XOZ. the face ABC (111) (012) to intersect the face ELM in the line EM. and OCANT. OC=c. as it may be expressed This limitation crystallographically. of finding the edges of the parallelepipeds We OGMLB which EM and the zone-axis The first are the diagonals.

AOC. .'.^ meet the axes at and 7/2 L 2 respectively. 29. in Fig. or shortly the zone-indices. FIG.OC = c. The required zone-axis OT. The edge OG = ML. The same are all given the edges of the parallelepiped doubled. . K . and 3. b. 1 : For ML AO = LC OC = direction is 2. The also given by any similar parallelepiped having its edges parallel to and in the same ratios as those of the original one. The line BM is then also doubled in length direction is but not altered in direction. Fia. Let. parallel to the edge edges a. position of the face. is the diagonal through OA = a. and OT is represented by the symbol [121]. remaining parallel to its original position.34 of is ZONE-INDICES. OG = ML=a + 2. . 6. c. provided the diagonal joins corresponding corners. It is required the points 7/j. the two faces (Aj&A). The numbers multiplying : t are called the indices of the zone-axis. of the parallelepiped having BM. the line of intersection The actual with an axial plane remains parallel to the original line in which the planes met. If then a face be shifted. to find the zone-axis through the origin parallel to the line of intersection PQR. 2. 30. c -=- The edges of the parallelepiped are therefore a ~ if 2. ly L z K l . (hjcj. on which its dimensions depend. is immaterial. which BM : is obtained by Euclid : the diagonal. 4 from the similar triangles MLC. 29. OB = -20B = -2b. vi. provided the angles it makes with the axial and other planes remain constant. can be now found.

*. The the parallelepiped. If we duction of the negative signs in equations (1) and (2). for.. as are also EK^ and OK^.. line KjXj lies in the plane intersection of this plane Kn A. 4. and OEKl to II^OK^. we can regard jEW. If then KjXj can be shown to pass through T.. attention lines are measured. direction. 30. In Fig. OG = cw = c (hjc^ .J 0^ meet the edges it EM and ED in K^. are introduced. the differences of the products of the indices given above are easily calculated.. the parallelepiped OEM FT. A. and let its position be then given of Fig.. 30 OE^ is similar to 0/7. 1 in a point Suppose the line K^. (2*). If the symbols of the two faces are known... as negative... vi.. by Euclid EX l 0Z. must be paid to the directions in it which the l the figures.. Let now the lines OK I} Join respectively. to meet the edge S of Fig.kjiy). Now the triangle in Fig. j^ in Fig. OK^ parallel to H^ and H^ and let of Fig. l . A.. The face in its new position may by the plane l>e denoted as an The lines 0/c n OXj are origin-plane of the crystal. is clear that EX and OL^ are measured in Hence the introopposite directions. and is the to parallel to and the origin-plane HK L 1 1 1 . and produce DEMT of meet MT. OF and OG are then known. and the lengths OE. We Hence Kl E = bu^ . the origin-plane OK^ passes through the diagonal OT. by Euclid XL 16. Then from the similar triangles ^EX^ x MT j.... Hence. OF... with lengths OE.... 5^ l ^ .. OE = au = a (k^ . c A! A! EK. l the point l MS we have 32 .Ifa). denote the directions of measurement by the order in which the letters are written. OF=bv=b (l^-h^.... E5=OH\' When From the values of .ZONE-INDICES. 30.. and ^E as the same length measured from KJ in the positive express this shortly by the equation K^E^E^. 06 on the axes as edges. Suppose the face (A^J.) to be shifted parallel to it 35 itself until passes through the origin. 30 construct. 29 ... = OH OK OL l . 29. OK... (2).... parallel planes intersect a third plane in parallel lines. . b A.

parallel to the face (h. at right angles to one another. needles into corks. (4). '*=w But -<> (6). . we proceed in exactly the same way.jtj^). and to fit tightly into these tubes sticks of bamboo. But .. is difficult to get the text are supposed to make any arbitrary angles with one another. and the plane OxjXj contains the diagonal OT\ MT Sj^ coincides To prove that the origin-plane 0*c 2\2. Hence For the edge with T.-^ = j-f. (7). g M=--l w = -cw (8) was made equal to cw. These will represent the three axes. and the jointed 1 tubes may be called axial brackets. and The student will find it advantageous to get a tinman to join together. 06] and no change of sign is needed . By fastening strings of differently coloured wool or thread to the sticks. contains the diagonal OT. but it the sets made accurately at angles which are not right angles. Now -i-~ Kj/V = 77j^ \JJ\. three pieces of tube. Or a set of axes may be made by If the needles are smooth the threads sticking rusty knittingThe axes in slip. Eight sets of them will be needed to form a parallelepiped. Here the lengths on parallel lines are measured in the same direction and the two ratios have the same sign..ZONE-INDICES. models can be made to represent the diagrams in this and the following Chapters.

l (h.. h.. The direction of the zone-axis of the two faces (A^Z..)..2 &2 4 take the place of h^ k l} ^ respectively. But h.. bv. Thus in the example given in Art.. Each of the numbers u. With the origin as vertex. Hence the origin-plane 0K2A2 parallel to the face contains the diagonal OT..'.. > with suffixes 2 to denote the corresponding points. W : are called the zone-indices.2 u + k.... S2 M= c ^(h 2 u + k2 v) (7*). The numbers u.. referring to the axis of Y...(10)...E_ck...2 ' 2 and K .. and one or two.. MS 2 = . but not all three.. and are obtained by the following rule *.. the final relations are : SJf_ \. It is only necessary to subtract in each case the product of the pair joined by the faint arm from that of the pair joined by the thick arm to secure that the signs are correct... 2 w = cw = MT j-l. cw along the axes as edges. Then the diagonal through the origin is the direction is required.. 37 obtain exactly similar equations. V... ..... (6*). The values of the zone-indices may be either positive or negative.. construct a parallelepiped. Aj VxV W. was negative. ..ZONE-INDICES. face-indices joined by the arms the difference of the products of the of the cross below it.. and starred reference-numbers to denote corresponding equations.: ~ + bv . is . therefore given by the following construction. ~K 2 M-^E~'U J K.. Lengths of lines and ratios exactly similar to The sole difference is that those referring to (hjch) are obtained.... (9*). Employing letters .2 v . may in particular cases be zero.M = K2E + EM=bu . These equations can be deduced from those given for the first face by changing the suffix 1 and replacing it by 2.... and lengths au. (h.. V... 4..Jc 2 z ).... 2 the second index.2k...J. .2 )...

= h& . from the origin indices fix the edges of the parallelepiped. thus u' v' w' A2 &2 ^ (10*). as is also obvious from the geometry.(AA &A) = -w.r. and sometimes their symbols are Thus if P. from the origin. the zone is When from face-indices. if ZONE-SYMBOL. signs of all the zone-indices are changed . but is the same straight line produced It follows that the direction of the line of with equal edges. 36. carefully distinguished b." 1 The lengths . from the origin. intersection of the faces is independent of the order in which the faces are taken when the parallelepiped is constructed.3. The points on the axes given by the zonecarefully kept in The distinction between face-indices mind.]. and as the parameters are supposed to be known. 2 is [121]. A parallel plane is obtained by taking points at six times the distance 6c. and the three lines joining them are three lines in the face. W. which are For this purpose it is usual to enclose Hence the above zone-axis is denoted by the the zone-indices have not been determined.h. The zonesymbol of the example in Art.P. They are employed They must be divisors of a.(ifa h&) = . or by [AM. with intercepts 2a. the diagonal of which is the direction of the edges of intersection of the tautozonal 1 faces. W to enable us to construct the parallelepiped. v' w' = IA . of the faces are integral.k. introduced. in (10) the order of the two faces be altered the Again. are necessarily integers. i. is The parallelepiped clearly constructed in the opposite octant. more of the faces in often denoted by enclosing the letters denoting two or crotchets._W]. b and c respectively. The diagonal through the origin. and c.A = .38 5.e. and [ ]. be (A^i) and P2 be (h). or by [uvw]. 6. Thus (321) indicates the face meeting the axes respectively at distances a H. them in crotclwts symbol [uvw]. V. . c. K. the zone-symbol be given by [P. The numbers u. and From ratJT& "the same. for the indices as multipliers of a. it suffices to give u.h. may and zone-indices must be The points on the axes given by the former are points in the face. 6-2.

then OE and the parallel side TF become zero.. and the zone-axis [(/OO] is the line OE.). Similarly a zone-axis lying in the plane axis is If the zone-axis lies in YOZ. and the zonebecomes zero.e. are 3a. If the zone-axis lies in then clearly zone-axis is MT = cw = [uvQ]. Art./. a zone-axis cannot be perpendicular to a possible face. And although. its symbol [OQw] or [001]. If. Weiss's zone-law. It is required to find the relation between the fact. (M^a)pair shifted parallel to itself so as to pass through 0. the diagonal of which from the origin is the zone-axis. 15. c respectively. 7. axis may equally well be given by the symbol [100]. Suppose a third face (hkl) not parallel to either of the first it to lie in the same zone with (/h&A). it When is must contain the zone axis OT. In this case it is immaterial what length is taken on OX. which form the edges of a parallelepiped. Fig. i. Hence w = 0. and the symbol axis is say. in consequence of the equations established in Chap. one of the axial planes. for (/<. represent the line in which the transposed We shall face meets the plane TME by T\K (using no suffixes). the diagonal XOY OF Q. the second index to become zero is u. except in special cases and in the cubic system. 26. clearly obtain ratios similar to those already given in (5). the edges of which are If v becomes zero at the same time as w. XOZ OZ is [Qvw]. <fec. 8. however. of such a The gram OEFT. equations (1) of that article are very different from the relations of the diagonal to the edges of a parallelepiped. it will be shown that. (A-A-4) i n which the suffixes are now omitted. 31. In the Chapter in which the relations of faces and zone-axes are treated analytically. = bv.. 39 given by [321]. We . as before. and the zone-axis [QvQ] or [010] is the axis OY. then the length by mea- OT of OE the parallelo- of the side of the parallelogram sured along also OY becomes zero. and ET The point T then coincides with E. iv. (5*). and the is [wOlv]. the axis OX. we shall also use the face-indices to denote the face-normal.WEISS S ZONE-LAW. = au. symbols which corresponds to this geometrical may.

mli + ?i/2 j : (13).I.... . crystallographer. It also enables him to prove that the indices of any face (hkl) in the zone can be given by the following equations h mhi + nh.M.... we shall call Weiss' s zone-law..) + I (hfa . This he did in his transWeiss used lation into German (1804-6) of Hatty's Mineraloyie....... so as to make of the faces the factors multiplying expressions of the Thus (11*) is equivalent to indices. hu + kv + lw = .2 (Ott . C.) : ... S... as follows .... AS (&! the indices of any one form of zone.k2 ) + k (1& .. may also be rearranged. and whether therefore the three faces......hi.. of the intercepts as the symbol of a face expression for the law was not in the analysis of the relations is given in a e. It may also be given in the determinant form h = To a student the most familiar with mathematics this latter form one... (1 1**).) + k I L_ (hk...MT=-cW by construction. 1820-1. form given in His the memoir published in Abh. d. for is far convenient a glance is usually sufficient to show whether the determinant is zero. . hence This important relation which connects the indices of any face in a zone with the zone-indices..... as determined from any known pair For the distinguished faces. Berlin Akad..... Weiss..g..... was the first to call attention to the relations discussed in this Chapter... 5 o : 2i : c so that his (11).2 ) = This (11*). are tautozonal.. (11)... (7**).. TM ^=^ = M \E ck ..... hu + kv) .40 Thus also WEISS'S ZONE-LAW... : The equation just given may be written out in full h (kj. . (6**)........ flfcj) + k.... But TM= .. < 5 >' KM = K E + EM=bu^ + bv ....hj..kji. the symbols of which have been introduced.... ..2 \ k = mk1 + nkz I I -..

Thus we can show that the 9.(15). which a face (hkl) in this zone must satisfy. Let [U 13 K12 WK].. reduce the left The faces are therefore tautozonal. (2lT). V. (112). I in equation (14). and [1/34 V^ WM ] be the zone-symbols of the same zone deduced from two different pairs of non-parallel faces in the zone. 5 that the signs of the indices. V12 = -5. But The variation f^ = "is ^ = ^ = _2. (433). . easily seen that the indices of the faces (433). of the length given by another pair. *M in the values of u. ^a V. we obtain side to zero. From any pair (say the first) we find 1 tf 12 = 3.1. &c. But attention should be directed to the fact that different pairs of faces will not give exactly the same values for u. must have indices which satisfy the equations given in (11) or (12).EQUIVALENT ZONE-SYMBOLS. when the zone-symbol is once known. are changed by reversing the order in which the two faces are taken in the table.. it is convenient to indicate the faces taken to give the zone-indices by attaching suffixes to the zone-indices. ^34= 10. W. when substituted for h. Ws4 = . Thus in f/u. W. . which lies in the zone. indicate that the indices of the first and second face are introduced this order in the table (10) of Art. (/34=- 6. and the direction of OT as viewed from the origin. is 3h-5k + l = Q It is (14). and likewise that it may be taken. It is clear in the zone can be following faces are tautozonal (321). from the analysis that any two non-parallel faces employed to determine the zone-symbol . 4. as in the example just given. 10. it is required to prove that = U84 KM = Wu '" (16). on the other side of the origin. k. The student can that the values given by (13) satisfy the condition by introducing them into (11**).2. We have already seen in Art. The : equation. and likewise that. (211). or submultiple. Thus. (103) will. if the third and fourth faces (433) and (211) are taken. any other face whatever. means no more than that the and that the length of OT given by one pair of faces is a multiple.. 1 When there are several faces in a zone. but only values in the same ratio.. where 41 easily see m and n are whole numbers. (103). size of the parallelepiped is altered.. W12 .

(hjc2 l. But if a plane be drawn through parallel to OG and MT. for by taking the second pair in the reverse order. (AM). 5). Also OE=au n OF=by l2 MT=OG=cwn . M OTT'. on the same side of it . The directions in which the edges are measured from the origin may. mensurable they the zone If they be combe the indices of a face. . where in h. I. Now But the gives the zone-axis cannot depend on the pair of faces selected. introducing the values of the edges. MT Again. as in Fig. 32. the pairs of faces in a zone must meet in lines all parallel to the Hence the direction of the diagonal of the parallelepiped which zone-axis. M'T' OG. and these remain proportional to one another if the diagonals lie in the same straight line. k. .(16). it will contain the edges OT'M'. we have And The three ratios given in (16) are each equal to . That the terms in (16) are equal to that given in (17) is proved as follows.Then OT and OT' are co- (AM). It is clearly useless to take for A. 32. k. in some cases. Let the parallelepiped obtained by OETF be means of and OE'T'F' that obtained by another pair of faces in the same zone (AaVs). If this face do not lie ratio has some definite commensurable [f/ 12 Ki 2 jf 12 ]. I. for the numerator and denominator then both become zero by Weiss's law. 8. The points and M' must therefore lie on a Hence we have the similar triangles OTM. only variables are the lengths of the edges of the parallelepipeds.42 EQUIVALENT ZONE-SYMBOLS. be on opposite sides of it. straight line through 0. 4. from the similar _ OM M'T'~OM'' triangles OEM. linear. and by Euclid vi. . Art. we reverse the directions of the edges of the parallelepiped (Art. OE'M' we have OE EM OM MT Hence. the are any three numbers whatever. the indices of a face in the zone. may value. but it will suffice to prove the proposition for the case in which they lie.2 \ FIG.

we have K2 and V 1 respectively. having commensurable indices. The face (hkl). + lw. and Hence. the face (hkl) lies in common to the Let the two zones have the symbols [^KI^]. I. they are integers. as also the right sides. transforming the equations (20) and l/U/ (21). I of the face common to .. then. we II find U/IS U/ // II LU II V V *""\ /" Now tfj.FACE COMMON TO TWO ZONES. are also commensurable numbers and may be expressed by integers. two zones of which the indices are given. Hence r has the value given in Face common to two zoties. We can now show that a plane which contains two zone- parallel to a possible face of the crystal. we have Af/i2 + ^Ki2+ ^12 = r (^34 + ^34 + ^34)(17). and in order that it should also lie in [W2 K2 W2] we must have If (18) Wi. Let each term iu (16) 43 =r . Hence A. we Similarly. fec. and if be multiplied throughout by W2 and (19) throughout by the one equation be then subtracted from the other. if derived by table (10) from face-indices. [w 2 K2 >V2]. k. by multiplying (18) and (19) by then subtracting. k. The relation between the indices /t. equation (11). 11. from [w^M^] when hu + l kv. = (18). K.. are all commensurable numbers and. and that the intercepts this face makes on the axes are commensurable sub- axes is The face is clearly multiples of the parameters. Adding together the left sides. is therefore a possible face of the crystal.

These two faces are parallel. Had we however taken the zone [102] first. 3 with reference to the lines in the latter figure. Let C^be TOK\T : t : . by a comparison with Fig. similar in some respects to Fig. indices A. are obtained in arm must be subtracted from the product thick arm.__KM__ E\ MT~ MT~~ cw Let the second zone-axis with edges au^ byl . t . given by equations (22). k. and the face to be (2ll). taken in both cases. their zone-indices. and the expressions given in Art. By the aid of Fig. the face has the symbol (2ll). and EX EO and can then. Thus h ! k I UT. OS cWi~ be produced the diagonal of the parallelepiped OFNS to meet the line *T in T . 1=5. 12. involving I. k=w U -U 2 a manner exactly similar to that by which zone-indices were by (10) obtained from The same precaution must be the indices of two faces in the zone. the zone-axis [uvw]. k=5 and 1= . V. serves equally to connect: (1) all the faces lying in the zone [uvw]. h= -10. and the zone-indices u. and the product of the indices joined by a faint of those joined by the As an example let us find the face (hkl) common I to [351] and to [102]. we can give a direct proof of the proposition that a plane parallel to two zone-axes is a possible face. can be expressed by a table (23) similar in all respects to table (10). & = l-6= -5. in as it does the faceprecisely the same manner. W. 33.5. l-U^-V^. and OST. From the similar triangles EK\. 29. and rejecting the common measure 5. 30. and (2) all the zones to which a particular face (hkl) is common. The equation hu + kv + lw = 0.44 two zones and FACE COMMON TO TWO ZONES.. KMT we have <E+by E*_ = M*. the zone-axis [u^Wil and let be the origin-plane determined by them. By table (23) 5135 XXX 0210 first is h k . and the necessarily common to every zone to which the second belongs. 1 W2 . 13. viz. We can find the ratios EK HO. h= V^W^- M^. find the intercepts on the axes of a parallel plane which will give the indices. we should have found 7t=10. XXX l W 2 W2 W2 The indices of 1 a face common to two zones.

Draw T._ OE_ EM. 3. in a manner similar to that given in Art.VWj ~ VU . and (26) (26).FACE COMMON TO TWO ZONES. _OM_. t . Equating the right sides of (24) MT. MT. 29) (JLi ^ (of Fig.. if the two planes HKL and c 0*\T are '" parallel.(28). and OM. ONF. l nE in the right side of (24). But. 33. is t 45 M and ONMr The second zone-axis equally well given as the OEMT But from the two pairs of similar triangles. 33).WU UW\ ^ . we have M T. 7Tr (of Fig. . from the similar triangles E*\.E. WU.VW . we have Vi . ~ diagonal of the parallelepiped t t . OL ^ = b_^UWi uyi .. t NS ON~OF~ FN- Fio. we have EK M* K M. Again. OT M ONS.WU Substituting this value of (27). we have EK U .

n (29) a UW ~WU1 1 . or edge. and the plane is The HKL therefore a possible face of the crystal. a' (100) b (010).(30). We may now apply the propositions in Chaps. and a fourth zone-axis not in a plane with any pair of the first three zone-axes. and face common to two zones is given by j . The face z and its symbol taken as parametral face. and every other zone-axis.46 EXAMPLE (BARYTES). T . Take axes parallel to three zone-axes. by z' at an equal distance on the negative side. . and face c to OX and OY. . V and w. Hence from and (30) OH WV l OK l -VW parallel to the two intercepts on the axes made by the plane zone-axes are integral subrmiltiples of the parameters. 37 which gives the faces m and c only. b. b and c in the figure. where h. cw> where u. by. j . every Then a. is The homologous faces are symmetrically placed with and axes. OZ and OX. Form a parallelepiped with edges along the axes and having the fourth zone-axis for diagonal. are the parameters of the crystal. and is (111). Hence z and z' meet in a line in the plane YOZ. k and I are (23). respect to the axial planes . are integers. and their intercepts on the axes Y and OZ must be the same.. 14. 34. new way The geometrical relations of a crystal may hence be given in a as follows. as far as the principles already established permit. FIG. The lines of intersection of planes. possible on the crystal is given by the diagonal of a parallelepiped. so that face a is parallel to OY and OZ. Example. b' (010) and the parallel face below the paper . the edges of which are in the axes and have the lengths au. These latter axes are shown in Fig. b and c. OK ^ (of Fig. Of and (from 27). to integers deduced from the zone-indices by the rule given in table 15. c respectively. Denote the lengths of the edges by a. 34. iv. Hence z' meets the axes at distances. b. The face b to indices of these faces are therefore at once known c (001) will a is (100). of the crystal of barytes shown in Fig. v. be c' (001). not all in one plane. Furthermore. And similarly. The axis OX is met by z at a distance a on the positive side. and the solution. drawn through a central point are taken as axes. parallel to a.

by making h = l = l. The former value gives for m the symbol (110). a similar manner from the two zones (IlO). differ in having the signs of the indices referring to these axes both changed. &c.h + k = 0. 111] = (by table . m'. m' the equation. Or we may use table (23). origin. are all parallel to OZ. and [as] = [Oil]. which and the symbol (101).EXAMPLE (BARYTES). equation is satisfied by making h=l and fc=l. The symbols of the remaining faces will be determined in a later Chapter. Hence. . for the rotation about OZ interchanges. if m be (likQ). The faces m lie in the zone containing the and b which may be represented by [ab] = [100. The symbol of o' is found. and their indices (hkO) satisfy The and [fcz] face u is determined in and m'" (IlO). This is clearly necessary. we perceive the fact that the respectively. . 1001 [ca] Similarly. From follows that the middle index is zero. equal lengths measured on opposite sides of the origin. Similarly. thus XXX 01101. The second set of values gives (IlO) for the parallel face m". This Hence. and shown to be (ill). z"'. But m and m" lie in the zone [c^] = [001. interchange places when the crystal is turned through 180 about this axis. Hence u is (101). The second zone proves that. and the = [101]. This is obvious from the geometry. 010] = [001] the latter symbol being determined by table (10). u and o. Again. from [be] and [az"] = [011]. if we note that the axis OZ is a dyad axis. Hence m' is the first it = [110]. which meets the axes on the negative sides of the [cz'] Similarly. from and r [bz ]. 47 its symbol is (111). and that therefore the pair of faces z and z". interchangeable by rotation about a dyad axis perpendicular to a pair of axes of reference. We can now determine the symbols of the homologous faces of the forms denoted by the letters m. and also the pair z'. u' may be found to be (101). on each line perpendicular to it. we have from equation (11) (10)) [IlO]. the last index of each face m is zero. h + and m'" lie in k=0. face can be represented by is satisfied (/(O/). for the faces m. for this face meets both the axes faces a of X and Y on the positive sides of the origin. symbols of pairs of faces. or by making h = l and k = l. From to be (Oil).h + 1=0. [ac] = [010]. the face o is fixed and its symbol (Oil) determined. by (11) of Art. the symbol of z'" can be and that of z" to be (III). c. the zones [be] = [100]. 8..

and aid us to distinguish the crystals of one substance from those of another although. which can only imperfectly be represented in drawings. the habit often varies greatly in crystals of the same substance. The crystal-drawings to be found in scientific works are not true perspective drawings. so that one of its zone-axes usually called the vertical axis lies in the vertical plane through the eye at right angles through a . 2. supposed to be placed vertically. more especially. or of a particular crystal. if drawn in much the same way as would appear. 1. Models and drawings of crystals serve mainly to indicate their general habit. therefore. viewed The telescope adjusted for a very distant object. same physical characters and show the same marks.CHAPTER VI. models and drawings. crystal is held in front of the paper. accuracy the relative positions of the those of the same form being usually equably developed. are produced in the when they come from different localities. for homologous faces on a crystal possess the and. for the parallelism of the edges of intersecting tautozonal faces would be thereby obscured. &c. : In laboratory under different conditions. Drawings and models fail. crystal A is drawn as if . to give that aid in the determination of symmetry which is afforded by the physical characters of the faces. CRYSTAL-DRAWINGS. however. as already stated. irregularities in the size and shape of faces of a form are only admitted when they are needed to render manifest some peculiarity. such as pittings. CRYSTALS can be represented by models or by crystal-drawings. all were parallel infinitely the rays proceeding from the coigns to the eye that is. sufficient which give with faces. the eye and crystal are supposed to be distant from one another. either of general habit. or striae.. The it crystal is.

fail to render sensible the L. In this Chapter some knowledge of the relations which hold in the several systems is presupposed. which may. or the zone-axis and faces which are perpendicular to the paper. so that the student should read the Articles referring to each system together with the Chapter on that system. be itself perpendicular classes : two an important face. in which the rays meet the paper. and give a fair idea of the end of the crystal directed towards the observer. to we shall always speak of diagrams of both kinds as plans . The drawings are easily 3. treated of in section (ii). In the lines. is placed at right angles to the paper. it clined to or rays. and in an elevation it should be parallel to the paper. the vertical axis is in. described in section (i) . 8. are joined by straight lines in a manner corresponding with the edges of the crystal. The student should. however. (i) Plans and Elevations. The points. is all that is needed. In clinographic drawings. or parallel to. 1852. Figures of this kind are largely used in Brooke and Miller's edition of Phillips's Mineralogy. may be divided into plans and elevations. or may not. but the crystal has in other respects an arbitrarily selected position with respect to the paper. the paper. to the paper.METHODS OF PROJECTION. however. For working purposes a freehand sketch. find no difficulty in following the description of the plans given in the next Articles and the example worked out in Art. treated of in section (iii). or (b) inat a fixed angle not differing much from 90. important zone-axis. They. in a plan the vertical axis should be perpendicular to the But paper. Drawings. c. and shall specify the face which is parallel to the paper. As a matter of fact. and orthoIn the former an graphic drawings. 4 . an accurate drawing of a crystal is only made after the crystal has been completely determined. In orthographic drawings the important edges and faces of the crystal are inclined at some arbitrary angles to the paper. in the latter they will be called clinographic drawings. Strictly speaking. 49 are all parallel. The and former case the figures are orthogonal projections. which will enable the student to identify each face. and the net-work of lines forms a crystal-drawing. executed. which are orthogonal projections. which join the eye to the coigns either (a) perpendicular to the paper.

will. be seen as the hexagon. to the paper. perpendicular to the paper and denoted by the lines m. Fig. The rhombic face marked c is parallel and is also parallel to a good Two axes. Miller placed the axes X. F. if viewed endwise. 02. like Fig. OX and OY. two lines. are printed from Miller's original blocks which have been kindly placed at my disposal by Mr. such as a cube. Such a figure is readily is made. 38. Y. . They are parallel to good cleavages. 35. along the diagonals of the rhombus the third. is perpendicular to the paper. Fig. which have been left undisturbed. and his symbols. and edges to the line of sight. 4. 35. 3. To make such a diagram. are taken cleavage. in a different order to that adopted in this book. are drawn at right 1 Figs. OX and Y. A gives simple crystal of barytes. inclination of the faces and they are deficient in the appearance of solidity. differ from those which are given in other diagrams. and some others used in later Chapters. . H. for F+K=2 IQ. lozenge. Z. 36.G. if one of the face-angles F or known. 36. 37. resembling a diamond-shaped the plan. Similarly a hexagonal prism. Fig. 38-44.S. projected on a plane parallel to one of the faces. Bauerman.50 ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION. is This crystal bounded by four similar faces. shows a ditetragonal prism. 38 5. terminated by planes parallel to the paper and at right angles to the prism-edges through the points F and K. If a very simple crystal. If one be known the other is also. be FIG. shown in Fig. f K FIG. 35 '. or a tetragonal crystal of apophyllite bounded by three pairs of rectangular faces. it will appear as a square.

angles over them are are all equal to one equal. Y FIG. are similar edges. for this axis is pro- K and distinctly different sets of angles. and are interchangeable by rotation through 90 about OZ. 38. labelled L. The lines joining the corners to the centre are then drawn. therefore. and equal lengths. and those over of the one clear also that the three last figures will be the same whatever is met. to show jected in the central point. angles. from the Lines KF are then axes angles equal to -r. be the distance at which the axis OZ The figures fail. In the preceding diagrams the distribution of faces at the back L in one. 39. The edges are also similar to one Those labelled K F another. Each figure has two the edges The angles L F and L in the other. 41 they are parallel to the edges so marked. 40 the axes of X and are in the directions of the diagonals of the square formed by the edges L. belonging to the same class of crystals.2. is supposed to be parallel to a plane of symmetry. To construct this angles between the similar edges. and the all FIG. i. above are sets are never equal to those of either of the other Two tetragonal pyramids. 41. and then the ditetragon K off on them starting drawn making with the and plan. another. The angles over the edges L But the angles of one of the sets. whether the pyramids are steeply inclined to the paper or not. they are interchangeable. OK. In Fig. have to be found. which is taken to be OZ is perpendicular to the paper. are marked origin. 42 . those over and the paper It is of the crystal is supposed to be exactly like that shown in front. 40. in Fig.TETRAGONAL PLANS. shown 40 and 41. pyramid differ from those of the other. in Figs. FIG. Fig. 39 represents a ditetragonal pyramid having eight similar faces meeting at an apex on a tetrad axis.e. the is drawn as in Fig.

opposite pairs of which are in a zone with two faces of the rhombohedron and with the faces below the paper parallel to them. The parallel lines in Fig. {100}. we are informed that prism-faces perpendicular to the paper are also present. 4244 show three simple rhombohedral crystals. we suppose it. Its symbol may be From the fact that symbols are attached to the sides of the bounding hexagon. T2T. i. labelled 21 1. 42 are. the faces of which the edges of the prism in Fig. rhombohedron in a different azimuth.52 PLANS OF RHOMBOHEDRAL CRYSTALS. 43. If whether the apices are far apart or the reverse. By placing faces the symbols on the upper faces of Fig.e. 1 A face situated in a zone with two faces and equally inclined to them is said to truncate their edge. in which the faces of the prism meet each only one face of the rhombohedron. are edges truncate 1 Each of the remaining three sides represents parallel to the paper. The hexagon bounding the figure represents objection to the plan. 44 may be taken to represent the same rhombohedron but associated with a different hexagonal prism. 43 represents a so indeed are all the edges of the figure. TI2. whether the rhombohedron an acute one or an obtuse one. and serves equally well FIG. however. Figs. 4. 43. in which the plane of the paper is perpendicular to the triad axis. All the edges of this figure Fig. and Fig. FIG. is FIG. Such diagrams serve to show the development at one end of a in Chap. to crystal fairly well. xvi. The alternate sides of the hexagon. . the symbols on the faces imply that the faces are steeply inclined to the paper. The first represents a rhombohedron. are also equally inclined to the paper. two edges equally inclined to the paper. 42. however. all inclined to the paper at the same on the angle . to represent a crystal of calcite. 6. 44. edges which cross the paper and are not parallel to it. and the method will be employed illustrate the dissimilar ends of a crystal of tourmaline. the plan There is another serves equally well for this obtuse rhombohedron.

at and Y.. the plan of oligoclase given in Chapter XL The paper is not in these cases parallel to a possible face of the crystal. 8. They should be drawn so as fairly to represent the ratios of the The zones [yoz].. \r'z'~\. are then truncated centre. Fig. which are not. [dr~\. m. drawn in the \ry\.) t on OX. where k makes with OX the angle 22 15' and X makes with OYthe angle 22 10'. and their projections are given same by the lines so labelled. such that OB=OB = b. are parallel to M. From B and B lines t t B and OY m Fl - m. The length of these lines depends on their distance from the We thus find points A and A f at A. however. in the discussion of twins of orthoclase. in Chapter XVIIL. The corners between these lines and the intermediate m's are now modified by lines k and X. . They are readily made when a few angles in the plane of symmetry and the symbols of the faces are known. [dl]. z. OY is looked at endwise. b are all perpendicular to the paper. are zones symmetrical with The edges respect to the plane of symmetry parallel to the face b. as in Fig. [y'" o' z"] are then introduced by drawing lines parallel to and symmetrically situated on both sides of it. as. for The edges The edges [zwz'"]. X are taken arbiB. The corners by lines a and b parallel to the axes. parallel to parallel to OX. B. or elevations. are same drawn [yrd. 53 In the oblique system plans. way OY. on the plane of symmetry are frequently employed by Miller.. The faces a. e.EXAMPLE (BARYTES). r. Example. m'. Two Hues Points right angles for the axes of are drawn. &c. &c. on barytes. the base c(001). 37. 7. (For this 45 ' and other angles see Chap. &c. for m. Similar plans are also occasionally employed for representing anorthic crystals . An instance of this kind is given in the plans used. are [uz]. [ud].. c are tautozonal. where OA = OA = a. on trarily at any convenient distance. [7-2]. m. k. are drawn inclined to OY at angles of 39 11' = 78 22' -7. Occasionally a plan of an oblique crystal is made on a plane perpendicular to a zone-axis lying in the plane of symmetry. which represent faces parallel to them and to OZ. 45 affords a good illustration of the use and method It gives the more important forms of construction of complicated plans. &c. Their distances from one another should approximate to the impression of the width of the faces when the crystal breadths of the several faces to each other. often found associated together on the The paper is parallel to crystal. [co]..~]. Art. X. &c.g. &c. 9.. m'. . c.2.

OX and The diagonal through the origin The homologous of this parallelogram is the direction of the edge [zd]. those of the remaining faces are found suppose {104}. the axis OZ and every length upon parallelepiped with edges 2a. the line in which the face meets the plane containing OF and 02 then f\COQ= f\OBC=co. co By measurement. -6. But to get the edges [zd]. 15. by the method explained the indices to be known. and in Chap. the symbols of the faces were determined as far as they could be by the relations of zones. 46. we have = -8151. The remaining edges can be obtained in a similar manner. Now in the diagram. and \lr] the indices of the faces are required. OA = tan In a similar manner. bo. when OB = 1. [ro]. 46. edges are parallel to the diagonals of similar parallelograms. In Chap. symbols of the faces have not been needed. is projected in the parallelogram T. from Fig. The length OB taken on OY was arbitrary. and r(112). Art. o{011}. is the normal to the face m. The m point where met OX gave the point A at distance a on OX. Hence. 102] it = [211]. if 39 11' the angle or co. = 52 43'. v. The student's attention is directed to the fact that the parameters a and b were obtained by simple construction from the measured angles. 00 = 1 -31 35. represents the be measured. B Flo. -=b = tan ABO = tan A OM.54 So far the EXAMPLE (BARYTES). 47. y{122}. and if BC is . and the line was then drawn making 39 11' with OY. Therefore. OA + OB = a But AOM=3S 11'. vn. and the figure completed. the normal to FIG. where it OM and. we : may The symbols are s{lll}. But OC+OB = c + b = tan OBC = tan COQ. parameter c can be found. . all in that chapter. The zone-axis [zd\ is [111. e?(102). the face o. If OQ. Fig. -c. b on having sides 2a and Hence the are projected in the point 0. 47. if OB be the unit of length. Hence.

The horizontal faces are still p = 18 26'. Fig. are projected as equal lengths . the crystal has to be turned about a horizontal axis. one of the edges is left a square. the parameters are unequal. We first The three projected edges. or shortened. new lines of unit length must be found making the required angles with one another of the methods given in Arts. 1824). preferably the shortest in the projection . 49) ^ CD 11 = 1 3. the axes are not rectangular. for cubic crystals. then tan p --- tan = DD 11 CAA n = CA 11 * A A 11 (Fig. 49 Mohs' method of drawing crystals (Mem. the other two are then When lengthened. Fig.. Hist. The cube seen with face If it is parallel to the paper is projected. 15 20. Soc. and unequal lengths on the same. To see the upper face. or on parallel. zone. which can serve as rectangular axes with equal parameters. 9. then turned about a vertical edge until the face to the right has a width one-third (or one-nth) of that to the left. (ii) 55 Orthographic Drawings. foreshortened into straight lines.ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION. give the directions and lengths of three equal lines at right angles to one another.axis. the cube is seen as two If the angle of rectangles. which may be supposed to go through the nearest bottom corner of the cube. 1 +n. proceed to describe the principle by which by one or other We Mohs obtained the projection of the edges of a cube. lengths on all parallel lines For equal i. Figs. Edin. or generally. The first represents a horizontal plane through . In drawings of this kind the rays are not parallel to a and the paper is not parallel to a possible face. 51 are copied from Haidinger's memoir on 10. meeting at any coign. rotation about the vertical edge be p. H- In the particular case when n = 3. as seen on the paper. such that the vertical distance between extreme points on the upper face. project a cube. lines in any given ratio If to one another are projected as lengths having the same ratio. 48. During this rotation the vertical edge is main- tained in the vertical plane through the eye. as explained below.e. Mohs and Haidinger adopted an angle of inclination to the horizon. was one-eighth of the total breadth of the projected cube. in the ratios of the parameters. Wernerian Nat. 35.

triangles FIG. the pairs of similar triangles BBnN. B B. . ABDC is the base plane of projection passes through and the rays through the coigns A.'. 49. C. respectively. and suppose the square UIA U to be carried with the cube. the rotation . A fA"M. 49. are similar and (Euclid . or. the D nCA n . 4). The CAA a ODD 11 are equal in all respects. ABDC would be brought into the plane is of projection. -= . Through the niA fI corners of the base draw the square two sides in the rays AA 11 DD". . from the similar triangles A 1A 11 B ZB U = A UM: B UM. D. : similar. so as to expose the top to the observer. and through lel . Again. and B*D* through N. D UIA U lines paral- . of DCA of Fig. stopped when the coign uA"+8 = n + 8. and the pairs must remain through M. having cube. 1 we get similar proportions and find D'D 11 = DD 11 -5- 8 = CA u - 8. the triangles vi. if the rotation were continued through 90. : : . 11 Hence. and. and AA nM. . nCA 11 Let the cube be now tilted about DuA n .56 MOHS CUBIC AXES. To meet D An ll find the points . . A. DD"N and From :. D. are A A. D D UN. B nB. B. thus obtain two similar right-angled triangles BBU On the other side of BB U we have a second pair of similar rightIJ N. AA UM and BB UM. Therefore B IA I passes Hence. During the rotation the D 11 coigns A. D D . AA" = CD = 3CA ". D"D . in D . We prolonged both ways. B is B "*= D D of Fig. 48 the after the first rotation. B'B"M. the square DmA n and the base If. D. generally. B'B" = BB"+ 8 But. n U nD. M M DD BAM and BDN remain straight lines. will remain in the vertical planes through A A. . Now during the rotation the angled triangles BB"N and straight lines of similar triangles A 1 and 1 suppose BA and BD produced to and N. draw to the sides of . A A 11 BB 11 = A UM B nM A 1A 11 B IB IJ ^AA" BB11 A 1A 11 = AA 11 + 8 = 3CA" 8. then the 1 where projected in I I I G square base of the cube is projected in the parallelogram A B however. B.

<r = B*B 11 BB11 = 1 -=- m. 50. by drawing through FIG. When the cube and square A n have been rotated together through 90. then A 1H' = A"H' . the point //' may be substituted for H. lines H'y. edge CG. The length of the projection of the nearly vertical edge of the cube through C has now to be determined. denoted by sin we have 1 H- v= CL + CC IV = and sin o- =7 1 1'. Fig. If. for the unit Fig. the cube and Fig. Z>'8. 49 are turned back to the final position of the cube. each equal to A'H'. AA m If H'. and CH = CG cos a- = CG*Jl . 57 11. C IVL and HG Hfl. be the middle point of of Fig. 51. m m the cube sight. on the vertical -f- L c and HCC 111 Then CL = B*B U = CC in 8. 50 in terms of an edge of the cube = CA of CH of = CA"Jld. lengths Cy. 49. may be measured off on the verticals from C. 51.sin* <r. 49 . 50. shortened to B*Bn which given by CL of Fig. parallel to CA' and A'ff. CH = CAvJlQjT^Jt = CA"JWQ -8 = 3-1 37 CA". for practical purposes. 51. -=- For any other angle of It is tilt. now easy to find the value of of Fig. Hence. CA" CG is Fig. H'ft. H'.'. the Dm 49 are brought into the plane of projection and one and edge of the cube through C is in the line of sight. GCH=CCIVL. If tilt. Let CC CHI} in Fig. During this rotation the points C and 2 have traversed Draw the the circular arcs C niCIV and m H perpendiculars line . cube are then drawn through ft and Or y. CH is the projected length of the cubic the angle of o-. 49. 8 . 50.MOHS CUBIC AXES. fffi. . as in Fig. represent the line CC of Fig. when the latter is in the line of ~ BB n and C mC are is now. 49 and the edge of lines in Fig. and D' by means of a pair of com- B passes. be FIG. The remaining edges of the respectively.A"A 1 m 3-125CA". and the cube projected.

58'. 1866). CD' and Cy. Professor von Lang (Lehrbuch der Krystaln and BB n = SB'B". projected in the manner just described. CD'. Hence. in the for any other values of is . 49-51. cubic axes. and Cy or. shortly called FIG. more CH. CD' gives the same The lines CA'. produced in both directions give the a rectangular system of axes.23 yCA' = 90 : CH= N/97 N/1296 : VI360 = : 3-65 : 3-74. 33'-3. Furthermore. 51 to represent a cube projected with these numerical relations. and also the actual lengths of CA'. lographie. when gives theoretical values are involved the same unit of length on all vertical lines. the projection of the axes the rotation and tilt. The student will find it convenient to have a set of rectangular axes of equal length. same manner. 1 yCD' = 90 CA' CD' : : 1 33'-5. all simple cubic in Chapter xv. projection of will be shown the cubic axes. if we assume Fig. the length CA' gives the unit of length on OX or on any parallel line. CA' CD' : : CH= V73 : \/577 : N/630 = 8-5 24 : : 25-1. and o- = 623'-6. the data of Figs. and yCA' = 6926'-7. nearly. OY or on any parallel correctly. in terms of any scale. MOHS' CUBIC AXES. Having obtained a forms can be drawn as practice will then several forms. nearly. and CH For tan D'CD 11 D Dn 1 'D TfC~^A l tan A 1A 11 _ 3 CA 11 ~8' Furthermore. we have : sin 0-= 1-^-9. He should notice that CA' is the negative direction of the axis of X and CD' the negative direction on OY. . uses axes in which D"C = CA It easy to obtain. . Thus. projections of unit of length on line. The angles yCD' and yCA' can be easily calculated from 12. for drawing cubic crystals. 51.58 . They should be drawn on a large scale on card-board or stout paper. and a little enable student to draw combinations of .

CH is the unit length measured on the If vertical. where is the angle 001 A 101. 52. and c = b OX is the same length as off CD' measured along OY. first replace plane yCA' and inclined to Cy at an angle ft. for the axes of topaz. 2 E more correctly. and lengths in the same line are . be two lines. Y. 8 it tan 52 43'. 13. then c is 16-88 units of the same scale. c = Cy tan 33 55'.. and Z respectively. In a prismatic crystal the length CA' of : Fig. /\ the arc ^IG yCA' - 53.'. for cassiterite (SnO 2 ). 1 1'. 49. in Fig. as shown ' To adapt the in Fig. let Cy and CM. when projected of the axis in the plane OX t required: and CQ-CA = CA. for FIG. 53. centre C describe the quadrant of a yQA and let yQ = yCQ = ft. 14. along tan 39 11' = CM' x 1-3135.a tan E. c . we have to mark on CA' a length x -8151. = 90. Hence. The points A. Draw QM and QN parallel to Cy and CM. for barytes a = b tan 39 But. ^=33 55'. = Cy cos ft. 52. of Fig. be taken to be 25-1 CH units of length. by Then respectively. 51. equal parallel lines are projected as equal parallel lines. take a length CA' tan 27 50' along OX. 52 are at the parametral distances on the pro- jected axes of X. CH CH 15. is the direction is the unit of length. 51 To obtain the axes of an oblique crystal. 59 projected cubic axes to the requirements of tetragonal crystal. C in Fig. and CN= CQ Now. and a length OS" tan 43 31' along OZ. and let yCM. measured In Art. This is done as follows. or. we only change the C length of the vertical axis. CD' along OY. CA' of Fig. Thus. 51. In Fig. sin ft. tan 52 43'= Cy a length = Similarly. 51. The parameter c on the principal axis is given by the equation. cos NCQ the character of the projection. . circle With t. = CM' and similarly.AXES OF TETRAGONAL AND PRISMATIC CRYSTALS. = CH tan 33 55' . each equal to CA of Fig. along OX. Then CQ. A'. we by a new line OX situated in the t. CA' along similar rule. CM = CQ sin MQC '= CM. has also to be changed and by a was shown that.

2 and its length is ODjlO. : in the vertical plane ZOX. OE to the right is retained as the axis OY. The lengths Oq and Oy have now to be changed in the ratios a b and c b or. respectively. or generally.-658 = 36-47 units of the scale.a. of Fig. as Oq is the shortest length. : : The parallelogram Omqn is now completed. as the unit parameter. the cube has been turned through the angle p but not tilted 1 The positive cubic axes then form a cross. in Fig. for the rays are at 90 to the paper. 23 before the eye is moved. To obtain we have AW. --- -/' ~ On=Cy cos(3. and produce it on both sides Then Oq is the direction of the origin. 50. Retaining Oq.. and c a. OB are drawn intersecting one another 1 This is the same position as that mentioned in Art. or. A obtained as follows. generally. is used. 16. and a: b :c 57' 0?=(L4'sin63 On = Cy cos 63 = -658 1 -555. being the directions of CM'. . OZ. 54. 9. OC on OZ is made equal to t 25-1 x -555-f--658 =21-17 units of the scale. -f-=. and when no face has to be shown which is nearly horizontal.60 AXES OF OBLIQUE CRYSTALS. OC and OEjlO 3. projected as lengths having to one another the same ratio as the Hence. 1 : n. viz. The projection is only advantageous when /3 differs appreciably from 90. the axes of orthoclase in which /3=6357'. OX -=- approximate value Example. . where . original lengths. 57' = 25 '1 cos 63 57' = 1 1-02 units. OA. 60. and is the unit of length measured in this direction. 51 in the ratio of b H. in Fig. Fig. a length OB is taken on OY=24-i. construct in the plane ZOA t a parallelogram Omqn . the correct value of Cy. 55. convenient set of oblique axes can be expeditiously We start from the position in Art. The drawings are orthographic. equal and similar to that of Fig. 51. When such computations are made. The arm the cubic axis OD and OE where OD OE =1:3. The or vertical -=- arm OA" is retained as OZ. whilst projected in OD has to be replaced by a new line . OE*Jl +?i -3. 53 where = CM' sin/3. and not the t. Join Oq. the unit length on OX. = 8-5sin6357' = 7-637 units. OY. and Oq drawn. it may be more convenient to change CD' and Cy of Fig. Hence. CD' and Cy of Fig. CH of Fig. Similarly. with unequal horizontal arms. 51.

180 and is 51. XOY=y. respectively. and C a and /3 are diagonal is the axis OX and the unit length on it. gives the unit length on the inclined axis of an oblique crystal. a-rb. When >90. 60. OY. The continuation on the left. Suppose CD' of Fig. respectively. which the equal to figure. an angle >// = 100 A 010. have any values. In the plane yCD' we form a parallelogram. A similar parallelogram OMXN is formed in the plane yCg in which replaces CD'. We first find. . represents the cubic axis perpendi3. 51 to be unmoved. The unit lengths on OX and OZ are now multiplied by the numbers . and c-=-6. two lines inclined to one another This angle between the vertical faces is not to usually obtained by direct measurement. 55 gives the axes of orthoclase from given in Chap. and vary with the substance. the sides of the parallelograms are taken so that yCTand yCX &re >90. The diagonal Cg lies in the plane D'CA'. Having obtained the directions of the axes. OB OC = OA" x is the unit of length on OY. Further. Cm CA'sm^. 15. The \^. and OH' along CD'. the lines OB and OC giving the positive directions of the axes of Fig. the sides ON' along Cy. where -=- ^ j The diagonal ON = OA" cos NOX = OB VlO cos 04-3. has been drawn. OA is now taken on Y and Z. being given by ON' = Cycos a OM' = CD'sina. in the plane A'CD' of Fig. does in Fig. in terms of the arbitrary length OB.AXES OF OBLIQUE CRYSTALS. be confused with obtuse angle. and any arbitrary length OB is cut off on the This represents the unit of length on horizontal arm to the right. YOZ=a. and they contain the axes of Y and X. OX of the parallelogram OX 7F -Lr l c. y. xu. = prolongation of CA' to the front are: Cd=CD'cos^. at 61 right angles. With sides lying in OD cular to OB. find a line Og in the plane A'CD' inclined to CD' The sides of the parallelogram along CD' and along the at the angle ^. by the process employed in Art. OX OX x -658. we can.. just as OE which may be denoted by OD. and -555 = OB VlO x -555 -3= OB x -585. The replaces a. may at In the anorthic system the angles between the axes. The diagonal gives the direction of OY and the unit length on it. ZOX=$. and its length is the unit length. The parameters are known 17. and its length is OB and the vertical construct the parallelogram OMXN. is usually placed to the right front. the plane yCD' is parallel to (100) and yCg to (010).

Suitable projections of the axes of anorthic crystals can be also obtained by a method similar to that given for oblique crystals in Art. Therefore XOM= 24 25'. Similarly.. since a=905'-5. = 08' be the unit of length. OE = W. The 19. OM= and = OEcosty . and. The rectangular cross has the arms of 6 units. : a: b :c = -899 : 1 : -709. in the plane Z0 the paral- lelogram OMXN is sin /3. 57. The unit lengths on two of the axes are then easily changed to correspond with the parameters of the crystal to be drawn. Fig. is projected in the plane A' CD' of Fig. Hence the lengths length OE. OE of 10 and 11 units of length. take is the unit of length. AXES OF ANORTHIC CRYSTALS. Let 08. crystals. The direction of the OD=OE+3 line is still the horizontal arm to the left. in which the cube has not been tilted. OY.62 18. made. where The diagonal OY is then the direction of the axis of Y. Starting with horizontal arms. 8'M'8/} and Complete the rhombus t OM t OM M f . above values .p)sin^^-3sinp The diagonal OX is ON=OA" cos the axis of X and the unit length on it. 16. final lengths on OX. OE to the left 180- to the left. /3=1012'-25 . we first change the length on the right and on a line making so that it should represent unit length ^. and also be calculated for the OC= OA" x -709 = 7'8 units. 51 which contains two lines of unit length at right angles to one To draw rhombohedral and hexagonal another. in the paper are all known in terms of the arbitrary ^ = 73 Example. : 26'= OE x -6 (very nearly) x 1-1 (very nearly). for tan XOM = angle XOM can ON+ OM= 2-125-^5-88.. and ON' = OA " cos a. and the unit length on it. and on the line at right = OM' = OS. and OZ. tan 60 = OA>j3. with the axis on the right. where p = 1826'. where . the angles: a = 905'-5. are: OA = 6-27 x -899 = 5-63. Again. a regular hexagon. As an illustration let us take cyanite (Al2 Si0 5 ) in which we know and the parameters 56'. Then 0= OE cos 55 30'-f-3 sin 18 OA" = OE OA" of ceptible. where OA on angles to 08. is made. the error being imperOX is found from the parallelogram with sides OMXN : OM= The and sin 78 58' = 5-88. as before. the axis OY is left in OE. instead of 90. OA" on the vertical axis 'equal to In the plane ZOE a parallelogram OM' TN' OM' = OE sin a. Then = OEcos (^ p) is -=- 3 sin p. ON=OA" cos 78 58' = 2-125. 88J5'..

projection to any particular rhombohedral or hexagonal crystal all that is needed is to multiply Cy by c. Fig.. are equal to the unit length multiplied by \/3. 57. 57. are thus all projected. are all equal and equilateral and 8S 8 '88"8 is a regular hexagon.8' = CD' the points M at distance CA'*j3. M M and produced &c. and these are joined to the points on CD' to complete the rhombus. are measured off on both sides of C and give of Fig. . let CD' and CA' of let the origin be taken at C. The (t . OM t. and one-half the length of. the linear parameter The unit length on the To adapt the of the crystal. vertical axis is known to be Cy of Fig. for 88 is parallel to. bisect the sides at 8.AXES OF RHOMBOHEDRAL AND HEXAGONAL CRYSTALS. On CA' points t and M' are then taken On CD' lengths 8. lengths OM. Then clearly the small triangles 8M 8 8^M8'. and in parallel projections the ratios of lengths on parallel lines Hence. it . 8 /f . . for the sides of the projected hexagon give the unit of length along any line parallel to them. 63 and produce them fcc. each of the sides of which is the unit of length. . 8". The sides of this rhombus are then bisected at points 8. 88'. 8. and the projected &c. the points to the origin. 51 be produced both ways.. 8". Fm. But remain unaltered in the projection. Join 88 and /t and the sides of the rhombus t /f . M 88". . to meet the sides of the rhombus produced at M. 51. &c. 8/y 8. /7 f 7/ Also OM= OM = <fec. 88" are then drawn. hexagon and the useful points M. The lines 88/. We also know the relations between lengths along the lines joining /t . &c. to meet at M. = OM = OA*/3.

so that the angles yD'C and D'Cb are both the projections of angles of 45. we can project azimuth. Ct : = Cy tan Q. Hence D't is the required line. particular case taken above is.Ct angle. and complete manner described in the first case. and one of the unit lengths be then increased in I I the ratio */3 desired the rhombus M'A'M A of Fig. If the line required makes an angle 6 upwards and to the right.-. however. yCD' and CD'8 are both right-angled isosceles triangles. and CV=CD'. We shall use the method of Art. TCt. The in drawing twins. 15 a method axial plane plane. D'Cb. a line inclined to CD' in the required direction at an angle 6. If the projection of two let found as 90 to one another be known. draw Tt From the construction CT=CD'i&n0. and thereby of projecting the axes of the rotated individual. Hence. in one of the twins of staurolite described in Chap. A' CD' of Fig. The sides of the two hexagons are inclined to one another at angles of 30. : Such a projection will enable us to draw the pyramid r{hkl]. Now the triangles lines of equal length at follows.64 AXES OF RHOMBOHEDRAL AND HEXAGONAL CRYSTALS. such as e. 15 to find the rectangular axes of twins . xvni.g. definite projected triangle lying in it are known. 57 can then be quickly projected. so that CD'. we have Again. the triangle yCD' is used . If. with one of the axes in an axial plane. In Art. The hexagon of e. however. 20. . . and VD'C=45. is given of drawing a line of unit length in an and inclined at any angle to one of the cubic axes. 51. and this desired to make a diagonal coincide with CA'. 57 in any 1. one of the diagonals of the hexagon coincided with is a position often selected. it be CD'. since D'Cy is a projected right The process is applicable to any plane if the angles of a Cy = CT : CV= tan 6:1. but it is not often needed. we need only take = the projection in the lengths on CD' CD''<j3. the line can be Let us suppose the plane to be yCD' of Fig. of constant use for it is the readiest way of projecting the twin-axis. and through D' draw D'T making the angle 0with CD'. from the similar triangles VCy. It may sometimes be necessary to find a line making a definite 21. as side construct a right-angled isosceles triangle CD' V in the plane of the paper. Let us take the first case. if upwards and to the left. 51. In the above. Through On CD' CV= CV T Then D't is the projection of parallel to Vy to meet Cy in t. of classes (i) and (ii) of the rhombohedral system. and the rhombohedron Tr{hkl}. and the line required make an angle 0<90 with CD'. angle with a known line in one of the conspicuous planes of the crystal. and let it meet in T. . at any desired rectangular unit axes can be drawn in the plane inclined If this be done in the horizontal angle to the original projected axes.g.

The vertical This value is unaltered in length and position. L. OA and as that of Mohs OB jections are two of the axes.n. projected a set of rectangular axes of equal length in the following way. 5 . and p = 1826'. EB' = OE tan pta.NAUMANN'S CLINOGRAPHIC AXES. 58. The amount of depression of each extremity is proportional to its distance from the the angle the rays make with the perpendicular to the paper. generally convenient. 59(6). Clinographic Drawings. One face of a cube is first placed in the paper with one of its edges vertical. By hypothesis.ns. paper be turned through 90 until it coincides with the horizontal plane. DA = OE=ODcotp. and let o. IL. and their proon the horizontal line of the drawing are given by If n = 3. so that the width of z> 22. OD-i-DA = OD OE = 1 is 3 . lying in the paper. 400 et seq. for it is in the paper. Naumann the face to the left right. from Fig. originally projected in D and E. 58. 59. and varies with the height to which the Let the depression DA' of the extremity A on the eye is raised. From Fig. c. The extremities of the horizontal axes. are now depressed in the vertical planes. Naumann now supposed the eye to be raised above the horizontal plane so as to look down upon the top of the cube. then Fig. and tan <r = 1 4. p.n<r = OE + ri> . Again. tan p = OD -=- and OE -f- of FIG. Fig. 59 (a). The depression of A is seen from axis -=- Fig. 58. 1830). we have EB' = EBta. 58. which gives the lines in the vertical plane through the eye and DA' of Fig. The cube is then turned about one of the vertical edges. which gives the lines in the vertical and from plane through the eye and B'E. EB = OE tan p. through an angle p. to be D A' = DA tan cr. Fig. 65 (iii) (Lehrbuch der Krystallographie.'. .. 58. is n times that to the is So far the construction the same If the given in Art.<r. axis OX be OD s. 9. :. 58. FIG. DA' = OE tan o-.

p the values n= s = 3. Fig. OZ being vertical and line ON = OE trisected and the at D and D'. t is through drawn. Furthermore.1 .'. = BOE = Also. EOB' = tan p tan a = 1 n2* . . For tan Also. X RO OX t Fio. NOE E is Lines are then D'. It is clear that unit lengths on it. parallel On point R is and the line verticals a the vertical through = OAr +s. l + AO* = -9493. meeting the D and D' at the is the axis The line points A'. :. drawn through N. and the lengths OA'. EOB' = 2 7'. to OZ. adopted -=- in drawings of all book. given in terms of the arbitrary length OE and the numbers n and s. D. in this and these values are 18 26'. . and the lengths OA'. A'O = AO* + 9 tan -=. 60.DOA' = 18 The angle <r.n*s.27 tanZ>04'=l+* = lH-3. We can now readily find the angles DOA' and EOB'. and give the values any rotation and elevation desired in terms of OE.tan p tan a = 1 . OB'. or of OA the cubic edge in the paper. are drawn at 90 to one another. /.66 NAUMANN'S CLINOGRAPHIC AXES. = 23. 2 ^'0 = ^0^-3. 26'. . . therefore. Naumann employed systems. EOS' = EB' + OE . 60. so that N NR RO . A'O* m OB* + A'D* = OD* ffO* = B'E* + OE =OE*(l+ tan 2 2 p tan a) 2 for The above expressions are perfectly general. The depressions DA' and EB' are. Naumann gave the following practical rule for drawing Two lines OZ and NOE. are the of X. DA' :OD = NR: ON= 1 : s. given by tan <r = 1 9. tan DOA' = DA' + OD=l+s. is 6 20'. taken. Hence. the axes.

If 1 -^ s = 0.3 . should be first 52 . or one of the subordinate forms. orthographic drawings. the axes of oblique The drawings are then parcrystals are obtained.e. 16 and 18. the simple form should be completely drawn. (or : The line TS drawn through T. and the eye is not moved. Through A' a line A'Q is drawn drawn meeting DA' in T. a very hard pencil. we take S on EB' where ES = DO.3 -=. A vertical. if ever. is /. as to whether the predominant form. for the sake of greater clearness. In Fig. generally. or still better a stout needle mounted in a convenient handle. AOD From a set of cubic axes thus projected those of tetragonal and other crystals can be obtained in the manner described in Arts. s has. gives the unit lengths OB' and E OY t on the axis For of Y. of Fig. When introducing the faces of the remaining forms. in which several forms occur. is the unit length evident from either of the equal triangles OA" in the BOE. tan^'=^=^ = ^=^ = tanptanc. 24. NQ) = OD ON= 1:3. used. The drawing But of simple forms. as is length on OZ = OS. and form the irregular rect- and anorthic angular cross from which. for the rays are perpen- ticular cases of dicular to the paper. 58. DA' . 60. When a decision on this point is come to. care must be taken to cut off This is readily done proportional lengths on all homologous edges. by means of proportional compasses.0. i. 60. in Arts.2. 1320. The line B'OY intercepted between the vertical through the two extreme verticals. The cubic axes are then projected in OD. Z)^. OA" of Fig. been taken . to meet in B'. parallel to I NOE.n.NAUMANN'S CLINOGRAPHIC AXES. though this value is rarely. a good deal of judgment and practice in drawing is needed to know which forms should be drawn first. being used. find EB' DT DA' 1 To the length OA" on OZ. offers in systems in little which the forms to be shown are not in drawing combinations. and OQ then DT-.Z>^' .DA' . No general rule can be given difficulty. that which has its faces most largely developed. Hence parallel to 67 is ON.DA' or generally = 1 : n. OE. or of simple combinations closed.

in a combination of *{!!!} with the edge. can be reduced either by photography.68 drawn. Thus. cubic edges. the proportional compasses are fixed at the desired ratio say to cut off one-tenth the long legs being made to span each edge in turn. Thus. the tetrahedron should be first drawn. if the drawing were to be reduced by a-half. illustrated All the coigns are joined to any point in the by paper. the required reduction in the length of any line. The proportional compasses are then set so as to give Fig. if we desire to show the regular tetrahedron K [111} edges truncated by narrow faces {100} of the cube. Or : OR = Or 1 : OR = rr 1 : = 2:5. or by the following method FIG. the compasses would be set to bisect each line. Op Similarly. the faces of the tetrahedron are then its easily inserted by drawing lines through points on the cubic edges parallel to the diagonals of the cubic faces and modifying alternate To cut off equal lengths from the coigns on the coigns of the cube. which. as shown in the diagram. rhombic dodecahedron {110} small. By spanning each line from a coign to the fixed point with the long legs and reversing the compasses we get a sei'ies of points. which may be either at the origin. 61. the short legs give the length from the coign on this On the other hand. when joined by lines parallel to those of the original drawing. of the large cube. In the diagram one of the smaller cubes is one-half. . Thus. having is REDUCTION OF SCALE. and the other two-fifths. Until some skill has been attained it is best to project the The drawing axes and to draw the crystal on a very large scale. it best to draw the cube first . or at any point without the drawing. 61. give a diagram half the dimensions of the original one. 25. Clearly the process can be reversed and a small figure magnified in any required ratio. : Q = Qp' QB : l =pp' l : R&= RR 1 I : 2.

crystal. All the front faces having been introduced. that is to say. 26. so that the edges bounding the figure again exactly fit. The coigns are now pricked through the tracing paper on to the original drawing and give the coigns at the back of the figure. is turned half-way round in its plane. It is often desirable to is show the faces at the back of a This strokes. faces. When usually done by means of lines of dots or very short the crystal is centro-symmetrical the edges at the back are very easily drawn as follows. the coigns are pricked through on to tracing paper and the figure copied. To avoid confusion the interrupted lines 69 from O are not carried through the large cube. the figure would join opposite coigns and be bisected at the and that the process therefore gives the positions of parallel . and the back edges of the interior cube have been omitted. It is clear that lines through the centre of centre. The tracing paper is then inverted.DRAWING EDGES AT THE BACK.

but they do not enable him to grasp all the zonal relations of a crystal. to the centre of projection is therefore a zone-axis. The first we shall describe is that known by German The plane of projection is Crystallographers as linear projection. parallel positions so as to pass through a fixed point. and to recognize the symmetry and habit of crystals of different substances . 2. orthographic and clinographic drawings. which is called the centre of projection. in which different traces 1 . in the point in which the line of intersection of the corresponding The line joining this point planes meets the plane of projection. when projection is called the trace of the face. traces meeting in . indices of the faces. aid the student to realize crystal-forms.CHAPTER VII. parallel to some important face of the crystal. 1 It may be denoted by enclosing in crotchets the letters which indicate the it. or that perpendicular to the triad axis All faces and edges are shifted to crystal. coincide in a plane parallel to each of them. The straight line in which the transposed face meets the plane of Parallel faces will. and are Two or more traces meet therefore represented by a single trace. (i) 1. LINEAR AND STEREOGEAPHIC PROJECTIONS. such as a plane of symmetry or an of a rhombohedral axial plane. THE diagrams given in plans. shifted. not lying in the plane of projection. Linear Projection. and the point is called a zonal point The points. or to determine the relations between the dihedral angles and the For these purposes diagrams involving a more highly abstract representation of a crystal are generally used.

joining the centre of projection to the zonal points. clear that every face parallel to the zone-axis OZ must. where OZ meets The parallel the paper. It may be used : (i) for determining the directions of zone-axes. 9. we can draw the traces of the faces m. for points on OZ are projected in 0. If. A plane parallel to c (001) is taken for that of projection. It represents the crystal of is barytes of which Fig.. meets the paper is given by the axis at right angles to TT. furthermore. for testing whether any face is in a particular zone. Hence. &c. are zonal points which the directions of zone-axes parallel to the face P. Fig. we shall 3. the traces of all Jc and X' k' make angles of 22 15' with at angles of are inclined to OT tautozoual faces meet in the zonal point. OZ. 63. the line joining any two zonal points is the trace of a possible face . The traces OX. meet the paper in a XX. perpendicular to this face and at a distance c (the parameter) from the paper. respectively. It trace which passes through 0. (iii) for determining the symbol of a face parallel to two zone-axes. and all the zones to which this face is common must give zonal points situated in its trace. 63. Again. from a knowledge of the angles given in Chap. is. The all point C is not shown in Fig. Similarly. coincide in a plane through OZ which meets the paper in TOT. but its suitability for such computations is not use so inferior to that of the stereographic projection that it for the purpose. It can also be used for numerical calculations. the trace in which the plane through C. linear projection. for the plane which contains the two zoneaxes. and the centre is taken at a point C on the zone-axis. k.. Art. 62 a plan. We shall illustrate the projection by giving the steps by which the is made. faces a and a'. m' and X. Example. when it is transposed so as to pass through C. . is a possible face. X. by means of a protractor.LINEAR PROJECTION (BARYTES). in.. This trace is labelled a (100). or edges of the crystal . when as shifted to to themselves so pass through C. Again. 39 11' and 22 10'. parallel to b and &'. The projection is useful in several ways. for the (ii) trace must then pass through the zonal point . intersect the trace of fix 71 any particular face P. whilst the pairs m.

Their symbols are (Oil) and (Oil). homologous traces / and z"' are now drawn through B and B parallel to The symbols of the m'.= -OB.72 LINEAR PROJECTION (BARYTES). which the trace z forms with the axes. y . which are in a zone with the faces m and c. is 1 z. The 1 B face o is parallel to OX. and all the traces are parallel. The length OB is taken arbitrarily and gives the scale of the projection. z'. respectively. the zonal point an infinite distance. respectively. are parallel to the and make angles of 39 11' with OY. z/. The trace z may be drawn through any point B on OY. y. is moreover. and clearly pass through A. the traces FIG. . For a similar reason the trace of o' is the parallel line through t B B . 63. and is perpendicular to o. and its trace must be the line through parallel to OX. Art. o. from the triangle AOB. the zone-axis is at parallel to the plane of projection. Again. and A. 8). and OA= -OA. is OA known in terms of t faces are attached to the traces. That a and a! are in the zone is obvious. OB. trace of m. where OB. we have OA + OB= tan (OBA = 39 Hence. jection is determined by the length OB taken (Chap. and A. 11'). and is a fixed length. Hence. a' are all in a zone having CB for zone-axis. the point in which the traces of a and z intersect. The face z" The passes through B. and the distance c of the centre of proof z and z". The since faces a. vi. for they are parallel to the plane of symmetry which bisects the angles yy .

d meets that of 2. Hence. 62 shows that the edge [ro] is parallel to the edges into which m! and m'" are foreshortened. for y is common to and [dry]. this is a serious drawback. the faces d. and the faces are therefore and similarly for the other sets which meet at the corners of the rectangle formed by the traces of o and u. its trace passes through B and through the point of intersection of r and d. z Hence. point. which are The face u is parallel to the plane of symmetry bisecting the angle zz"'. The symbols can The trace of at a distance 40 A. the diagram.. By drawing y and /. In practice. (104) has not been inserted. But d is parallel to OY. and the intercepts of the face are 204. OC. plan. the trace of r passes through the zonal point in which m' and o intersect. A It should be noticed that a knowledge of the parameter c. The OC. The symbol of y is therefore (122). The homologous The trace \zyo~\ traces can be now drawn. The face r therefore intercepts on the axes The traces. The edges lines 6. . Hence. the student can easily prove that the symbols of these faces are (210) and The trace of X is seen to pass through the intersection of those of (130). has not been needed. OC. the zones and symbol of y are now easily found. meets it in a trace at a correspondingly great distance from the origin. parallel trace u' (TOl) passing A through A. But the that of trace o'. y"' are all parallel to Hence. 73 Again. projection would be the same. 20B. therefore be obtained and that of k through those of r and by Weiss's zone-law. whatever be the length . Hence. the trace r meets OY sA 20B. for it meets the axis of parallel to the paper and cannot be shown as a trace. formed by the traces u. and it is clear that all lines in these latter faces will be When we meet with such edges as [ro] in a projected in the same lines. also parallel to OT. z"' are in a zone with the faces b and &'. except in scale. OC+2. d. . u.LINEAR PROJECTION (BARYTES). its symbol is (112). and its symbol is (101). for the triangle parallel to that of m. to X and k. Hence. They therefore all pass through the points in which the trace r meets OX. the faces 2. m'. as it would unduly extend The face c is X linear projection is sometimes inconveniently large for a face. lines through A and B parallel. Its trace is. I 1 z". OB. the faces are all tautozoual. r. therefore. Similarly. or of the angle which the face z makes with the paper. homologous faces are now one another and to the easily drawn. are tautozonal. A parallel face is given Hence. at the point in which this latter meets o'. r"'. But r is also in the zone [wrc]. inserted. respectively. o. its trace is It must meet OX at a distance 20 A. u all meet in a tautozonal lengths 20A. inclined at a small angle to the paper. and OX is similar and equal to BOA. we know that the faces r and o must be in a zone with the faces m' and m'". its trace is the line u drawn through The homologous face gives the parallel to OY. of y. The traces of the by OA. Close inspection of Fig. r. OB. and the face has the symbol (102).

a linear projection would be drawn directly from the crystal after such measurements and determinations of zones as were needed had been made. 3. for instance. where OA = a. Mh = 010 A 100 = 87 p The parameters and the following angles are =115 5o''o. and the method is often less All the faces are laborious than that given in Chap. Linear projections are of great assistance in. occasionally. Or we may suppose all the faces to pass through A on OX. a few edges only. lie. Linear projections may be advantageously used in order to get the directions of the edges of a crystal. where c. be taken not to make mistakes as to the plane in which the traces on which the centre of projection is taken. 62. I {110}. Art. the traces are as easily drawn as in The directions of the edges are the example worked out in Art. It also clear that the edge of intersection of c (001) with any face parallel to the trace of the latter face. given in Fig. and the traces to be drawn in OZ. P {001}. v. for the zonal point is at an infinite distance. Thus the plan. the point C on the axis drawn in the projected If the axes of and Y and the parameters on them plane XO Y. y {201}. Care must. Fig. in this and similar cases. 4. 00 = The traces are then X the plane YOZ. of course. when an orthographic or clinographic drawing has to be made . be convenient to use partial more than one of the axial planes in drawing Such partial projections would be needed to give the same crystal. or as to the axis 5. as. given by the lines joining C to the intersections of the traces. linear projections in It may. C'. is readily made from the linear projection. 13'-3. a = 93 . We shall illustrate the application of linear projection to the drawing of crystals. known: {111}. making plans and other drawings of crystals. 65. The forms to be represented are: M {010}. joining meet. o {III}. determined by the lengths of the projected axes. Example. 4.74 AUXILIARY LINEAR PROJECTIONS. In the preceding Article reference was made to the plan as standing for the crystal but in actual . have been correctly projected. T {110}. by describing the steps involved in drawing the simple crystal of anorthite. The scale of the linear projection is. For the edges in the plan are the lines to the zonal points in which the corresponding traces The edges are parallel to the traces when these are parallel is is to one another. transposed parallel to themselves so as to pass through a point on one of the axes of reference at a distance from the origin equal to the parameter on this axis . and the plan would then be drawn practice from the linear projection.

Art. and and the trace of oo. and to the lines joining C to the zonal points. for the face is parallel to XO Y. and bisects OX. vi. being any arbitrary length i cos (87 6' . with edges parallel to the axes of Y and to the It line joining C to the point of intersection of OX t with the trace y. may have any dimensions. in Fig. the edges should approximate in length to those in the crystal. Then OX and OF are unit lengths in the axes of X and Y. crystal are pp through B and X. 18. The parallelepiped PMy' is first drawn X and Fio.. Through these P points the edges [Pp] and [P. The length give OX=OA being unchanged. Y and X at B. but. OJ/' = cos 3 13'-3 . cos68 40' ' 3 sin 18 26' OM = Of cos 25 55' -5= OE x = OE x -46 = OE. OE.EXAMPLE (ANORTHITE). if it is to represent a crystal of particular habit. Through the same points. all the faces OF oo X. XOY. M line joining C to the zonal point [pX. the length OB. 64.N'=<X4"sin3 13'-3 = OE VlO sin 3 13'-3-r3 = OEx-18. Projecting the axes by the 75 MM' and we take : CO. . at right the sides OM'YN' with method of Chap. or in the ratios 1 l-j- 64 : -55-:.o].'64. 65. the trace of o (III) is meeting the axes of respectively. say) are now cut off by proportional compasses at opposite ends of the upper and lower edges [Py]. The parallel edge [Mj)'] is determined in the same manner. we draw. very nearly O. 65. or OM'. and construct the parallelograms OMXN and given below. -64 : 1 : -55. . Ol parallel to I (110) is Similarly. These lengths and OA" have now .p'] are drawn parallel to the trace pp.18 26') c 3 sin lb 26' _ -36 .. edges are drawn parallel to the line joining C to the zonal point [ypl] of which [p'y ] is alone shown. the traces of p and T are OT parallel to pp. and the length OC=OA"x -55-i--64 = 0x -91. The in points on the edges [MP] and [My]. The trace y is parallel to A Fig. say) are now cut [Py]. edges [Pp] and [py] meet the face which. OA" = OE N/lO-r-3 = OE x 1-06. and The edges of the parallel to the axes. to be : changed in the - ratios of the parameters. The edges so obtained will be found to be parallel to the r . OY is divided by -64 to linear projection is now made in the plane being shifted to pass through C on OZ at distance c. give the edge [Mp]. Equal lengths (one-fifth. angles. when joined. Faces of the o. off at the other ends same edges Lines parallel to the trace oo give the edges [Po]. Equal lengths (one-fourth. when the other faces are neglected. Faces p.

when have seen that. and in Brooke and Miller's All the normals to the faces are supposed Mineralogy. and was of representing the data of crystal measureadopted by Miller and used by him in the on Crystallography. and the distinction angles between the axial points and the poles of the faces parallel to pairs . &c. and the lines joining them to one another and to the coigns in the bounding edges give the edges at the back of the figure. They in edges parallel to the traces 01. Art. 15. tracing give the coigns behind the paper. diplohedral crystals each normal is perpendicular to a pair of shall parallel faces situated on opposite sides of the origin. If it is desired to show by dotted lines the parallel edges behind the paper. Y. keeping in mind the relations given for in (1). (ii) The Stereographic Projection. respectively. the normals meet We take the point on the sphere to be the pole of the face. introduced 6. This projection was by F. where the axes OX. Neumann as offering a simple way ment. They can be now pricked through with a needle-point. The tracing-paper is then inverted. OZ meet the points X. iv. The points in which In the sphere are the poles of the faces. and the indices of that. by equations (1) of Chap. E. and the coigns in the edges bounding the figure The positions of the coigns in the are again brought into strict coincidence.] has to be equal and parallel to \M. 1839 . in a like manner.T]. the two lie on the same side of the origin. PMy the drawing is covered with tracing-paper and the coigns marked on it.The vertical line t through the point so found is the edge required. the direction of the normal We is fully determined if a face are known . It is most easily drawn by determining the distance from the coign of the parallelepiped PMy. are the arcs of great circles on the sphere between the pole which may also be denoted by P and the axial The points. the lines joining vertical edge G to the zonal points [yip] and [yTo].76 [P. intercepted by \M. are not necessarily poles of possible faces. The faces I and T are easily drawn in a similar manner. The remaining edges p'-.o']. Clearly the XOP. and a sphere of convenient radius Treatise is described with the origin as centre. STEREOGRAPHIC PROJECTION. and measuring off this length from t the opposite coign of along the parallel edge [Pjf]. to pass through the origin. the parameters. and OT and y' in edges parallel to P . of the face o' are obtained in a manner similar to that given for meet Prism-faces. The last [MT. sphere. they may. OY.. and the axes. be applied to the pole. Z. 1852. the indices may be said to be those of the normal.T] on the edge [PM ].

1881. even in this latter case. be careThe poles of the axial planes YOZ. the face-indices be used to denote the poles of the faces. and in E. XOY are usually denoted by the letters A. within the primitive on the primitive circle . in order to avoid confusing the poles with the parameters. are then the points in which the lines joining the poles to the eye meet the paper. Reusch's Die Stereograpldsche Projection. and are often inscribed in diagrams in small Italics which take up borne in mind. but. we can circle in employ the zone-symbol to denote the great poles lie. intersection of two zone-circles is a possible pole . capital letters will often be used in the text. iv. The great circle in which the sphere meets the paper is called the The projections of poles primitive circle. ZOX. and is therefore perpendicular to the possible face parallel to the axes. for every circle on the sphere is projected on the 7. v. But we know that a zone-axis [uvw] and a face (hkl) parallel to it are connected if by the equation. and those to all tautozonal faces lie in a plane perpendicular to the zone-axis. as fully PRIMITIVE. be stated as Thus. or shortly the primitive. The plane of the paper is' supposed to pass through the centre of the sphere. can. Again. There will then be no ambiguity in stating that the pole (hkl) lies in the zone-circle [uvw~\. now. respectively. which the provided that the relation implied is that given by the above equation. of the axes must. Hence. Leipzig. since all normals are drawn through the centre of the sphere. 19. hu + kv + Iw = 0. 77 was indicated in Chap. All the propositions of Chap. stereographic projection For the purpose of representing the sphere on the paper the is used. for the radius through this point is perpendicular to both the zone-axes. and the eye to be placed on the surface of the sphere at one extremity of the diameter perpendicular to the paper: the other extremity of this diameter will be called the opposite point. The reader will find proofs of statement in text-books of Spherical Trigonometry.ZONE-CIRCLE. this paper in a straight line or circle. the point of propositions between poles and zone-circles. It is merely another way of stating that the face is parallel to that zone-axis. B and C. the poles of tautozonal faces must lie in a great circle. less room. owing to the simplicity of the construction. Art. It is clear that the projections of poles situated fall lie on the hemisphere opposite to the eye will that the projections of poles which circle .

so that some important zoneaxis often an axis of symmetry is the diameter through the eye. The next point to be considered is the orientation of the The crystal is invariably placed. clear that all points on this meridian must be projected in points lying in the diameter OL . will meet the paper outside the primitive. and two planes intersect one another in a straight line. 9. must be a straight a plane passing through the eye For the lines joining the points to the lies in eye all lie in the plane of the circle. circle Similarly. . crystal with respect to the sphere. and this is often desirable is when the crystal is not centro-symmetrical. and let the North. with the poles themselves . those on the upper hemisphere above the paper. the equator meets the diameter at L itself. and that to a point h on the lower semicircle has to be prolonged to meet the diameter outside the circle at U. If the circle meets the primitive. The eye is therefore supposed to be below the paper. unless the contrary is specially stated. The line Eq semicircle to a point q on the upper meets the diameter of the equator within the circle at line to the point L on the Q . the straight line must pass through the two points of intersection. The positions of the projected poles are usually indicated by dots. To illustrate the projection. the convention usually made that the position of the eye is changed to the end of the diameter above the paper. and the same must be true for points on points on all meridian-circles. the projections of the any which line. Suppose Fig. Any other points which may be needed. or South.78 will coincide POSITION OF EYE AND CRYSTAL. and the positions of poles on the lower hemisphere as thus seen are indicated by circlets. may be indicated by a small cross or other mark. the South Pole. furthermore. let the equator be the primitive circle. and that lines to poles. It is. such as those of the extremities of zone-axes. and the eye to be placed at E. let a terrestrial globe be taken to represent the sphere. Pole be the position of the eye. When it is desired to indicate the positions of poles below the paper. The poles usually shown in stereographic projections are 8. situated on the same side of the paper as the eye. 66 to represent a meridian-circle.

the centre. The opposite point Hence we have the following rule extremity of this diameter. it is clear that the figure and model could be turned about the diameter OQ any points in meridian-circle. 7. The line joining the point q on the meridian to the eye (at the South All great circles Pole) meets the equatorial diameter in a point Q. To determine the on a great opposite point through the eye. to be shown in Fig. and the lines in its plane. and the eye to be in the paper at E. N : perpendicular to the trace OQ of the meridian-circle containing the point Let the points where the diameter meets the q to be projected. the poles are easily placed in their correct position by means of a been on a globe. and correspond to the meridian-circles in the Diametral zones. or perpendicular to a plane of symmetry. 66 may now be supposed to be drawn in the primitive. projection of a point lying its arc-distance from the Suppose a section through the eye. the extremity of the is the other diameter perpendicular to OQ. EQq were threads. He in the plane of the paper . or actual. the primitive in the projection. 79 to faces constituting the zone are the axis and. on the sphere are equal. in Art. a great aid in making stereograms. OQ. pole. be drawn through the axis and each pole in the primitive. the projection of a possible. through known poles in the primitive are. and the centre is Zone-circles can. Such zone-circles must be projected in the diameters of the primitive. when known. consequently. when present. with that made by the plane of a meridian. 10. 66. as they illustration may be called. Fig. this line or their relation without changing the positions of to the points on the meridian and retains In such a rotation the eye moves with the its position on this circle. if we may use this word to designate the stereographic projection of the poles of a crystal. PROBLEM circle is 1. as they would be in a model in which the meridian-circle was of brass and the lines EN. In the plane of the primitive draw the diameter NOE . then. for they have the same radius as the sphere. to be turned about OQ until it coincides with the equator. Suppose the meridian. protractor. and the given This section can be compared point q. In these cases the zone-axis meets the sphere in possible poles. when the angles between them have The normals all at right angles to In many cases the zone-axis through the eye is an axis of symmetry. If the lines in the meridian-plane were fixed. therefore.PROJECTION OF A POINT ON A DIAMETRAL ZONE. 74. as in Fig.

Given the projection Q of a point q on the sphere. to of the great circle through the poles. it will be best to apply the method of Art. found. Q. it indefinitely on the side away Then draw a diameter OE per- pendicular to OQ meeting the primitive make the right angle QEs. 1. Therefore qOs is a diameter. in E. E and N. of Eq with the trace OQ is the projection of the point q on the sphere. PROBLEM 3. sphere. struction. This diameter drawn in may be supposed to be a meridian-circle which has it been turned. and the angles the poles in such zones make with the opposite point can be determined either by direct measurement. in S. When the projections within the primitive of two or three calculation poles have been found. to find that of the other extremity of the diameter through q. primitive be arc.80 PROJECTIONS OF THE EXTREMITIES OF A DIAMETER. being a right angle. 20 to determine the position of the projected pole. By Fig. Draw the point required the diameter is easily OQ. The The angle at E. . 12. coincides with The anorthic system 1. 67. It is clear that any two poles fix the position of a zone-circle for only one plane can be drawn through these poles and the centre of the . about the equatorial diameter OQ until the equator. Mark off by a protractor Nq = a. the given and join Eg. lie in zones the axes of which can be conveniently placed in the primitive . those of other poles can be obtained by drawing the zone-circles through pairs of known poles. as a rule. or by extremely In cases where a considerable amount of simple calculation. At E and produce Es to meet point OQ S is that required. 1. The point of intersection. to get the distance of a pole from the is needed opposite point. is the only one in which the condoes not enable us to fix a number of In other systems a number of faces will. poles. 13. in the manner described in Prob. is the angle in a semicircle. and produce from Q. draw the projection Given the projections R and Q of two poles. and considerations similar to those employed in Prob. given in Prob. PROBLEM 2. 11.

between are not drawn. the meet in x. and draw the straight line MO. as the projection of the pole is required. circle. The pole of a zonea rule. (a) 81 the projection Fig. 69. for all great through a given pole q have the same diameter and contain the point * at the extremity opposite to the pole. zone-axis is the diameter of the sphere perpendicular to The point in which the zone-axis meets the plane of a zone-circle.. pass through the centre required. and its centre and radius are obtained in the manner given under and rrf to (a). All that is needed is to determine the points /. /'. the sphere above the paper is a pole of the zone-circle. To find P. and is at 90 To determine the arcs on a projected zoneto every point in it.ZONE-CIRCLE THROUGH TWO POLES. II' cutting primitive in and rrt respectively. Open out a pair of compasses to any convenient extent and with each of the three points as centre describe circles. the pole of a possible crystal-face. and S. Fig. This the plane of a great circle through the eye To Q and R r avoid confusing the figure. Q. and through x draw the diameter GOSx. (6) When the points Q and R are at very unequal distances from the centre a more rapid method is Describe with any illustrated by Fig. the arcs of the circles IV and rr. 2 (using S of the point The circles must pass through the point S . and the circle through is them readily drawn by Euclid iv. The circle through R and Q meets the primitive in We thus have at the points G and S. the projection of the pole of a great circle which is Let the known Bisect the arc projected in the known circle GMH. PROBLEM 4. 67) at the other extremity of the diameter through one of the given poles. 6 . circle meet the primitive in G and H. A circle is not. Determine by the method given in Prob. The lines. It is most convenient in practice to take that projected pole Q which is furthest from the centre. joining the points in which each pair of circles intersects. at GH line is the trace of 1 M. 68. The centre of the circle is most readily found as follows. Draw the . convenient radii two circles given points lines II' 1 through the points. and r. 14. 5. Hence we have circle required three points in the paper R. with accuracy. F IGleast three points on the circle.

is measured on the primitive by a protractor. meeting MO come in P. the angle mp being is now in the extremity of the zone-axis. the diameter 16. projected in the known circle to find the projection. PQ are drawn and The arc rq is then measured by a protractor. For the circle a proof of this the reader is referred to GRH works on Spherical Trigonometry. Draw the line GM. Projection. COR. the points m and p the diameter until MO G 90. 69. If the figure is rotated about Fir. It H the great circle and diameters of MOP. or to Reusch's Stereogr. the point p point into the meridian projected in and. r. for the two GH to one another. that is. P of . meeting the r an arc rq . The straight line qP meets in the point Q required. 15. Conversely. in Fig.82 POLE OF ZONE-CIRCLE. the given angle. PROBLEM 6. primitive in From Fig. are at right angles the projection Hence. 70. respectively . 1. and join Gp. Q. and the point It. of the pole of the zone-circle is first found straight line by A drawn through PR. comes to the position of the eye. MO P at 90 from of the pole required is in M. perpendicular to the great circle which is projected in are the poles is also clear that G and GMH. From m measure off a quadrant mp.a. The MOP P is therefore known. of a point in the zone-circle at a given angular distance from the known point. zone-circle and a known point in it being PROBLEM 5. and produce it to MO meet the primitive at m. straight lines continued to meet the primitive in r PR and and q. Draw. the pole P of the great circle through the poles having been found. A GRH The is projection P the preceding construction. the projection To draw the projection of a zone-circle when the extremity of the zone-axis is known. the angle a between two projected poles can be determined by reversing the preceding construction. It is clearly only necessary to reverse the construction given in Problem 4 for finding the point P.

which Q is the pole (Prob. Mark off on the primitive a quadrantal arc mp. Through E. an extremity of the diameter perpendicular to OP. respectively .PROJECTION OF SMALL CIRCLE. 72. in which the diameter OP is the protwo points at angular distances a from the centre (projected in P) of the small circle.) The circle must contain both P and Q for R is at 90 to : every point on this at distance /3 circle. The small circle cuts jection. Construct. known zone-circle and point in it being 17. the construction . is on the circle required point G and M t . to draw through R the projection of a great circle making an angle /? with the known zone-circle. To find the projection of a small circle. Draw. and therefore between two zone-circles. Now draw GP and produce it to meet the primitive in p. A is The angle between two planes. as it would needlessly complicate it. Hence. in Fig. the angle /3 is that between the two poles of the given and the required circles. When this is known the circle is drawn accordingly. (It is not shown in the figure. PROBLEM 8. Mark 5). Er The />r points R and R in which these lines meet the circle. t . projected in the circle [GRH~\ and R. 6. and join mG. which has its centre at a known point on the sphere and a given arc a for arc-radius. . Let P. and join Er. a diameter OP through the projection the meri- P of the known dian point. by Prob. that of the required circle. 83 it. can be completed by the preceding problem. the circle [PQ] of which R is the pole. MOP and then the diameter through GOH at right angles to The circle required passes H. for both points are at 90 to P. 62 . 71. 72. know on which side of the original circle the required one is to lie. of y . necessary to 18. the same as that between the two lines per- pendicular to them. and therefore to know on which side of P the arc ft between P and Q is to be measured. PROBLEM 7. Fig. The in which mG and OP intersect. off Q on it from P (Prob. t FIG. each equal to a. which can now be drawn since we know three points on it. Then construct the The problem is now circle LRM It of is solved. be the point of projection of the pole of \GRH~\ if we can find Q. 6). draw EP to meet the primitive Cut off on the primitive two arcs pr and at p.

and knowledge of their angular distance from any two poles in the primitive which are not the extremities of a diameter. to the primitive. third point /3 on Tpa being 53 14'-5.. are the projections of points on the small circle. The circle with radius 2)/3 and centre D cuts the circle within the primitive. T of anorthite are placed in the primitive. and the point n is required. intersection is the centre C of the small circle. The obtained by the preceding construction. side of T. and the radius of one circle at the point of intersection is a tangent to the other. The point of For. sured at oft' a. points on which are at 47 24' from t similar construction is made on either M . aa. protractor. and the tangents equal to are drawn to meet at C. where T=90. the angles from the unknown pole to those in the primitive exceed 45. R. t usually applied to make a stereogram of an poles in the primitive are placed by means of a then a few poles are projected within the primitive from a is The 20. Arcs M. then C is the centre. since p the centre on the sphere of the small circle lies on the primitive. diameter OP. projection of any pole. in Fig. In such a case it is t best to draw the tangents at r and r. the poles M.a. for the line Er then meets the diameter at a very distant point. the arcs Tfr. is a small circle. when the angular distances from two known poles are given.. and 7^=53 14' -5. To decide which point projections of these small The two points of is that required is generally easy from knowledge of the crystal. and the position of the pole with respect to other poles. of the t projection of the small circle on the sphere. however. the above construction is inconvenient. Thus. Example. If. at the required point n . 73. and R. and C are then found as before. the two circles cut one another at right angles. where J/> = 47 24'. circle t t M M t A with centre C. ZT can be found by joining Eft. The preceding problem gives an easy method for finding the 19. The points P and p coincide when the pole is in the primitive. a on the primitive are mean. M t . a. Bisect RR at C. intersection satisfy the data.84 PROJECTION OF ANY POLE. Consequently r and r are marked off on the primitive at the required angles from P. and CR the radius. For the pole must lie on small circles drawn with the given arc-radii about each of the circles are known poles. This construction anorthic crystal. and with radius Ca (the A A length of the tangent).

are at 90 from the great circle [6c6. &c. The other poles X. The pole a is placed at the lowest point. t. b. a. vi. One of the needle points of the compasses is next placed at a and the centre on the line be of the The intersections of circle ao'a.] are the poles o and o'. a. It is . and o. Art. 1 the zone.]. [m. &o. in. on one of these lines is then determined by Prob. The circles in which the zones [azyo]. so that lines of construction will not confuse the stereogram) about a. r . are joined by straight primitive from the point a. required. and the circle itself then drawn.cj fix the positions of z.. z". it is merely an auxiliary point in the construction. The zones are put in by a protractor from the table of angles given in Chap. is easily found by drawing circles than the primitive. 74. opened out to the extent xa and the circle described. We proceed to describe the construction of the stereogram. is not shown. The poles ?t and u' are therefore fixed. then possible to draw the zone-circles [byrd] and [by'r'd ]. 1. \. 6 at 90 to the right. 8. The homologous circle [bz'u'] is drawn with the same radius. The zone-circle [bzu] is next determined in a similar manner. k. x. or d. consequently the poles. is found. Let us take o.. The axis OZ. 85 Example. the points r. (larger The centre of the circle through aoa. for the points a. 21. as centres. parallel to the faces a. [ao'aj. \audlc]. Its centre is a trifle further from the point c than '. The line joining their points of The compasses are intersection meets the line be in the centre. z'". Fig. which 1 By drawing are fixed. of the crystal of barytes. 3 of this Chapter and in Chap. already discussed in Art. m. Then angles = co (52 43') and the points so obtained are measured on the drawn. The centre. 9. lines to the pole a The points of intersection with [bcb. [hoc]. [mrc].. x. z'. and \cr'z'] are then drawn as straight lines through the centre. and the construction can be easily tested. is taken as the U0 diameter through the eye . are projected can then be .circle [mtio'] and its homologues. The position of a pole. o. z. m. &c. lie on the primitive. . Art.EXAMPLE (BARYTES). these circles with the zones [me].

^(110). from the circle |>y"] = [431]. Hence. The I protractor. [az] Again. Again. viz. poles are m' (IlO). 2" (111). and will be found to be those given in Chap. = [001]. given in table (23) of Chap. Combining the two symbols by the rule. i. with_[aft] poles m. its symbol is (210). the numerical values of a In this b c would be now determined. Art. Hence y is (122). The pole r (112) lying in the first octant must be taken. The pole r is the intersection of the zone-circles [mc] = [l!o] and [m. Similarly. Hence. The symbol of the zone-circle is [111. v. \_kor"]. The face of which The Z z is the pole is the parametral plane (111). X. c (001) of the axial planes coincide with the axial points X. For similar reasons the poles u and u' are (101) and (101). \\zu']. poles a (100). b (010). the pole o is the intersection of [&c] = [100] with [as] = [011]. [auc] and of d. Art. Hence d is [oc] and d' (102).86 EXAMPLE (BARYTES). = [011]. o has the symbol (Oil). situated in a zone between two known poles. v. 15 and in Chap. the indices of I are the sum of those of y" added to double those of z. &c. and that circles through the poles can be drawn. 22. and o' (Oil). : : Generally. one of which has alone been drawn. or in the zone = [010]. u' lie on the same circle and are therefore tautozonal. The pole is the intersection of the zone [001. Y. The by the zonal relations of the circles indices of the faces on the crystal can now be all determined and poles in the stereogram. we find for r the symbol (112) or (112). when constructing the stereogram. The student will find that the following zones exist. d'.. The indices of d and y can now be found. in the primitive are those of faces parallel to OZ. y is also in the known zone-circle (102). [zly"]. the last index is zero.0][lll]. [o'ly].. case. and the last index zero. vi. Art. z. (130). The possibility of drawing a circle through three poles establishes the fact that the corresponding faces are tautozonal. Equations (13)). mentary geometry of the student's attention may be called to the fact that the indices of a pole. in [311]. v. The and 111] m Hence m is (110). Thus. [\dr"]. The homologous m" (110). The opposite pole (112) below the paper is necessarily in the same zone-circles. "' (111). the positions of y'.e. are the sum of simple multiples of corresponding indices of the known poles (Chap. since the planes are at right angles. 7 The homologous poles above the paper are a (111). they have already been found in Chap. for both are in = [201]. Again. 8. The . vi. 101] = [121]. 8 from the elecrystal. k was placed by the It will be found to lie in the circle through the poles r and o'. pole k has the symbol can be shown to be (104). Art. Furthermore. Ac. [6r] The face d is also parallel to OY. since the face X is parallel to OZ. fix by their intersections with the zones [am]. 8.

axis. 75. 75. THE ANHARMONIC RATIO OF FOUR TAUTOZONAL FACES.. Y. l l l H^BA l . subscripts to indicate the faces involved. . Let the angle between the normals to P and P^ be denoted by 12 and let those between other pairs of normals be indicated in a similar manner by attaching . Kfl. and let . (hM). them meet the lines Ox.2 -'b-^k2 We proceed to establish the relation.CHAPTER VIII. A'2 Z>. draw the lines l^A. so that 011^ = a^-hl OK^ = b-r-k 1} 0//2 = aH-A 2 OK. B and OT and D. be two of the axes of reference. C. . OT and each of the axes meet the xOy in the lines Ox and Oy. parallel to the zone-axis plane FIG. between the angles made by the four faces with one another and the indices of the faces. Join AS and CD and draw US parallel to CD. Let the plane xOy of the figure be perpendicular to the zoneOT. no two of which are parallel. P2 (h. H^C. Oy in the points A. and meet the line of intersection of the faces 1\ and P.2 k2 l2 ). respectively. given in equation (9). . and let them meet CD and BS in and N. be the two planes P and P2 and let OX. Let and Jf&DC. Let the planes through in e. From A draw OM and A both perpendicular to CD. . respectively. Fig. LET there be four tautozonal faces l\(h k l ). In the planes TOX and TOY. N M l < .

(3) and (4). from the < . These two lengths are arbitrary and indeterminate.. from equations (1). </> w the zone-indices of [P. v. k^ -* = ^ k^ 2 k^ " OS^k_ OC A^ . from the similar triangles OAH OCH 1} Z . Again. therefore. m by taking \ . are involved with OM (=p 2). we have the similar triangles From OMC. is normals to P l and P 2 .(4). FIG. (JD ~ =^ OK 2 =^. for the faces may be at any distance from the origin.(3).i) In equation (5) the angle 12 and the indices k. ABN.88 THE ANHARMONIC RATIO. the normal on P2 and the length AB intercepted in P. we have denoting by u at vu ... . 4. k.PJ derived in table (10) of Chap. AN8. we have AN = AS _OS-OA OM OC OC From the similar triangles OBS..A ABN. -^ Z and from the similar triangles OBK ODK^ . (*!^4) and (M. we have . 75. OC /. and is equal to the angle between the therefore 12 Hence.. h. ~ OS 00 OA 00 = ^ J' ODC. between the lines Ox and Oy. Now triangle /\AeC=-. They must. be eliminated . Art. (2).

and have W^ . . . We is need only give the final equation corresponding to It AB The k3 h^s-hhs W13 . clear also that the indices h3 k3 of . which is not parallel to any one of the three already employed. If this be done. v. and an exactly similar (5). P h3 2. ^ and Representing the angles which Pt makes with $^3. . we eliminate AB._ '" 3.. and replacing h t k by A 4 k4 respectively.THE ANHARMONIC 2. Art. or AS. 3. the face P 3 is combined with axes. 89 set of relations to if A similar figure.^ in the zone. we have . and p3 This suggests a ready method of eliminating both p2 It is only necessary to take some fourth face P4 (hjej. table (10) of Chap. in (7) depend on the distances of P 2 and P 3 from the origin and not on /V . p^ sin pa Dividing equation (7) sin (4 by (8). and But 12 has to be replaced by 13 the angle between = OM by p3 OM3 the normal on face Ps It is <f> < . P 3 replace A2 . By comparing Chap. . that obtained and P. zone-index. for these do not depend on the By P P position of P 2 . and faces P2 P3 be combined with P4 as they were with Plt it is clear that an equation exactly similar to (7) will be obtained. ment of Pl by 7*2 and P3 by we have P 4. ^. Ox p. the lines P 1 . P 1 and P 3. The length AB has been eliminated only by introducing a new indeterminate length p 3 But the two indeterminate lengths . those of P 2. Art. entering into this equation. those given in equations (1) are obtained. RATIO. the indeterminate length depending on the exact distance of P1 from the origin. 4 from faces l by P Dividing equation (5) by equation (6). in v..2 3 by 3 we do not change the replacing and Oy. the present procedure with that followed in the student can easily write the five equations which the face P 3 replaces (5). . is ^13 . in which the only difference arises from the replace.

Cesaro given in Arts. 5. or the faces 4 P2 and P3 . He gives the proposition as a relation of four zone-circles. sin<fti3 sin <f>13 we have on sinfr12 sin < 13 ^ sin&a = sin ^ ^ ' sin (180 -<fr12 ) sin (180 3) and on the right side A-- ^ ~ = sin <^ 2 sin <f> 13 sin />13 sin <~2 _ ~ . is the foundation of connecting the angles between four much of our future discussion. that Gauss also had discovered that the 1 trigonometrical compound ratio was rational (Werke. and his expression is equivalent to that given in (27) of Art. can.. Then l. the correand the anharmonic ratio becomes zero. no two of which are parallel.. k^-k. equation then becomes indeterminate and meaningless.. The We and (hjcjj . show that the equation becomes indeterminate if (hjc) is the faces P 1 and P 4. 13. zero. suppose the faces P and P ^ = 180 ' 1 to be parallel. e. the left side = . becomes 180. 308.&. for the indices of parallel faces only differ in sign. 1889). Hence. are whole numbers.. : - _ ~' The proposition was established and first published by Miller in the Treatise on Cryst. It appears from manuscript notes. The trigonometrical compound ratio forming the left side known as the anharmonic ratio of four planes intersecting in. It will be extensively used in the solution of the problems which arise in the determination (1) of the symbol of a crystal-face.. . and (2) of the angles between faces of which the symbols are known 4. v. Thus let us = 180-<i 2 . 11. It is easy to see that the corresponding value of W on the right becomes zero at the same time.' Consequently.1. (Rivista di Min. 12 &c. if s the first and third face are parallel. 19 of this Chapter. The elegant geometrical proof. 1863). < 42 . 1839. we have established that the anharmonic ratio of any four tautozonal faces. is due to G. any one is of the angles sponding sine infinite. are parallel. If is a commensurable number. and wu = h kt -kl ht = -h1 k1 + klh1 = Q. or <f> .90 NECESSITY OF FOUR NON-PARALLEL FACES. according as the angle appears in the numerator or denominator. Thus. bearing the date 1831 but first published after his death. also. p. being zone-indices. and clearly depends only on the angles between the planes. faces in a zone with their indices. . Also h^-h. Ital. This important relation 1 . Crist. and likewise in establishing various general relations. a common straight line. or parallel to. The numbers on of the equation is the right side.

and therefore of the another. we have 7. The student will. find it convenient to select and the pair occupying intermediate positions This is not the order most 3 commonly adopted in mathematical text-books.ORDER IN WHICH THE FACES ARE TAKEN. for we can. if faces. are the arcs intercepted between the poles. as will be shown in Art. must be carefully attended to is this that the numbers w must be : calculated from the indices arranged in table (10) of Chap. we may : state the law of Art. Errors may arise signs of the trigonometrical ratios are avoided. 4 in exactly the same order in which the faces occur in the angles on the left. The advantage of taking the faces in the order recommended arises from the fact that the anharmonic ratio is then positive. when those of at least three faces in the zone are known and the angles between all the faces have been measured . 4 in a slightly different form as follows the anharmonic ratio of any four poles in a zone-circle. and the equation has reduced to the meaningless identity. when an angle has to be calculated by the aid of equation (9) from a knowledge of the symbols of the faces and certain angles. we have. Art. The angles </> 12 . in turn. 91 have thus retained no angles on the left and no indices on the right. and as we can transfer. no pair of which are at 180 to one and is given by equation (9) of Art. for the zone a great circle with four poles in it. 6. the poles of tautozonal faces are projected on a stereographic projection. by equations (1) of Chap. in other arrangements. l however. no two of which are at the extremities of a diameter. a ready way of determining the symbols of the poles. iv.. If we take a stereographic projection of the crystal. <f> l3) &c. 10. is rational Hence. In distinguishing the four faces as P1} Pz P3 and P4 nothing has been said to limit the order in which they actually occur on the The faces may be taken in any order w/iatever. . . The same result can be easily shown to hold when faces P2 We P and 3 are parallel. student can easily prove for himself that there are six different The only point which possible arrangements of the four faces. Art. and difficulties as to the directions in which the angles are to be taken and as to the the extreme faces for P for P and 2 and P P 4. take each of the unknown poles with the three known ones to form an anharmonic ratio. and the crystal. 15. v. . . 3. 1 = 1. the indices of the face to the normal and therefore to the pole.

We should have similar triangles. we should replace . which rational) may be the indices of a pole not lying in the zone. and OY. from Chap. And were taken.. since in each case the angles on the left side are always the same. OX and OZ instead of h 1} A2 &c. and the projections would accordingly be represented by Oy and Oz. Wia _ KIS _ ~ IVia UK where h. Thus. Again..^A. sin<fr 12 ' g :^? < ' (see Chap. 9. EQUIVALENT EXPRESSIONS.. we see that h 1 k. 1 3. we might take </> to introduce the indices similarly. I V13 wls _ hUy + kVy + Iw12 ~ hu13 + kvlt + lw13 (if 1 ' are any numbers. any other pair of the axes and might equally well have OY OZ. Plt P2 P3 in the same zone . Art. for the other numbers W13 &c. the expressions must have the same values.. sin sin sin 13 ^ _ HJ^-IJ^ ~ h^3 . OX As their projections on the plane of the normals and been taken. 4) . given in Arts. (9**) But. It was there shown that for faces. . = (changing hJ2 . k.92 8. : "^3 ^4^3 = Similarly.. .i -k1 ht = W12 is the zone-index referring to the axis OZ as deduced from the faces Pl and Pz . Art.. and it is immaterial which pair of axes and which zone-indices are used. were the auxiliary lines Ox and Oy were the orthogonal projections of this pair of axes on the plane containing the normals to the faces. Art... connecting sin 12 with the intercepts on OF and OZ. v. The identity of the three expressions for the same an- harmonic ratio can be proved independently from the relations (16) and (17) given in Chap. first of Taking the the two pairs just given. (9*) when the axes <fr 42 X and OZ are 3 taken together. v. The only change would clearly be far as the proof is concerned. 4. like those in the figure.. if the axes llt 12 . 10. k by I throughout. Also involved in the proof. &c.. we have = (changing signs throughout) "1^3 ~~ 4 2 ~ *---' j-^ n*3 v. The two axes ..I4 h 2 h^lji 2 signs throughout) Via -=- -42 ^43 . and similarly.

For. we can. from by table be zero Art. viz. P 10. . or their equivalents given shall frequently write above. are introduced on the right side. it follows that an equation of the it. since the angles are known. k3 for the face ^3 (say) the indices of which are required. using the expression involving . 4. or of the equivalent equation (10). obtain an equation of the first degree connecting A. &c.. sin (10). we can . symbol P t to represent the anharmonic ratio of four tautozonal faces or of four and P4 to be l poles in a zone-circle. therefore.EQUIVALENT EXPRESSIONS. (9**). use the A. </><- We shall also. We the anharmonic ratio in the form last suggested .. They mean only that we eacli pair of face-indices calculate the zone-indices U K K12 . and the corresponding zone-index is then used throughout. a glance at one pair of face-indices in the expressions suffices to show which zone-index has a finite all but not three value. are introduced. v.. for the same zone we must have We may also represent the above ratios by the expressions These latter are convenient ways of expressing the ratios when known numbers (10) of Chap. and we shall generally suppose the extreme faces or poles. Since the indices of each face occur in the first degree both in the numerator and denominator of the right side of equation (9). ^12 . &c. Similarly. for the sake of brevity. : Now some of the zone-indices may in such cases. We can. express the anharmonic ratio by the equations (9). (9*). first If all the angles degree in the indices of any one of the faces is given by and the indices of three of the faces are known.R. in which the zone-indices.

Hence. In this case equations P . 9.. (11). These equations are of the same form as (13) of Chap. By measurement of the zone [PpgT']. taking g to be (h 3 k 3 l 3 ) or 3. 76. -ht ) [u 12 V12 W 12]. hs (nk^-k^ = k3 (nh 1 k3 ls ) lies . they give the symbol of P3 . combined with of the indices of 3 (12).'.k 4 hs n(say). as already stated in Art. Taking the faces in order to be those indicated in the formula by suffixes 1. and one of the other equations. But. An equation of the same form as (11). 8 when n has been computed. no longer needed we have (hkl). Pfif = 80 18'. the symbol of p is (111). from (9). I hkl . T' (110). we have Pp=54 17'. Example. Art. Fig. by Weiss's zone-law. M is (010). 76. when the zone-indices W12 W13 &c. (11) and (12) become identical. v. since the subscript. (9*) or (9**). the numbers on the right are easily found. From equation (11) we have and. but involving a different pair is then obtained which. 40'. to indicate the particular 001 i 110 sinPp sin ' sin T'p ' Pg "sin T'a 001 hkl sjls. PT'=110 3. compute the left Then. since all known. must be taken. 110 FIG. and therefore face. and the f&cep lies in the zones . are . . But P 3 (h 3 in the known zone l3 h 3 u 12 + k3 vl2 + W12 = Q (12).94 DETERMINATION OF FACE-SYMBOL. side of (9). is and 4. where n is x h 4 k 3 . gives the required indices. in the crystal of anorthite. . the faces may be parallel to a zone-axis lying in XOY. The simplest whole numbers are the indices of satisfying equations (11) and (12) P s . and x (101) [Mx] =[101]. all zero. Therefore. P (001). 2. Thus. and [TP2"] = [110]. Let the computed number be g^M.

in this case.P sin 2 P P = 2 sin P^ P cos P P 4 2 1 4 3 2 3 2 . we get a P _ P 4 be at 90 to P For.2. since the face g is Hence. 95 - On determining the zone-indices from [Pp] it will be seen that: W 12 = 1.P P = 90 . The student should notice that the equation. we have sin 54 sin 80 IT 18' X sin 30 22' _ -1 ~ sin 56 23' L sin 54 L sin 30 17' = 9-90951 22' = 9-70375 1-61326 _^ I~ k L sin 80 18' = 9-99375 L sin 56 23' = 9-92052 ^k x l_ ' 1-91427 1-61326 log 2= -30101 . ratio if Thus. u 13 = -k. can easily make any number of rational anharmonic ratios of which any two poles Pl and P3 are members but in which the other We points are not poles. P P = sin 90 = 1. h + k=0.INSUFFICIENCY OF TWO POLES. since sin But and Hence. and W12 = 0. is the same as is obtained by making and. we find: u lt = -1. we could go on continually bisecting the angle until at last the angles between adjacent faces made infinitely . therefore. Taking the u's.P2 =r-j? P P2 X = \.90 . But it is absurd to suppose that we can have a pole bisecting the angle between any two poles tvhatever. however.P P P . 2 The value of the anharmonic ratio is therefore 1 -j. since all the zone-indices w are zero. When. then they are both poles. But if P2 is not a pole. and (10) that. a commensurable number. ^=0. whatever be the angle P1 P3 2 bisect the angle P 1 P3 and . the symbol of g is (221). do not give us relations limited if either P2 or P4 is a pole. in the zone [PT'] = [110]. P4 is not one either. rational anharmonic 2 . We must. h + k = 0. 11.-. this by making A.P. and P P = 2P. equations (9) All they tell us to poles. two is poles P l and P 3 (say) are alone known in the zone. which is satisfied But. l 2 = m = 2 sm P P 2 : sin PI - P a =r cos cos 2 l 2 . = 2 and 1 = 1. =-l. For were this the case. equation might have been thus obtained and not from the direct application of Weiss's law. K 12 tf Introducing the values of the angles and of the zone-indices into the equation. k = 2l. P. the left side of equation (9) becomes sin PP l 2 sin ~ P4 P 2 sin ~~~ PP 1 2 sin PP 4 3 3 _ 2 . 42 = l and u^^l. avoid the zone-indices w.

(i) and We. readily find that The zone. P3 is made coincident with the face k. and z and z. 22) to be : : (101). He can then prove d to be The formula I (102) and to be (104). ) If i = 2. (001) and (111) have intersections of the first three are therefore the axes. and the aP3 = aX = 22 symbol of Thus. . Introducing this above equation. Furthermore. These. in. we determine h-z-k. introducing this value into the equation. then found by the intersections of known zone-circles (Chap. Plt m = P2 . Example. mental notion of crystalline structure and form. were gives the ratios of the parameters a b c. sin bm=cosam. (110). and sin&P3 =cosaP3 : . by making h=l. being the simplest integers in the required ratio. be taken throughout.-. Therefore.1.indices w. If now P3 X. we have Li&nam= 9'91127 L tan (ak = 67 45' -5) = 10-38819 log (-3335)= 1-52308.h. and that iv ia =l.1. for the zone is [audl]. since aft = 90.k =1-^3. and this is only true of curved The assumption contravenes the fundasurfaces such as spheres. the faces a. The symbols of m. aPs = afc = 6745'-5. (Oil) faces in each of the measured zones. b = P4 and P3 . is made to coincide with X.tan aP= h 4. angle and am = 39 11' '25 into the 10' -5. therefore. o and u. 9. and k = B. respectively. c the angles of the crystal of barytes given in Chap. are the required indices. is satisfied (ii) Hence. </ 2 =K12 =0. The symbol of the face k is therefore (130).010 110 siniP3 010 JikO The student will. referring to the axis OZ. and X has the symbol (210). by following strictly the steps adopted in (i) tan aw -j. L tan (am =39 11' -25) = 9 -91127 L tan . (010). h -i. W& = . must. To been assigned. . tanam-f-tanaP3 =T. therefore. which A similar formula can be easily obtained by the student for [amb]. wa = . by trial with the symbols of a and m. They are w13 = k.-f- r= T. ( aX = 22 10' -5 log ft -*- = 9*61022 2= -30105.96 EXAMPLE (BARYTES). From b. the symbols of all the faces can now be easily determined. 12. vn. Art. to be one of sin sin am aP3 sin bin ' .-. small angles with one another. The the symbols (100). Art. know the symbols of three the unknown In the zone [amb] we take a to be faces with symbol (MO).

as already recommended in Art. When. ^43= -1.ay) = cos ay. : r .*. * 4J The anharmonic ratio becomes.RATIO OF TWO TANGENTS.1. they are taken as the indices. K4 = . z to be and o to be 4 . computing the r's and w's. az. sin oy = sin (90. in the examples just given. when the angles between the three latter poles are known as well as the indices of all the poles. l + h = k + h = 2. however. 13. likewise. two poles at 90 to one another when two two putation much reduced if these two poles are selected as a pair of those entering into the anharmonic ratio. To avoid trouble with signs. {crzm}. and the symbol of ij is (122). log 2= 59' ) by making k=l=2. And. since </ 12 =0. of the general expression involving the trigonometrical ratios.B. also U 12 = 0. so that P and P4 occupy extreme positions whilst /*2 and l are placed between them. and computing. (iii) 97 Thus. [azyo] gives a similar formula. are of frequent occurrence in all crystals except those belonging to the anorthic system. y to be P9 (hkl). This is always possible another. can be found in a zone. The symbol of r is then found by Weiss's zone-law to be (112). the anharmonic ratio should be arranged. we have 3 P P sin ay ~ sin oy . by its conversion into the ratio of two tangents. and the angle it makes with c (001) can be computed from the A. and h = l. c.. 7 . w n = k. for as was seen the other pair. Introducing the values of the angles ay. K43 =l. M 13 = 1. y . sin az sin oz But. be applied to the determination of the angle between one of the poles and any of the others. the student will find the labour of com- of the poles are at 90 to one of the angles are the complements of therefore. The anharmonic ratio can. = -A. Being the simplest integers. 6. r 12 = -I. 14. These equations are all satisfied = 10-31150 41' -5) = 10 -01042 -30108. (/42 =/-*=0.i. Hence. we have r. and =- using the zone-indices w. Zones. U42 = f . It is not necessary. taking a The zone to be Pj. having such poles at 90 to one another. L. for ao=90. tan aw ^- = ^ -I h H- j . 3 = .. The attention of the student is directed to the simplification. and sinoz=cosaz.. that they should follow one another in the order of the numbers 3 P . when cz is known. = I the zone-indices ^ using . we have L tan (ay = 63 L tan (az = 45 .

if it is greater than is an expression less the equation. and let PP 1 3 =<f> 13 .. Now. the right side of equation (10) can be computed .. equation is in the required form.98 DETERMINATION OF ANGLES FROM A. any number greater than angle. in the most convenient form . for by the arrangement of the anharmonic ratio are at liberty to regard all the terms as positive. greater or less than (fr^. and the value can be easily computed by means of logarithm-tables. will be < zero can be represented as the tangent of an Furthermore.0). for the sake of convenience. is found to be greater or less than unity. although. and l Dividing the former by the latter. (15). sin </> 42 - sin 12 = 2 sin ^A LZ^ 2 cos ^-^ 2 2 .R. Then. It must be some number we greater than zero... the expression on the right as the angle 12 the equation unity. suppose than unity can be obtained by inverting < 42 and that the 12 < < . We may. 1859). Now. by well-known trigonometrical formulae (Todhunter's Trig. therefore. 12 tan (45 . p. 2 sin sin 42 12 < cos *>42 * V Hence 2 ' ITS T-TTT = tan(45-0). be known angles. Then sm0 13 sin . call it m. on computation.. we have 1 1 . sin { </> 43 } } The terms on the right are known. we 2 P shall assume that they do be the pole of which the arc- distance from the others is required. and that < .... according If it is less than unity. 6..tan 6 sin042 -sin0 12 sin^ + sin^l+tan^r But. since the symbols of the faces are known. than < 13 Let 12 is less so.. . 55. .P4 P = 3 43 .. less than 90.

therefore. The face a its parallel a. Fig. Let us take a (100) to be Plt y to be = P4 of the general equation (10). L tan 32 and 45. ' ' sin sin ay ax = sin (c. equation (10) sin is changed to sin 40 9= = tan sin 12 9= = m 913 sin 943 X (say). 100 sin ay sin ax _ ' sin c t y 1-21 FIG. first case. Here the known angle is < - < 12 = Hence. Thus we have ^+ < 12 = 2a. but the angle ac is an important element of the crystal. determined. (TOO) are not present on the crystal. c. It is required from the given 021 angles. P2 . is determined. The terms on the right are therefore known. viz. 77.y = 80 18') 2 sin (c. y (201). and the value can be computed by the aid of logarithm-tables. x (101). 77. if 903. is. x = P3 and Hence. 9 J3 + 9 12 15. is a known < angle. sin c. In the crystal of orthoclase. and the indices c (001). By we have the same transformations as were given in detail in the 12 13 tan 13 = tan ]3 12 tan (45 . The same transformation P is l or P 4 others is of equation (10) also applies when the pole.x .o. to determine the and angle the face a (100) makes with c (001). the zone [cyx] measured.x log 2= -30103 = 50 16'-5) L sin 80 18'= 9-99375 L sin 50 16'-5= 9-88600 10-18703 10-18703 ./=80 18'. c. the angle between the axes OZ and OXt . The angle 42 <i 2 = 2y (say). Thus. (OOl). are known. But < 99 = 42 + <i2 < 1 = 2a 4 (say). the angular distance of which from the unknown. <f>M are both known and ]2 is < needed. c.= 12 39'= 9-80672. = 50 16'-5. is Example.0j).-. 72 .EXAMPLE (ORTHOCLASE). c. 0=32 39'. 21'.

angle error of a few seconds causes a considerable difference iu the tangent. az=6547'. . so that the unknown pole a occupies a middle place. Thus. . For the sake of brevity let the poles be indicated by the points 1. first given and the one required. tan \ (ax + ay) 9'42843 = tan 15 0' '75 -7. and an of expression (15) is 44 34'. should be as far as possible avoided for. 2. The transformation of equation (10). for instance. 14. a slight error in the observation may become multiplied in the course of the computation. are discussed in Art. employing formula (16). 4 in the zone-circles shown in Fig. the angle required. An angle is thus obtained which by addition or subtraction.tan 12 21'. 15. in the example. necessary to others.-.-.-.100 Also . then the different cases can be given as follows : (a) 13 . the The angle 45 . 3. and three other known faces in the zone. In computing the angle between a face with known 16. to find 12 .6 is then 26'. Ltanl50'-75= . When disadvantageous angles cannot be avoided in a direct computation. or angles of nearly 90. DIFFERENT ARRANGEMENTS OF TWO ax-ay-xy = 30 l'-5 is KNOWN ANGLES. that an arrangement of the four poles is taken which leads to disadvantageous angles. . (b) Cases and and case (b) occurred . compute the angle which the face makes with any one of the depends on the arrangement of the known angles.. and ac = 6356''5. for this reason that a was. 034 being known. known. the liability to error may be minimised by taking some intermediate possible pole with the known ones. five different cases may be met with. () &3. 14. and let the known arcs be those between the poles joined by interrupted < arcs. Suppose 14 to be less than 180. The position of this pole being determined by the method of Art. (a) 4>24 12 . in the example of Art. if the above poles are taken It may happen in the order {cayx}. in such cases. + ai/ = 10132'-5. No general rule for such artifices can be given. symbol. 50 46'-25. L tan 12 21' = 9-34034 L tan J (ax + ay) = 10-08809 = L tan aa. ax-ay= 30 l'-5. 78. Hence. Very small angles. the pole can then be combined with two of those gives. ac^ax + xc^UG 3'-5. taken as It was one of the extreme poles.

obtained by either of the transformations given in Arts. 14 and 17. (d) and (e). cot $43 is unknown and all the other numbers are known . Similarly.m cot (18). by taking arc in (c) the pole 12 .cos (A 1 + B) (Todh. Applying this to the equation given above. be all dealt with by one and the same process. for case (6). in both the angles in the numerator. P l P known P 2 A P 180 l P be transformed to the arrangement 2 with the others. (e) In (c) both the angles in the denominator. ^ m (say). lt we have the opposite to completely enclosing the arc $34. . Trig. be also transformed into an expression involving cotangents as follows sin 1 <f> ls sin < < 43 sin $43 sin sin <f> ls 12 _ sin sin <f>^ < sin sin <j> 13 </>.cos (0 12 + . = cos (0 12 . The expression : anharmonic ratio can. The case becomes therefore identical with (d). EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF COTANGENTS.A. so that 0^ is found from the tables. R. The angles and number on the right side are known hence 0^ can be found by the help of a table of natural cotangents. 13 (m 23 = cot 0^ 4. (d) can For. "* sin 13 <f>42 13 <j> + <ft 13 ) sin $43 (sin sin <f> 13 (sin sin (43 sin sin </> 13 sin ^ ^ ^+ ^ ^ ^fa + ^ ^ < cos <ft 23 sin cos cos sin cos $43) sin sin (cot ( c t $23 cot c t ft 13 ) 4*43) COt If then < 23 + COt 043 P 2 is the unknown 1) cot < pole. In cases (c). Now 2 sin A sin B = cos (A-B). p. 55). the unknown angle cannot be 18. for the 101 (a) 17. are unknown.R. They can.^43) . however. we have ^43) . (e) by taking the pole opposite to Now the A. in cases and (6). and in (d) all four angles. Similarly. is sin 12 -~ 13 x sin 0^ -r-p? = sin sin 1 . .

and the calculadone in a series so that the poles used can in each case be brought under case (a) or (6).20^). equation becomes 43 ) = (2m-l)sin0 43 (23). Such cases as (c). the cosine on the left is found. Thus. 012 . (d) and (e). R. the equation (19) is resolved into a form slightly different from that given in (20) or (21). and the unknown angle 023 is determined. or of cos (0 13 + 42 the tables. cos (0 13 - 42 ) + cos (0 13 + 42 ) . (20). In case (d). the value of that the computation is not laborious.. when the more convenient logarithmic transformation of the equation can be adopted. A.$23 012 + 043 j 4>41 + 4>23 5 013 . we have = m cos ($12 + 0i 2 + #43) + $43) + (1-m) cos (^-4. For.102 But. we have m cos (013 + 42 . (22). if 12 = 90 in case (c).cos (0 41 + <f> 23 ) . The expression on the right. The angles and numbers on the right side of each of these The cosines can be extracted from tables equations are known.2 $23- Hence. EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF COSINES.&2 . points we can frequently employ cases (c) or (d) when one of the known (20) angles is a right angle. = $12 + 042 $12 + ($23 + $) = 2 $23 + $12 + $43 $42 + $43 = $13 + .023) = 2012 ~ . equation (19) becomes (m - 1) cos (2012 - 41 + 023) = m cos (0 41 . we generally have several angles in the zone either known or to be computed .(21). and the unknown angle 12 can be obtained. can be found from cos (2023 + 12 + 43 )..043 = $12 ~ ($41 . tions can be out that Miller. . involving only the known value of the anharmonic ratio and known angles.43). 0!3 -042 013 + = 012 + $23 -($23+ $23 $43) ^^-'hiO '. in page 13 of his Tract on Crystallography. .041 . do not often occur in practice. For. Hence. . in case cos (2023 (c). in calculating angles from known indices.m ) . Hence.20^) = (m-l) In case (e). .. can therefore be computed. 1863..042 = 012 013 + $43 = 2012 ~ 041 + $23 j $42 =041 + 023- Hence. The number m is usually a simple one so of natural cosines.

1 4 2 (25) by (26). ' ' Similarly. from the triangles P^P^ P^P^ sin of Fig.R. anharmonic ratio given in (27) when expressed in terms of the angles between great circles passing through a pole S on the sphere... (26)sin P4 SP3 sin P4 P S sin P P and sin P P^S= sin P P But sin P^S^ sin P P Hence. sin sin PtP2 ^ sin PjPj sin P P _ sin P^Pg " P P sin P^P 4 4 2 _. 1234} this is In Fig.. {S.. For.. {1234} =A. . Each of the terms on the right side can be rearranged so as to involve the indices of two zones passing through S and one or other of the pairs of poles shall use. or P P 2 . ratio. between the may not lying in the zone. The anharmonic poles... < (24)... A. as We {S. ^u 13 +kvl3 + lw l3 = h l u3 + k1 Y3 pair of the remaining expressions can be transformed in a similar manner. but not necessary and they may be taken in any order. P4$P P4$P we have sin P P _ sin P P sin P4P ~ . expressed in terms of the sines of the arcs be replaced by one involving the angles between the zone-circles drawn through the four tautozonal poles and any pole S. Hence.. .. 3 .. 19... If in case (d) (wi <f> 4l 103 - 1) sin becomes 90... the symbol A.R. 9).ANHARMONIC RATIO OF FOUR ZONE-CIRCLES.R. of the zone let Thus.. [&PJ and Then Similarly._ ' sinP4 /SPa _ sin~P4 3 3 P3 ~ u_^ * u u^ u where (hJcl) is the symbol of S (see Art. .. sin P^PS from the triangles 4 2 sin P^Pg 4 2 3 2 4 3 4 3 ... symbols as before.. the poles having the same us take [w 2 K2 w2] to be the symbol [u 3 v3 w3] that of [tfPJ. an abbreviation. 79 the poles have been arranged in numerical order... 79 we have PP sin 3 ... 1234} for the Pu P 4 ... then equation (22) becomes (20 W + a ) = (+!) sin <k. dividing 2 ..

become [100]. and (e'fg') of a pole P which originally (h'k'l') required to find had the known symbol (hkl). and G and P become (e'fg'} and (h'k'l'). Transformation of axes. But when [fi'C']. respectively. and.K. 1 In Fig. and let it meet the new axial zones when referred the new symbol Let the pole G have the known symbols It is to the old and new axes. [001].104 TRANSFORMATION OF AXES. Its value cannot. Hence. [010]. . FIG. p. we have (30). transfer the representation necessary occasionally to and parameters of the forms on a crystal from one set of axes The equations required to give the new symbols of to another. as was shown by Miller (Tract on obtained by means of the anharmonic Cry st. ratio. let the zone-circles [B'C ] = [tf. the faces are very simple. A. 1 [C'A ]. the right side of the equation has a constant definite value independent of the axial constants. It is ratio. E. in D. |(7'. [010]. (28) of the preceding article. 14).R. they are easily 20. therefore. given by the trigonometrical ratios on depends only on the angles between the four poles. = [A''] [u 3 V3 W3 ]. From A.^. arid F.]. and (efg] in the original representation become [100]. respectively. 80. we have {PDEG} = PDEQ} = + sin GE But the anharmonic the left. 80. [C'A'] = [u a va w3 ]. vary with the arbitrary choice of axes and parameters. Draw the zone-circle [^P]. Hence.

In a tetragonal crystal the principal axis is always OZ. for the same set numerator and denominator.. In many ways the more general equations (31) are preferable. are zone-indices.. by hypothesis.+fv... are given by the equations h' k' I' IW2 [ . therefore... .R..... for the numbers actually given in the problem can be at once introduced without fear of error.. u ly V ly W ly We We which satisfy the following equations : f = eu. and therethe h'k'l' are also com- will The equations can. The A.. occurs in both the are... \PEFG\ .. or one of the others. but OX and OY may be In a prismatic crystal the same lines are always taken as axes. Y and Z. the values of mensurable.. therefore... which satisfy (32) must be introduced. (32).. at liberty to assign to the zone-indices any rational values we choose provided their ratios remain unchanged... -.. are usually expressed It in their simplest ratios . This equation is satisfied 105 by making ti j I' vu2~rjr2-ryn 2 Jin a. can. . and. lev -L 7u/ (31). k'.. two have been obtained.. PEFG] in the same way as (31) The above equations and since. and. I'. be expressed in another form.. (32) and (33)... give them values of zone-indices. {A .. latter 1 equation can be also deduced from first A.R.+gw9 g' ... however. The two sets. adopted for crystals of different lines. give h'k'l' in terms of known numbers K 15 w ly &c. u ly fore commensurable numbers. are the form in which the solution is given by Miller.. = hu3 + kv3 + Iw3j = hUi + kv^ + = hu 2 + kv 2 + lWi} In equations (33) the values of W 15 K1} W ly &c..TRANSFORMATION OF AXES... furthermore. (33). &c..... but their arrangement as the axes of X. by symmetry. Authorities occasionally differ in the axes and parametral plane all systems except the cubic. = eus +/V3 + gwj : Then h'.. be remembered that u ly Vly Wi. it is clear that any common factor is cancelled in the anharmonic ratio...

106 be different. we have finally the equations already given h' =k Hence. or hexad. I is (100). An instance of the application of the transforma- tion. axis. . He then gives the following: I (120). Dana's symbols for all the faces given can be immediately deduced. is given in Chap. i (131). EXAMPLE (AXINITE). but OX and OZ may be varied. or the equivalent pair (32) and (33). (001). and (efg) is (131) also u 2 K. we have g'=gw3 But (e'f'g') is (3ll) ) l'=iws . Dana's [100]= [my] [010] = [Zm] is Miller's [010] [210] [001]. =1 Introducing these values into the second set of equations. y (101). In Dana's Mineralogy. illustrate the To the anorthic system. xvn. r (Oil). i (3ll) . we have from (31) If the two sets of equations (31) and (32) are used. taking Miller's axes as the original set and Dana's symbols to be those affected with dashes in the equations given above. p (110). (31). and remembering that i (131) of Miller becomes Dana's (3ll).-. formulae of transformation from the one notation to the other. The formulae . hedral and hexagonal systems the parametral plane is always perpendicular to the triad. in the case of the hexagonal crystals of apatite. u 2 = . [001] = [Zp] Hence.-. however. (001). and for parametral plane x (111). Hence. belonging to Miller takes for axial planes p (010). m m It is required to find using Miller's letters to indicate the faces. method we take a crystal of axinite. whilst the Millerian axes may be varied. are sufficiently general for all practical problems. y (021) and Example. : K.2v 2 . 3 = 3c. v (100). . . In the oblique system the axis OY is always at may In right angles to the other pair. It is easy. In the rhombothe anorthic system all the axes may be different. =2 : - 1.

As illustrated by the example. however. the earlier stage in the solution gives formulae" in which the numerical data can be inserted without the computation involved in (36). also. There is. The process of deduction from the anharmouic ratio is exactly similar to that given in the preceding article. finding the zone-indices corresponding to a change of axes and parameters. w'=mu + nv+pwi [ where (efg) becomes (100). Thus. = mr + ns+pt) [r's't'~\ and [rsf] being same zone-axis. nothing to be gained by the more cumbrous formulae which result from such an assumption. 107 more general equations can be obtained in an exactly similar way from the anharmonic ratio by assuming that the zone [Wi^!^] becomes [{/' V' w']. the amount of variation in the selection of axial planes and parameters by different authors is always very slight and the formulae required are extremely simple. and similarly for the two other zones. In this proposition.CHANGE to see that still IN ZONE-SYMBOL WITH CHANGE OF AXES. Miller gives the correlative formulae for 21. er+fs+gt . Also the exact numerical values of the face-indices have to be obtained from r'^er+fs+gt s! = hr+ks+lt t' \ L (36). (hkl} becomes (010) and (mnp) (001).(37). On page 15 of the Tract. The equations are (35). w' = t' mr+ns+pt . known From the zone-indices in the two representations of the equations (36) the exact values of the face- indices to be used in (35) are obtained.

and one of these A planes 1 lies exactly midway between the remaining pair. A that known -=- in which the planes. PARTICULAR and important case of anharmonic ratios is as harmonic ratio. On the left side of the equation the values of two of the angles between three of the faces may be introduced when. AND RELATIONS BETWEEN THE ELEMENTS OF SYMMETRY. having a common line of intersection.. (100). all them are possible faces. vm. If the poles are situated as in Fig. very special case of harmonic ratios occurs when two of the planes are at right angles to one another. the fourth plane is also a possible Harmonic ratios occur very frequently in zones of crystals of Thus the four faces (100).CHAPTER IX. this value corresponds to the arrangement sntf> 14 If the reader sn 03. he will find the value to be -1. are taken. ratio. 14 18. This In mathematical text-books the value of a harmonic ratio is generally taken to be . quite irrespective of the zone-axes selected as axes of reference and of the values assigned to any two of (121). (101). We shall retain the arrangement recommended in Chap. the inclination of the fourth face to any of the others can be calculated. (T21) the angles involved in the form a harmonic ratio. CONDITIONS FOR PLANES AND AXES OF SYMMETRY. which corresponds to the value 1-^-2. Hence. Pi-P computes the right side of this equation for the two sets of poles given for illustration. by one of the processes given in Chap. according to the order 1. 2. Similarly. and 1 2. 78. (001). vm. is 1 -H 2 in each of the above cases. 1. Arts. if four planes. (021).1. (101) form a systems. or poles. form a harmonic ratio and three of face. . viii. of which the values are one of the commensurable numbers 2. harmonic ratio in crystals of every system. easily The student can 1 prove that the right side of equation (10) of Chap.

three of the planes are faces. no two which are opposite. making <k 2 = 90-<k. a face fi of a crystal bisects the angle between two other faces Q and S the zone-axis being When perpendicular to the paper the plane P in the same zone and at right angles to is It bisects the supplealso a possible face. has in this case the value 1^-2. form a harmonic ratio and three of them are Further. 81. Also. R FIG. We shall often speak of a plane through any point or line as a face when it is parallel to a possible face of a crystal. 7. Art. in Fig. the point at 90 1 also a possible pole of the crystal. PR being 90. sin *4i=20 S> cos 2 sin we have sin<k 2 sin <f> 13 ^ sin sin ^_ ^ ^_ ^ ^ sin ^ <f sin <t> w cos ^ & _ L : given any four planes parallel to a pair of the planes are the internal and external bisectors of the angles between the other pair. vui. in Chap. if P. the anharmonic ratio was stated as a relation between four tautozonal poles. Thus we may suppose planes P1 and P3 to be at right angles. four points in a zone-circle. cos * = **. if the arc between a pair of poles to this latter pole is is bisected at a possible pole. if. The therefore. and the same must be true of of harmonic ratios.. ment of the angle QS. . If. vui. and P3 to bisect the angle ^. 109 relation can also be expressed by stating that one pair of planes bisects the angle between the other pair internally and externally. true of when one least three of applied to a crystal we must know that at the planes are possible faces 1 . then the fourth is also a possible face of the crystal. On the other hand it was shown. at right angles to one another. 11. so that <t>2s = <j>si- The left side of equation (10) of Chap. Q and S being faces. the bisectors being. possible or actual. Q. In Chap. then S making with A' an angle equal to RQ is a possible face. is. For. Hence. poles. R are possible faces. that the planes bisecting the internal and external angles between two faces are not as a rule possible faces. 81. Before it can be relation line. whatever may be the indices of the planes and the value of the angle <f>&. Art. then. the fourth is also a possible pole of the crystal. Thus. consequently. vui.HARMONIC RATIO. if R is not a face neither is P a possible face.

90. 82. Hence (ANB). poles. T. therefore. > point of intersection of the great circles. which is not parallel or perpendicular face (oj) to a plane of symmetry 2. Q'. is are possible pole. cuts the sphere in a great circle (ANB). and arc QN=NQ'. 5.) Again. Therefore. P' are three tautozonal poles of the crystal. Let. of symmetry . part of the proposition viz. (&. the centre of the sphere be taken at a point in the plane of symmetry. Q form a harmonic ratio and three. must meet T which is at 90 to (ANB) and must be a We possible pole (Chap. so that the zone-circle [QQ'] is at right angles to (ANB). being the point of intersection of and N The two in a point zone-circles (ANB) [PP ] and 1 [QQ']. or parallel to. the four points form a harmonic and M PM MT ratio.110 CONDITIONS FOR A PLANE OF SYMMETRY. that a plane of FlQ 82 symmetry is parallel to a possible face of the crystal. 82. that the line of intersection of A P P P an edge of the crystal. 1. however. ( 2) By the aid of the poles on the sphere we can put the above proof in a different form. which. N. Art. and = MP'. M is. Let be a pole on one side of (ANB). P. their edges are also in. any other pole Q is repeated over (ANB} in a like pole P M PM=MP . containing two normal to (6 2 ) a possible plane through T is a possible zone-circle. the arc Similarly. in Fig. is its N Q'. Art. v. have therefore established the first . Q. so that the zone-circle is the Also. which is. and the a possible zone-axis. poles. The same is true of every other pair of faces which are reciprocal reflexions in the plane This line is. this plane is parallel to several edges or zoneaxes. and is a point in the zone such that =. T. 11). essentially the same. in Fig. Hence. [QQ']. is PROP. Hence. therefore. The same result can be obtained from a consideration of . therefore. on a crystal. if [PP'] is necessarily at right angles to (ANB). the plane of symmetry. a possible pole. VH. a possible face perpendicular to a possible zone-axis. It must be repeated in a like pole P' on the other side. is repeated over it in a like face P'. so and is in. To prove that a plane of symmetry in a crystal 3. and is therefore parallel to a possible face (Chap. no two of which are opposite. or parallel to. Q'. In the same way the four points T. being both perpendicular to (A NB). 6).

not possible.A DYAD AXIS IS A ZONE-AXIS. To prove that an axis of symmetry is a possible zone-axis. we can turn the crystal about four times in succession until the crystal returns to the original position. the edge of Fig. and is. Hence. But OB is t and OB. which are obtained by turning it through 90 LM t . parallel to a possible face. Then. is parallel to a possible face and is perpendicular to 2. therefore. a semi-revolution about 0A must bring OB to the position OB which is parallel to an edge of the crystal similar to t. by the definition. clearly. we must edges. is neither parallel nor perpen- dicular to OA OB&. 84 takes up three new positions. which Similarly. Ill the crystal-edges independently of the first condition. a possible zone-axis. The plane of symmetry is therefore perpendicular to a possible zone-axis. In the case of a tetrad axis. OB and OB is t being to their plane parallel a possible face. PROP. OA parallel to two possible faces. parallel to two homologous edges which are symmetrical with respect to a plane 2. any other zone-axis OA. and suppose the Fig. the first one. which are reciprocal reflexions. t \ and which is is not in the plane zone-axis OA repeated in another and the plane AO&A t t also contains OA. 83 be a dyad OB parallel to plane containing OA and OB to be that of the paper. Through any any edge of the crystal nor perpendicular to 0A. such that lines drawn through a point in the plane 2 parallel to the edges lie in a plane at right angles to 2. dicular to the plane of section necessarily true of every other pair of homologous have a number of possible faces all perpensymmetry . bring OB back to OB stand out of the paper to the front or the back. The same is Hence. COR. Let the point line OA in in it is draw a line which neither parallel axis. for a second rotation of t . the plane. The edges are repeated over a plane of symmetry in pairs. Hence. 4. 2. 1. and their lines of mutual inter- must be all perpendicular to it. zone-axes. OB t Hence. As the plane AO&. necessarily in the same plane with 0A 180 in the same direction will if and this is.A it is is contains two zone-axes. Hence.

85. is also parallel to the tetrad axis OL. COR. Produce the lines AA\ A A*. the plane OLM is COR. 6 that no axis can have a degree higher than six. and let alternate pairs 1 J/ 3 Several classes of crystals have a single axis of symmetry of degree higher 2. 2x90= 180. Hence.. also. are coplanar with the hexad axis 0V. We shall also denote the edges of a pyramid. 85. OL and 0V are Thus. 85. Let the n. Thus the Similarly. The same argument would apply to any axis of symmetry of even degree. or may not. a position is attained which is the same as that given by a single rotation of 180 edges about the same axis. principal axes. which meet at an apex on the principal axis. a hexad axis is. be associated with planes of symmetry and with axes perpendicular to it. to exist continuous lines VA.112 AN AXIS OF SYMMETRY IS A ZONE-AXIS. 3. which may. formed by the homologous faces. The same is is also true in the case of a hexad axis . LM'. in which the faces meet the plane of projection. when the is through 180. through and through 3 x 90 = 270. but we shall see in Prop. One of these positions. is a possible zone-axis. Similarly. Hence. Suppose an axis of symmetry of odd degree. &c. parallel to a possible face. VA. parallel to the edges LM t . FIG. polar edges. clearly crystal has been turned LM' But the face . n being > 3. in a crystal. in Figs. a possible zone-axis. of Fig. 84. 1 than . turned thrice in the same each time through 60. dyad Such an axis will be called a principal cuds. 86 represent the polar edges' of a pyramid formed by the homologous and interchangeable faces of such a crystal when it is projected on a plane perpendicular to the axis of symmetry 0V. VA\ <fcc. 85. the crystal about the tetrad axis through 90. OA V contain two edges and are parallel to possible faces. Fig. VA t . such as V of Fig. a tetrad axis 2. it the planes OA V. for if the crystal direction.

of these lines





meet in the points M,





VA*, A*VA &c. But VM, &c., are the orthogonal projections on the paper of the possible edges in which alternate faces of the pyramid would meet, if produced.
&c., clearly bisect the angles





Hence, the plane containing the opposite possible edges VA and VM also contains 0V, for VA and VM are co-linear. Similarly, the planes containing other opposite pairs VA and VM &c.,


then axes of odd degree, higher than three, were possible, they would be possible zone-axes. The above proofs are not applicable to the case of a triad axis.
also contain



To prove that a plane perpendicular to an axis of 3. a possible face. Let, in Fig. 87, 0A be a dyad axis, and let a face EFG of the crystal, not parallel or perpendicular to the axis, meet it at A.




must be a second




interchangeable when the crystal is

turned about


through 180.


EF be the line of intersection
about 0A, the edge
direction, for

When the the two planes. crystal has been turned through



FIG. 87.

tains its

the two



and have changed places the only difference is that points Hence the edge equally distant from A have changed places. is perpendicular to 0A.


Similarly, any other face whatever, not parallel or perpendicular OA, and not in a zone with EFG and EFH, must be associated with a second like face, so that the two faces meet in an edge perpendicular to 0A. Hence OA is perpendicular to two edges which are not parallel. It is, therefore, perpendicular to the possible face which is parallel
to these edges.

of Art. 4, it can be

In a manner similar to that employed in Cors. 1 and 2 shown that tetrad and hexad axes are perpendicular to possible faces. For two successive rotations in the same direction, each of 90, about a tetrad axis interchange a pair of

faces intersecting in a line perpendicular to the axis; and similarly, three successive rotations, each of 60, about a hexad axis inter-












L. c.



Hence a number of non-parallel edges axis. perpendicular to the These axes must can be perpendicular to tetrad and hexad axes.
therefore be perpendicular to possible faces. COR. 2. On the supposition of an axis of






has been seen in Prop.






would be possible edges.




would be possible faces

But, from Fig. 86, it is clear that belonging to a second pyramid. the pair of opposite possible faces VAA\ VMM' intersect one 1 1 and perpenanother in a straight line parallel to AA and The same is true of all the opposite pairs of dicular to 0V.











possible edges,



therefore perpendicular to a possible face.

It is not possible to establish, as a consequence of the law of 6. rational indices, that a triad axis is, when alone, a possible zoneaxis, or that it is

Let, in Fig. 88,

perpendicular to a possible face. a zone- axis of the VO be a triad axis, and


not parallel or perpendicular to 0V. Let be drawn perpendicular to the



triad axis

and meet


at 0.

Rotation of the crystal about VO through 120 must bring



VM, and

OM to



so that the triangle

not coplanar with into the continuation bring

VOM is VOM. A further A



rotation of 60

required to






this is not a

possible angle of rotation about a triad axis, nor is there an edge Vp. associated with VM. second rotation of 120 in the same

direction as the first brings the triangle into the position lies as far beyond Op. as that was short of it. it




VOM so A third

rotation of 120


an axis of symeven degree, on the fact that two homologous zone-axes are coplanar with the axis; and in the case of an axis of odd

The proof

clearly brings the line back to of Prop. 2 depends, in the case of


degree, n > 3, the proof depends on the fact that two non-homologous edges, such as VA and VM, are coplanar with the axis. Here the homologous zone-axes form the edges of a trigonal pyramid, and no pair of them lies in a plane containing the triad axis. Nor

can an auxiliary pyramid be formed by the edges of alternate faces. Again, the proof that a possible face is perpendicular to an axis



symmetry depends on the

fact that pairs of possible faces intersect

The in lines perpendicular to the axis. in Fig. 88, intersect in t t lt



homologous faces, such as which is not at 90 to

the triad axis, for that the triad axis




at 90

to VO.

Hence, we cannot prove


is perpendicular to a possible face. But, although it is not possible to prove that a triad axis, when it alone or associated only with a centre of symmetry, is a zone-axis

perpendicular to a possible face, we can prove that it is so when it is associated with a plane, or with axes, of symmetry. It is also

found to be an actual zone-axis, and perpendicular to faces, in all the known crystals in which triad axes exist. Hence, we shall

assume that, where a triad axis
perpendicular to a possible face.

exists, it is

a possible zone-axis and

Hence, generally, an axis of symmetry is (1) parallel to a possible and (2) perpendicular to a possible face.

If a crystal has

any two

of the three elements

a plane, a centre, and an axis of even degree perpendicular to the plane then it must also have the third element.


let 0,

Let, in Fig. 89, ABCD be a plane of symmetry, 2 ; and a point in 2, be the centre of symmetry. Let OP be the normal on any face ABE, and OPl the

normal on the corresponding homologous face ABF on the opposite side of the plane 2; and let 0A be the normal on
the plane



The plane containing OP and OP1 is perpendicular to 2, and must contain 0A.

Now, since the crystal has a centre of symmetry there must be faces at both ends of a normal continued through the centre. Hence, OP2 and OP3 the continuations of OP and OPlt are perpendicular to faces FCD and ECD which are parallel to ABE

The four faces form a fourrespectively (Euclid xi. 14). sided prism, like the roof of a long building and its reflection in a horizontal plane passing through the eaves.


clear that rotation through













about the normal 0A and the corresponding

For 0A is the external bisector of the angle consequently, bisects the angles POPS and PflP*. The same relations must hold for each set of








They symmetrical with respect to ABCD and the centre 0. must be interchangeable in pairs about the normal 0A on ABCD. Hence rotation through 180 about the line 0A interchanges homologous faces. But 0A, being the normal on a plane of symmetry,


a zone-axis perpendicular to a possible face (Prop. 1). Hence, The is an axis of symmetry of at least twofold rotation.

For possibility of rotations through 60, or 90, is not excluded. three rotations in the same direction, each of 60, about <9A bring


to the position






two successive


each of 90, are equivalent to a single rotation of 180 about the same axis. The axis may, therefore, be one of dyad, tetrad, or

hexad symmetry





an axis of symmetry of even degree.

a crystal has a centre of symmetry 0, and an axis (6) of symmetry of even degree 0A, it can, by the aid of the same diagram, be shown that the plane ABCD, perpendicular to OA, is a plane of symmetry. For rotations through 180 about 0A are


always possible and interchange pairs of normals OP and OPZ where all three lines are co-planar and OA bisects the angle POP3




to the centre of

symmetry each normal



the faces at opposite ends of a normal are necessarily parallel. parallel planes intersect a third in parallel lines (Euclid xi.

and But

Hence the edges
which the faces


and and



are each parallel to the edge ^A, in meet. The edges are therefore all

perpendicular to the plane containing 0A, OP, OP3 and therefore to 0A. The plane, containing the edge AB and the line through in the plane POP3 which is perpendicular to 0A, bisects the angle POPn and therefore the angle between the faces of which OP and OPl are the normals.


pairs of parallel faces, rotation through 180
pairs of faces,

similar relation can be found for every other set of two which are also interchangeable, in pairs, by

about 0A.

plane of symmetry; for


bisects the angles is parallel to a possible face

Hence, the plane ABCD is a between homologous and perpendicular to

a zone-axis.
(c) plane of symmetry, ABCD, and an axis of symmetry of even degree, OA, perpendicular to ABCD coexist in a crystal, then parallel faces must be invariably present, i.e. the is centro-

If a



obtained from the diagram, already used, by taking the relations of the lines and faces in a different

The proof

OP and OP

are symmetrical with respect to



bisects the angle


between them and


Hence, the plane PflP contains 0A.

perpendicular to their plane. Again, 0A bisects the angle






OP lies in the plane containing OP and 0A. Hence, OP all lie in one plane, and POP + POP = 180. OP and OP are opposite directions on the same straight




The faces ABF and DCE at the opposite ends P: and P3 must therefore be parallel; and similarly, ABE and DCF are The same is true of every other set of faces which parallel faces. The crystal is are homologous with respect to 2 and to OA.
therefore centro-symmetrical. Hence, the presence of

any two




elements of

a centre, a plane and an axis of even degree perpendicular to the plane of symmetry always involves the presence


of the third element.

The proof given above also establishes a very im8. COR. portant relation of the triad axis viz. that in a centra-symmetrical

the plane perpendicular to cannot be a plane of symmetry. For the axis perpendicular to a plane of symmetry in a centro-symmetrical crystal must be an

crystal having
the axis

an axis of triad symmetry,

axis of


of even degree.



nothing to exclude the

possibility of a triad axis and a plane of symmetry perpendicular to it occurring together in a crystal ; but in such a case the crystal

cannot be centro-symmetrical, and parallel faces, if they occur, are to be regarded as belonging to different forms and will often be distinguished by a difference of character ; i.e. such parallel faces
are not homologous.










of planes of


possible in a zone.


shall, thereby, see

that the

arrangements possible are such that the least angles between planes of symmetry are 90, 60, 45 and 30. PROP. 5. To prove that the only angles, less than 60, possible

between planes of symmetry are 45 and 30. Let, in Fig. 90, P and Q be the poles
of planes of

symmetry such that no pair


planes of symmetry in their zone

one another a

make with angle than PQ = (say).

must be repeated on the other side of Q in a similar pole P1 where P^Q = QP and similarly, Q must be repeated in a similar





Suppose the planes of symmetry

to be

perpendicular to the paper, so that the poles P, Q, = &c. the primitive, where PQ = QPl = lie in







But, since P and Q are the poles of planes of symmetry, so must the poles $ 2 &c., be poles of planes of symmetry. lt Let the successive poles be inserted in the zone until ft, the last




Now P is

is the opposite pole to P. P, is reached, where But the next step gives either P, or a pole S beyond it. that first taken and also the pole of a plane of symmetry




are both less than

RS =


This contravenes the limi-

tation on the poles of symmetry in the zone


and Q

taken; viz.- that no planes make with one another a less angle than <.

Hence, in proceeding beyond JK the next pole must be P, and RP The angle is therefore an exact submultiple of 180. Call the number n, then n< = 180. If, now, n is greater than 3, there must be at least three other poles between P and P, and we can apply the anharmonic ratio of four tautozonal poles to investigate the possible values of n and <.






or 90, the anharmonic ratio
to one another.


inapplicable, since

pairs of poles are at 180

Supposing </><60, we


= m where

m is some positive rational


~ m=


PP sin QQ _ sin ~ sin PQ sin Q P sin

2<fr 2



4 sin 2


cos 2




sin 2

= 4cos 2
Let 20 =


nO =



and cos



= 2(l + cos2<) ...... (1). 2< = (m-f- 2)


The problem
than 120,

involves, therefore, the determination of the angles which have rational cosines and are exact sub-

These angles are 90 and 60, as is proved in multiples of 360. Art. 10. In these cases, cos 6 = cos 90 = 0, and cos = cos 60 = 1 -f- 2. Hence, when = 90, <f> = 45 and n - 4 ; and when 6 = 60, <f> = 30

and n =


The value

of the




m= 2

in the former case,



in the latter,

m = 3.

10. Proof. Series (3) (Todhunter's Trig., p. 226, 1859), and the properties of equations having integral coefficients, enable us to prove that the only angles <120, which are exact submultiples of 360 and have rational cosines, are 90 and 60.
2 cos

nB =

(2 cos 0)


(2 cos

0)~* +

n ( n ~^

(2 cos 0)-_,fec.





3 ).

The rth term


the coefficient of (2 cos #) n

- 2r

being integral.

But, when nO = 360,


nO =



and writing x

for 2 cos



have the equation

~ - nxn ~ z + n( U



- &c. = 2 ............ (4).

Further, the commensurable roots of an equation of the nth
degree, which has integral coefficients and unity for that of the highest term, are integral and exactly divide the constant term.
It follows that the possible values of If 2cos0 = or 180. 2, 6 is

= 90. latter gives planes of symmetry, but it is not admissible as a solution of equation (1), for it gives a meaningless anharmonic ratio.
and the

x are limited to 2, + 1, and 0. The former value is absurd, This is a possible angle between


2cos0 = +





or 120, and




or 60.


former establishes that the least angle possible between planes of symmetry is 30, and that we cannot have more than six such

The latter value (60) is a possible angle between planes of symmetry, but it is not admissible as a solution of (1) ; to one another, the for, if four successive poles are taken at 60 extreme pair are at 180, and the anharmonic ratio is meaningless.
planes in a zone.

2 cos 6



= 90,

= 45

and n =






other solution possible, and

that given

when n

even and the
in a

term of series (3) is 2. It follows that the greatest


of planes of



six in

one case and four in the other 1

Crystals may, also,

have only two, or three, tautozonal planes of symmetry.
1 The proof of this important proposition given in the text is due to Professor Story- Maskelyne, who gave it in a course of lectures attended by the author in Professor von Lang (Kryst. p. 75, 1866) gives an expression, equivalent 1869. to (1), limiting the angles of isogonal zones, i.e. of zones in which equal angles He points out that 30, 45, 60 and 90, satisfy the equation ; but he recur.

does not prove them to be the only angles which do so. In a classical memoir, published in Ada Soc. Sci. Fennicce, ix. p. 1, 1871, but read on 19 March, 1867,
Professor Axel Gadolin finds that the angles of rotation about axes of symmetry are subject to equation (2) and he proves, by the method used in Art. 10, that 60 and 90 are the least possible angles. His method of arriving at equation (2)


however, not altogether satisfactory

tetrad axis.




for it is not applicable to the case of a ; has, therefore, been adopted in Art. 11.




crystal can


five tautozonal planes of



for the least angle
satisfy equation (2).

between them

36, and

this angle does




45, and

also at

Planes of symmetry inclined to one another at angles 30, cannot coexist in one and the same zone.

It is clear that a zone-circle cannot be divided
of 30

to one another


also at distances of

by poles at distances 45 without some of

the poles making angles of less than 30

with one another.



To prove that


only axes of symmetry of degree higher than
possible in crystals. Suppose A n to be

and hexad axes are the three which are

ring alone in a crystal,

an axis of symmetry of degree n (> 3) occurand let it be placed vertically. By Props.





If then a face meets the axis at a point V, similar faces all passing through the apex

a possible zone-axis perpendicular to a possible face. we have a pyramid of n

V and

meeting the hori-

zontal base in possible edges. proceed to show that



possible faces can be found parallel


A n and
= 180H- W



one another in succession at an angle

When n

is even, n -f- 2 faces through opposite polar edges are each of which contains the axis of symmetry. Thus, in

FIG. 92.

Fig. 91, the planes

LM', MLO, both containing the tetrad axis OL, are possible faces inclined to one another at an angle of 90.
t t


Similarly, in Fig. 92, the planes A VA', AVO, A containing the hexad axis of symmetry OF, are possible faces inclined to one another at angles of 60. Generally, therefore, we have n-f-2 possible tautozonal faces inclined to one another in successive pairs at an angle 6 = 360 H- n.




If now the alternate faces of the pyramid are extended to meet one another, we obtain in Fig. 91 horizontal edges through L, parallel to OX and OY, which bisect the angles OM, MOM'.



Through these edges and the axis OL possible faces can be drawn and we have four faces through the axis OL inclined to one another in succession at angles of 45. In the general case, when n is greater than 4, we obtain new polar edges, such as VM of Fig. 92, through which and the axis w-=-2 possible faces can be drawn bisecting the Thus, for instance, angles between adjacent faces of the first set.

the face




the angle





thus have, altogether, n tautozonal faces through A n inclined to one

another in succession at an angle

the case,

The same can be shown to be when n is odd and > 3.

Thus, in Fig. 93, the face through the axis and the possible edge
bisects the angle

FIG. 93.

between the posfaces through VA 3 and VA*

parallel to the axis.
Fig. 90 may now be taken to represent the poles of the n tautozonal faces through the axis A n inclined to one another in succession at angles <, where n<f-l80. Forming the anharmonic ratio,


{PQPiQ 2 },


four consecutive poles,


obtain equations (1)

and (2). Hence, as proved in Art. 10, the possible values of 6 = 2<f> are restricted to 60 and 90 ; and the axis can only be a hexad or a tetrad axis. Similarly, 72 not being a possible value of
a pentad axis is inadmissible. The only axes of symmetry possible in crystals are therefore those of two-, three-, four-, and six-, fold symmetry.


60, 45

Zones in which one of the crystallometric Isogonal zones. or 30, recur are common in cubic crystals and in

crystals having a principal axis. when the faces are not planes of

can, however, show that, even symmetry, no pair of faces can include an angle of 30, or 60, in a zone in which 45 recurs in succession and, vice versa, that 45 cannot occur in a zone in which



30, or 60, recurs in succession.

Thus, in Fig. 94,



Take any

possible pole

PQ=QP = P Q =&c. = R in the zone,
/ i l l


where is either 45 or and let f\PR = a. Also,


be a point such that RS=<j)

Then the

{PRQP} and

the A.R. {PSQP,} give the equations

sin sin




(a rational

number) ........ (5),

(5) gives




45, then

(90- a)



(6) gives







tan a + tan 0, tan a tan 0,

= (by
If 0, is

substitution from (7))



m"*"^ _( 8 tan 0,


45, then tan0, = l, and n is rational. Hence, in a zone having 45 recurring, we can have a pole S at 45 to any other known pole R.

however, 0, = 30, then tan



and from




Hence, n contains a term involving the surd s/3, and is irrational. Therefore S at 30 to R is not a possible pole and it is not possible to

mid two

poles inclined at 30 in succession.

to one another in a zone in

which 45 recurs

assigned to 0.
' '

Equations (5) and (6) were established before any value was = 30, Let us now take


= sin (60

- a)

_ sin 60

cos a

; - sin q cos 60 _ v 3 cot q - 1

sin a

sin a


where m, = 2fa rational number. +H)>
Similarly, from

we have



expanding the

left side

of (11)

and substituting

for cot a



we have
n^ _ V3~
cot a cot </>,-!

cota + cot0

_m ~


cot 0,

- v/3


If $, =




^-{-O Hence, w, and n are rational, and a pole S is possible at 30 to any other pole R in a zone in which 30 recurs in succession.

^ = ^J +





.................. (13).


however, $, = 45,

cot$, = l



is irrational, and therefore n. There cannot, therefore, be a Hence, pole S at 45 to a pole R in a zone in which 30 recurs in succession. By making $, negative in the above equations, we can obtain similar


which hold

for the case in


S is

on the same side of

R as


Similarly, it can be proved that 45 and 60 do not occur together in a zone, in which one or other of the angles is repeated in succession.




Euler's Theorem.

Given two axes of


it is required to within a body prove that successive rotations about them of 2a and 2/3 respectively are equivalent to a single rotation through an angle 2y about

OA and

OB, intersecting at

a third axis OC, and to find the position of OG and the angle 2y. Let a sphere of any radius be described about the point of
as centre and let A and B, Fig. 95, be the two points at which the axes emerge when the rotation about each of them appears to the observer to be in the same direction, either



be the both with, or both against, the hands of a clock. Let arc in which a great circle through A and B meets the sphere. draw the great circles BC, BA' and BC where Through



t ,



GBA' =


A'BC = ft, one-half


angle of rotation about the axis OB. On A'B cut off an arc A'B-AB; and through


A' draw the great circles A'C and A'Gt on sides of A'B, and each making

with A'B an angle rotation about A.


one-half the angle of






rotation about which through the angle ACA'(= 2y) is equivalent to successive

counter-clockwise, of 2/3 about

and 2a about OA. The three spherical triangles ABC, CBA', A'BC, have their sides and angles equal, each to each. For, in ABC and A'BC, the two sides AB, BC are equal to the two sides A'B, BC and the included angle ABC to the angle A'BC. Hence, A'C = AC; and




A A'CB= A ACB, and A CAB = A CA'B. Again, in the triangles A'BC, A'BC two angles of the one are equal to two angles of the Hence, the other other, and the adjacent side A'B is common.

= = A'C and r angles and sides are equal ; viz. A'C If the body and sphere (supposed to be rigidly connected together) are turned, counter-clockwise, about OB through 2(3, A is brought to



A' and





afterwards, the body and sphere are turned

again counter-clockwise, about OA' (the new position of the axis OA}, the point C where C had been left by the first



4 ,

rotation, is

brought back to C.

After both rotations the radius


retains its original position ; and the body is in the same position as it would be in after a single rotation, counter-clockwise, about OC

through the angle



for A' is the final position of A.

a new

however, the rotations are taken clockwise in the same order, point C//} situated on the other side of AB, is the extremity

the equivalent axis of rotation




the vertex of a
for base

triangle equal and similar to CAB, having angles at A and B equal to a and ft respectively.


and the

If the body is first turned about OA and then about OB, the same two axes OC and OC are obtained. The former is the equilt

valent axis, when the rotations are clockwise are counter-clockwise.


the latter,

when they

Hence, A and

when the
(7 /;

B being the points at which the axes meet the rotations about them appear to be in the same

direction, the positions of the equivalent axes of rotation are given





the vertices of the two triangles which have



base and the angles at A and B equal respectively to a and (3, onehalf the angles of rotation about the axes. The angle of rotation 2y is, in each case, double the external angle of the triangle at the vertex.

The proposition has only been proved for pure rotations, but holds true for axes of screw rotation.


14. It is now clear that, if there are two axes of symmetry in a crystal inclined to one another at an the angle other than 180
latter angle giving only two ends of one and the same axis there must be at least one other axis of symmetry, of which the position and the angle of rotation are determined by the above theorem. For suppose the axes of symmetry to be parallel to OA and OB of the preceding proposition ; and let rotations of 2a and 2(3 about OA and OB, respectively, interchange, in each case, homologous faces

and 6. possible zone-axis the line of intersection of 2 and S. which is. . meet the primitive be A. between planes of symmetry in their zone. they are parallel to possible faces and perpendicular to possible zone-axes. lt s 3 . and the radius through C is a It.. and let the great circles through . is true of the other equivalent axis OC t/ which gives a fourth axis of symmetry when this line is not (as is often the case in crystals) in the continuation through the centre of the axis OC. 8. which occur together in any crystal. 2. 4 6) for an axis of symmetry. or axes when C and G tl are not extremities of a may. and leaves the aspect of the crystal the same as at first. &c. therefore. It has thus been shown that the greatest number of order to obtain axes of symmetry. 15. in each case. . necessary to show that rotation about it through a definite submultiple Since 2 and primitive of 360 interchanges like faces. Then rotation about OB through 2/3 brings OA to OA'. The crystal has. be the projections of homologous poles symLet P. a third axis of symmetry. all the axes of symmetry. and let their line of intersection be perpendicular to the Then over S the plane 2 must be repeated in a like plane of primitive. Rotation in the same direction about OA' position of OA) through 2a also interchanges homologous But faces. A lt &c. and interchanges homologous faces. therefore. D lt Z) 2 . <f>. 125 and edges.. Z> 3 . give the positions of new axes of symmetry. is thirteen. then their line of intersection is an axis of symmetry. . Hence the plane of the is parallel to a possible face. 96. If two planes of symmetry are present in a and are inclined to one another at the least angle. the least angle of rotation 2<. when combined in a similar manner with each of In the original axes. PROP. are planes of symmetry. symmetry 2 t . the process has to be repeated until every combination is shown to give an axis already established.COMBINATIONS OF AXES OF SYMMETRY. therefore. It is now satisfies the conditions (Arts. &c. P P P S C and each of these poles meet the primitive in Z). &c. The same The new diameter axis. the same aspect as at (the first. 2 1? &c. crystal. and that satisfies the conditions for axes of symmetry given in Props. and the degree of which is n = 360 -=- Let the two planes of symmetry meet the sphere in the great circles 2 and S. B. 2. Let the points in which the adjacent planes S. S. Fig. an exact submultiple of 360 . about OC OC 3 It is necessary to prove that the least angle of rotation is. metrical with respect to 2. about which is 2<f>. the final position of the crystal can be obtained by a rotation of 2y new in the same direction about OC.

the similar planes of symmetry and the homologous poles are interchanged at the same time. . CA t CP. Hence . 60. common The two respects. 2 But these angles are the same as the arcs BD1 BD 2 measured on the primitive. Again. and bisected by. 98. . . . 97. the pairs of similar points A. and f\Pl CL = [\ P CL. triangles are therefore equal in all and CP = CP2 . . . T FIG. BD = BD l 2 . if the sphere is turned through 2$ about the diameter through C. 1 2 Hence. one plane is COB. There are three planes of symmetry in the zone which are like and inter- changeable planes. 97. and the two planes S and 2 are not like or interchangeable. such as l and 2 to. In Fig. and the angle But. Hence. CP2 CP^ CP3 . two spherical triangles CLP^ CLPZ The angle CLP l is also equal to CLP^ 1 each being a right angle. XOZ. D D =D D +D D 1 3 1 z 2 Hence. The two like planes 2 and Si of the genera] proof fall into the same plane. COR. for a similar reason. the axis. interchange places simultaneously. The distribution of homologous faces with respect to the planes and axis of symmetry is shown in Fig.(7P= PCA = A PiCA. the plane of symmetry S with respect and CL is to which they are symmetrical. we have 1 2 Now P P . there- an axis of symmetry. . . 19 and in Fig. line of intersec- a dyad and the distribu- tion of homologous faces is such as is shown in Fig.126 AXIS PARALLEL TO SEVERAL PLANES OF SYMMETRY. Z) 2 B l B &c. the arc joining a pair of homologous poles. 97. A v D. the other is YOZ. Also. ii. symmetry tion is is 90.. and the zone-circles CA. i. between the tautozonal planes of is If the least angle symmetry is the axis one of triad symmetry. The line of intersection of the two planes S and 2 is. If the least angle between pairs of tautozonal planes of fore. change places respectively. But CP=CP = CP = &c. is perpendicular to the P L=LP . or the arc CP^ AB= FlG 96 ' Hence. . the least angle of rotation about which is 2$ and the degree is w = 360-f2<.

The S planes are interchangeable with one another. iii. 127 COB. logous faces FIG. FIG. The distribution of homologous poles and faces is given in Figs. will As {hkl} and {pqr}. respectively. on opposite 101. xvn. 99. but those of one line of S at there are three like planes with those of the other. so arranged that the planes of one set bisect the angles between pairs of the other set. and illustrated t. there are four tautozonal planes of symmetry consisting of a pair of like S The like planes are interplanes and a pair of like 2 planes. 100 and interchangeable is triad are not intersection be explained in Chap. the axis OL iv. Y and Z.AXIS PARALLEL TO SEVERAL PLANES OF SYMMETRY. 100. line of intersection is a tetrad axis. 101. as are likewise the 2 planes. two sets of symbols. If the least angle between S and 2 is 45. The distribution of is homo- khl by the faces meeting at the apex L in The planes of symmetry Fig. When the angle <j> = 30. changeable with one another. 60 to one another and three like planes 2 also at 60 to one another. S and S' are LOM and LOM the planes 2 are LOH and LOK'. COB. the planes of symmetry 2 are those passing through the centre and the points X. but those of one set are not inter- The changeable with those of the other. is the tetrad axis. are needed to give all the homologous faces. In Fig. The an axis of hexad symmetry. 99. .

for the whole rotation is m x 360-=.2</>. COR. v. to show that there are (n . gives only m different But.2m = 180. Given an axis of symmetry of degree n. and one plane of symmetry parallel to it. when n is even. so that there are three like dyad axes at right angles to A3 . triad of planes S bisect the in Fig. two rotations followed by one of 180 about 8 are one about A n through rotation about A. it follows that no crystal can have an axis of symmetry.128 AXES PERPENDICULAR TO W-FOLD {hkl} are AXIS.n brings 8 into the position of a like dyad axis. not 16. symmetrically placed . and They have a pole and face through the polar edges V8. symmetry all intersecting in. the result of only -h2 different planes of symmetry . 9. . By other positions which rotation about the axis the given plane 2 is brought into (n 1) must be those of like planes of symmetry and the angle between which is 360-=. we thus get = ?i-=-2. -=-n arid the axis is in the prolongation across the origin of the original axis. of planes of 10). =2$. in which planes of symmetry intersect. of higher degree than six. rotation about An . 10. each rotation about A n through 360 -i. there section of planes of successive rotations of 2< is to turn the plane of must be n distinct planes of the axis of symmetry. But the last proposition has shown that the degree n of an axis of symmetry. which is the intersymmetry. a pentad axis cannot be the line of intersection symmetry. Hence. n = 360 -j. for. 102. Moreover.1) other axes of even perpendicular to An . since w< = 180. as also sides of which poles of are the poles of {pqr}. dyad 360 axes. PROP.1) other planes of symmetry all parallel to the axis. where A is equivalent to a single the vertex of the triangle shown in Fig. If the axis is a triad axis. is given by the equation. there dyad axis 8 is perpendicular to an axis of must be (n. when it again coincides with the original plane. if m m symmetry through 180. But the mth rotation gives no new direction.ft. rotation about it brings 8 into two new and different positions. 17. But. PROP. exceeding 6. by Euler's theorem. or parallel to. 101 pass angles between planes of the first triad. . Since 30 is the least angle possible between planes of symmetry. since 36 is not a possible angle between planes of symmetry (Art. The other . Hence. In the case of an axis A n of even degree. where n=2wi. where 20 is the least angle of rotation about the axis and is double that between adjacent planes of symmetry. V8t V8 /t of the set {hkl} symmetrically placed to one of {pqr}. If a symmetry A n degree all of degree n.

and let them the plane of the primitive and emerge at 8 and A. the least angle of rotation about the axis parallel to the diameter through A n L. a dia- meter R is reached such that at the next repetition the original diameter. But such a rotation about the diameter through A n brings the sphere and crystal into the same position as a rotation of 20 in the opposite direction. 11.20. that the pair inclined at the least angle was selected. 9 . . The axes A. A be two dyad axes inclined to one another at the least angle.8. therefore. therefore. Let 8 and = 180 lie -rtt. is 20. m like dyad axes A. gives us so that the diameter A. If two axes of symmetry parallel to a certain face are inclined to of even degree one another at the least angle. and the axis A is at least a dyad The same is true of a combination of A n axis perpendicular to A n with each of the 8 axes. the angle of rotation about the axis emerging at A n is double the supplement of the angle 8 J B A. Similarly. then there are axes of even degree parallel to the same face inclined to one another in succession at the angle 0. A. Hence.0) = 360 . -4 n A8 are both 90. Furthermore. It is. c. then the angle between R R and T is 0. or a diameter T beyond it is attained. 129 clearly a right angle. Again by Euler's theorem.. inclined to the original axis at an angle less than 0. parallel to an axis of symmetry. axes. viz. successive rotations about adjacent dyad axes 8 and A are together equivalent to a single rotation about the line perpendicular to their plane for the angles -4 n 8A. we need only consider rotations about the diameters of the sphere. and an axis of symmetry of n degree n perpendicular to the face to which the n axes are parallel. But if rotation about gives T. take two diameters in A A. but in a reversed direction. Repeating the process. The number of distinct dyad axes parallel to one plane is. A which bisects the angle between pairs of 8 axes. The axes R and T are. may. therefore. Describe a sphere. A. Hence. But this contravenes our first assumption.8. = 180 -7-0 = 360-. when n = 4. a semi-revolution about 8. between axes parallel to their plane. 102. the nth repetition must give the original diameter reversed in direction. <f> = 180 -z-n. each of is . and the degree n is given by 360 -r 20. But the original diameter lies between them and is also parallel to a dyad axis. Art. There are. and 88.AXES PERPENDICULAR TO 71-FOLD The angle at AXIS. therefore. between axes parallel to the face. be tetrad 18. 2 (180 .20. 13. PROP. parallel to the axes.. Fig. Rotation through 180 about the dyad axis A brings the axis 8 into a position in which it is parallel to the diameter 8.

.. We shall see for no crystal later on that it is needless to consider other arrangements can have more than one hexad axis. symmetry To find the possible arrangements of like axes 12.. applies .. ex- when n = 2.. Rotation about A meeting the sphere in av J 2 through ^a-^n brings A l v Then to the position of a like axis A3 and the radius Oo-. of PROP.. FIG. (16).2 emergas and has no reentrant angles . dyad axis midway between them. 180") = where {2-p(-2)} . to a radius Oa3 parallel to A3 ....180) is ... and let A 2 meet it in 2 . in the same direction about it are equivalent to a single rotation of 180. Through the centre draw a line parallel to the arc o1 a 2 =^. For the purposes of the proposition we need only consider the latter rotation..... Suppose A l and J 2 to be like axes of degree n inclined to one another at the least angle ^ possible between such axes.. the proposition is true when the adjacent pair consist of a dyad and tetrad axis. inclined to one another at finite angles. Proceeding in this manner the point at reached again and a closed polygon of p sides is obtained. and the angle al a^a3 =Zrr-^-n. Hence. of Now the area of the p triangles it.. the area of the polygon ofp sides jg^ (a1 a2 a3 +a2 a3 a4 +&c... 2n-i-n. 19. where a 4 a3 =a3 o. (15). point within triangle ABC the spherical polygon is that formed by joining each of its angular points to a such as the middle point But the area of a spherical M is ~ (A + B+C..z =2ir-^-n. each of . a3 a 2 =a 1 a2 =^r.. Hence. About any point in A z as centre describe a sphere... + 360 -p .... Hence... A similar rotation about A 3 brings A z into a position the direction of which is given by the radius to at on" the sphere. or have two tetrad axes without a The same proof two for rotations.... . 103. is less than 180.j and the angle ai a 3 a. S is the surface of the sphere.130 COMBINATIONS OF INCLINED LIKE AXES. and on each rotation the interior angle. when one of the original axes is a tetrad axis 90.. for its sides are the least possible between such axes.... the angle a1 o2 a3 = 180... Fig. In the latter case. 103. and the extremities of all the axes cept lie in a great circle. is ultimately The polygon similar axis to At encloses no point at which a or A..

If n = 6. an axis of symmetry.2 If.about A l and A. l D. 21. indicates that the distribution of faces about the two ends is similar.. When p = 2. Hexad axis. M. By (16) the area of the Tetrad axes. have a single tetrad axis with a like distribution of faces at the two ends. The value p=2. be interchangeable. M . 104. by two great the polygon is a lune. which may. (19). the values of p are limited by the expression (17). expression (17) becomes 8 2p > : and p = l. as before. (a) (6) The first gives. We shall now consider the values of p given by expression (17) for the several possible values of n. If the vertices a. but the faces may. one-half the angle of rotation about each of the axes. and the angle at is 360 By Euler's theorem. i. no crystal can have more than one hexad axis. gives for the polygon an equilateral triangle the From equation (19) we see that ^=90. OM is -rp. expression (17) becomes 12 . a great circle MD is drawn at right angles to a x a2 it bisects through the angle a Ma 2 and the arc aja 2 at the point is ctj M . be interchangeable. &c. for we supposed two axes A l and A t to occur. a lune but with area can. circles. therefore. It is obviously inadmissible as a solution of the problem. M=a = by great circles an isosceles triangle. in Fig. or may not. The 131 area of the polygon is necessarily positive. The value p \ gives no repetition the polygon has only one side and is a circle. 20. of the polygon are joined to the middle point. as before. no repetition. 2. The sides are semicircles. 92 . > . or lune is S+6. a 2 . Each of the triangles a^Ma^ given separately in Fig. When n=4.COMBINATIONS OF INCLINFD LIKE AXES. . 6 (say) and we can readily z find 6 and ^. Hence. an angle of rotation of 360 (1 .4p 0. then a l M=*&c. by Napier's rules. and.e. 4.2-T-/0 about which is equivalent to successive rotations of 2r-f. ii. may not. Hence. Hence. the segment of a sphere bounded and the apices are the opposite ends of one and the same diameter.. Hence. i. consequently. =cot-cotn p (18). of which the angles at and a 2 are 180" -7-71. the possible values of p are 1 and 2. 104. or 3 are possible values. (c) The value = S+ We The value is /> =3 area of which S-r8. 2 gives.

and between adjacent dissimilar axes Or and Op'. The three tetrad axes are indicated by letters T. 104 is the extremity of a dyad axis. and. tetrad axis is . 105. the four triad axes iii. Therefore / . Hence. and axis is the polygon is a lime with area S-r3. Also rotation about Az in the opposite direction to that first adopted clearly gives a similar quadrantal triangle. This character of an axis of symmetry is also described by saying that it is uniterminal. to be regarded as dissimilar triad axes . The triad axes. 106 (coincident with the points a ly &c. for instance. three like and interchangeable tetrad axes mutually at right we have angles to one another. > When p=l. triangle. When = 2. there is. which may. When p = 3 the polygon is an equilateral S-r4. 103. angles between pairs of like triad axes Op' and Op. or (c) may not. for ir-^n=ir -r-p=60. Fig. A single triad therefore possible with a similar distribution of faces at both ends. as before. the point of Fig. will. is shown in the stereogram. 3. The radii in opposite directions FIG. and the distribution of faces and edges at the opposite ends will be dissimilar.132 COMBINATIONS OF INCLINED LIKE AXKS. no repetition. of Fig. 103) to the centre of the tetrahedron. Hence cos (0=p'r) = l-=-3. joining the coigns p in Fig. Each of these continuations corresponds to an axis through the point M of Fig. of the cubic system. 106. p'0p // =180-p // 0r = 109 28'. by letters p. = 3. by Euler's theorem. the apices of which are at the coigns of the inscribed regular tetrahedron. along the same diameters are. be interchangeable. expression (17) becomes 4 or 5. since opposite ends of an axis lie in a diameter. p may (a) (6) Triad axes. and the six dyad axes by 8. But. when continued. This is the same result as is obtained from (19) for cos ^/2 = cos 60 cosec 60 = 1 -7.. the area of which is The sphere is divided into four equal triangles.^3. therefore. When have the values 1. 6-p>0. 2. the new the opposite extremity of that of the The middle point spherical triangle is also the extremity of a triad axis . pass through the middle points r of the opposite faces. Fig. through a3 M D The whole arrangement characteristic of two classes of axes of symmetry. are obtained from The equations (18) and (19). Therefore p' Or =/>#?= 70 32'. 106.

.e. 0V. The We between two possible cases according as are (a) like Ar and A t the axes first taken and interchangeable. l . axes A and A 3) l A. &c. for from equation (19) S-r-6. 104 is a dyad axis. // cos^/2 = cos45cosec60 = >/2~-r v/3. antistrophic. The arrangement of axes is ^/2 = 5444'. i. 19. 107. #. tetrad axis as in case (a). the diagonals of which have here to distinguish give the directions of the four triad axes p.-. i! 133 a =p'0p = 109 28'. Again. Eider's theorem requires that should be at least a dyad axis. i. rotation about any one of which through 90 interchanges adjacent angles of the polygon.2 and . a. 107.e. figure inscribed in the sphere is the cube. In this case the complete assemblage of axes (ii c). may . Hence. through of the four-sided polygons are respectively perpenis shown inscribed cube.COMBINATIONS OF INCLINED LIKE AXES. and are three like and interchangeable tetrad axes. for the angles This does not militate with its being a aj J/a 2 a 2 J/a 3 &c. are each 90. ^-j. the pairs of about the tetrad axis emerging at about the axis emerging at M Z>.e.2 = 35 16'. of Fig. 107.. when . though M like axes. adjacent coigns of the cube. &c. and 1 characteristic of two merohedral classes of the cubic system. (d) When p=4. For. From the method of derivation adopted in Art. l and A<>. &c. successive rotations of 120 about the triad axis A z and of 90 rotation of 180 a^MD. The radii OT. or () like but not interchangeable. i. are equivalent to a single the vertex of the triangle The dyad axes are the lines 08. is identical with that resulting from and the middle points dicular to the faces of the M in Fig.. by Eider's theorem. J 2 and A 3 . the polygon is a four-sided one having an area of Each of its sides is 70 32'. FIG. the radius to the point D is parallel to the diagonal of one of the faces of the cube. are necessarily interchangeable . of Fig. and Furthermore. At . but the pairs A be antistrophic.. metastrophic. when A l and 4 2 are metastrophic.

of rotation about the axis through Mis 360 -4. in exactly the same position as if it had been turned once in the same direction through 72 = 360 -4. 22. 20 that M. the middle point of the polygon. which . When 5. But. for complete revolutions of 360 cause no change in the position of the faces. the expression (17) is independent of indefinite. It is interesting. In recent years much attention has been paid to theories as to the internal molecular structure of crystals. and it be proved that there are no other axes of symmetry. show the arrangement of axes of this paragraph. therefore. we obtain a five-sided polygon the area of which is (e) 12. to find that the uniformity of internal structure. 11. shall. then. Considerations of this nature have also justified the acceptance of a triad axis as an actual zone-axis to which a possible face is perpendicular. imposes the same restrictions on the elements of symmetry as those established in the pre- ceding Articles. therefore.5. We crystal The assumption of the uniformity of internal structure of a is based on the results of observation and experiment. No class of crystals can. Dyad axes. The particular case. since. triad axes. the least angle axis. So far the elements of symmetry have been discussed as if crystals were merely polyhedra the faces of which are subject to the law of rational indices. The possible arrangements of such one. and the solution is area of the polygon is dyad axes are governed by the relations given in Prop. A l and A 2 are antistrophic. is the extremity of an axis of symmetry. but no other number. Props. also that the angles between all the axes of symmetry associated together are fixed and definite. and the axis is a pentad But this has been shown in Art.5. It is important to note that. Successive rotations about A l and A 2 are equivalent to a single rotation about the radius this OM through 2 (180 -72). The polyhedron inscribed in the sphere is the regular pentagonal p= S+ dodecahedron. viz. the polyhedron is. When n=2. For we have seen in Art. p. two rotations give an angle of 2x360-4x 72 = 360 + 72. only enter into the question to the extent needed to establish two propositions. in the case of tetrad axes. presents the same aspect after any number of rotations of this amount. which such theories presuppose. Hence. iv. 13 and 14. a crystal may have one or three. that a crystal may have . which is inadmissible amongst crystal-forms. 11 to be inadmissible. however.134 COMBINATIONS OF INCLINED LIKE AXES. but no other number similarly. This arrangement of axes is characteristic of a subdivision of the cubic system of which crystals of pyrites give a good instance. the three lines through the middle points of can opposite cubic faces parallel to the edges are only dyad axes . or four. The axes all lie in one plane and the a hemisphere. in The polyhedron always angle ajJ/a 2 =72.

but that. the arrangement of the particles points within a crystal. M. : Some of the physical characters have a higher symmetry than that manifested as." 394. "On Solution and Crystallization. P.CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE. (2) for all parallel directions. identical in elasticity is The opposite directions along the same line. independently. however. must exert a most important influence on the growth of a crystal. about any one of them must be the same as that about any other. within the degree of precision attainable in estimating the perfection of a cleavage and the ease with which it is obtained. those in non-homologous directions generally show in their characters. 135 : have established that a crystal has the same physical properties (1) at all points on the same straight line. and have endeavoured to estimate the relative values of the surface1 1 differentes faces. fran$. discussed the subject. . parallel only to homologous faces. Further. and must. 1894. in many cases. 145. de Min. Soc. Thus. which are not homologous as is indicated by the cleavages being limited to a few directions which are. inasmuch as in the one class certain elements of symmetry occur alone. 1889. xv. Phil. the surface. The properties of cohesion and elasticity are. known as surface-tensions. but the sphere of action between neighbouring particles is This so small that only a very thin layer is affected. in a cubic crystal light is propagated with equal velocity in different in directions all directions. is. such properties do not enable us to distinguish between related classes which differ. when cleavages occur parallel to faces of different forms. for instance. p. p. or very near to. it is found that the cleavages in homologous directions are equally perfect and facile. is only partially true of the particles at. and (3) for all homologous directions. 119. by the geometrical relations of the crystal-forms the propagation of light. p. whilst in the other they occur in association with a centre of symmetry. be the determining cause in the development of the faces. 1885. The surfacerelations. vm. 370. Hence. Tram. xiv. The physical characteristics of crystals described in the preceding paragraph indicate that the internal structure is the same at all Hence. however. more especially. Curie and Professor Liveing have." " Sur la formation des cristaux et BUT les constantes capillaires de leure BulL Soc. marked differences another property which is only the same for directions which are parallel or homologous. though the facial development may be one which excludes symmetry with respect to a centre. p. The cohesion . Camb.

14. and let a^j be the least distance possible between any pair of such axes. But. if there is an axis of symmetry A whether it is an axis of pure. the distance between the nearest parallel axes A cannot be made indefinitely small in comparison with the distance between adjacent particles. or of screw. From the same considerations. then every other similar set of to it.ia3 = 2ir-r-n. 6 23. . however. 13. Now. consisting arranged in a regular manner at small but finite distances apart. Hence. PROP. rotation about J 2 through the . on a 3 Then.136 POSSIBILITY OF HEX AD AXES. and 180 + n = 30. A 1 and A 3 of degree n to meet a . rotation related particles to one set of particles. we can show that the assumption of a pentad axis is inconsistent with the existence of a finite minimum distance between like axes of symmetry. and we need only consider the consequences involved in the regularity of internal shall suppose the size of the crystal to be indefinitely structure. let us assume a pair of similar and parallel axes of symmetry. The arrangement of the particles about any one of them being the same as that about any other. We great in comparison with the distance between adjacent particles. it follows that. tensions of the faces of different forms in the to account for the same crystal and thus predominance of certain forms. can have an axis of symmetry of higher degree PROP. Hence. and a1 a2 = a3 a2 . <* 1 a3 = 2a1 a2 sin7r-=-w. by the selection of A 1 and A^ a^az cannot be less than !. of particles than six. JQQ angle 27r4-n brings the axis A 1 to the position of a similar parallel axis A 3 which meets the plane at a3 where Draw the perpendicular a^d f\a1 a. To prove that a pentad axis is inadmissible amongst the axes of symmetry possible in a crystalline structure. must have a similar and parallel axis A similarly related Further. Hence. from the right-angled triangle a^da^ we have a1 c?=a1 a2 simr-=-. 1 made is equal to OjOg. respectively. the greatest value which can be assigned to n. . or with the sphere of action of the particles on one another. When a^az is . plane perpendicular to them at the points e^ and a a Fig. sin TT-^W= l-=-2. 108. It is. To prove that no crystalline structure. unnecessary for our purpose to enter into the questions which such considerations raise.

109. to have a number of like parallel pentad axes separated from one . therefore. they will meet. another by a finite minimum distance. the axis A l is transferred to A3 . . where a3 a4 =a3 a2. It is impossible. to the position of a like axis A 4 which meets . the paper in 4. is now. A 2 3 similar rotation about A 3 brings the axis J. Let jor 2 . at at 030%= Va^ Foj. It is clear that.. and. and the point e^ to a. we can by the same process find pentad axes still nearer to one another. in V (say). The triangle Fa2 a3 is isosceles. the crystal rotated about A% through 360 a* -J- 5. 109. 2. to the axes) in If. by Euclid vi. and this can be continued without limit. and the portions a t a 2 and as a4 of the equal sides are equal. for FIG.PENTAD AXIS INADMISSIBLE. parallel to a 2 a 3 we have two pentad axes A l and J 4 the distance between which is lass than the minimum distance 1 a2 Even if a 1 a4 were selected as the initial pair. and the angle a4 a3 a 2 =72. Fig. 137 A t A 2 be two parallel pentad axes having the least distance between such axes. Hence aja4 is Hence. : : . if a 2 a x and a3 4 are produced. the position of a like pentad axis. the two angles at a 2 and a3 are each 72. Let them meet the paper (placed at right angles alt a2 . Hence a =a 2 a l and the angle 0^0203= 72. .

and no other element of In symmetry is In class II the three axes are. Crystals in which a plane of symmetry. The systems. each perpendicular to one of the dyad axes. dyad axes. Crystals with a single plane of symmetry III. but present. THE SYSTEMS AND SOME OF THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERS ASSOCIATED WITH THEM. THE principles laid down. : 1. be briefly defined as follows : The systems may. give some of the synonyms employed by other crystallographers. The oblique (monoclinic. and . a dyad axis perpendicular to the plane of symmetry. The anorthic (tridinic) Crystals with no symmetry. In class III one of the axes is a dyad axis. which fall into seven larger groups called systems. and the relations established. I. The prismatic (rhombic. Crystals which have only 2. however.CHAPTER . X. in the preceding Chapters enable us to classify crystals . . and to show that only thirty-two classes are possible. which are the most convenient lines to take for axes of reference. likewise. class I the axes are dyad axes. as before. system consists of two classes II. each of which has one set of three dissimilar zone-axes at right angles to one another. trimetric) system includes three classes of crystals. The names adopted for the systems by various authors differ considerably. a centre of symmetry. they are associated with a centre of symmetry and with three planes of symmetry. and the classes included under each system. and is the line of intersection of two planes of symmetry at right angles to one another . will be fully and classes developed in the following Chapters. orthorhombic. 1. Crystals with a single dyad axis. a centre of symmetry are associated together. 3. monosymmetric} system includes three classes:!. We shall generally adopt Miller's names for the systems and shall. II.

as is the case when the principal axis is a tetrad axis. They seem to have same main subdivisions independently. 139 the two other axes of reference being the zone-axes normal to the planes of symmetry. and comprises all crystals having each a principal axis (p. Miller doubted the correctness of regarding this last system as a separate one and. 1809. isometric) system includes 5. (quadratic. pyramidal. 1 De indagando formarum crystallinarum characters geometrico Leipzig. Berlin. and which are therefore connected together by a simple relation as consisting of On the other hand. p. The r/tombohedral system includes seven classes. principal! dissertatio. parallel to the five classes. in particular cases. 112) which is either a tetrad axis. the crystals of The hexagonal system includes which have each a single hexad axis. which are either dyad or tetrad axes. includes seven classes. the directions which are given by the diagonals of a cube they have also three like and interchangeable rectangular axes. as will be shown in Chaps. regular. Abh. xvi and xvn. which is also a principal axis. but they are not inter- The tetragonal 4. dimetric) system changeable. of All cubic crystals have four triad axes. d. : edges of the cube. Akad. In other cases a single form of the hexagonal system can be represented the distribution of faces about the hexad axis two correlative forms of the rhombohedral system.. between the The systems were first established by Weiss and Mohs from empirical observations of the development of the forms of crystals and approximate measurement of their angles. until quite recent years. is. . which can be interchanged by a rotation of 1 80 about the principal axis. as to whether oblique and anorthic crystals constituted arrived at the Woiss's 1 classification . five classes. is a principal axis. the same as that of similar forms of the rhombohedral system. regarded rhombohedral crystals as forming important merohedral classes of the hexagonal system. the crystals 6. 289. which 7. The subdivisions of the systems were only partly determined by them and the question.DEFINITIONS OF SYSTEMS. foreign crystallographers indices. The special character of the dyad axis is due to the fact that like zone-axes at right-angles to it occur in pairs which are at right angles to one another . of which are all distinguished by having each a single triad axis. The cubic (octahedral. although was the first published. . Uber die natiirlichen Abtheilungen der Krystal- lisationssysteme. 18141815. or a dyad axis of special character. have.

i. 199. Wright. axis. an account of which is to be found in text-books on Light. remained a subject of contro- Naumann (Lehrb.140 OPTICAL CHARACTERS OF CRYSTALS. by R. p. Glazebrook. <fcc. system or class which are used as of a crystal. Light. the labours of Brewster (Phil Trans. 51. . In the Chapters in which the systems are severally discussed. p. to which a crystal belongs by the geometry of the shall see that it is facial development. The Optical Indicatrix. Fletcher. and tetartohedral independent systems. by E. the crystals of which have a crystallographic principal axis which is coincident in direction with the optic axis the crystals are 1 Physical Optics. which he justified by strong reasons based on the observed differences in the forms of these systems commonly found on crystals and the prismatic. therefore. the representation of oblique and anorthic crystals. tests in discriminating the Optical characters. which are even now the subject of much discussion crystals can be divided optically into three groups. Kryst. The first group comprises crystals which are isotropic. The Theory of Light. 1818) established that with certain exceptions. Shortly after the publication by Weiss of his classification of crystals by 1 systems. or were merely hemihedral subdivisions of the prismatic system. and that these three groups are closely related to the systems of Mohs and Weiss. by L. The Nature of Light. 2. We shall. cvm. T. in which anomalous phenomena are observed. give only single refraction these crystals all belong to the cubic : system. by T. The second group consists of crystals having one optic and comprises the tetragonal. 1830) versy for a long period. give a brief account of the it is harmotome. we not always possible to discriminate the class. The physical. Lommel. more important of those characters. and more especially the optical. for instance. was the first to adopt oblique axes in. We shall assume that the student is familiar with the ordinary facts concerning double refraction and polarised light. such as. rhombohedral and hexagonal : systems. or even the system.e. and sometimes between those of different classes in the same system . Preston. and mainly on the optical characters of their crystals that we now rely in assigning to definite systems several minerals. by L. d. II. the humite group. characters of the crystals afford useful tests which generally enable us to discriminate between crystals of different systems.

141 two 1 optic axes : . undergoes single refraction whatever may be the inclination of the beam to the face at which the light emerges. three and respectively. If a beam of plane-polarised light of any colour falls on the crystal so that it is propagated along the optic axis. to the lines of intersection of these planes. and (d) on the general relations of cohesion. however. . The term principal axis when used in Optics must not be confused with the similar term when applied to the crystal-development. Crystallographically. (c) on the hardaxis. is marked enough. of tetragonal crystals on the one hand. 4.e. said to be uniaxal. These lines are axes of two-fold its * symmetry of the wave-surface. An optic axis is a direction along which monochromatic light is propagated with only a single wave-velocity.FRESNEL'S WAVE-SURFACE. it is a direction in the crystal along which the radii to the points of contact of the two wave-fronts with the wave-surface are also the normals to both. : . and those of hexagonal and rhombohedral crystals on the other hand. but an optic axis may in all cases be distinguished by the following character. experiments on which. edges occur in sets of four. In 1821 Fresnel established that the transmission light of monochromatic through biaxal crystals accords with a centro-symmetrical wave-surface of two sheets. no distinction was to exist in the optical characters of the three systems of shown biaxal crystals. the term is limited to that axis of symmetry in the tetragonal. So far as Brewster's observations went. oblique and anorthic systems the crystals are said to be biaxal. Each biaxal crystal has for a definite colour three such directions at right angles to one another. Optically. and the presence of a single optic axis serves only to establish the fact that the crystals have each a principal axis which is coincident in direction with the optic For discriminating between the hexagonal and rhombohedral systems we have to depend (a) on the development of the crystalforms (b) on corrosion-experiments on the faces . A beam of such light of appreciable transverse section traversing a crystal in the direction of an optic axis gis only a single beam on emergence. ness. i. which is symmetrical with respect to three rectangular planes the principal planes and. This definition does not hold accurately for crystals like quartz . and are called principal 1 axes. The optical characters do not enable us to distinguish crystals of one of the systems from those of another . the light emerges as a plane-polarised beam whatever may be the thickness traversed and the azimuth of the plane of polarization. therefore. are unreliable. The third group consists of crystals which have and comprises the prismatic. rhombohedral and hexagonal systems about which similar six. In the second group the distinction between the crystal-forms 3.

respectively. and the equal velocity in every direction perpendicular to this prism having refraction corresponding index of refraction can be obtained by means of a The indices of its refracting edge parallel to the axis. the acute angle between the optic axes and is called the first meanor the acute bisectrix (abbreviated to Bxa . y. and called the second mean-line. coincides with the principal axis of said to be optically negative . classes of the prismatic system have similar optical characters the same is true of the three classes of the oblique system as well as of the two classes of the anorthic system . axis . in aragonite. and are usually denoted by a. It follows that the three .142 ACUTE AND OBTUSE BISECTRICES. nitude. taken in ascending order of mag- known y Thus. or the obtuse bisectrix (Bx ). vibrations parallel to which are transmitted with the greatest and least velocity. gypsum. (3= 1-6816. the vibrations of which are parallel to the two other principal axes. The optic axes lie in the plane containing those two principal crystal can therefore be determined is axis axes. the vibrations of A which are is transmitted with parallel to a principal axis of the wave-surface. Light being propagated with equal velocity in opposite directions along the same line in a crystal. In some crystals the acute bisectrix coincides with the principal axis of greatest velocity. . whilst the second ) is principal axis bisects the obtuse angle between the optic axes.g. though. ( ) least velocity. e. beam of plane-polarised light. and these are e. respectively. One of these principal axes bisects line. ft. xi xin it will be seen that in each of the biaxal systems the class of greatest symmetry can be derived from those of lower symmetry in the system by the addition of a centre of symmetry to the elements of symmetry characteristic of the latter. as we shall see. and such crystals are said to be optically positive In other crystals the acute bisectrix (denoted by + ) . for waves vibrating parallel to the principal axes are as the principal indices of refraction of the crystal. Two of the principal indices of refraction of a biaxal by a prism in which a principal perpendicular to the plane through the refracting edge bisecting the angle between the faces of the prism. crystals of lower symmetry. there are marked differences in the characters of the three optical systems. Along each principal axis two beams can be propagated. for sodium light a= 1-5301. mica. = 1 -6859.g. there can be no optical distinction between the crystals of classes which are related to one another by the fact that the elements of symmetry of the more symmetrical crystals result from the addition of a centre of symmetry to the elements present in the In Chaps.

in and plates cut perpendicularly to the acute bisectrix. curved very like a hyperbola. 1832). The optic axes lie in the plane of symmetry of the crystal . It has 143 been found that. 28 and 29. or (2} only to the central point. provided the plate is not . : (1) to only 1. 6. the figure is only symmetrical with respect to the central point.DISPERSIONS OF BISECTRICKS. whether these be three dyad axes. 5. Arts. The positions of the optic axes are easily recognised for dark brushes. 1835). in The III. or perpendicular the plane of polarization. in an azimuth is in which the plane of the optic axes coincides with. Again. Such sections are said to manifest inclined dispersion. . Ann. In sections of crystals of borax. are symmetrical with respect to two lines at right angles to one another . Thus. are also planes of symmetry of the wave-surface. and the sections The optical characters of these two minerals are more fully described in Chap. . The plane of the optic axes is found in such crystals to be perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the crystal are said to show horizontal dispersion. to. found that the similar biaxal figures of plates of oblique crystals manifested In monoless symmetry when observed in convergent white light. the colours are symmetrically distributed with respect only to the trace of the plane bisecting the acute angle between the optic axes and perpendicular to their plane. biaxal figures seen in strongly convergent polarised light. The plane of the optic 2. p. as chromatic light the biaxal figures are symmetrical to two perpendiis the case with prismatic crystals. pass through their extremities. p. cular lines. But Herschel (Pogg. axes is perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the crystal . But in white light the figures in oblique crystals are symmetrical one line. p. The planes of symmetry of the crystal. but they and the bisectrices are not coincident for all colours. in plates of gypsum the colours of the figures are symmetrical only to the trace of the plane of the optic axes. xxvi. 203. in sanidine from the Eifel. Ann. Norrenberg and Neumann (Pogg. these lines are the traces on the plane of section (a) of the plane containing the optic axes. or consist of one dyad axis and the pair of axes perpendicular to the planes of symmetry classes II in class III. xn. and (b) of the plane which bisects the angle between them. (ibirlem). 81. xxxv. in prismatic all axes of the wave-surfaces for crystals. the principal colours coincide with the axes of the crystal. 308.

two perpendicular lines are said to be the directions of extinction. cut symmetry or perpendicularly to dyad axes. the nation between crystals of the two systems. Thus. and the acute bisectrix coincides with the dyad pendicular to the plate. is transmitted A without double refraction. of crossed dispersion. or to bisect the angles between the edges. in topaz the plane of the optic axes is said to be parallel to (010). and they are not the same for different colours.144 DIRECTIONS OF EXTINCTION. and found to be either parallel. cut in the special manner just described. 1835). and is per- This phenomenon is known by the name When similar plates of anorthic crystals are carefully the figures are found to be deficient in symmetry with respect both to a point and line (Neumann. or alteration. In prismatic crystals the principal axes of the wave-surface coincide with three zone-axes. are observed between crossed Nicols in parallel light. or perpendicular to. though the displacement measurement. are inclined i. xxxv. The directions of extinction in a plate parallel to two crystallographic axes are. too slight to be capable of at angles varying with descriptive works. therefore. the positions of the plane of the optic axes and . 7.||(010)andBx a ||O In plates of oblique crystals parallel to the plane XOZ the plane of symmetry in classes II and III the lines of extinction angles.A. axis. or with possible zone-axes which bisect the angles between homologous edges. in most cases. to the edges of the section at arbitrary the substance.e. In descriptive works on minerals and artificial chemical substances. vibrations of which are parallel to a principal axis of the wavesurface. then. until either of the principal axes is in. When. and the acute bisectrix to a specified crystallographic axis. is turned in its plane. the position of the plane of the optic axes is stated to be parallel to a specified crystallographic axial plane. light. 8. and the acute bisectrix to : These statements are shortly put as follows o. When parallel to planes of thin plates of prismatic and oblique crystals. or perpendicular. examined in white Ann. be parallel to OZ. p. In is. the plane of polarization. 380. to important edges of the section. a plate. the light is transmitted without resolution The is consequently extinguished by the analyser. the following distinctions are perceived which are useful in the practical discrimi- wave of light. Pogg.

a crystal of gypsum gives extinction in a direction inclined to the edges of the crystal. Neumann (Pogg. JL (010). vm. in gypsum.A. if the bisectrix lies in the obtuse angle it is regarded as negative. i. for they help the student to a decision as to the zones which must be measured in order to completely determine the crystal. and Bx A0^= -5445' (green light). a crystal of topaz gives extinction On the prism edges are parallel to the plane of polarization. and the directions of the bisectrices and of the plane of the optic axes at a definite temperature have. on examination. c. 33' (red In anorthic crystals the relations of the three principal axes of the wave-surface to the edges of the crystal differ with the substance . In borax. save when the cleavage-plane Such obseris parallel to the plane of polarization or analysation. O. Mitscherlich (Pogg.55 light). if it is to be measured towards positive OX. ||(010) j.e. Ann. 1826) discovered gypsum the angle of the optic axes diminishes when the temperature rises. No systematic method of indicating these directions has yet been adopted . and Bx a A OZ= + 52-5 at 9-4 C. tetrad. The student in parallel light its will find it advantageous to examine a crystal between crossed Nicols before beginning to measure If. angles with a reflecting goniometer. when much lighten the labour of measurement. 9. if it . The angle is regarded as positive. and that at a definite temperature the angle is that in the temperature being still further raised the axes open out in a plane at right angles to their former one. or crystals of the second group give extinction parallel to the hexad axis . vations often 10. 145 of the bisectrices are indicated in the following abbreviated way. O.68. p. 10 . The direction of a bisectrix lying in the plane is given by the XOZ angle included between it and OZ. he may frequently be able to confirm the impression as to the symmetry formed by general observation of the facial development.A. but it would be simplest to give the angles made by the bisectrices with the normals to the axial planes. is to be measured towards XOZ OXr Thus. Bx A0^ = .OPTIC PHENOMENA VARY WITH TEMPERATURE. O. in each case. In orthoclase. 519. and thus be fairly well assured as to the system to which the crystal belongs. to be determined by observation. (010). the other hand. angle then increases as the temperature L. Bx a AO^= .A. and the reduced to zero . he finds extinction to occur parallel to certain well-marked edges. rises. Thus triad. (Neumann).

xxxv. XOZ temperature changes . 1868) has. 11. and is connected with the disdevelopment at the two ends of an axis of symmetry. 81. 1856) and others have led us to believe that this is a general character of In such crystals of all classes which have only axes of symmetry. was connected with the facial development of the shown by the relative positions of the planes x and s to the other faces on crystals such as that represented in Fig. the one of the other. also. p. Camb. mann's view (Art. which can be placed so that they are reciprocal reflexions. 451. p. xi. Ann. 1857 . . is found to hold in other similar in certain directions. p. shown by crystals of cinnabar crystal. Soc. show This polar character of the crystals crystals different electrifications whilst the temperature is changing. shown that the principal axes of the wave-surface. p. 1822) succeeded in showing that the rotation of the plane of polarization of a beam of light. xciv. and Nau- 11. ROTATION OF PLANE OF POLARIZATION. p. 1) has been fully confirmed. that the positions of the principal axes of the wave-surface in anorthic crystals depend on the temperature. a VAcad. It has long been known that tourmaline crystals. The three systems are therefore optically distinct. 482.. p. these This peculiarity is. shall call attention to such cases in dealing with the particular classes in which they are We Pyro12. 261. xvm. Sci. which have dissimilar developments at opposite ends of the triad axis. 412. d. xci. 1855. The labours of Mar bach (Pogg. p. by an extensive series of investigations on the optical characters of crystals. and. 1858. 1835) made the further discovery that the acute bisectrix does not retain the and that the displacement of Des Cloizeaux (Ann. and piezo-electricity. also. as . xiv. xcix. the two optic axes is unequally rapid. lying in the plane of oblique crystals. classes two correlated forms are possible. do not retain fixed positions when the Mem. 43. likewise have a triad axis associated with three dyad axes but have no planes of symmetry. 339. i. in a plane the correlative perpendicular to one of the axes of symmetry : forms are said to be enantiomorphous. p. Phil. 511. 1854. Herschel (Trans. same position during these changes. des Mines. traversing a plate of quartz cut perpendicularly to the triad axis. pres.146 Ann.

13. which have well-defined orientations. franc. on a face perpendicular to the triad axis of the rhombohedral mineral spangolite. which occasionally aids class of symmetry to which a crystal When the experiments are carefully carried out with suitable corrosive fluids. condition known by the name is discovered by MM. Soc. 102 . The FIG. and indicate the presence of a plane of dicular symmetry through the triad axis perpento the face. 147 The phenomenon electrical known as pyro-electricity. Corrosion. in. 1880) A similar symmetry. 110 (after Penfield). 90. symmetrical and show three-fold symmetry with respect to three intersecting are planes of symmetry. are well dis- played figures in Fig. Another method us in determining the belongs. of investigation. but they manifest the symmetry of the as face etched. The corrosion-figures. they are called. Thus. which we have designated as one of uniterminal symmetry.CORROSION. p. to be excited in crystals by pressure along axes of uniterminal change in the of piezo-electricity was Curie (Bull. produced by different corrosive liquids have frequently different shapes. the faces are found. the corrosion-figures. in many cases. produced by dilute hydroon a cleavage-face of calcite show symmetry with respect to the lines parallel to the diagonal bisecting the obtuse angle of the face. 110. to become covered with pits of similar outlines. chloric acid. produced by dilute sulphuric acid. de Min. The corrosion-figures. is that of corroding the faces.

Two forms connected together by this geoby parallelism of the faces. of one does not necessarily involve that of the other. parallel faces possible one may occur on the same crystal. p. plane. none of which are necessarily parallel and which are Each form only connected together by the law of rational indices. belonging to different forms . be called the pediad class of From this character the class may calcium thiosulphate (CaS2 O 3 tartrate (Sr (HC4 to this class. the anorthic system.CHAPTER XI. being given by the symbol . 23) employed a Greek prefix before the symbol of the form to indicate that it consisted of one-half the faces constituting the form of greatest symmetry in the system . Crystals of 6H 2 O). . But the presence i. Hence. (hkl) is a possible face. will be denoted as complementary forms of the pediad class of the anorthic system. a polyhedron bounded by a set of faces. I. 5H 2 O). metrical relation. whether they are measured on the positive or negative sides of the origin. described as the holohedral form. and their physical characters will be By the law of rational indices it is clear that slightly different. THE ANORTHIC SYSTEM. and will be called a pedion (7T8iov = a 1. and of When parallel faces are present. and may perhaps be present. therefore.e. Pediad class . for any face is a which meets the axes at distances capable of representation by exact submultiples of the parameters. they are to be regarded as 2. or level piece of land). (hkl) being present. CRYSTALS belonging to the first class have no element of Such a crystal is. Miller (Treatise on Cryst. the latter. of strontium hydrogen dextroa few other substances belong HO 4 6) 2 . a {hkl}. symmetry. consists of a single face.

there must be at least five to enclose a finite portion of space. and no three In this class such a solid figure is an irregular being in a zone. have been abandoned by most crystallographers. which has no parallel faces TT {hkl} to represent one which has parallel faces. none being parallel. will also be used to indicate the forms of classes in each system. If two of the faces are parallel. the forms of two classes of the system show such a relation. used for the forms of the pediad of class. The least number of faces which will completely enclose a limited portion of space is four . which are enantiomorphous. whether they belong to the class of greatest symmetry or to one of inferior symmetry.VARIOUS FORM-SYMBOLS. i. or i. 2) with inclined faces. may consist complementary forms. according to which the forms of . All three may. Greek prefixes will be used in this book to denote forms belonging to the classes of inferior indicate in a concise symmetry in a system for they serve to manner the geometrical relations of the forms . for they are witJwut planes symmetry. If the three faces. the crystals of which show one or K {hkl} for pyro-electric axes and are not enantiomorphous : forms with inclined faces of classes (like II of the oblique system). inclined to one another. Although the views on symmetry. certain classes were regarded as merohedral divisions of a more symmetrical form. {hkl} will be used to denote forms more with inclined faces of classes. or may not. 114. Such a possible crystal is shown in Fig. he uses K \hkl} to represent a hemi{hkl} without prefix. Art.e. be figure will resemble parallel. are not in a zone. the faces in the form are one-fourth those in the form of greatest and some modification of this symbol will be made when . The symbol a {hkl}. the crystals of which have planes of symmetry and do not show characteristic differences in physical phenomena falling under either of the two preceding cases. If the possible crystal is bounded by two pairs of parallel faces. the an irregular tetrahedron with one of its coigns modified by a face parallel to the opposite face. in. tetrahedron. of which two pairs.e. 149 Thus. lie in a zone. however. hedral form (Chap. Fig. The symbol T {hkl} will be used when symmetry 3. of . The least number of forms of is six. : of the several classes of a system but the prefixes will be dropped in the cases of those particular forms which are geometrically alike. 111. possibly the three. and no pair of the three other faces can be parallel to one another. The symbol p. there must be at least two other faces which may.

for there is FIG. For a crystal consisting of such simple combinations an axial system can be determined.. i i t . When a crystal is. C and OA = a. coign itself. and the face is (100) . and in some cases the parameters but The axial planes must be taken to the calculations are not easy. FIG. set of faces 4. The fourth face A B C meets the axes in the points A. and the axes OX. and the . Similarly. is the origin any point within the crystal. side of It is clear that the two faces meet the axis on opposite sides of the origin. for of : X X has been taken within the crystal. Fig. for it no advantage in making h any larger integer. is (OTO). Hence h is negative. OZ are drawn parallel to the edges VA VB VC respectively.150 parallel 1 ANORTHIC SYSTEM. if the face is taken to be (111). 112. 114. t . OY. it is said to consist of a combination of forms. and the last two t . OB = b. I I indices (AOO). Care must now be taken to determine whether the face meets the axis of on the same as ABC (111) or on the other side. faces. bounded by a which are not homologous. Thus. 114. taking the possible four-faced crystal VABfi. 113. or any other point. FIG. . 112 and 113. t . B. Possible crystals of the two kinds are shown in Figs. or shortly to be a combination. be parallel to three of the faces which meet in a coign. 00 = c. may be taken to be the origin. The face VB C is parallel to the axes OY and OZ. the symbol is therefore are zero where h may be positive or negative. VC A meets OY on the negative side of the origin and is i / 1 In these figures the symbols in smaller type refer to the faces at the back which are shown by dotted lines. as in the above ideal cases.

may be supposed to pass through the radii of the sphere emerging at X. B. Fig. Similarly. On such a crystal six angles can be measured. viz. 115. The three edges VA VB 7C. OX B 5. a third card- board can be placed at the angle (OTOAOOT) if the line VA. t . If placed vertically. the axis OZ is fixed. Hence. (TOOAOlO). an angle which reflecting goniometer. we require the plane angle CVA^. model of The third cardboard is then easily placed and a the axial planes and axes completed. are the upper extremities of the normals to the faces. Y and Z. the face. 115. parallel to 151 I and OZ. t therefore. that. Finally. and : : join them at the angle (TOOAOTO). Now through any point on OZ. From the above we also see that BZ = BX=W. and the points A. are connected with the normals to the three faces by the relation known in spherical trigonometry as that of polar triangles. 6. say two pieces of cardboard. the face 7A I is (GOT). through AY = AZ=90.. to put the third cardboard in place. CX=CY=9Q.POLAR TRIANGLES. (OTO) is known. (OOlAlOO). and the lines VA and VB determined on the two cardboards t t t t t cannot be measured by a calculation the angles C VA and C VB t through OZ. of [AB]. and then the line VB is also fixed. or VC t . But a normal to a face face to is and at right angles to every line in the to every line in any plane parallel FIG. The crystal is a combination of the four forms of which the symbols have been determined. the radius through X is B and C : it is therefore at right angles to the normals at right angles to the plane containing these normals and is the pole of the great circle \_BC~\. the axial points being marked by small crosses. The two triangles ABC (that made by the poles of the axial planes) and XYZ (where the axes emerge) are shown on the stereogram. Thus we can take any two planes. Y is the pole of the great circle [GA]. t . and the three between Five of these angles suffice to (111) and each of the axial faces. and Z . the three (OTOAOOT). give the angles between the axes as well as the parameters a b c. The faces of the crystal. C. which are parallel to the axes. and the three axes parallel to them. and XB = XC = 90. Hence. in It is clear. By can both be found from the three angles between the axial planes.

But the angle between two normals is the supplement of the Hence. parallel to P(lll). ZX =180 -ABC. Also ZXY=180-BC. however. 15. no new and independent angles. XYZ= 180 . 5. YOZ. determined by the relation given above ABC ZX . The angles XY. BC. It Consequently the axial point AB Z is not a possible pole. as before. is AP . (001) . the angles. the fourth face a b c. and the model of the then. Z poles A and in this circle. AB. bounded by : five faces. In the above projection. when so used. iv. of them is placed arbitrarily placed at the right extremity of The pole A is then placed on the lower One B is with a protractor. to our knowledge. and similarly for the other angles. Now measurement on the reflecting goniometer gives 7.AB. which will be given in a later section. CA . or three rods can be joined together at a point making with one another the angles XOY. (010). YZ=180-CAB. to put two of the X. YZ. vn. i. p. The possible crystal in Fig. 2). for it gives For the angle Ap .CA. care must be taken not to confuse them with the parameters. Ill. for the apices of the one are the poles of the great circles forming the sides of the other. The determination of these ratios : : involves a considerable the equations (1) of Art. the two triangles are called polar triangles. axial planes can be made as suggested in Art. As stated in Chap. It is usual. and the . n. 47) the angles BCA. not one which enables us to determine a b : c. B. Art. take the origin at any point within the crystal. Art. YZX= 180 . Y. or arcs. B in the primitive. angle between the two planes (Chap. and by well-known formulae (McLelland and Preston's Spherical Trig. ZOX. The introduction of a face /?(TIT). XY=18Q-BCA. 6. can be calculated. small Italics are often used in diagrams to denote the poles and faces (100). 8. and.180 9. Hence. adds nothing transformation of Chap. and commonly the horizontal diameter. Having us to enables find fixed the directions of the axes. We can.152 ANORTHIC SYSTEM. CAB and are. C were all placed above the primitive in order to show the relation with the axial points more distinctly. part of the primitive by marking off the arc is at the centre of the primitive. the poles A.

But the two faces are given in position. angles. b = OA OB. 113. meeting distances OZ is The faces VDBl and VEA are (TOO) and (010). can be determined on them. on the axes But a line through A in the plane for XOZ parallel to the sixth face (110) is also parallel to OZ. The last it is parallel to OZ and meets at infinity. In Fig. To determine the parameter c. bounded by three of which none of the parameters can be In this case the three independent faces. OB Flo 116 may be taken of X and OZ Y. meeting at a coign. . The lengths OA. but lie in a zone with one of the parallel pairs. we have two possible cases. is parallel to the intersection of the sixth face with the and (010). and the first two indices are both 1 parallel to the axes zero. In such a crystal we have only three independent between the three faces meeting at a coign. (001) and (001). OX and The faces VDE and V A B are both Y. and the parameter c cannot be found. an additional face and OX. we have a possible crystal. as far as their general directions are concerned. being contingent on the deposition of matter on the parallel faces. The reader notice 9. if index must be zero. and the axes are but no definite then parallel to the edges of the parallelepiped lengths. the third pair of faces are not parallel. for the face a : : we 1 1 call the face (110). A through any point meets the axis of A on OX and in the plane XOY Fat B. Now the vertical face A^B^E meets the axes OX and Y at A and B and the ratio. edges of the two sets of parallel faces and one of the others. as shown in The axes are taken parallel to the Fig. can be taken to give the axial planes. . or OZ and OY. is determined. or all three axes. 116. and the parameter c faces (010) Hence no is finite length is cut off on OZ. to be the parameters The face is then (110). determined. at finite l needed. The third pair of faces may be inclined to one another. sets of parallel faces. respectively. those however.DETERMINATION OF PARAMETERS. 153 axes parallel to three edges as in the figure. If. parallel to the sixth face. will indeterminate. The distance at which they meet the vertical axis is quite indeterminate. 10. line drawn. characteristic of the crystal. because Hence they are represented as they are parallel to the two axes. that this crystal only differs from the five-faced crystal of Art. 11.

13. we can determine a not : b c. of the axial planes of the The sixth face meets all the edges of this tetrahedron. determined by the method given in Chap. ANORTHIC SYSTEM. II. If these are carefully selected. and this class the faces occur in pairs which are parallel The crystals have a centre of symmetry. 5. and will be given at a later stage. also. of which the first two pairs are complementary. The method of calculating the symbols of the faces and the parameters. or plank (Greek 7riva). in the fact that in a zone. the poles . so as to lie in Arts. If. Ill. or the next. by the methods given in Chaps. the rest of the projection can usually be completed without difficulty. The two other poles lying somewhere on the upper hemisphere are. the indices can be found. In but no other element of symmetry. they will fall into zones from which. (001).4(100) and 5(010) are marked on the primitive by a pro- made tractor. If. positions of one or and at the same time any other poles in their zone. : 12. Hence. v and vin. Pinakoidal class. therefore. 19 and 20. model at finite distances. (OlO). present the appearance of a board. face from each pair of parallel faces to all We may clearly take one fifth make with the a cardboard model. (001). namely to and this addition gives no new and independent angles. vu. whatever be the class to which the crystal In other classes very few belongs. a crystal of this. call the class the pinakoidal class pinakoid. containing three faces. Fig.154 Fig. and the elements of the crystal. it has been called a piuakoid. : : however. EVA is : parallel to however. a b c. {hkl}. Each form would. the sixth face has any general position. We . class has many faces. physically similar. we 1 . forms are of this character. Hence such a crystal may be taken to be made up of the forms (010). is the same in this and the next class. from the measured angles. if indefinitely extended. We shall use the same word to denote forms consisting of only two parallel faces. (TOO) and (111). of the anorthic system. As already stated. as described in Art. 114. easily The stereogram can. then. important zones passing through them and poles already placed in the primitive. whilst in this class every form is a shall. have added a fourth parallel to one of them. be as as those of the simplest crystals. and any edge of the other faces.

parallel to [be] and [ca]. are taken to give the axial planes. and the 'three forms composing it are: {100} consisting of 100 and TOO. this that the pairs of parallel faces are exactly save similar in their characters and necessarily : for accidents in the deposition of matter at whilst in the opposite ends occur together. : for they are in the zone [ab] the last index is therefore zero. the crystals are placed in this class. and experiments on corrosion and on electrification by change of temperature or pressure should be tried. it adopted as the parameter a. 118 is taken (after Bauer). showing such a combination of is represented in Fig. Y FIG. such as is shown in Fig. and OX and Y are Hence. crystal of cyanite (Al 2 SiO 5 ). and OY at Bf where OB = b may be adopted as the parat meter b. The faces of the parallelepiped. may lie in A forms. difficulty. {001} consisting of 001 and OOl. the faces have the symbols a (100). 155 14. that to the left meets OX A. If other forms are added to such a crystal. 118. 117. regarded as beis longing to this class or to the previous one. the ratio of two of the parameters may be determined. {010} consisting of 010 and OlO. The simplest crystal possible in this class is one bounded The three sets of parallel faces. 117. for meets OY on the . If the faces are extended to cut the axes of front X at and Y. The axis OZ parallel to the edge [ab] . and The parameters are indeterminate. The two faces M are parallel to OZ. If parallel faces are almost always present. In this case. To decide such a question a large number of crystals should be examined. and if no distinction between the members of each pair of parallel faces can be observed. former class the occurrence of the parallel faces is more or less accidental. The face has the symbol (1TO) . and the parallel faces The discrimination have different characters. where OA may t be . the new faces a zone with two sets of faces of the parallelepiped. Fig. between the two cases may be attended with great FIG. 15. b (010). 117.PINAKOIDAL CLASS. and c(001). respectively. by distinction between the crystal. but the third remains indeterminate.

which any tautozonal face with known symbol makes with the axial faces. by the transformation given in Chap. Forms. and am = 3417'. and which the lengths are measured. and if the angles they make with the faces already determined are negative side of the origin. when sets of four. knowing ab = 73 where m is (110). . can : be computed. Art.-. If the forms added to the simple axial parallelepiped meet the axes at finite distances. tan \ (Mm . where OB = b. If there are. by the anharmonic ratio. t . other faces in the zone. {bmaM} sin gives no bm ' sin Mm no i sinba sin . their symbols can be determined from the anharmonic ratio or. in where OA a. 56' and aM= 48 18' . to find the angle am. or more. 42 56'. t of four tautozonal faces known. Hence. 7' (Mm + bm) = tan 12 6) tan = 10-25834 9-59461 = L tan 21 28'. 14. vm. 45-7') 14-3'. The indices of the faces of other forms can 16. all then be determined by the law of zones . and also. the angles.:Mm-bm= . B. are reversed.Ma 100 Hence. one of them is selected to give the parametral plane (111). 6m = 3939'. 14-3' tan 61 7'. = 9-80856. The line of arrows in the diagram gives the trace on the face a of the plane of the optic axes. But the directions. The parallel face meets OX at A Y at B. Thus. its symbol is (TlO). tan 12 14-3' = 9-33627 . Example. Now the A. vice versa. = 32 45-7' and 45 -0=12 . sm M in log 2 sin (Ma = 48 18') 2= -30103 L sin 48 18' =9^87311 10-17414 L sin 73 56'= 9-98270 10-17414 L tan (0 = 32 /.-. as is sometimes the case. The two faces constitute the pinakoid {ITO}. forms occur in a = tan (45 - L tan 61 I.156 ANORTHIC SYSTEM.

so that the poles M. ix. FIG. the A. must have their symbols determined by the general relations given at the end of the Chapter. The faces h {100} parallel to the axes of Y and Z. T. /. and the symbols {110} and {HO} are assigned to them. Let us suppose the angles in the principal zones to have been measured. z. 157 the faces of which do not fall into zones.EXAMPLE (ANORTHITE). &c. and of the zones perceived in Fig. . and. and the position of h is usually calculated not of frequent occurrence from a knowledge of the angles between M. approximately enough. The zone-axis OZ is taken to be the diameter through the eye.. to the edges [PM].. and some of them to be : 29 30' 'Mr Ml 58 4 Me 18 9' 43 11 IT 59 30 zM' :Mf 30 58 MP 85 50 nM' 47 24 Stereogram. I and T. crystals Fig. 121.R. when Mis made (010). Example. I. is placed arbitrarily at the right extremity of the horizontal diameter. T. we can now construct Fig. are . as stated in Chap. parallel felspars. Art. [Py] and [Ml] respectively. It will summarise the whole of the forms and zonal relations on the two crystals of anorthite . We shall illustrate the method of determining anorthic by a discussion of those of anorthite shown in Fig. They represent two different habits of frequent occurrence amongst crystals of anorthite and the allied plagioclastic The axes of reference are taken. J/(010) being those of good cleavage in all the felspars. 120. For. 1. 120. From a knowledge of the above angles. those on crystals of other plagioclastic felspars which have the same forms. are fixed. Arcs equal to the angles in zone i of the table are then marked off by M a protractor. 17. as shown in Fig. the faces P(001) and FIG. &c. 119 and in 120 (after vom Rath). (110). I. 119. lie in the primitive. and the poles/. 119. The two pinakoids I and T are generally well developed. A(100) and . {MlhT} is a harmonic ratiojwhich has the value 1-4-2.

Prob. [TeT'] and [//'] are now easily By their intersections with one another and with the zone-circles already drawn through n. intersect the zone-circle [MPM ] in the poles r. vu. bent so as to pass through the three points. joining in zone ii. The poles a and m should be in Italics. vu. [lei']. 1 For working The pole r has been accidentally omitted. Arcs The straight lines. \Tnoy\ [Itanv] can be pole having been placed. Art. The construction of an accurate stereogram involves care in the determination of points. equal to the angles given to X'. on the primitive are now measured off from Chap. At one end is a fixed block with 2 a deep vertical groove .158 The the position of ANORTHIC SYSTEM. m. about 6 inches long. zone-circles [IPl']. compressed by a finger and thumb whilst held in the correct position on the paper. they determine the positions of the poles. Some of the zone-circles have very long radii. The pole X' of [MPM'] is then found by the method of drawn. [TPT']. It will now be found that the following circles can be drawn \MmaM'\ \MpxoM'\ [MyuvM ] and \htPxy\. The spring is placed with its ends in the grooves and any curvature required can be obtained by the action of the screw. whether they are the projections of poles or the centres of circles. y and v. 20. This consists of a long strip of narrow and thin wood or steel. and hence occupies a good deal of time. t. 4. at the other end a similar vertically grooved block which can be moved backwards and forwards by a screw. They establish the facts that the corresponding faces are : 1 tautozonal. The a. A strip of stout brass about 7 inches long rests on the paper. A more convenient one can be made as follows. n is determined in (one of the most convenient points) example of Chap. e and P. these M 1 points The drawn. The simplest one is a bar. o. . This way given for anorthite in the the zone-circles [MPnM']. p. circles are in such cases most easily made by the aid of a cyclograph 2 arranged to pass through three known poles.

will have no difficulty in finding the indices of the remaining faces. in a few minutes. Again. We shall. 159 and after a little purposes an approximation to a correct one suffices practice. It will faces m. all the different octants. The remaining pole v (241) can be found from the A. although an accurate projection would show their poles to lie on a great circle. in which the zone-circles [In] and [Py] = [010] intersect. for a pole (hkT) in the zone |7n] = [Il2]. so that they can be easily recognised. and. a. We now proceed to find the angle Mh. for they both lie in [MP] = [100].R. the inconspicuous meet the axes at the distances OA. The case. we have 2l-k = Q. The poles a and m lie. . is Likewise the pole a. OS.. h and m. Then y' is (20l). The symbol of e is therefore symbol is (021). the student should be able to construct what may be called a freehand stereogram. t. even if circles. for a face in \hPy] which gives in [MP] which fixes c b : : .EXAMPLE (ANORTHITE). in We might therefore have begun by assuming m to be the parametral face (111). when those of P. showing all the important zones. In the present at the centre Z is of the circle and Y' is the pole (above the paper) of the zone-circle [hPy]. (201). is at the cross which gives the pole of [MPM']. therefore. from [TP] aud [ly]. The symbols of e and n can be now determined. in which [In] intersects [PT] = [llO]. [IP] . by the assumptions made. p and o. and T. from and [Ty]. but the better his projection. the pole o is (III). determined. Faces in this latter zone are very generally present and well developed on all felspar crystals. The face-symbols. We can now assume indices for a or else. we find p to be (111). and its Again. we have k + 2l-h = 0. tions face c : The value of a b has been fixed by the assumpmade as to P. Hence. by paying attention to the zones. and the symbols of / and z. assumed . (021). projection is is We have supposed the crystal to be measured before the made. 120 and 121. I. be noticed that. from the zones [PJ] = [110] and [7V| = [112]. Similarly. after the symbol of/ has been Similarly. The student. X' axial points are not often shown on stereograms. Hence. therefore. {I'vna} or from [Itn] and [of]. the pole m is (111). if e is (OH). . The first index of both faces is therefore zero. the more likely is such a relation to be suggested. and this must necessarily be the case when an accurate projection required. is (111). from the angles given in zone i. in a zone-circle passing through M and M. Zone i. being only approximately correct. assume y to be (201). M. M. will not him to see when incontiguous faces are tautozonal. shown in Figs. a. The enable curves. and OC. The former face is also in [fy] = [112]. are and in proving that they are the same as those already given. n is in [Ty] = [llS].

tan \ (Mh . from the A. {M'zTl}. {MflT}. Again. to be (130). from the A. Mh=8T & and Th = 30 28'. The student will find it good practice to test the accuracy of each step. from the A.Th) = tan . The pole /has v. A. therefore the z is symbol In a like manner.-. the main steps are alone indicated. 4A=A + .160 ANORTHIC SYSTEM.R. ' sin sin Mh = Ml I 100 \\Q 110 1 sin Tl 010 110 : ' sin_7% sin Mh~ 2 sin (JW=58 (45 _ sin (77= 59 30') 4') tan (0=26 55'). and of the final result. {MreP} and the angles given in we have . by extracting the logarithms. found. From {ThlM} we have 110 sin 010 100 Th . (130).R. 55') . Faces r and zone ii.R. %(Mh+ Th) = tan 18 tan 58 .26 5' tan 47'. Again.R. we have sin Mf t sin Tf 2A .-. . &=3. In the above solution. and A = l.

sections of the zone-circles [AG]. in Fig. Trig. . we we have Z(011) a cos XL _ b cos YL _ c cos ZL cos But XL = 90. The two triangles ABC and XYZ are polar triangles (Art. and let them meet the zone- [CA] and [AB] in Then. CM by NB by E. and p. c. and X. have the symbols (Oil). indices and angles. and P. XL = 0. respectively. 47). Similarly. Y. Art. when the sides are known (McL. M. 18. puting therefore the angles of the triangle giving the angles Trig. through the pole of another meets the are. [CA]. 122. and XB = XL = XC=W. t These angles will be called the angular elements of an anorthic crystal. [CG] with the opposite axial zones [EC]. Let us denote the EL LC by by D t . C be the axial poles 100. [EG]. From for obtain the angles between the axes. 6). ZL . A. BvL From Napier's rules for the relations between the and angles of a right-angled spherical triangle (McL. A. 6 cos and the equations reduce to (1). Spher. AEG by the formula P. arcs: by D. both But every great right angles. [AE]. we have sides cos cos L. ZL = W-Lv. p. 161 Formulas connecting crystal-elements. respectively. MA by E AN lt F and F . It is required to find the relation between them and the linear elements a:b:c and the angles between the axial planes. Spher. Let. iv.'. i.FORMULAE OF COMPUTATION. 001. 87). YL = sin L\ = sin CL sin \CL = sin CL sin EGA j ZL = sin Lv = sin EL sin vBL = sin EL sin A BC\ **-f 11 . 7Z = 90 -L\. the equations of the normal (Chap. points. 15). circle latter at right angles. v respectively. (110). B. Z and the corresponding axial let G be the parametral Then L. Y and Z are at 90 from Comevery point in the opposite sides CA and AE. I. the interpole (111). YL = ccosZL Draw circles the great circles YL. 010. (101). N. therefore. The angles C\L.

we have . can transform the equation of the normal to M M Thus. . viz.. 5(7-180 . the angles YZX. normal ^(110). ZX and XT. . 14. p. (1). we can obtain and similar right-angled triangles having a common vertex at . for Hence.J) (jA = sin - smA-tf -s T j-nai (McL. sin~ZS'" sln~CZ sin EGA (7. as in Chap. T'nff. for M(101). p. 43).4. : : axes.SW&er. in a similar\ i. (3). when a D t .5(7 since sin -=~-. Spher. and P. 18 we can b c and the angles between the &c. are all known.8 _ AM sinC4J3 sin AM sin 5(7 ' '" an exactly similar manner.ZXY. taking instance. If 6 is greater than 45. and XY. ZXY. m . &c. we invert the equation . It is necessary to find. and XYZ (McL. the aid of the equations established in Art. the value term can be computed. and CA = 180 -XYZ. Then - 45= 180 YZX. we have sin sin BL = b sin AE ~ CL c sin CA ' of the All the numbers on the right side being known. D^CL. and can.. c CL sin EGA = c sin BL sin A EC _ _ sin BL sin ABC ~ sin BL sin CA = sinlTZ.. Art. are all known. i. 19. vui. TZ.. By drawing great circles through Z and X to M. 47). we have a I = sin sin AN BN sin EC /o** " sin (74 The above equations enable us to find the parametral ratios when the angular elements D = BL. from the equation to the And. cosZM = sin AM sin CAB c _ ~ sin a in sin CM sin EGA ~ sin CM sin 4. from the known arcs YZ. Trig. be expressed by tan 0. we have a cos and cos XM= c cos ZM XM = sin CM sin E (1*).162 Substituting in b sin b '' ANORTHIC SYSTEM. ZX. also find By >. and P.4 sin .

and CL . 163 than CL. 20. CL and BL are both determined.tan $ l+tan0 Art. we use the transformation of the A. viu. sin t AB sin BC BC sin CA ' sin - =rt sin sin E = E sin sin F t F - =. But we may suppose that therefore.Z?Z sin ~~ sin cab~ Hence. and the face-indices. Hence the right side of (4) can be computed. solution of these problems the anharmonic ratio of four tautozonal faces is the relation of most general applicability. zone can be calculated by taking each in turn with the three known faces. less than 45. ' is. we can find the remaining angular elements. Art. We have therefore only five independent elements. we have tan | (<7Z -)= tan (45 -0) tan i (CZ + ^Z) (4). (3*). Hence. For the calculated from the angles selected to give the elements. If the two given angles are not adjacent. to determine the true values of the The angles given in descriptive works are usually those angles. we must be satisfied as to the correct- ness of the symbols of the faces and of at least two angles which are not together equal to two right angles. mination of the face-symbols and elements of the crystal when the angles are measured or.t 1 (5). we have sin &c a _sin. : The chief problems of the crystallographer are the deter21. BL is less sin CL -unBL sinCL + sinBL I. (3**) are multiplied and u also the left sides. For the converse problem. viu. 14. But CL + BL = CB is known. the indices of at least three faces in the zone and all the Then the indices of every other face in the angles must be known. and that 6 . 14. from a knowledge of the elements of the . Again. and is one of crystal In order to apply it to the solution of the first great accuracy. as in the similarly formed expression of Chap. if the right sides of (3). given in Chap. R. problem.BL found. we must employ 112 .FORMULAE OF COMPUTATION. together. If the given angles are adjacent. before proceeding further. Hence. If the same process is applied to (3*) and (3**). CL sin CM sin AN sin CA A M sin BN sin AB D D sin .

123.164 ANORTHIC SYSTEM. 18. way so as to determine. The position of a pole P (hkl) is fixed. by Napier's rules. triangles enter. cos Hence. Similarly. at Xj are right angles. if 22. the zone-circles [BP] and [CP] to meet the between . the determination of the symbol involves some- what laborious computation. 120. Arts. the great circles YP. jection. in p. The and FlG - from X not a pole. opposite axial zones [CA]. 14. be found by the solution of spherical triangles. The remaining angles. respectively. Art. however. Hence. if its arc-distances from two of the axial poles are known for. Suppose the great circle XP Aj. since the angles great circle ZP YP ZP X P . can alone be measured. lt vj. [AB] in M^ (hQl) and The symbols of are obtained by Weiss's 1 zone-law. in which oblique-angled spherical which the angles it and two of the axial planes are known. generally. to be drawn and great circle Aj is XP meet [BC] in is not a zone-circle . 123 - [AB] are drawn to meet [CA] and Similarly. most the angles from a few known ones. for each of them is the intersection of two zone-circles. and the angles. can then. we can then place it on the proLet us suppose that the arcs BP and CP are known. If.^ and cos the figure. the solution can be carried out in a systematic of Chap. of which the former is alone shown in = sin Pp. \ XP = sin PA a = sin BP sin PEC = sin CP sin PCS. vm. but is a point at 90 useful in the calculation. 19 and 20. such as that of anorthite. Then cos = sin Vl is the pole of the But. having numerous faces. Art. by the construction given in Chap. Fig. In crystals. Produce. we have right angles at /^ and v 1 = sin and cos YP = sin sin A = sin sin cos CP PC AP PAC P^ ZP = sin PVl = sinAP sin PAB = sin BP sin PBA ' ' ' ^ ( J . in We shall only give the case. in Fig. of by the transformation vm. a face does not lie in a conspicuous zone. vii. which have to be computed. the less convenient transformation given in Chap. [BO]. which it makes with two or three known faces. M JlTj (MO) and ^ to respectively.

the three into forms more convenient for : computation from the angular elements h _ a sin PCB _ sin sinBC sin k PGB PGA sin PAG sin PAG _ sinBL k_b sin^CA l~ c sin PAB sinCL siiTZfi sin PAB sin CM sin AB sin PBA I c sin PBA ~ ~ h a sin PBC sin sin~PBC ~ . sin ' ' (9). A CP are supposed to be known. known. and the arc BC = D + D is also : : t .XY. and four of the Hence. .(8) PBA a sin The If of a.. are found. substituting from (6) for cos XP and cos YP. But since the elements are known. p. D <fcc.FORMULAE OF COMPUTATION. if the axial angles are given. the angle BCA = 180. sin CP. and k I can be found. either in the b. Hence BPC PBC BCA and CBA can be computed by the same formulae from the arcs BC. the whole angles i. bsinPAO c sin c sin PAB PBC clear . By the aid of the equations (8) can be thrown relations (3) of Art. AN b sin PGA sin BN sin CA . 47). therefore. and AB or. and P. PBA 23. the angles PGA and The problem of finding the angles involved in (8) are determined. terms t . c elements of the crystal are given. CA. rule of these three equations is and simple. and CBA = ISO'-ZX. ' . 18. or as angular elements D. But the equations of the 165 normal b cos XP P (hkl) are YP c cos ZP (7). Spher. Trig. and the axial angles. provided that four of the But A BP and angles in the above expressions can be calculated. ratios of the indices is. we have a sin CP sin PCB b sin CP sin PGA or cancelling the common a sin factor. the angles PCB. in the triangle the three sides are known and can be calculated (McL. PCB ^b sin PC A we have By similar substitutions from (6). completely solved. the ratios h k.

and 1 Since the ratios of the indices are the same. expressions the axial zones.166 Further. R. we have seen that #i is (MO) and -4- M l is (hQl). Hence. {ANNjB}. From the A. we can get h which involve the arcs on for the ratios h + k. {ANN^B} and from the A. we have sin > (10). the expressions will be equivalent to those given in (9). R. from the A. K. . ANORTHIC SYSTEM. {CMM^}.

. or can be calculated from tan | elements. But PCA + PCB = EGA is known.c. are all known. </>.. vin. -AM. &c. must be arranged so that they are. v. each The angles PEC. the angles 9. BN. the Hence. tan J similarly.. 9. tan \ CA. ft. 167 From equations (9) sin we have h -y sin PCB = PC A -.) = tan (45 U . ka or = -=- h k sin sin BN sin CA = tan AN sin BC -r-f.PBA) = tan (45 . can be readily computed for any values of h. BN. CM. can then be all i/f The arcs AN..PCB) = tan (45 .) BC '" ' ^ 2) ' . ..) = tan (45 - ten^AB. the arcs -4-^. J Where =T T = T I b I I k c k sin -.FORMULAE OF COMPUTATION. ft. BL.PCB) = tan (45 - ^ [. ft and ft. sin :.... BN. PEA.ft) = tan (45 . BN. k. Then. tan .$) tan | ABC. tan d> tan \ (PGA . tan \ (EL.) tan (AN. For. and of them.0) tan | CAB. c.. k sin sin BN = AN tan v. or the equivalent angles right side can be computed. By hypothesis we know AN. &. = h AN.9) tan $ (PCA + PCB). 14). &c. Art. and the two other similar pairs can be computed by a like process. 9. EGA.. =r^. 6) tan = tan (45 . obtained from the similar expressions to that given in full for 9. by the transformations employed in adapting a ratio of sines to logarithmic computation (Chap. tan \ (PAB -PAC) tan \ (PEG . computed. b .BN. Similarly.ft) \ (CM. all . Hence.CL. which may be taken. sin sin AM sin BC CM sin AB ' he The angles computed. sin a _ I Tt. Since AN. the either a. b. we have sin .. less than 45. BL. CL =^ BL sin sin AB 7 CA =-i . are each less than 45.(11). Hence. we have (PCA . Care must be taken that 9. from equations (10). can be I. and the auxiliary angle 9 is determined. &c.

P^ CP ~ _ sin sin sin CA AN^ PAC P^15 sin^P Similarly. r sn sin (13). sin CAB = . PL lt &c.168 26. Hence. six triangles Hence.//! sin sin^P sin PJfj sin PCB computed and made equal M-i sin P(7-4 The values on the to tan . The values of AP..4PC7 and P^A._ ^-r sin BN. Hence.(PNi . sin AB BC sin PBA . dividing (14) by sin sin (15). respectively. are now found as follows.. tan *. can be computed.CP) tan = tan (45 .0) tan C^ j (PA . BP. (15)... BP and lt CP. _ C7Z.. .(14). we have sin C7P BM sin CA _ ~ sin PAG . PLu sin . .. . (17). But . right side can be tan <I>. sin APC = si sin sin Hence.- AL it lt and CN^ can be computed.(16). ] 1 .'. sin 4P~C7 and . sin sin P. -. CNi CAB PCM l ' into which and we obtain similar relations from each of the ABC is divided by AL 1} BM and CWlt . Again. l -. tan I. PCA ... CP.. From the triangle ACN sin sin we have sin sin ^~ -. from the triangles . .^P) = tan (45 -*) tan \ AL. Hence.. . AP.4-6 j^-r^ = sin . ANORTHIC SYSTEM. T sin = sin ANj.

Trig. cos X'u = sin M 'u sin PM'u = sin Pu sin M'Pu. ' Y'u= Pu sin h'Pu =sin h'u sin Ph'u. 39'. _ 2 cos Zu _ 2 cos X'u sin M'u sin h'M'u _ sinM'usinl'M'u ~ 2 sin (h'M'u -34 30') sin(PJ/'u = 8152-7')~ _. Example. and p. mulae. The zonal relations of these forms are shown in the plan. ATuP=9715'. 464. cxxxvm. 124. already employed in the discussion of the crystals of anorthite. TPu= 115 a c 24-4'. M'PT being known. the axial points opposite to X and Y Zu : a cos X'u 2 b cos Y'u c cos . *{I01}. angles are : M'Pu = 57 25-6'. Fig. TP. 47). the most trustworthy angles measured were : MP = 86 32'. 125. The <fl30 Fio. from (18) and (19). h'M'u = 180 .(18).} sin ) . M Z{110}. Apparently. n{021}. 22. {010}. Fig. Pr=6848'. g {221}. Hence. r'pu. But from equations cos cos (6) of Art.-. The forms observed were: P{001}. It is required to determine from these five angles the parametral ratios and the angles between the axes. All the sides of the two triangles all M'Pu.. o {III}.PM'u - TM'P = 34 30'.l/' = 5745-4'. r{403}.EXAMPLE (OLIGOCLASE). the angles by the well-known formula (McL. 1869). PM'u=8152-7'.. we take the crystal of oligoclase described by vom Bath (Pogg. 144 . /{130}. .M'TP = 73 34-4'. Spher. 180 . TjllO}. z_{_130}. p. 124. M'T = The equations of the normal u a cos (221) are : Xu_b cos Yu _ c cos Zu -2 : -2 or taking X' ~~1 ' and Y'. fe{100}. and in the stereogram. To illustrate the application of 169 some of the preceding for27. M'TP= 106 . 61 40'. u {221}.. hTP = TJtf'P=6337-4'=180-/3. ( Zu = sin h'u sin M'h'u = smM 'usinh'M i'M'u. y{201}. e{021}. we can compute P. Ann. hloo i. p {111}. Pw=8457' and M'u=S8 13'.(19).

tan .= -On.TP=32 sin*'P sin 32 16-5' sin 57=39- IG-S*. from the APQ. 4-y. and *P= (100 A 001). ' ^ If e_c_m8152-r sin 32^16-5' * ~amarar amors? A great it. Hence the A. i (*PJf' /. hence UO olo =llS= 24-4'=180 . P= 63= 54-75'.PT. these and die known angles APT and ATP. and *'P=180. is Art. 0=ZOJT= 116= 22-6".APT) =28 T.-. 7 =*Pir=904-5'. i(*PJf'-PT)=tan 16= 52-25' tan HhPM' tan J (*PJf ' + APT) = tan 29= 52-7'-^ tan 16= 52-35'. =!. and eirde is drawn from ^=6 of the crystal are OZ=93c 4'.170 ANORTHIC SYSTEM. say.64 '=5T 45-4'. and TPQ=39>U-y.. Abo. Bat we know the symbols of the foar poks. It remains to calculate PkM '=. and c= -5524. .{*TJfT} equal to that of the four angles between the zone-ante This may be expressed symbolically thus : joining each of the poles to P. P perpendicular to the zone-circle [JfTq to The if^i nftjij tirfi jji TPQ gires. . we find. *PT=3 19-1'. by Napier's rules. 7= : * : e=-321 : 1 : -5524.-. could hare been at once obtained by employing equations f tk* (8) otmv IMMI ratio Nowoaqfaai<al four poles to !!! lisscf the of foor poles in a xone-eirde is the met. 19). at Q. APQ = 6= 52-25'. that the four ares on the code can be replaced by the foar angles indnded between the great circles which join the any other pole ootaide the zone (Chap. Tm. y.m.

viz. Spher. the reader will find in Q and it the right-angled triangles to simpler to deduce Trig.. . ATP=8632'. Pn. E. hence. and. of which the side PQ and the angle IPQ are We formulas known. The element F' is then Instead of using the auxiliary point it gives rise. 118). The element F=hl=hQ + Ql.. hP and hT. Px. results only differ which we know PT=6848'. AIT =88 23-3'. 171 know the sides of the triangle formed by the axial poles. hPT=32lfrl' and hTP = 73 34-4'. Napier's Analogies (McL. by from the triangle PhT. Py. The by an insignificant fraction of 1' from those given above. p. D. can be found from the right-angled triangle IPQ. It is therefore easy. i. E. by the also (3) and (4) to calculate the angular elements D. and P/i=6334-75'. the angles Pe. &c. which For A IPQ =180- TPu-TPQ = 25 24-25'. and P. known.EXAMPLE (OLIGOCLASE).

and a plane of symmetry perpendicular to the dyad axis are associated In Chap. Any pair X will do. and indeed only very exceptionally. a plane of symmetry. The prominent zone-axis. III this plane is possible zone-axis. That in which a plane of symmetry occurs alone . at 90 to one another. it follows that. but for the sake of simplicity in the symbols. must have the third element which also occurs in class III. 1. perpendicular to a possible face. I. in crystals three classes. the most conspicuous zone-axes are usually taken . which is either a dyad axis or the normal to a plane of symmetry. The choice being arbitrary. ix. THE OBLIQUE SYSTEM. Prop. having a dyad axis or a plane of symmetry. the angle between these axes is an element of the crystal which must be specified. That in which a dyad axis. The acute angle XOZ is denoted by /8 in . of ix. As the axes of and Z. all From Chap. 2. of possible edges Hence. and the positive directions are taken to include the obtuse angle.CHAPTER XII. in the possible face just mentioned there are a number which are all perpendicular to the zone-axis. II. a centre of symmetry. symmetrical crystal. the normal to which is a In classes I and III the zone-axis is a dyad and is. III. it is most convenient to take lines parallel to a pair of edges at right angles to OY. Props. 1. 2 and 3. will in all cases be taken as the axis of Y. 4. THIS system includes three classes That in which a dyad axis occurs alone : . axis. therefore. there is one plane which is parallel to a possible In classes II and face and perpendicular to a possible zone-axis. it was established that a centrotogether. but are not necessarily.

: : by the aid of the equations of the normal (Chap. the constant elements being known from the system. or in the indices ascribed to faces inclined to one another at the same angles. only those elements which vary with the substance are given. a [hid]. the which are parallel to planes or axes of symmetry. Prop. We shall throughout. Min. XpZ=$-. use the term faces of special forms to indicate forms. which 5. and a : b : c. We know that the is perpendicular to a possible face (Chap. But. will show the reader whether the same axes and para- meters are used or not. f. on rotation through 180 about the dyad axis. the elements of the crystal are : b : c. Their values may. 15). and constitute a pinakoid. faces parallel to it The pair of such interchangeable faces are parallel are possible. in general. whilst the same letter is used in Groth's Zeitschr. and also a X different parametral face.HEMIMORPHIC CLASS. occasionally. 3. be determined from any face meeting all three axes at finite distances from the origin. Art. dyad axis The dyad axis being a possible zone-axis. any simple ratios to one another. in The parameters a b c may have any values. Thus. or are perpendicular to them. in oblique crystals the angle ft and the parameters are those which have to be specially given in the description. Kryst. 3). happen that different different edges for and Z. Any face of the crystal meeting the axes at finite distances from : the origin may be taken to determine the parameters a Hence. u. This face constitutes the form called a pedion. Such forms appear to show a centre of symmetry. or . as a rule. will not be the case with other forms. A difference in the stated value of ft. the position of which remains the same when the crystal is rotated about the axis. The faces occur in pairs which change places 4. to denote the obtuse angle XOZ. We shall take ft to be the acute angle XOZ. ix. Crystals of this class possess a single dyad axis and no other element of symmetry. iv. except in the single case in which the face is perpendicular to the axis. XOY = 70^=90. It crystallographers adopt may. 173 Dana's Mineralogy and in Hintze's Mineralogie. in each class and system. Hemimorphic class . and are not. I.

however. symmetry in such a are related to the elements of rise to way as to give a peculiarity of figure distinguishing the forms from those We shall speak of the general form. but occupy any general said to have the characteristic configuration belonging to the class. The special forms are is : (1) pedions. (2) pinakoids. we wish to emphasize the fact that the faces have no exceptional relation position. . to The general form may be the elements of symmetry. tinuous lines. = if a-^h. By transposing we may suppose the faces to be brought into a position represented by Fig.OL = c + l. for they are parallel to two zone-axes but the presence of one does not involve that of OX and OZ . traces of the faces being given by the disconlie in the paper. 7. or negative. the other. H t t . of the faces hkl. therefore. 1. the two faces have the t OH OH symbols (hkl). the dyad axis is placed ver- the figure. The pedion the axis of Y on either (010) or (010). in which. perpendicular to the paper. in which the dyad axis FIG. when of the general case. 126. now taken to be OY is perpendicular to the paper. respectively. side of the origin.k from the origin the axes of : X and meet the faces at the and L. interchanges FIG. L respectively the points II. hkl. t XX consists. they are called complementary pedions. Both are possible. 127. likewise. according as it meets the positive. and meets the edge EF (represented by a continuous line) at a distance and Z b -4. (hkl). Owing to the geometrical relation between them. tically. . Hence. The general form of this which intersect in an edge perpendicular to the dyad axis. equal lengths on . For it is clear that a rotation through 180 about the Y. t and OL = . 6. 127. 126. measured on opposite sides of and. equal positive and The form a {hkl} negative lengths on ZZ t .174 OBLIQUE SYSTEM. Such class consists of two inclined faces a form is represented by the two faces of Fig.

these faces being parallel to one another and to the dyad axis. during change of temperature. and m = a {ll0}. {Oil}. have been found to manifest. development at opposite one of uniterminal symmetry. crystals of tartaric acid (C 4 HO 6 6). The crystals have a different ends of the dyad axis. and this character may be expected to It is found that.PYRO-ELECTRIC CHARACTERS. Thus. the electrification is examined whilst the crystal is cooling. If. m = a{110}. rotate the plane of polarization of a beam of light . the different electrification is mixture of red lead and flowers of sulphur. By carefully dusting the crystal with a fine gauze. at which positive electrification is manifested whilst the temperature is falling. at one end. which have been examined. and it is found that solutions of opposite rotation can be obtained from crystals formed of the same chemical constituents combined in the same proportions. such as {100} and {001}. the red lead one pole. a {100}. In these crystals the analogous pole is at the end of the horizontal dyad axis to the left at which the pair of faces m occur alone. positive electrification is manifested with rise of temperature and negative electrification with fall of temperature. and negative electrification as the temperature rises. the red lead is attracted to the neighbourhood of the analogous pole whilst the pale yellow sulphur is attracted to the antilogous pole. as the mixture falls on the electrified crystal. differ in no essential respect from {hQl} they only indicate the pairs which : have been selected to give the axes of 8. In passing through the gauze. x {10T}. distinguish all crystals of the class. Particular cases of the pinakoid. and the sulphur to the opposite pole. Z and facial X. This end is known The opposite end is called the antilogous as the analogous pole. 128. 175 The pinakoid {hOl} consists of the two faces hQl and hOl. Fig. 2. forced through a very rendered very manifest. and the antilogous pole at the end where both the forms m and A solution of such crystals rotates the q occur on the right. showing the forms: c{001}. and is that. which is axes are also called polar or hemimorphic. opposite electrifications at the two ends of the dyad axis. r{101}. the red lead becomes positively the sulphur negatively electrified. is attracted to the as is generally the case. an be obtained. pole. also. We shall use the latter word to denote this class of the system (Groth's sphenoidal class). which is then called a pyro-electric axis . t t . Solutions of crystals of organic substances of this class. q = a. Such The crystals belonging to this class. electrified. Hence.

Fig.-a{Oll}. but c. c{001}. The elements. ^ = 76 31'. are developed as before. 100 o. and. x. The crystals may be described as those of dextro-tartaric acid. and or to the left. which give dextro. i. L and the antilogous pole is situated at the end of the dyad axis at which the faces o. 129 represents a crystal of cane-sugar (C 12 {100}. = a{110}. of the crystals are the same whether their solutions rotate the plane of polarisation to the right The elements are /3 : = 7943'. i. x all parallel to those of the one shown in Fig. are called stereo-isomers. c. The angle of the optic axes varies considerably . t . The acute bisectrix lies in the acute angle and makes with OZ an angle of 71 for red light. A. plane of polarization to the left. right the faces w. || XOZ Bxa A OZ= + 67 '75. a FIG. for equal paths traversed in solutions of equal strength. a b c= 1'259 1 : = a{110}. The antilogous where the faces w ~ a { 1 1 0} and q = a {01 1 } occur Were a crystal of this latter type placed with the faces left. it would be seen to be its reciprocal reflexion.e.176 OBLIQUE SYSTEM. optical characters.e. The different corrosion-figures on . i H On 22 ) having the forms: a m. o = a {111}. on the alone. in but Crystals of tartaric acid having the same general appearance which the development at the ends of the dyad axis is reversed.. can Their solution rotates the be obtained.and of Isevo-tartaric acid are enantiomorphous. a of : b : c= 1'2747 : 1 : 1-0266. t r. 128. which coincides with the obtuse bisectrix. t . 128. J. the crystals of dextro. . the hands of a watch to plane of polarization to the right. The plane ZOX 18' 9. with an observer receiving the light. r{10T}. against the hands of a watch to an observer receiving the light. r. q and m. m and m t are . : : : -878. a. These two bodies and pairs of similarly correlated organic substances. dyad axis is the analogous pole. the optic axes contains the dyad axis. the amount of rotation produced is the same for and The forms crystals of both kinds. are developed. and this end of the = a{110} occur ( pole is on the together. and of 72 10' for blue light. Hence.and laevo-gyral solutions.

The solution rotates the plane of polarization to the right. and have therefore the symbols *{001}.A. t Any face single The special form {010} is a pinakoid (010). || a : b : c=-7935 : 1 : -7533. and consists of the (hOl). The plane 2 must be parallel to possible faces. therefore. and the angle between them /? is the angle other pedion will be K {hQl}. (OlO) parallel to 2. = a{lTO}. Two of these pedions are selected to give the axial planes XOY. q = a{0ll}. 130. It is also perpendicular to a possible zone-axis which is taken to be the axis OY. K {hkl}. meet the axis of Y at equal distances on opposite sides of the origin. and no other element of symmetry. and. XOZ\ Bx a A OZ= -11 = . Hence. and constitute special forms which are pedions. at 19 C. 58 25' (blue light).11 49' (lithium flame). H 12 5) with the forms : m = a{110}. ZOY *{100}. r{10l}. m. The crystals of this class have a single plane of symmetry 2 10. 26' between FIG. 11. the positions of the bisectrices. The faces. which are necessarily divided symmetrically by it. Hence the form K {hkl} consists of the faces (hkl). Gonioid class . Des Cloizeaux gives 2E = 55 30' (red light). The class will therefore be it is also known as called the yonioid class. 12 . which form a pinakoid. . consisting of the faces Any such a manner that. class. Des Cloizeaux found that with red light Bx a was displaced through an apparent angle in air of 1 35' between 17 and 121 C. = 69 O. The plane of symmetry also bisects the angle between them. 2^=37 12' (red light). . or domatic. from yoma. X OZ. we get a series of possible faces all perpendicular to 2..GONIOID CLASS. (hkl) and is a hemihedral form with inclined faces. With rise of temperature the angle diminishes rapidly and at 121 C. c. 22' (thallium flame). . 130 represents a crystal of quercite (C 6 c{001}. Fig. : the hemihedral. 50' . an angle . point in other face (hkl) is "repeated in a like face over 2 in if both are equally distant from the origin a 2 the line of intersection lies in 2. II. clinohedral. likewise. 177 with change of temperature . The acute bisectrix under1 goes an apparent displacement of the same temperatures.

a brick. a centre of symmetry. a :b :c='93 : 1 : 1'26. 1898) to belong to The this class . this class the three elements of 13. a plane of symmetry dicular to 2. a. . are associated together. OBLIQUE SYSTEM. P^P^. Bx a AOZ=-62. and four faces are divided into pairs in three ways: parallel faces. and perpendicular to 8. III. which are perpendicular to POP. positively electrified. ~ the plinthoid (prismatic. is and TO' The faces of the complementary forms should show differences in the corrosion-figures and also in the electrification during change of temperature. trisodic hypophosphate (HNa3 P2 been placed in this class (see Art. have been shown by Messrs. K {121} and K {TOT} are negatively electrified. viz. O. In crystals of symmetry. whilst those in the neighbourhood of K {131}. (3) pairs which are antistrophic (p. belong to this class. 31). show numerous forms and have a perfect cleavage parallel : . the portions in the neighbourhood of *c{lll}. 2. p. and as they cool. 132. also. of Sri. The crystals are pyro-electric to (010). classes which occurred singly in the two preceding and in the piiiakoidal class of the a K anorthic system. (ZnOH) (CaOH ) Si0 3 . 14. Jour. 131. =K {TOO}L c =* {001} The optic axes lie in the plane 2.JL010.9H 2 O) FIG. (1) 18). The inter- pairs of changeable on rotation through 180 about 3. A F The general form consists of four tautozonal faces. The forms are : a =K {100}. [iv] v. Penfield and Foote ( Am. 289. crystals of clinohedrite. The edges of intersection are all parallel to 2. Crystals of potassium tetrathionate The elements are: /3=7544'. hololwdral) from irXivOos.e. K {101} are . i. \hkl\. Fig. (2) pairs which are metastrophic (p. 131. 6 . 132. and one optic axis inclined at a small angle to the normal (100). : : : : . as shown by the faces FIG.178 12. m Hydrogen has. 21).A. and a dyad axis 8 perpenThe class will be called class. Plinthoid class. (K 2S4O6 ). and are reciprocal reflexions with respect to 2. of Fig. The crystals and to have the elements /3=76 4' a b c= '6826 1 '3226.

a pair of faces. (1) the faces of one 2 . the face (100) absent or inconspicuous. It constitutes what is called an open form. t H H t t conspicuous faces in the zone [010] are taken for the purpose. 17. for the This relation is and 2 are now both elements of Hence. and perand OZ which lie in 2 at an angle (3 pendicular to the axes OX to one another. viz. 6. each parallel to one of the first pair. become coincident. we have only the two parallel faces (hQf) and (hQ~l) HL and HL through They constitute the pinakoid {hOl}. no other faces are associated together. centro-symmetrical. by drawing faces through L and L parallel to OX we obtain the pinakoid {001} with faces (001) and (OOT). Of these latter pinakoids there may be several on one and the same crystal. OY coincident with the dyad axis. pairs of metastrophic faces of class I. No completely developed crystal of the oblique system can. if (hkl) is one face. in amphibole. therefore. (hkl) which obey the rule connecting pairs of faces symmetrical with respect to the plane XOZ. inasmuch as they are selected to give the directions of Z and X. and the form {hkl} consists of the faces : hkl. (hkl) and (hkl).PLINTHOID CLASS. obtained by drawing planes through parallel to OZ. perpendicular to the paper and the two faces through HL. Since the crystal is (hkl) is the symbol of the associated face. The axes are related to one another as in the two pre- ceding classes. is Thus. The particular and case. consist of a single form. but this selection is often modified by other characters of particular substances. Hence. The four faces can be divided into two pairs (hkl). (2) those of the others being per- pendicular to 2 and parallel to the dyad axis. 127 is parallel to OF. This second pair obeys the rule for the change of signs of a pair of faces metastrophic about OY. this pair (JJd) is associated with and (hkl). 15. But in each of these substances a very 122 . gives the pinakoid {100} with faces (100) and (TOO). hkl. 16. on opposite sides of the plane of symmetry. hkl. respectively. and also in orthoclase. Similarly. it If the face through HL of Fig. 179 The pinakoid being parallel to special forms are pinakoids. Usually the most . These particular cases only differ from the pinakoid {hOl}. it Ttkl. is Hence. 8 not affected by the fact that symmetry. The symbols of the pairs of faces interchangeable by rotation about the axis OY are connected by the same rule as was established in Art. for does not by itself enclose a finite portion of space.

180 conspicuous OBLIQUE SYSTEM. These two complementary forms make up a four-faced figure geometrically identical with {hkl} of class III. The two forms of . (OlO). : : and parameters are the and in each of them the the parametral ratios a b c vary with the substance. and The general relations of the axes same angle for all three classes of the system. 19. and give the corresponding name for the classes having merohedral forms. the student must understand that implies no more than the geometrical relation given above. (hkl) symmetrically situated with respect to the plane faces. By taking the parallel we get a complementary form K \hkl\ which consists of (hkl). are inclined to one another at angles of position. 55 49' and 61 13'. (hkl). ft and The form a {hkl\ of class I is geometrically connected with the form {hkl} of class III. the same pair The reader should notice that the special form {hOl} has of faces. and tetartohedral when the of expression is still number was one-fourth. 18. respectively. But. 2. a {hkl}. a {hkl}. the form K {hkl} of class II consists of the pair of faces (hkl). a {hkl} consists of the pair of faces (hkl) and (hkl) which lie on one side of the plane XOZ. Taking with them the parallel faces (hkl) (hkl) a four-faced figure is obtained which is geometrically the same as {hkl} of class III. the second pair of faces constitute a form a {hkl}. inasmuch as the latter may be regarded as made up of the pair of faces in the former and the pair of faces parallel to them. of the class of greatest symmetry was said to be holohedral those of the other classes being stated to be hemihedral when the number of faces was one-half of that in the holohedral class. the faces which have a different physical character from those of a {hkl} and the two forms do not necessarily occur together. and the faces and called prisms. which is now a plane of symmetry. whether it . but. Similarly. in using this term. and the same development. As this mode used in descriptive works. its faces parallel to The remaining pinakoid {010} has includes the faces (010). form occurs to which crystallographers assign the of the forms thus placed in a vertical symbol {110}. are known as complementary forms it . XOZ. when the crystal belongs to class I. we shall in all cases indicate the classes which were regarded as holohedral. Thus. Similar geometrical relations are found to connect forms of different classes in each of the other systems. The form .

. : : : : Orthoclase.PLINTHOID CLASS. 13 .g. . belongs to . Several zeolites heulandite. CaS0 4 2H 2 O see Art. clintonite Mica. : e. Epidote. <fec. see Art. include only one-half of the faces in the latter. Gypsum. : harmotome. car- . Hence it may not always be possible to distinguish from the development of the crystal-forms the class to which a crystal really belongs.2O. Mg.. m{110}. whether the crystal belongs to class II or class III. for the most part. : : : : Amphibole. the corrosion of faces by solvents. sodium borax. FeS0 4 . Elements /3 = 75 2' a b c = '5318 1 -2936. : . stilbite. those of pyro-electricity. Fe) Si0 3 + #Al 2 O 3 The forms shown in Fig. to determine the class and even the system.C0 3 10H. Methods of calculation.. The elements are: 0=74 10'. such as may be needed 20. . muscovite. inasmuch as those of the two former.7H 2 0. classes. 6 {010}. with composition similar to that of pyroxene. 28. . 133 are: a {100}. 29. Mg. The class also includes a very large number of artificial salts ferrous sulphate. u{lll} and o{221}. Fig. . p{lOI}. 21. and also the allied and chlorite groups. 134. a b c=l'0921 1 -5893.. (Ca. . This class includes the crystals of : many of the most common constituents of rocks Pyroxene. Na^Oy 10H 2 O bonate the soda of commerce Na. . HCa2 (Al. Since a similar arrangement of axes is taken in the three and since the general and special forms of classes I and II only differ from those of class III. c{001}. 110 b 01 c FIG. 30. 181 a crystal of class I or class III and similarly. including the species biotite. &c. 133. &c. m. KAlSi 3 8. that {010} has the same development. and physical considerations. Fe) 3 Si 3 see Art. Fe) Si0 3 and (Ca.

and To jecting select any (001). of the face-symbols. Then A C = 90 pole CZ = ZX C is t = ft. other way of pro- the axial points and poles If.OZ. classes will follows that the analytical formulae involved in the determination and angles of crystals of all three be the same. and zone-circles through B will be projected in diameters of the Fand is the vertical line in the primitive. parameters. In a stereogram of an oblique crystal. 135. paper. and several of the most important zone-circles have radii of inconvenient length. The A is (100). easily obtain formula) b : which connect ft and with the angles between the axial and other faces without reference to those of the anorthic system. and is the zone-axis of the zone-circle which is projected in the horizontal diameter OZ An arc ft is measured on the primitive to the right from Z [-4-wi. until the plane XOZ of the drawing comes into the paper and . however. 135.5(010) are both projected in the centre. t is perpendicular to the zone-circle projected in the diameter [CLB]. Fig. In order to compare a stereogram. be easily deduced from the corresponding formulae given in the preceding Chapter by making YOZ = 90. t 90 CL. The angular elements employed in the anorthic XOY= system would be modified accordingly. and the axis The axial is therefore perpendicular to the paper. OY point all the pole . We the ratios a : Further. gives much unnecessary trouble. since AN=F=W-BN. indeed. They may.B]. the plane of symmetry will always be taken as that of the primitive. like Fig. and gives the negative extremity of the axis XOX This axis X t . the prism-zone placed in the primitive right extremity of the diameter. BL =D E + E = p = X. [Am] is and B at the horizontal the centre is the axial point Z and face. and can. we need only suppose the drawing to be turned through 90 about the vertical axis. c 22. is possible We not the pole of a then have to determine the positions of poles by the more cumbrous methods employed in projecting anorthic crystals. with the drawing of a crystal made in the usual way. 140.182 it OBLIQUE SYSTEM. for instance. such as Fig.

dividing throughout by sin SP. XPS Since the zone-circle [SP] and ZPS are right-angled : and. ^(101) and m(110). Hence a For : b : c = . the equations of the normal become a sin CS sin SP _ b cos SP _ h ~TT~ we have a sin ~T~ cam AS AS sin SP ~> and. meets [CA] in triangles .FORMULA OF COMPUTATION. respectively. and Z which are not and ZP. the angular elements of the crystal. cannot be obtained by measurement in the ordinary way. sin (7^ cotltf D> : sin 4^ is this reason Miller used the three angles CN. at right angles. CS _ b cot SP (111) Similarly.. a cos XP _ the angle b cos YP _ c cos ZP But the angles YP is SP.(4). Art. 183 positive direction OX The OY 23. [SIN]. involving the axial points poles. 135 to be the pole of the parametral face such a pole may be called the parametral pole (111) and let the zone-circles [AIL]. ZP = cos ZS cos SP = sin AS sin SP. 22. >S' xi. and draw the zone-circle [SP] to meet [CA] in S(hQl). cos we have XP = cos XS cos SP = sin CS sin SP. as /?. for the pole we have. since [SI] meets c sin CA in sin CN : 6cot El AN . It clear they also give ForAN+CN=AC = . positive of is then directed towards the front. of Fig. . We must. Then. [Clm] be drawn to meet the axial zones [BC]. c sin \ ' ' cos ) Hence. [CA] and [AS] in the poles Z(011).. in the equations of the normal. is directed towards the left. Let P be the pole (hkl). for Y and (010) coincide. by Napier's rules. SI and AN. (111) Suppose I for the sake of brevity. replace cos XP and cos ZP by a similar artifice to that XP X used in Chap. therefore.

no advantage in giving a series of formulae of rare The above formulae (2) and (3) enable us to connect It is. and remembering that the pole S becomes coincident with A when P coincides with m. since k \ft ^""icf -Jr"^ FIG. we have a section. [GA]. is made in the plane the lines showing the axes and the line A A'. The formulae. an angle supposed to be known. But. and OA is a Now the angle BAO = 90 FIG. a knowledge of the angles which make with one another suffices to fix the To determine c we can assume ratio a b. frequently more advantageous to select a face. in plane of section. OA = OA' sin AA'O = a sin . the angles with the parameters and face-indices in all cases. we can take the section of the crystal in the plane AOB. 137. 8. if OA + OB = cot BA = cot Bm. applicable in these cases. or they can be determined directly by elementary geometry. but leaves c indefinite. and OA' = a. Thus. showing the lines in which the face Z(011) meets the planes COB and XOZ. Hence. The most convenient pole other of the zones [BC]. the axis of Y. and establish an equation between the OY parameters b and c similar to (5). which the face m meets the Now f\AA'0 = ($. = b co ^Bm /? ' sin (5} Similar figures to Figs.184 24. 136 and 137. or [Cm]. Here AOB is m a right angle. 136. OB is normal and not an axis. c It is cot BL . ' OA I _ cotBm ~ " b~ OB OBsinB~ sin ft " a O4' f may be also obtained from equations (2) by making h=k=l and 1=0. Fig. however. being (110). to be (110). 137. 136. application. There is OBLIQUE SYSTEM. some other pole to have known indices consistent with m being the homologous faces : m to take is one lying in one or (110). OBm = BOm. When ft is known. XOZ. parallel to OZ. are easily deduced from the general equations (2) and (3). / . Equations (2) This same expression then reduce to a sin CA =b cot Bm. when we get the relation shown in Fig. such as m. give the lengths on the axes and OZ .

The face (101) meets the axes of and Z in the points A'. a CN=csinAN This last equation is easily established by Fig. The expression (7) can be readily deduced from the A. and the position of P is fully determined.CS) = tan (45 - 6) tan (AS + CS) (8). Hence. To find the position of P. and If S with C. distinguish (7.R..A'CO) sfoCON ' 25. which XOZ.'. The arcs AS and CS having been found. BP _ ~ AS . CN . AS I sm AN (known numbers) v (7). we have (5**).C" J Q) sin AON _ ~ . C". if measured in the negative directions. it is necessary. if measured in the positive directions and by A /f (7. Assuming CS<AS. The lines OA and OC are the normals (100) and (001). C'. and are at right angles to OC' and OA' respectively.tan | (AS. -. This can also be obtained from equations (2) 18o by making P coincide with L. 26. where OA' -a and OC' = c. when the symbol (hkl) and the elements of the crystal are known. represents a section of the crystal by the 138. is P of equations (2) made sin to coincide with ^V(lOl). The arc-distance of any two poles P(hkl) and Q (pqr) may be found from the anharrnonic ratio of four poles in their zone. vin. {CSNA}. b. we proceed as follows. Eliminating a.FORMULA OF COMPUTATION. 138. Art 14. latter points by A'. BP can be found from equations (6). c from (2) and cot (3) we have sin I sin CS _ ~ h sin sin . Also AS+CS = fi.*.. CS and AS can be computed by the process of transformation given in Chap. or being . k cot Bl sin AN '" tan (say) fi sin CS = h sin CN = -^ j-=. Hence c a _ sin A'C'O _ sin (90 ~ ~ sin C'A'O sin (90 since the angles at N are 90.& known angle. the poles associated with them being either fully known. We shall. . . between the and the points on the axes at distances a and c from the origin by denoting the FIG. . whenplane X ever poles A.

From Dana's Mineralogy we take the following angles : 55 45' rbl IV \-l'b t 71 54' Im 49 9-5'. that parallel to b (010). or is too laborious. 45 36 12 71 54 34-5' The angles between the edges [6m] and [bl]~ 127 and 52 25-5'. From the figure and the table of angles. 25. cleavage. 28. Gypsum.R. is more acute than II'. a sin CS _ b cot BQ = c sin AS q r .&. and l we can and Q lie in a zone containing If the two poles (010). when either computed. it is clear that the face b is parallel to 2 and perpendicular to the dyad axis. mm. and BQ for the pole Q. It is the same as the angle between the normals to possible faces ^I(IOO) and N(101) which are occasionally found to truncate the edges [mm. When the above method fails. we determine AS and BP for the pole P. . and can be obtained from it. Hence. 26. cos PQ the angle PQ can be computed. the arcs the arcs ASj.] and [W]. As a poles easily determined rule this method gives most of the angles which are needed. Dividing each of the terms of (2) by the corresponding term we have p r q cot BP h-kcotBQ=1BP or BQ is known. expression.186 OBLIQUE SYSTEM. the other can be Expressions (10) are nothing more than those of the A. are brighter and more even than those marked I and T. by the method likewise of Art. 68 30 [bin 55 ?.AS). Equations (2) holding the zone [BPS] P B P (hkl). Approximate measurements can be made without difficulty.can be computed from the triangle blm by the expression given in Art. Fig. there is a very perfect The faces m and m. find a simple relation which enables us to determine the is known. 140 shows a simple crystal of gypsum such as can be very In one direction. easily obtained. and the face-angle mm. g) P of (9). from our knowledge of the crystal. {BPQS}. position of the one pole when that of the other we have for Q (pqr) lying in for 27. Then from the = cos BP cos BQ + sin BP sin BQ cos ( AS .

. 187 Describe a circle with any AN= and the diameter [NIBl. A C + NC = 108 Hence AC=p = 8Q 42'. + But b(AC. are free to give any value we please to the third index k. triangles from the right-angled ACm and NCI. The pole A m to be (110). Therefore. But A ACm = A ACl . convenient radius and draw a horizontal diameter [AmBm']. As.tan 1 _ 6 21-5' . sin A C = tan A m cot A Cm = cot Bm cot A Cm. (101).] and the vertical line in the stereo- at 90 to Z is the possible pole (100). and the homologous circle [m'l t ] is drawn is at the same time. Prob. we follow other crystallographers and select the line parallel to a face of somewhat rare occurrence. ~ _. 1. of which AN and NC are determined by computation. We gypsum has been for axis of X of which is fully described. dividing the latter equation by the former. and 45 -0=19 12-75' -Man 19 58-6'. gram. and the value selected deter- XX CX= We are equal. 110] = [ll0]. select the zone-axis [IV] for this purpose. then all the indices The possible pole N is then AN.NC) = %AN=2G . Bl. sin NC = tan Nl cotACl = cotBl cot A Cl.-. The homologous poles are inserted by the aid of is a pair of compasses. On the primitive the arc 52 25-5' is marked off by a protractor. The face b (010) of which B is the pole : the axis of Z is is taken parallel to the edge [mm. The is given by the arcs position of . CX. and might. we have '" sin A C + sin NC _. and its symbol is (hhk). so that Bm = 55 45'. Fig. is quickly made. and the simplest symbol is (111). = 9Q. ~ tan jfciC + NC) 12-75'.] drawn. the angular elements are : Let k = h . 139. The zone-circle [nil] then drawn by either of the methods of Chap. vn. tan l(AC + NC)=t&n 26 21-5'. Hence. however. Now the pole I lies in the zone [Cm] = [001. . To find the pole C. the pole the point C in which the zone-circle [Im] meets the primitive.'. vn. The stereogram. and can be taken are at liberty to take the axis of X parallel to any other in the plane 2 parallel to (010). were we determinpossible edge ing a new substance. Art. and NC = 28l6-o'. and NC.EXAMPLE (GYPSUM). Onthesetwo diameters the poles m and I are determined by the method given in Chap. and Bl = 71 54'. we have by Napier's rules. 13. mines the numerical value of the parameter c.

The dotted lines are then easily introduced by the method given in Chap. blue that by glass coloured by cobalt or that given by an ammoniacal solution of 1 When cated. The edges [lm']. [IV] in the drawing is the line C'A'. {HI}. and through the first two points the edges [bl].]. obtain the linear elements. To draw the crystal the axes are projected in the manner described in Chap.188 To OBLIQUE SYSTEM. A'B.. HO. Lcot7154' L sin 28 16-5' = 9-67550 L sin 52 a = -690 and c 25-5' log a =1-83885.]. 111. the nature of the light is not specified. [I'm] at the top and the parallel edges at the bottom have now to be drawn. . plane of symmetry. The crystal is. and I {III} includes 111. 110. to the width to be given to the faces drawn giving the edges [bm]. as shown in Fig. 111. fully determined.-. Art.l] ^B.]. found by the ordinary construction given in Chap. . III. The plane of the optic axes coincides with the Optic characters. [b. Eed copper sulphate. The two continuous edges [I'm] and [. A D: line OD is [I'm. [mm. This figure represents a thin cleavage plate. the points A'. A. being the The parallelogram giving the point in which OD. Their zone-symbols are [112] and [112] respectively.. D. 26. : : : : It consists of the forms {010}.m. and Bx a lies in the obtuse angle XOZ. are parallel to C D. (see Art. [b. 141. = 9-89903 log c = 1-61532: : = -4124.e. Similarly.-. and their directions can be vertical lines are FIG. it is v. a b c = -690 1 -4124. 16. The points B. gives the correThrough these points and A' sponding point on [I'm. are determined on the inclined The edge axis XX. at distances OXx-69 from the origin. vi. parallel to A'B. [I'm. therefore.]. are left at unit distance on the horizontal axis YY G' and C. or a point being taken on [lm] a line parallel to YY.] i. vi. I . The form The indices of the faces and poles are MI {110} includes the four faces 110. B. we make b = 1 in equations (3) a sin 28 16-5' = cot 71 54' = c sin 52 25-5'.D / is the direction of the lower edge [ml. bounded by the poor cleavages which are distinguished by having a fibrous and conchoidal character.(or white) light is indilight is that transmitted by glass coloured by oxide of copper. The edges [lm]. 24) are found on the vertical at distances OA"x-4l2 from the origin. the line C. Art. day. . and C'D t respectively. In such simple crystals easier to find to them as follows.V] are drawn parallel to C'A'. and has the inscribed in the diagrams. respectively. lengths are cut off by proportional compasses corresponding m and b . 140.] From them equal are the lines A'B. Similarly. . {110}. A'B. elements: j3=8042'. and at 9'4 Cmakes an angle of 52 27' l with OZ (the line c). =9-51435 9-51435 . to meet A'B in the line drawn through O parallel to C'D is the upper edge [lm']. IlO . meets face b (010) can be now completed.

the apparent angle in oil of known refractive index. the plane of the optic axes is perpendicular to 2 for all colours. These vertices its may be called the brush. to The difference of readings of the graduated is attached. and will be called the dark brush. 141. centres of the eyes. In many substances V is so which the axis carrying the crystal-plate large that light. those traversed by the violet brush being more oval than those of the other set. or. respectively. When the plane of the optic axes is at 45 to that of polarization. The angle of the optic axes in the crystal is denoted by 2 V. the hyperbolic brushes close in towards . the cleavages with conchoidal surface are parallel to {100}. In gypsum the angle at 20 C. and at slightly higher temperatures. The axis OX is that marked d. suffers total internal reflexion when the crystal is in contact with air in these cases 2H. becomes zero for red light at 116C. if 2E and /3 (the mean principal index) are known. the phenomena are reversed as the section cools and the original state is recovered when the original .wire of the instrument. and for blue light 94 24'. gives the angle required. The apparent angle of the optic axes in air is always denoted by 2E. whilst the optic axes for blue With and and intermediate colours (having previously closed in) have opened out in a plane perpendicular to 2. and can be computed from the principal indices of refraction when these are known . transmitted in the crystal along an optic axis. At 120C..OPTIC CHARACTERS OF GYPSUM.. we find V by the equation sin^=j3sin V. When Bx a . is often : given. The rings traversed by the violet brush which can be easily seen are more numerous than those forming the eye traversed by the dark brush and the shapes of the rings forming the eyes are different. vertex in an optic axis innormal (100) at an angle of 8'5 (nearly). which has clined to the : . cut perpendicularly to inserted in convergent white light between crossed Nicols. increase of temperature the angle 2E diminishes rapidly. Further. 189 The fibrous cleavages are parallel to {!!!} and give the edges truncated by the faces {101}. The hyperbolic FIG. 2E is for red light 95 14'. and will be denoted as the violet brush the other brush has dull fringes. a plate. and is measured by bringing each hyperbolic brush in turn to cover the cross. the brushes form a rectangular hyperbola having its vertices in the beams transmitted along the optic axes. has a bright violet fringe on the concave side. two series of oval is rings (often called eyes) are seen which are each traversed by a dark brush. circle. The phenomena are symmetrical only to the trace of the plane of symmetry. If the temperature is not raised above 125 C. temperature is reached.



centre at unequal rates, that having the bright violet fringe Thus between 20 and 95 -5 C., undergoing the greater displacement. the brush with violet fringe is displaced through 33 35', that with dull The acute bisectrix has, therefringes through 22 38' (Des Cloizeaux).

been displaced in the same direction as the brighter brush through an apparent angle of 5 29' one-half the difference of the displacements. If the mean refractive index /3 is taken to be 1'519 at 95'5C., and the plate was accurately perpendicular to Bx a at 20 C., the displacement of Bx a in the crystal is very nearly 3 -5 and Bx a A OZ=49 at 95 -5 C. The above variation of the angle in air can be easily confirmed by the student.

Neumann determined

the displacement of

Bx a


whilst the plate was


in the crystal by similar in rape-seed oil, which

has a refractive index slightly lower than /3 of gypsum. He found the displacement to be 3 50' between 19'1 C. and the temperature at which the axial angle is reduced to zero, the latter temperature being probably

about 115 C.

This angle is smaller than that deduced from Des Cloizeaux' observation, if we assume the displacements for equal increments of temperature to be nearly equal. By means of a thin cleavage-plate of a twin-crystal, the displacement
of the acute bisectrix can be



If the twin-face is (100),

the acute bisectrices in the two portions include at about 10 C. an angle of 104 54' and 75 6'. The least angle between the extinctions when the

14 54' = 90



-75 6'. If the twin-face one another a minimum angle of 29
least angle

inserted in parallel light between crossed Nicols is is (101) the extinctions make with

As the temperature rises the 45'. between the extinctions diminishes in both cases. Between 20 and 96 C. the diminution in the angle in a twin-plate, with twin-face (101), was determined by students in the Cambridge laboratory to be
approximately 6'5.

The acute




its inclination to

the vertical axis

therefore, displaced through is at 96 C. approximately


In the crystal of orthoclase, Fig. 143, the following angles



faces b



p*50 3


89 53.


1-6 '

and c are selected as the axial planes (010) and (001), respecare directions of perfect cleavage. The faces are invariably taken as those of the prism {110}; and the possible face (100) therefore truncates the edge [mm,]. Its angular distance from (001) was, in Chap, viii, Art. 15, determined to be 63 57' (neglecting fractions of 1') from the angles given in zone iii.



In the stereogram, Fig. 142, the poles A, C, x, y, etc., are marked on the primitive by means of a protractor, placing A (100) at the left hand of the horizontal diameter. The axis of Z parallel to the edge [mm,] is the vertical



are both marked by crosses, the angle and the points Z and The zones [BmA], [BnC], being 63 57'. [Box], are projected in diameters through
.1 C, and x, and the poles m and n upon them can be easily placed by the construc,



tion of Chap, vn, Prob.


Having placed

or n, the zone-circles [y'mno], [y'o^m'] can be drawn, and fix the positions of


the remaining poles.

The symbol
to m, the

(110) having

parameter a
b is

been assigned found from formula



made =1.

_cot(Bm=5923'-5) ~
sin OS =63 57')
is still left


The parameter c and we are at


liberty to assign known indices to one or other of the poles n, o, x or y.
parallel to the origin meets the axis

Then a plane

that employed in Art. 24,

Let us take x to be (101). x drawn through A, on OX at distance a from OZ at C', where OC' = c. By a diagram similar to but in which OA takes the place of OA', we have


a~OA~ sin A.C'O ~ ^Jx

_ 0(7 _ sin

C'A t O

_ sinCx


The same




to be x


(hkl) to

obtained from the equations of the normal, by taking be (101). The equations become a cos X,.r = c cos Zx.


X,x = 90

- Cx, and a sin

Zx = 90

- Ax.

Cx = c sin Ax.

Introducing the angles and the value of a, we have
log c = log -6585

+ L sin 50


- L sin 65


= 1-74458.


= -55536.

In the zone [Cxy] we


Hence the symbol

of y can be found

the angles and the symbols of A, C, by the A. B. {AxyC}.




Bin(^ar=65 46-5Q


sin (Cx

= 50








By computation,
h = 2l



the symbol of y is (201). Having found y, the zone-symbol of [j/w] is found from Chap, v, table 10, to be [ll2]. Hence, the poles n and o are found, by Weiss's zone-law, to be



(111), respectively;




also in [BC7]

= [100], and




If it is desired to prove that n lies in the zone [ym], we can do so practically by adjusting the zone on the reflecting goniometer, when it will be seen that n and o both lie in the zone. It can, also, by the help of the stereogram be



R to be the pole in which proved from the measured angles. Thus, suppose the right-angled triangles Aym and CyR, we have [ym] meets [BC]. Then, from
sin sin

A y = tan Am cot Aym,


Aym and CyR

are the

Cy = tan CR cot CyR. same angle. Hence, dividing the second equation

by the

tan CR = tan Am sin Cy L tan (Am= 30 36-5') = = Lsin(Ci/ = 80 18')

sin Ay.


L sin (A y = ir - 35




OR =44


= the

observed angle





coincides with the pole n.

By means

of equations (3) the angular elements of Miller can be found the parametral pole 1(111) introduced in the stereogram. The angles are


AN=350-5', Bl = 72

CW=28-56'5', using the same

letters to

denote the

The parametral face (111) is a very rare poles as were used in equations (3). one, and the axial face (100) is not very common. The
face o

might at once have been assumed as the parametral face


- a, b and c on the axes and therefore necessarily the length giving the lengths a on the positive side of the axis of X. Being given Bo = 63 8', the reader can,
by the aid of formulae (2) and (3), find the parameters and the symbols of faces; and prove that the results are the same as those given above. The method of constructing the axes, by which Fig. 143 is made, wa
in Chap, vi, Art. 16. A linear projection is then made in the plane XOY, similar to that used in
Art. 5, and the edges are given by joining on OZ to the zonal-points. The face c (001) drawn by joining A' to B and Br On the edges [cm], [cm] given by A'B and A'B,, equal lengths are cut off by proportional compasses, and through the points so obtained and A' [bm], [b,m,] and [mm,], are drawn parallel to OZ. Through any point on





C' or C,

is first

[mm,] the edges [my], [m,y] are drawn. Through a point on [my] the edges [yx], [mo,], [xo,], are then



face 6 can be

now completely drawn


FIG. 143.

and the

rest of the figure presents

The optic characters are extremely variable. Crystals from St Gotthard have a very wide angle of the optic axes, those from the Eifel a very small one. In both cases the first mean line lies in the obtuse angle XOZ
and makes an angle of approximately 5 with OX. Considering now the " " glassy variety from the Eifel, the plane of the optic axes is, at ordinary
temperatures, very generally perpendicular to the plane of symmetry. As the temperature is raised the angles of the optic axes for different colours diminish, the optic axes for blue light closing in first and those for red


the temperature


further raised, the axes for





separate in the plane of symmetry the angle between the optic axes for blue light being greater than that for red light. If the temperature is raised not beyond 500 C., and then allowed to fall, the axes go through

the opposite series of changes, and ultimately, at the initial temperature, recover their original positions. If, however, the temperature is raised
to 600 C. or higher, the axes never recover their original positions


the plate is allowed to cool, although the angle between them is much diminished. The acute bisectrix is but slightly displaced during these changes. In an unstrained crystal the dispersion is, therefore, horizontal,
whilst in a strained one




following table gives a

few of the changes observed by DesCloizeaux in a plate examined in red light, 6 being the temperature, and 2E (the angle in air) being
regarded as negative
plane of symmetry, and as positive

when measured in a plane perpendicular when in 2.

to the


150 C.






+12 +24 +30

250 300 343

+40 +46 23' +55 +59 46' +64.

30. Epidote. This mineral is usually found as dark green attached crystals, elongated in the direction of the dyad axis. The crystals are commonly in the form of irregular six-faced prisms a {100}, c{001}, r{101} terminated by a pair of faces

n{Ill}; and the faces
parallel to the edges

a, c


and r, are striated which they meet. We


show how to calculate the angles in the following table from a knowledge of the symbols of the faces and of the angles marked by asterisks.


tables of angles given in descriptive

works are the results of similar computations.
In the plan, Fig. 144, the dyad axis


and the



(010) is

parallel, to the


(111), the

Selecting a, !>, c as axial planes and n as symbols of the faces, with the exception

of a few of those in the zone [ac], can be found assume the symbols of all the forms to have been by Weiss's zone-law.


determined; they are: a {100}, b {010}, c {001}, e {101}, i {102} r {101} I {201} /{301}, u {210}, z {110}, * {012}, o {Oil}, d {111}, n {111}, q {22l}, y {211}.
, ,



face c(001) is parallel to a perfect cleavage, a (100) to

an imperfect

cleavage. By the aid of the stereogram, Fig. 145, the student can follow the analysis the poles A (100), e, C (001), t, r, l,f being in the primitive.
L. c.



r cd

52 19-3'




The parameters can now be obtained from equations
a sin Cr =


taking P






cot 35 14-5'

iii. Zones [Bz] and [Bo]. By formulae (5) and (5*) the angles Bz and Bo can now be found and then by the A. B. the angles Bu and Bk.




= 352', and Bo = 31




Bu = 54


and Bk = 50



Zone [Aon].

angled spherical from the A. R. of

The angles Ao and An can now be found by the righttriangles AoC and Anr and then Ad and Ay' can be obtained four poles. The formula are
; :

cos Ao=cos(AC =64 37') sin (Bo

An = cos (lr= 51

= 31 = 35 41-5') sin (Bn
(Ao = 11



4o = 772-6'.


An = 69




{Adon}, we have

Ad = sin



by computation,

nd-Ad = U


and Ad = 4Q

Similarly, Zj/' is found

= _ ~ sin (An



sin oy'

2 sin (no =33 55')

cos Cz

The angle Cz

found from the right-angled triangle CAz;

= cos (^C = 64

37') sin

= 35




= 75



now the

A. K.

taken to find Cd, an auxiliary angle of less than
It is,

enters into the computation.

therefore, best to

compute Cd from the
in a similar calculation

right-angled triangles Cde and CzA, in the

way adopted



cos eCd = ta.neC cot Cd,



A G cot Cz.



Cd = cot (A C = 64

tan (Cz = 75 45-25') tan (eC = 34 Cd = 52 19-3'.
A. B.

The angle Cq

then found to be 90 18' from the





31. Crystals of hydrogen trisodic hypophosphate, HNa 3 P 2 6 9H 2 0, are described by M. H. Dufet (Bull. Soc. franc,, de Min. ix, p. 205, 1886) as having

only a plane of symmetry; and belong, therefore, to class II. He determines the elements of the crystal from the following three angles NX =101 A 101 = 87 52',

Cm =001 A

110 =83



= 001

A 111

= 65


To obtain the elements, we

proceed as follows : A freehand stereogram of the above poles, of /(111), and of the poles of the

complementary forms

is first

find Cl


From A. R. { Clmo, } we From the right-angled

= 55


triangle CNl, cos NCI = tan

CN cot Cl


Cox, cos ( Cox = NCl) = tan

Cx cot



=i =tan (* =33 ^(co=ll?2r) t&nCN sinCNcosCx



4/ >-

/7 \T


Hf f*r\a




Cx cos CN Hr 1 _



Cx cos CN+ sin

CN cos Cx


+ tan


= tan(45-0).

sin (Cx - GZV) = tan 11

21-6' sin

(Cx + CN) = tan 11 21-6' sin 87


Hence, by computation,

Cx- CN=11

and Cx = 49




the several right-angled triangles,

we have


cos (Cox = NCl) cos

=tan (Cx=43 43-5') cot (Co = 65 NCl=i&n CA cot (Cm =83 25'),
Bl = cos Nl = cos Cl+ cos CN,


sin sin

Bo = cos ox = cos Co -=-cos Cx,

Am = sin Cm sin NCI.


M7Z=5712-5', ^C=/3=7758-2', Z=46 12-5', Bo = 4010-6', ^m=5637-6'. The parameters can now be found by equations (2) and are



:c = l-552 :1: 1-497.



1. THE prismatic system includes all crystals having one set of three dissimilar zone-axes which are, at all temperatures, perpendi-

cular to one another, and are the directions of the principal axes of the wave-surface for light of all colours. The system includes the three following classes


The sphenoidal

(bisphenoidal (Groth), hemi/iedral) class, the

which have three dissimilar dyad axes at right angles to one another, but have no other element of symmetry. II. The bipyramidal (holohedral) class, in which the three dyad axes of class I are associated with a centre of symmetry and with
crystals of

three dissimilar planes of symmetry, each perpendicular to one of the



The acleistous pyramidal (pyramidal, hemimorphic) class, the crystals of which have only one dyad axis associated with two dissimilar planes of symmetry intersecting at right angles in the



the normals to these planes are zone-axes, but are not axes of


selected as the axes of


The three rectangular zone-axes of the several classes can be Fand Z\ and no other set of zone-axes The angles, 90, between the three axes equally advantageous. reference are now fixed by the symmetry, and will remain constant


as long as the crystal is subjected only to strains, such as that due to the expansion caused by change of temperature, which affect

the substance in a


consistent with the retention of the
dCK\<rros = not closed.



: :

The parameters, a b c, are therefore the crystalline structure. only elements which can vary with the substance in crystals of
this system.


classes I

and II

it is

selected as axis of


and placed

immaterial which of the three dyad axes vertically, but generally that

axis is taken which brings out the habit most distinctly in drawings, or which gives prominent positions to any cleavage-faces which may In class III, however, it is best to place the single dyad axis exist.
in the vertical position. The parameter a is arranged to be less than Hence the axis of b, but c may be either greater or less than b.


called the brachy-axis or brachy-diagonal, the axis of

Y the makro-


or makro-diagonal.


in Chaps, xiv

In drawings of this and the two following systems, discussed and xv, in which rectangular axes of reference are

adopted, the axis of



placed in the vertical plane and

nearly, or quite, in the paper as was described in Chap, vi ; the axis of is placed right-and-left, the positive direction being to the is directed backright and the negative to the left ; the axis of



and-fore with the positive direction to the front. is usually perpendicular to the In stereograms the axis of plane of the primitive, and is projected in the central point ; the


axes of

X and


are in the paper.


shall usually place the axis

Y horizontal


and the positive direction

to the right.


axis of

therefore the vertical line in the diagram and its positive direction is taken downwards. Hence, to compare a drawing of a
crystal with its stereogram, the drawing has to be turned about the until the axis of is perpendicular to the horizontal axis paper.



Stereograms correspond exactly with, and have the same orientation as, plans on the plane XOY; as was illustrated by the plan and
stereogram of barytes discussed in Chap, vn, Arts.

21 and 22.


Sphenoidal class; a{hkl}.



If a crystal has two dyad axes, the line at right angles to is also an axis of symmetry, and the degree, or angle of

rotation, is determined

by the least angle between the dyad axes in the plane of the first pair (Chap, ix, Prop. 11). The lowest degree such an axis can have is 2, and the angle of rotation about it, 180,
twice that between the original pair of axes. Hence, the simplest is that in which three dissimilar dyad axes occur together, all





at right angles to one another. Axes of symmetry of the same degree in the same crystal, which are neither interchangeable nor
reciprocal reflexions in a plane of

symmetry, are said

to be dissimilar.

The angles between

pairs of homologous faces, interchangeable


rotation about dissimilar axes, are unequal. The class having three dissimilar dyad axes at right angles to one another and no other element of symmetry, we shall call the
shall denote the sphenoidal class of the prismatic system. general form, Fig. 146, which has four faces bounded by scalene The triangles and is known as a sphenoid, by the symbol a [hkl\.



prefix a,

meaning without, serves

to indicate that the ciystal

has no planes of symmetry.
5. The two pairs of faces in Fig. 146, interchangeable by and NQ, both rotation through 180 about meet in edges in is parallel to the line The edge perpendicular to ZZr


t ,




which the face


meets the axial plane



and the edge


the line


in the

same axial


Similarly, in lines

the pairs

interchangeable by rotation about



LN and MQ,

both perpendicular to




parallel, respectively, to the lines

ZY and ZY
the edges




MN and

faces are similarly arranged in pairs meeting in and parallel, respecperpendicular to





XZ r


rotation about one or other of the

axes each face can be brought into the position of any of the

The homologous

faces are, therefore, all exactly alike

are triangles with unequal sides and angles. over the three edges of each face are

and The dihedral angles

unequal, but those over pairs of opposite

and NQ, perpendiedges, such as cular to each dyad axis are equal. Such
a form clearly encloses a finite portion of space, and a crystal of this class may


The form
a wedge.

which shows only a single form. is called a sphenoid, from (r<t>ijv,


face of

any sphenoid can be

selected to give the parameters a b c ; and we may for the present suppose them to be

known. Let ^, in Fig. 146, be (/*&), then OAT = a - A, OY=b+k, OZ=c + l. Rotation about OX interchanges p with p and at the same time
t ,




on each of the axes equal positive and negative lengths



Hence, 6> 7,=- OY=b+k, OZ^-OZ^c+l. Hence p passing through is common to both faces. The point Z has the symbol (hkl). Similarly, by rotation about ZZ the face p changes places with the face which passes through

OZ perpendicular



t ,




t ,


and the

parallel line XY^,.


OY = b + k, OZ=c + l;
in which

and the symbol

intercepts are: of the face

OX = a^Tt, LMQ is (hkl).

Again, by rotation about YY', the face p is brought into a position ~ a, -f- h, OY =b -f- k, OZf = c+-l. it meets the axes at t


The symbol


the fourth face




These four faces

complete the sphenoid a {hkl}

which, therefore, consists of

hkl, hkl, hkl, hkl


In a stereogram of the sphenoid a {hkl}, two poles above the paper occupy opposite quadrants, and two poles below the paper,
represented by circlets, occupy the remaining pair of opposite quadSuch a stereogram is shown in Fig. 152, Art. 13. rants.

Similarly, the sphenoid, Fig.


which consists of the

faces parallel to those in the first, and which is consequently called the com-

plementary form, has the symbol a {hkl}, It consists of the faces or a {hkl}.

hki, hki, hki,



This latter sphenoid is clearly poswhen a {hkl} exists, for the symbols of its faces conform to the law of rational


and to the rule connecting the faces interchangeable by rotation through 180 about the axes of reference.

Since each of the faces of the

one sphenoid

is parallel to a corresponding face of the second, the angles between the pairs of faces on the one are equal to those between the pairs of parallel faces of the


similarly orientated, or, for they are reciprocal reflexions of one another in planes parallel to any pair of the axes. The

The sphenoids cannot, however, be


we may



complementary sphenoids are therefore enantiomorphous.


rule, established above,

connecting the symbols of pairs
axis perpen-

faces interchangeable by rotation about a dyad dicular to two axes of reference is perfectly general. of

For any





perpendicular to a dyad axis remains parallel to itself after rotation through 180 ; and, if it meets the axis, equal lengths on opposite sides of the axis are interchanged. Hence, a pair of homologous

meeting them on opposite sides of the origin.
indices differ therefore only in sign.

makes equal intercepts on the pair of axes of reference The corresponding

xn, Art. 5) are of two kinds. one of the dyad axes, it is clearly brought into a parallel position by rotation through 180 about that axis ; but into new positions inclined to its original position
special forms (Chap,




a face

parallel to




turned about each of the axes which




two faces obtained by rotations




axes will

We, necessarily be parallel to each other and to the first axis. thus, have a set of four tautozonal faces intersecting in edges parallel to one of the dyad axes ; and such that the angles between
pairs of the faces, or their normals, are bisected

by each

of the


other axes.

If the faces are parallel to ZZ^ the vertical axis, the form {hkQ} is called a prism. If parallel to the makro-axis tt


the form {hOl\ is called a makrodome ; and if to the brachy-axis t the form {Okl} is a brachydome. 150 show three such Figs. 148


forms, which, not enclosing a finite portion of space, cannot occur alone. They are in the figures cut short by pinakoids, the faces

which are perpendicular to the zone-axes of the four-faced forms. The prism, Fig. 148, with vertical faces may be represented as

a {MO}, or {MO};





later on, there is in this case

no advantage

in keeping the Greek prefix before the It includes the faces : brackets.

hkQ, hkO, hkO, hkO


The alternate faces are parallel whilst the first two, and the last two, interchange
places by rotation about YY/, the middle pair, and also the extreme faces, interchange places about The faces of the particular z


by rotation



case {110}


shall in this

and the


gonal system always denote by the letter m. Similarly, the makrodome {hQl}, Fig.
149, includes the faces


The student can

easily arrange


j- ia


its which and are therefore parallel to the two other axes. the brachy-pinakoid {010} includes (010) and (OlO). so that it is often easy to distinguish one from another. one index alone changes sign in the of a face face. in each of the faces are perpendicular respectively to one dyad axis. a . XX .202 PRISMATIC SYSTEM.. : Magnesium sulphate MgS0 4 7H 2 0. such as striae. often called the basal pinakoid. Crystals on which special forms alone occur cannot be distinguished geometrically from similar crystals belonging to the next class. Okl Although. 150. have the three pinakoids alone. The pinakoid {001} has the horizontal faces (001) and (OOl). of the symbol from that of an adjacent we have not contravened the for if deduction rule given . . one of these latter positive and negative value. includes the faces: (e). two. in the above special forms. is called the base. The faces of the different pinakoids will as a rule have different physical characters. (hkl\. and Lastly. ' ' For. there can be no distinction between 2. shown in Figs. {0^}. . Qkl. in pairs interchangeable about each of the axes. or all three.fee.e. as was done in the case of the prism. pinakoids may be present on any one crystal of the class. may. and one or other of its faces is One. both of which are perpendicular to and parallel to 77. CLASS I. We forming a figure distinguishable from a cube only by the facts that the three sets of parallel faces have different physical characters and that the crystals. The brachydome Okl. 148 150. 10. Crystals of any particular substance may present comi. and ZZf Similarly. binations. . 150. Okl. we have the three special forms. In such a case the form is a pinakoid consisting of a pair of parallel faces. and must be combinations if any special forms are present. Crystals of the following substances belong to this class (epsomite). for instance. a :6:c=-990: 1 : -571. We and may also have also combinations of the prism with one or more domes. the general form FIG. like those crystals are optically biaxal. have several forms of the same or of different kinds associated together . Fig. Thus we have the makro-pinakoid {100} including (100) and (TOO). 11. indices becomes zero.

The horizontal edges made by these = a{211}. Potassium-antimonyl dextro-tartrate (tartar-emetic). || OZ. The faces w must now be Ac. Hydrogen potassium. Bx. [co]. &c.. Bx. O. are drawn parallel to the horizontal From the same edges of the sphenoid. m {110}. : ZnS04 7H20. Art. || (001) . 6 . || Zinc sulphate salt. They are most easily inserted Through off equal lengths on the horizontal edges of the sphenoid o. 5. edges of the sphenoid equal lengths are now cut off measured from the coigns. A. = a{lll}. t FIG. The crystals are usually prisms {110}. introduced.EXAMPLES OF SPHENOIDAL CRYSTALS. 12. The sphenoid a {111} <fec. (001).A. with the pinakoids {100}. 8). a : b : c = 7148 || -7314. and the crystals are enantiomorphous to those of the dextro-tartrate. || || 203 by a (111/ and ocx. {010}. On the projected cubic axes (Chap. Bx. o. OT. (goslarite). Similar crystals of the laevo-tartrate have been obtained. || a : b : c = '6931 1 -7100. The crystals q {021} and r {101}. : the preceding a : b c = -980 : 1 : -563. CA. but in which the faces =a{lll} give the predominant form . 151. casionally also by {101}. form crystals in which In the : HKC4 H : 4 6. w = a{lll}. and through the points so obtained the edges [mo]. Bx.. special forms 1 : and the isomorphous and sphenoids occur in the second.A. These . OA = -9556..A. a b c = -8317 1 '4296. parallel to BC. OF. in the manner described in Art. K(SbO)C4 H4O6 The O. 11). are usually combinations of several prisms {110}. [m. give when joined in pairs the edges [cw]. OF (Chap. edges should be parallel to [mo]. ammonium together. \c o^\. (100) . Bx... forms. &c. dextro-tartrate. terminated (001) . by cutting meet the edges &c. Fig. then drawn with edges passing through A. The isoinoq)hous sodium ammonium salt forms || || || similar crystals. A. first : salt.oj. OX. forms are sometimes modified by small faces: o = a {111}. O. {001}. Bx. and OC= 1-1054 are cut off. : : : NaKC 4 H 4 : 4IL/). {210}. in which the parameters are the same. salt. (010). In both O. The drawing Art. {120}.A. and through these points the edges [co]. OF.. B. : : : : c{001}. (001) . Sodium potassium dextro-tartrate (seignette salt). equal lengths are cut off by proportional compasses . each of the points on these edges. lengths is is made as follows. lines are drawn parallel to the opposite edges The points at which they of the two faces o which pass through the point. From the middle points of the opposite edges through A and A. || . 151. [n^oj. C. vi. {Oil}. isomorphous with . are drawn. are: || o a b c= -9556 1 1'1054. &c. <fec. o.

and tri'q'B.. mom. The most important angles are: mm. H 0.1/1]. = 50 Hence. The zone-symbol of [om. = tan 25 21' = -4737. . intersection of the trace presents no special difficulty. The crystals have. 152. by the method given in Chap.?". vn. CLASS [0. : \\ O.?no.B. = tan om. Ltan(B.B. PRISMATIC SYSTEM.] But. The optical characters of the crystals are the same as those of ordinary asparagiue. OZ. [cm].204 The edges [om is [112]. -f. t ]. a -4. tan om.b = tan cq = -8327. it The is easier to make a partial linear projection in the projected plane XOY. the direction of [OTO. o. coign through which the edge [m.= 50 42') = 9-88865 t t 19-66714 L sin (B. with AB.g'=3059')= 9-77849 L sin (mm. Asparagine.sin B m".] is given by joining C to the point of The edge is to be drawn through the wi. t . we can divide the one equation by the other and avoid one part of the computation. the ordinary optical properties characteristic of biaxal crystals. Prop.A. already fixed. and fix.w] has to be drawn. 8. As shown in Fig.= tan .m" = 64 39') = L tan (om. [mqo'] are described.g' cot . It meets the edge [ow] at a coign. .and left-handed tartrate of the same base. have now to be found. in Fig. gives a trace through parallel parallel to AB. &c. ?{021}. however. are right-angled triangles. 42'.b = tan mm. and there is no difference between those of a right. instead of forming the parallelepiped required by this symbol.m'V. c 4. From the latter. 1 and then the circles [moq'].. (010). sin mm. c{001} and o=a{lll}. C 4 H 8 N2O 3 a : . The rest of the drawing to AB. face m. or. Thus. sin #. Solutions of the above tartrates rotate the plane of polarization. = 27 12-6') = 9-95603 9-71111 The stereogram is made by marking on the primitive points A and B at 90 from one another and the points m at distances 25 21' from A and A The diameters through these points are then drawn and give the zone-circles [eg]. and m. gg. &c. in which o. I. The forms are: i{110}. 2 : \\ shown b : c=-4737 1 usually forms crystals such as are '8327. if OTO. Art. vi. On [cB] a point q at arc-distance 59 1' from c is found by the method given in Chap. plane of polarization to the right. The first equation enables us to find the angle J3. cg=59l'. of these crystals rotates the plane of polarization to the The left.TO"o/ is which is the same as m mo t . alone needed. cot m. and shows the its solution rotates the . = 6158'. meet. solution A dextro-asparagiue has been made enantiomorphous form a {111} instead of a {111} synthetically. 13. and TO a trace through Hence. 153. = tan B q' sin mm. and from the former.

the projected cubic axes of 205 and X is Z are multiplied by a and c to give OA and OC lines respectively. : t drawn through A and A.o]. meeting at opposite apices on the axis may be denoted as diplohedral. 1). Fig. 15. The general form {hkl}. Bipyramidal class . two [me]. For the drawing. The (111). The AB. Each face of the sphenoid is a parallelogram. AB. [qc] are off .. having faces meeting at only one apex on an axis of symmetry and A thus having no parallel faces may be denoted as acleistous (Art. [oq'] are drawn.q'] and through the points so obtained the edges [m. pyramid. 8/} 8 C.: the points of qmq. and has eight faces. as also parallels to OX through the points of bisection of OB and OB t the points of intersection give the Parallels to OZ are coigns qmq . t II. In the latter pyramid the dyad axes join opposite coigns. Fig. 2. /( holohedral. A. are drawn. A.. ix. each of which is a similar scalene triangle.. and also through C and C. by Chap. The class will be called the bipyramidal class of the prismatic system. or bipyramid. dyad axes of the preceding class a centre of symmetry is added. and the 8. the planes 2 perpendicular to the dyad axes are planes of symmetry. and the angles over the edges in one plane cannot be equal to those over the edges in either of the other planes of symmetry except at particular temperatures in very special cases. any desired ratio to those of the edges are off by proportional compasses on the alternate edges [mq].. 154. But the edges in different planes 2 are dissimilar.m]. and four like edges lie in each of the One having parallel faces planes of symmetry. .BIPYRAMIDAL CLASS.. 2 14. then. and through them the horizontal edges in cut cut drawn. and give the edges [mq]. &o. these like edges being interchangeable by rotation about the dyad axes. 153. the angles over them are equal. The rest of the construction is easy. the other edges being parallel to [mq ]. Prop. on a rhombic base. 160. If to the three : ti .B. crystals have the following elements of symmetry Crystals of this class have hitherto been described as 2.]. face of any bipyramid may be taken as parametral plane and determines the ratios a b c. \hkl}. parallels to OX intersection of these lines are then joined to the adjacent coigns Lengths &c. Other equal lengths are then from the remaining edges [m. such as Fig. &c. and OB bisected. &c. 4..B. consists of a diplohedral pyramid. or to [c. Or we may take the face : : . of the edges being parallel to [cm.

any prism manner given in a similar face which determines the ratio a : b in the in Chap.. The rule for the deduction of the symbols of the faces from that of one of them is clear the indices retain the same order. hQl. hkO. for the faces consist of the sets last class. but the /x : X signs are changed in every possible way. dome The by and [100. The special forms are identical with those of the preceding For since the faces of these forms are parallel to one dyad axis at least. 16. The symbols of the faces of {hkl}. Hence. and that they meet the axis of Z at equal distances c-t-l on They opposite sides of the origin. 11. hQl. class. c is found in terms of the same unit of length. II. v. hkl. . are therefore symmetrically placed with respect to the plane of sym/x . hkO. When a has been found from the prism-face (110). and therefore the introduction 17. can found . choice of a 110]. hkl. now be which formed the two com: plementary sphenoids of the hkl. Fig. Oil] Chap. CLASS to be (HO).. Art. each of of a centre of . way by a second arbitrary common to the two zones [001. 8. The symbols are therefore hkl} hkl. the other planes of symmetry intersects at right angles the faces of a dome and of two pinakoids. hkO. Qkl hOl. The ratio c : b is then determined {Oil}. The brachydome {Qkl} has the faces Qkl. hkl)and (hkl) It is clear that (hkl) meet the axes of X and Y in the same points. the parametral plane (111). hkl. is. intersects at right angles the faces of the prism \hkO}. and the faces of the pinakoids {100} and {010} similarly. The plane of symmetry 2. And the makrodome {hOl} has the faces : : Qkl. they have parallel faces. 154. Art. symmetry introduces no new faces. vi. hQl. Qkl. the prism {hkQ} has the four faces : hkO. Occasionally it may be convenient to take a face of a makrodome {101} to give the ratio c : a. metry 2 containing the axes of The and Y and perpendicular to S same is true of each of the pairs in the vertical columns. hkl. The face-symbols can be similarly arranged in pairs symmetrical with respect to 2 and 2.206 of PRISMATIC SYSTEM.

{100}. c{001}. to The following are some of the substances which form crystals belonging to this class: Sulphur. the latter forms being striated parallel OX.Cu2) 3 Sb2 S 6 in is usually found in much twinned crystals which the base c {001} and faces parallel Fig. in deep red crystals of thin tabular habit. (Pb. The elements are : D = 010 A 01 1 = 48 . Hence. it is impossible by geometric development. : D= 010 A 01 1 = 46 #=00^101 = 48 F= 100 A HO =40 : Fio. a : b :c= -93797 . 156.=001 A 101 = 43 F= 100 A HO =43 (see Art. Hence. 5'. {012}. b {010}. *{212}. (010) Bx. : 1 Brookite. The edges of the tablets are modified by numerous faces belonging to pyramids and to special forms. 155. two classes dyad axes. tt{112}.e. . {014}. o{lll}. : 1 : 1-18817. Miers) represents a crystal from Cornwall. O. The crystals rarely forms. and are usually combinations of the prism {110} show general with one or more brachydomes to the axis {Oil}. t {021}. such that the . {122}. Ti0 2 has been found at Fronolen. FeAsS. Fig. 43'. o{101}. y{104}. : : : : || . 17-7'. a b c = '813 1 1-903. The crystals from the mines of Sicily and Spain are developed in bipyramids {111} associated with the brachydome {011} and the basal pinakoid {001}. The forms are: a {100}. The forms are: a c{001} m {110}. {010} of (010) and (OTO) and {001} of (001) and (OOT). i.EXAMPLES OF BIPYRAMIDAL CRYSTALS. or two. w{011}. 156 represents with fair approximation the habit of a crystal from this locality. 10' FIG. e{210}. of the distinguish between the 18. I {210}. 155 (after to OZ are alone shown. /{ISO}. a :b :c = -67726 . in crystals showing only special forms.A. . 26). 6-75'. S. || MispicJcel (arsenopyrite). z {112}.v{102}. #{102}. faces are parallel to one. near Tremadoc. b {010}. Bournonite. m {110}. Hence a : b e=-8416 : 1 : -9444. The elements given by Miller are 38-3'. o{121}. the pinakoid a {100} being largely developed. : 207 The pinakoids are {100} consisting of (100) and (100). OZ.

(100) Bx a OZ. for green and blue light (010). = 45 42' is nearly the same as ee' = 44 23'.A. and that the angles between the adjacent faces of the combination approximate || Bx a in all cases || Thus. o{011}. 169. 159 has . and complete crystals have different pyramid faces at the two ends of the vertical axis. OH)} 2 Si0 4 is usually found in well developed crystals. and me = me. H 2 (Mg. in black crystals. There is crystals are a very facile cleavage parallel to the base somewhat rare. Bavaria. the forms being: c {001}. which serves to show the habit of barytes from the Auvergne. for celestine. terminated by the base {001} and by domes and pyramids. OX. These crystals are discussed in Art. and of celestine (SrS0 4 ) from FIG. seem to show that the crystals belong and not to the next. Fe) 4 Al 8 Si 10O 37 . Cordierite. O. FIG. e{122} are nearly of the same size. 157 represents a simple combination. but the physical cha- racters to this class. || Bx a || OZ. The common habit is that of an elongated prism of eight faces {110} and {210}. giving rise to numerous p IG pseudomorphs. The crystals are discussed in detail in Art. for they have twelve almost similar triangular faces.. || . The habit of the crystals varies much. || and . (010). For all three minerals. {A1(F. give crystals which are usually very much twinned and will be discussed in Chap. || 1 : 1-2800. which closely resemble hexagonal bipyramids.A. O. and in crystals of celestine from Yate in Gloucestershire and from Lake Erie. Fig. Arkansas. OX.A. '8152 : 1 : 1'3136. CaC0 3 and the isomorphous carbonates of barium. xvin. and yellow light (001). 39. o. 158. For aragonite. {104}. The parameters 7789 : are: for barytes. 158 represents a habit found in crystals of barytes from Dufton. l il Aragonite. TO {110}. Occasionally the . Fig. Fig. (010) Bx. The crystal shown in Fig.PRISMATIC SYSTEM. CLASS O. This is due to the facts that the faces of the two forms m{ 110}. The mineral has been found at Magnet Cove. The crystals are easily altered. 157. || Barytes and the isomorphous sulphates of strontium and lead afford good instances of crystals of this class. Sicily. the angle mm. and lead. is found in large stout crystals at Bodenmais. . A. = 80 10'. strontium. for red || II. d{102}. . closely to those of a hexagonal pyramid. Topaz. 38. approximates to ee'" = e e = 78 57'.

s {112}. Fig. U . and 2. It is easy to see that the general form p. there must be a pair of zone-axes at right These three lines are angles to one another and to the dyad axis. b {010}. 1). vibrations parallel to OZ. or by similar physical changes which give rise to homogeneous strains. are not altered by change of temperature. of the crystals at the two 20. o. (100) Bx. || The white light Thus. For the four faces of the latter form meeting at a point on a dyad axis are symmetrically placed with respect to the dyad axis and to the two planes of symmetry intersecting in the axis. the third must also be present in the crystal. symmetry 2 and a dyad axis 8 lying in it..ACLEISTOUS PYRAMIDAL CLASS. rf{130}. r{lll}. : : 21. Prop. since the relations between 8. Further. class of the prismatic system the dyad : axis is is uniterminal. Since planes of symmetry are perpendicular to possible zoneix. inasmuch as the two perpendiculars to 2 and 2. Acleistous pyramidal class . it follows that the axes will remain at right angles to one another so long as the structure of the crystal is not destroyed. if any two of the above elements occur The class together. A. Further. u {134}. p. is transmitted by vibrations parallel to OX. ix. o {131}. the forms: a {100}. 9. consists of an acleistous pyramid of four faces meeting the dyad axis at the same point. the most convenient axes of reference. . c {001}. at right angles to 2 and intersecting it in the axis. {hkl}. the crystal must have a second plane of symmetry 2. ends and the development sometimes markedly different. {hkl}. if polarised crystals are remarkable for their pleochroism. 19. by III. || 209 m {110}. then. The face of any pyramid may be taken to be (111). They differ from those taken as axes of reference in the preceding classes. by Chap. or hemimorphic. and is similar in all respects to one half of the bipyramid of the last class. the colour is a a dark blue. and if pale blue. are not dyad axes and their plane is not one of symmetry. OZ. 2. c. a yellowish white. L. if by vibrations parallel to OT. axes (Chap. 160. and will give the ratio a b c. If a crystal has a plane of of crystals having this symmetry may be called the acleistous pyramidal. Prop.

and /UO/J^T}. the same. 1 opposite ends of the From rai/r6. the same electrifications corrosion of the prism- When at crystals of this class have shown dyad axis. 11). {001} suppose. It is therefore advisable to indicate by a dot.210 PRISMATIC SYSTEM. This is shown by the different electrifications excited at the opposite ends by change either of temperature or pressure. There is nothing to limit the position of the dyad axis. the index which refers to the dyad axis. Art. which are identical geometrically with those of the preceding classes. or hemi-domes. 1 .{hkl\. and when they do. CLASS III. {Okl}. {Okl} The faces of the first are symmetrical : to 2. if. It has been found that in simple. {010} has the faces (010) 3. shape. . and pinakoid-faces has revealed a structure which can only be explained by twinning (see Chap. The special forms are of four kinds . The first is {100}. the four faces in the form are therefore hkl. bisected at right angles (Okl) . those of the second to 2. and 4' p. : Pedions. p. {001} and p. 2. crystals of this class the physical properties at the opposite ends of the uniterminal dyad axis are different. i. and that the index I does not change sign . p. and conform to the symmetry of crystals of this The four and they constitute the complementary form p. though on general principles it is desirable to place it vertically. {hOl}. faces parallel to those given above satisfy the law of rational indices. Thus. their faces often class. hkl. {hkl} indicates that the dyad axis is vertical. and Prisms {hkO}. the second (OTO). xvin). Gonioids (see Chap. : hkl. 1. 22.. p. differ in physical characters. or other conventional mark. The complementary forms though geometrically tautomorphoiis for the one can be placed in the position of the other by a rotation of 180 about either of the normals to the planes of symmetry do not necessarily occur together. consisting of (100) and (TOO). as we shall throughout Pinakoids having their faces parallel to 2 and 2 / respec- tively. each of which consists of two faces meeting in an edge {hOl} of (hOl). (hOl). 23. by the dyad axis p. consists of (Okl). the dyad axis is vertical.e. p. untwinned. xn. hkl (g).

6 {010}. 24. 2H 2 O. FIG. a : b : c=-5667 1 : '9121 . ) . m axis. = M {001}. 9=^ {Oil}.A.e. mm. O. . Mg (NH 4 PO 4 6H 2 0. Zn 2 (HO) 2 SiO 3 to this class. where the faces r and q meet. . In the preceding sections we have seen that crystals of the three classes can be referred to rectangular axes parallel to three dissimilar edges. FIG. H. || In smithsonite. m{110}. and The crystals are strongly pyro-electric at the analogous pole p {111} The measured /i{131} are developed. 162 . = 7835 1 i = M {031}. b {010} being large: they are generally terminated by different pyramids at opposite ends of the dyad p. is and the forms shown jn the r = n{lO}}. f = /i{301} and v the analogous pole antilogous pole. We 142 . and that some of the special forms the prisms and a pair of pinakoids are common to all classes. belong In figure struvite. = = = : : : : Formulas. the upper end. Bx a || the The Sci. 161. k=p {041}. 59 2'. [iv]. A.8(010}. at the antilogous pole ^{111}. and sometimes of tabular habit. pp" lll A 111 63 0'. Jour. is c=/i{00l}. that which becomes positively electrified by rise of temperature and negatively electrified by fall of temperature. (001) Bx a OY. = M {101}.STRUVITE. Pratt (Am.e. and methods of calculation. fall of temperature. (100). 1896). by Mr J. is the antilogous pole. crystals of pirssonite. 161 . Fig. OZ. PIRSSONITE. 162. is is The upper end showing base and domes || the lower end. The lower end. give a b c = '5661 1 -3019. of are sometimes of prismatic habit. 162 c shows the forms r : ? = /i{011}. M = /t{103} and shown. ._ = n{121}. and of : pirssonite. where the pyramid v appears. SMITHSONITE. Crystals of struvite. a :b : c a {100}. || . i. 126. CaC03 NaoCOg. . all 25. Fig. Fig. are: . where (001) the analogous pole. that which becomes negatively electrified by rise of temperature and positively electrified by o. : : -4778. angles. {110} being large. i. described II. 211 of smithsonite.

therefore. Fig. if the angles and parameters are known. see also that the bipyramid {hkl\ of the second class can be obtained from a{hkl}. 001 A 101. cos2 2 II. since the axes are rectanguthe axial points X. k. c are known. vice versa. BP and CP can be computed. Trig. a cosXP _ b cos YP c cos I ZP k And. From equations (1) Chap. I are introduced and a. and 100 A 1 10. Spher. k. r has the value given in the Equations (2) are true of last term of (2). if the values of h. 5(010) and C (001). {hkl}. 26. or linear of a prismatic crystal. . But the direct process just indicated is laborious. Add together the squares of each equation. : The above equations can. represent the angles 010 A 01 1. and F. Y.212 PRISMATIC SYSTEM. i. every pole of the crystal. respectively. respectively. I can be found. or from p. cosBP. kr Let the value r. the indices h. 163. E. 71) 2 AP + cos BP + cos CP - 1. and we proceed to obtain simpler formulae better adapted to logarithmic computation. It follows. b. that the formulae required for the determination and of the face-symbols from the angles. They will be called the angular elements Let a. we have for the pole P(hkl). will be the same for all of the parameters three classes. elements. of faces parallel to those included in the latter forms. the angles AP.(1). or of the angles from the symbols and parameters. iv. b. Or. c = cosCP. therefore. . P. Let D. Z coincide with the poles 4(100). p. and lar. by the introduction of a centre of symmetry. Also (McL. c be the parameters.e. . Then -=cosAP. Then 2 = + ^ + ^ = cos AP + cos BP + cos CP 2 2 Hence. be written 1 acosAP bcosjBP ccosCP : (2)- The of last term is each term be got from the others as follows. Hence. .

Suppose any two of the forms m{HO]. we have .. r. E. in turn. then D E can be found from equation (5).(Oil A Oil) Cr = \ (101 A101) F=\ (110 A 110). m. the two other parameters are obtained by the above It is most equations in terms of the length taken on the first axis.. if a point at a finite distance from the origin is taken on one of the axes. But if. Consequently. since the angle BC = CA = AB = 90. . : 28. c = cot/) .. r and q is to be drawn.. the pole P is made to coincide with each of the poles q.(5). r{101} to be present on the crystal.. a = tan F. through which one face of two of the forms m..FORMULA OF COMPUTATION. For.. are and F are determined either by measurement or needed.. can be determined by direct measurement with the goniometer. : for q. and two only : they vary with the substance. (4*). q {Oil}. cos Ar = sin Cr. 213 27. and ^9 = tan Bm = sin Am . as also the left sides. (3). E= ..... in equations (2). If the right sides of the three equations (4) are multiplied together. common in descriptive works to take b on Y for unit length. For D = Bq = \ (Oil A OlT) = 90 . we have .. D. F. b cos Bq = c cos Cq... and c may be either greater or less than unity they are given by the formulae . cos But cos Cq = sin Bq. Then a pair of the angular elements.. a cos Am = b cos Bin. ~ a a b cos sin (*) Am = tan Am cos Am tan 1' . b c Hence. = sin cos Bq = ^r Bq Cr tan Z> . The parameter a is then less than unity. in a prismatic crystal belonging to a given substance there are two independent constants. ccosCV = acos^r. . r and m... . E. Hence.. The important equations (4) connecting the angular with the linear elements can be obtained directly from the elementary geometry of the axial system.. This relation shows that only two of the angles D. if calculation.. 29.. F..

BCO = 90 6 - COQ = BOQ = D. OL' :OB = OL:OK. plane in the plane XOY be the line of intersection of the prism-face be the face-normal which and let . which the faces of any other prism and dome make with the axial planes. 166. when = c = cotD. 164. PRISMATIC SYSTEM. and we have E = c + a. c.L'BO = BL'O. axes in this plane. Let. - AOM= F. OM But the angle And. when 6=1. OZ and the trace EG of the face q. Then. -=- Therefore. are easily obtained. and let OQ be the normal to the face. LK BC be the traces of plane parallel to and let BL' be drawn through B KL. tan BOs = tan | = tan BL'O = OB + OL' YOZ . tan F= tan OEM = OA^OB = a + XOY. and faces of the domes s{Qkl\ and ${011} in the axial 30. in Fig. By taking the lines of intersection of each of the domes q and r with the axial plane to which their edges are perpendicular. . AB m with the axial necessarily lies AOM= 90 Hence. the angle Now. D. in Fig. Then b. A similar figure in the plane XOZ OZ in tan gives the lengths on OX and which the trace of r (101) meets the plane. Os being the normal to = BOs = 90 .tan F. Then. Similar expressions for the tangents of the angles. and the FIG. we obtain similar figures which give the two Thus. 164. OL = c + l. 165 represent the triangle remaining equations. BOM = OBM. . formed by the axes OY. tan D = tan BCO = 6 1.'. OK = b + k. OL' = kcL Also. (0*Z). let Fig. And.214 Let. But. a .

..... The \ANmB\. to ZOX and XOY. for ... It is always best and simplest to determine the angular elements by direct measurement. 1 (2) of The above expressions can be also obtained from equations the pole P.. (6**) are merely the expressions obtained from the anharmonic ratio of two axial poles and the two Thus. AN.Bs) = sin Bs. however. and 31. and sin Bm = cos Am.. (MO)...... B. and cos^4s = 0. also cos Cs = cos (90 .... when P is made Ct to coincide with t (hOl). sin Ct.... (hOl) OX... in a similar manner. rj..R. such as A. and cos At = Similarly... 215 it is By similar figures in the axial planes obtain similar equations for the inclination. If. (110).. (6**)..... we have 100 sin ! 010 MO.. ... we AN '= y tan F (6**). easy to t of the normal OZ.. Bt = 90. tan = tan AON = \ tan/ . For. (6*)... k 7- tan AN ^r tan Am = or tan^=tan^ The other expressions can be obtained ..FORMUL/E OF COMPUTATION. c cos a cos At a sin Ct (6*)V Uj V And obtain in the same way. A. taking the poles in their zone. by making tan P coincide with JW (MO)..'. the faces of the . 32. (6**). b cos Bs c cos Cs c sin Bs (6).... and Thus....- three equations (6). MO 010 110 Am sin Bm Too But sin jtf=CQs . = tan(70< = ^tan /i . that of the prism-normal tanr/ N (hkO) to E ... if P is made to coincide with s (Okl) then ^s=90.. (6*)..

v. and let [CP] meet [AB] in the pole N(hkQ). two sides of each of the right-angled triangles By Napier's rules. In the case of with the poles {hkl} and P' ju. the third sides Cs as also the angles of the two triangles. 11. of the six right-angled triangles into which the and the axial is divided by the zone-circles through two if P PP' and PP" are measured. or PP" are the two measured angles. it may be special forms give poor reflexions.BP. or {hkl}. If PP' and pair of sides of before. as sP and AP and Pt = PP" + 2 = 90 . 6. {hkl} P (hkl). and PP' = FF" = WP. known. and P'" (hkl) symmetrically situated with respect to a dyad axis OC and the planes of symmetry BC and CA. sP = PP'-r2 = 90 -4P. 167. shall illustrate the method to be followed by supposing a crystal to consist of a single form a {hkl}. The three different angles we can measure are: PF = F'F". we have a stereogram. and CP=PF' + 2 = 9Q . t and of N are readily found by the two rule of Chap. Hence. two of . form must be present to enclose a finite space. such We With the last some other as those given in Arts. P" (hkl) Fig. ABC Thus. we obtain octant poles. CPs and APN are known. then a two other triangles are known. For PP gives. or necessary to determine them by calculation from the angles of a pyramid or sphenoid. and A Jf can both be found If the elements are also us to find the ratios I : determined. but it will almost always be possible to get angles which will enable us to obtain the elements by simple right-angled spherical triangles. PP'" = FF'. and let [BPP"'] intersect [CA] in the pole t(hQl). or p {hkl}. are much striated. The method employed will naturally vary with the faces on the crystal which give good reflexions. By measurement two sides of of the angles given above. Let the zone-circle [APP'] intersect [JBC] in the pole s (Okl). The symbols Art. (hkl). The indices of P are therefore .216 PRISMATIC SYSTEM.PN. the sides. 16 and 21. : are known. of s. but we shall not need to employ the measurement of the angles involving the faces of this second form. Hence. then equations (6) and (6**) enable k and h k. PP" .

he can compute Bs. the analysis indiand F. the crystal is 33. We P If the form is a {hkl}. and the computation of one of the rightangled triangles into which they enter. ratios of the indices of are again determined. He could. or if it is desired to assign to them some particular indices. in the first case considered. to parameters already naturally adopt by a previous he would the face P for his parametral plane (111).AN But. and determine from the measured angles in the same way first Thus. The arcs between P and these poles below A and B. we have t the two poles P. P" above the paper associated with a pair P and Plit exactly below the points P'" and P' in the figure. CP. knowing the elements. Thus.Cs and are both supposed to be computed. we have the three arcs AP. and can apply the equations of the normal given in (2). tan (6). Ct and AN. measurement of any pair of the angles gives two of the angles AP. and At=9Q-Ct. then. 217 can the sides of each of the triangles BsP and APt are known. and cos BP = cos PN cos BN = sin CP cos PCB. But. (5). BN = 90 . If. be the : : angular elements of the crystal. I directly. 32 will give the corresponding values of D. as before. or it if is not anxious to refer investigator. CP For we have the same triangles. E or of the parameters. in the case considered. and therefore find h. the arcs AP. And in the manner already given. cated in Art. Bs = 90 . 34. and from F= h tan AN+ k. k. in this case. P. and therefore two sides of one of the triangles already the paper are bisected at t t discussed. CP. BP. AP and CP are given by measurement. If. obtain the three arcs AP. by two measurements. Introducing these into equations (2) he would obtain the parametral ratios a b c. Hence. BP. The third angular element E is then found from . tan D = k tan Bs -=- 1 . the observer selected if one of a new substance. BP. CP. Hence by (6) and (6*) the therefore find Bs. which would. however. for AA and BB are dyad axes which interchange poles above with poles below the paper. in the preceding cases.FORMULAE OF COMPUTATION. Hence. we obtain the three indices as in the previous cases. from (6**). the symbols of the faces are known. we compute the arc-distance of P from each of the axial poles.

Then. and sin NQ = cos CQ . we ha hp kq Ir V ( v+ g &2 + Ktf + f + cv W & . h -4. Trig. CP and CQ are measured and the symbol known. and the known expression of analytical geometry 36. the .. II. 72). can be obtained from equations (2) of the normal. from Weiss's zone-law. and Q (pqr) are any two poles whatever. or more faces lie in a zone containing one of the and the we have a very simple relation between their indices Suppose the zone angles they make with the axial plane. &c. then. PQ = cos AP cos AQ + cos JSP cos BQ ratios cos : + cos (2). &c. that of the other is determined or. when the axes are rectangular (McL. the symbols of the others may be obtained by Weiss's zone-law (Chap. remaining angle is readily computed.R. &c. when a few faces have been determined. conversely. AQ. Also. fall into zones such that. cos AQ. PRISMATIC SYSTEM. and let to be [CP]. When several forms occur together on a crystal. are given in and 1 CPcosCQ for Q we (8) have the similar equations acosAQ bcosQ ccosCQ Substituting in (8) the values of cos AP. A general expression for cos PQ.218 35. and P. the angles of one of the poles is poles. four tautozonal faces. Spher. v. But the AP. or by the anharmonic ratio of When two axial planes. cos p. Art. will. 167. P be (hid) and Q be (pqr). where P (likl) PQ with the arcs AP. which connects the arc For. tan CP kr (7). 8).. {CPQN} gives 001 sin sin hkO hkl CP ^ sin NP CQ sin _ NQ 001 hkQ pqr pqr But sin NP = cos CP. knowing one of the angles and the symbols of the two If. the A. the faces as a rule.q. Fig.p = k H.

and S. <fec. are then found on A third point. being known. viz. The symbol of the zone is determined. the symbols find of. and then.QCB. (2) through the edges [mm.FORMULA OF COMPUTATION. [e. r are nearly coincident with the paper. by one of from one of these poles. one of the following methods may be pursued. am. say) PQ by the well-known formula cos of spherical trigonometry . Hence we can the methods given in Chap. F. 169. by right-angled triangles. The poles m are thus fixed. a. to give on measurement the angles recorded in Art. Examples.. [AB]. for mm. From the angles : it symmetry. Taking the crystal of brookite. and (3) a plane perpendicular to the first pair and to the faces m The stereogram. 168.. Or we might find the angle which PQ subtends at one axial viz. (6*). formulae given in the preceding Articles apply which we can take rectangular axes of 37. PCQ = PGB . \e"e'"~\ which. Points a.]. which is the inter- . and then find We thus have a zone [PQ] in which we know and distances between. are measured off on t the primitive each equal to 40 5'. the two diameters a a. to The general any class of crystals in reference. Fig. PQ = cos CP cos CQ + sin CP sin CQ cos PCQ. [CA]. their distances from the axial poles are found by equations (6). E. vni the distance of both of the cos P and Q poles (C. 219 little This expression would be very laborious to compute.. A complete mastery of the method of applying them to the solution of prismatic crystals will much help the student in In these latter systems dealing with tetragonal and cubic crystals. one or more of the elements. have special and fixed values which simplify some of the formulas applicable to them and to prismatic crystals. three poles. and those of the poles in which the zone-circle meets the axial zones The symbols of these poles and the elements [BG].e lt ]. When PQ is needed and the two poles do not fall into any zone already known. D. the arcs between them. The primitive being described with any convenient radius. the primitive at arc-distance aa=67 48-5'. 38. Now ae=(180-ee')-7-2 = 6748-5'=ae"'. 18. in Fig. =m'm" = 80 10'. which pass (1) may be inferred that there are three planes of through the edges [ee ]. Brookite. and is of use in actual practice. 169. From a and a. respectively. we shall first construct the stereogram. and bb are drawn at right angles and give the planes S. (6**) . arcs am. [ee'"] t and m. and shall afterwards determine the parameters and lastly draw the crystal. Fig.

The right-angled triangle ben. by computation. is found section of the straight lines bo. drawn through a. the element F is a=59 17'. This is easily done . cos ae = cos al cos Dividing the former by the latter. tan am 4. to be (210). cos a Hence.. for. The symbol of I is therefore (120). of which are shown) are determined on the primitive and on [bC] at /3. . The symbols and elements. but it does not give the value of the parameter a adopted by crystallographers. el. a. An equal circle is drawn through the extremities of the diameters through /3.2 = 50 31-5'. But. arc-distance 67 48-5' from a. [Gel]. k -5- But .tan 40 5'. We now assume the face e to be (111). and h-l. bn. in the poles e and e'. and a. L tan 59 17' = 10-22610 L tan 40 5' = 9-92510 -30100 log 2= *4-/* = 2. both am and al. poles e". gives 67 48-5'. are then described.. The parameters a and c can then be found. on [aC]. the equation is readily found by (6**). circle on the sphere having its centre at b and be for arc-radius. The above would be a simple solution of this particular crystal.sin L cos 50 L sin 67 L cos 46 31-5' 48-5' =9-80328 =9-96657 38-25' = 9-83671. cos bn= cos 50 31-5' 4. /3. [ae'"e"]. and is at the same Through the three points a circle is drawn. the symbol of I is When am is F. and the element D = bn is easily found from the right-angled triangle ben. in which For. as we now do.-. h = tan 59 17' 4. knowing.: be and en are both known. (none The circle through these points meets the circles arc-distance 50 31-5' from b. m would have ael. e'". m would then be found p IQ jgg In this case.tan al = k +"') 4. by equation (6**). The zone-circles [aee 1 ]. Again 6e = 6e' = (180 . [bee'"]. which represents a small circle on the sphere passing through e and e'". when the symbol of the possible pole I would be (110) and that of to be determined. k = 2. . Hence. &c. might [be'e"]. The corresponding circle through e'e" is described with the same radius through the opposite extremities of the diameters through a.. cos be = cos bn cos en. /3. who all take m to be (110).. and fixes the homologous .. from the right-angled triangles cos be = cos bl cos el bel. we have : = sin al cos el. and [aC]. e and e' lie on a small Points /3.220 PRISMATIC SYSTEM.

[cl ]. 4) the edge [me] is parallel to [110. parallel and should be Fig. The number units thus obtained then measured from on OZ. The poles of the above forms. by taking points and and R. [cl]. s {113}. x {123}. and 0(7. have to find the edges [me]. o. B. We By the rule (Chap. The pyramid e {122} can now be drawn by joining A and A. or The length OA 5'. At the other and shows faces of end portions of c. vi. s.EXAMPLE (BROOKITE). The faces m {110} are narrow. on OX. where OH= OH. o {112}. OZ or c contains. Similarly. &c.ej. crystals 1 : are not quite of equal size. K and K. the points [e. and y (02l) can be seen. and r {130}. or. A set of unit rectangular and described in Chap. measured oft on OX. The edges which was presented by H. 170 represents the habit and development of two Topaz. still more easily. [me. Oil] and [001. OH=2a. and gives OC.] to the axis These edges are on the edges [ee'"]. and c=cot(6n = 46 38-25') = -9444. 122] = [221]. &c. The length OB on the axis of OF is retained unchanged. The second I. the directions of all the edges [me]. to take the parallel diagonal through K being 2b) of the similar.. . OK=2b and OC = c. 22. as given by for Naumann thus found the is number a = -8416. a = tan (am = 40 5') = -8416. 171.2b. The unit length on OX is diminished by multiplying the units of the scale which this length contains by the by its equivalent tan 40 axes. Art. number of units of the scale which the cubic axis on cot 46 38-25'. and 39. except r. Art. are all represented in the stereogram. B. y {021}. n {Oil}.. By computation from equations (4*) the parameters a and c are found. of Trinity College. Drawing the crystal. when 6 = 1. H the parallelogram with sides parallel to the axes and passing The lines joining the corners of the parallelogram to lt C. The crystals somewhat resemble broken cubes with irregular modifications at the coigns. and therefore to the diagonal through the origin of the parallelepiped having edges along the axes of 2a. H. and similarly placed parallelepiped which has for For we need only construct in the edges. 120]. and the angle 46 38'25' is the element D. [ml] of the largest crystal. Waechter. . to B. crystal is smaller The faces I { 120} are very broad. on OY (OK It is simpler.A. for it is the intersection of the two known zone-circles [100. from the Urals in the Cambridge Museum. m.]. C.. plane XOZ through H.. C. now drawn through B and B lt and should meet The edges [mm.. The pole e is now found to be (122) . One end is well developed the forms c {001}. is multiplied by of off = is -9444. give OZ. By comparison 221 with the angular elements given in Dana's Mineralogy we see that n is the possible pole (Oil). C. in pairs join the coigns so obtained. and c. OB . The lines joining t H H give the pyramid. and shows faces of the forms: c. = 2OA. to the points of bisection of OB.OC and OC. Fig. v. are pricked through on to a sheet of paper. are about 1-25 inches long. however.

F= F= D Hence. The angle nd" can be now determined From the A. lies in [&"] = [301] and in [m'n] = [lll].-.E = tanZ> tanF. eotnm"B = awBm"+ta. we have 143 110 sin d"n Oil Oil sin d"o Ho 112 J112 . of four poles. 170. m"n=71 11'. m'x = tan m'l-i. we have tan 27 51-5'. and = 61 0-6'. . given above for the several forms. 171. from the right-angled The formulae are triangles mom'. also. Table (23). Brazil. its symbol is found by the A.nBn=coa27 51-5' cot 46 21'. Then. and the angles between the poles in the principal zones. . The base is small and often absent. and from the Thomas Eange. Utah. whilst pyramids and domes are usually largely developed.E. b being unity.: = 46 21'. a.-. tan wi'z = 7949-6' The pole d". we can determine (7) m'o. cot. . to have been determined from approximate measurements by comparison with the data of Brooke and Miller's Mineralogy. Zone \m'ri\. (e) to be (143). ^=46 35-3' the right-angled triangle Bnm"..F.-. . {d"nom'}.cos nm'm= tan 74 26-8'-=. FIG. (a) From m"n. Fig.222 PRISMATIC SYSTEM. a b : c = -52854 : (Oil) and the corresponding parameters 1 -95395. We shall adopt m We shall. : suppose the symbols. and (S) m'x.R. From (6**) tan^=2tan. From the parameters we shall now calculate the angular elements. from Minas Geraes. From equations (4). . Zone [mm']. from (5). have a different habit. By Chap. /. Ixm'. . and cos m" ()3) : (a) (P) (7) (8) = cos Urn" cos L'n = sin 27 51-5'cos46 21'. In them the prism-faces m and I are more nearly of the same dimensions. . as (110) : and n as given by Koksharov. The crystals from the Mourne Mts. v. we can now determine the angle nm"B = A mm'o.'. cotD = c.cos 49 51-3'. nm"B = 49 51 = tanmm'-f-cosnm'm=tan55 43'-=-cos49 51-3' tanm'o m'o 66 16-4'.-. '.

14'. for x (123). Zone [com]. of the above angles are brought together in the following tables : 14-3' 1" 'm'o 66 16-4' " 62 8-5 Bm mjft' I ".B. 16-4'= 9-96165 1 But . 74 45-5 I 55 43 m'x 79 49-6 m'n 108 49 m'd" 130 43-7 . Then by an equation. d"o . Hence. xl = 48 The angle xl is now easily determined. L tan (6 = 22 28-U ) = 9-61656. om = 44 24-7'.-.-. Zone Many Br 32 Bl In this zone tan cy = 2 tan (en = 43 39'). . for -T- cos xl = cos Bx sin AI . d"o-d"n = 4232-6'. Hence. *4 "~ *.'. 16-3' =9-59030 =9-97241.-.EXAMPLE sin d"n sin d"o (TOPAZ).6) tan (d"o + d"n). " ! &612M B. we have . [cm/]. tan i (d"o . tan(d"o + d"n)=tan21 16' -3 -4- tan 22 31-86'. .: om cos om' -f. cs = 34 . we have tan Bz = ^.cos mm' . {Bzst}. and for d (143) . 31-86' = 9-61789 11 d"o + d"n=8622'. .-. which is derived from the A.d"n) = tan (45 . 45-5'. cos Bs = cos sm cos Bm = sines sin Am: But the point bisecting ss' is a possible pole (103) at 90 from B: call it t. d"m=2154-7'.-. tan Bx = . by equation (7). L tan 21 L tan 22 L tan 43 .d"n = ore = 42 32-6'. and ro"d" = 49 16-3'. cy = 62 20-3'. fix = 61 Bd = 4232-2'. where z is any pole (hkl) in the zone.-. tanc*=2tanco4-3. -4 sin 223 ~ 2 sin m'n 5 sin m'o ~ 71 11' ' sin 66 _ = 16-4' L sin 71 11' =9-97615 log -4 =1-60206 9-57821 L sin 66 . . Zone [Bdxs]. From cos the triangle mom'. we have Us = 74 45-5'. d"o = 6427'3'. similar to (7).tan Bs. tan Bx = % tan 74 tan 74 24-7'. From the right-angled triangle Bsm.: 49'.. 45-5'.

. according as they are perpendicular to T. ditetragonal-bipyramidaT) tetrad axis the crystals of which have a T'. The scalenohedral (sphenoidal-hemihedral) class. The diplohedral ditetragonal (holohedral. though not S and interchangeable. the crystals which have three dyad axes at right angles to one another associated with two like planes of symmetry. intersecting in one of the axes and bisecting the angles between the two of others. the crystals of which have only a tetrad axis T. 08' are like dyad axes. The axis AA y . 28. hemimorphic-hemiIII. following order : The classes will be discussed in the I.CHAPTER XIV. 22. or a dyad axis perpendicular to which pairs of like edges occur at right angles to one another. class. in which the planes S' meet. THE TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. hedral) class. and the two axes 08. : T. The above elements of symmetry may be shortly given as follows C. 2S. A or 8. 172. perpendicular to T . S or 2 the axes of symmetry. a centre of symmetry C and . S and S'. The acleistous tetragonal (pyramidal. four dyad axes. 2A. five planes of sym- metry. each perpendicular to one of The planes may be denoted by II. 28 and 7 2 A. is the principal axis. THE crystals possible in this system fall into seven classes. and have each a principal axis which is either a tetrad axis. Fig. II. 1. H.

VII. 225 IV. on a crystal is to accord with the symmetry. and the crystals have no I. 2A VI. Scalenohedral class. as we shall see later on. V. intersecting in the tetrad axis T. It is obviously convenient to select the three dyad axes as axes of reference. for they change places when the crystals are turned through 180 about either of the dyad axes 08. K{hkl}. The trapezohedral class.. 08' are not interchangeable. crystals coincides with the 3. The acleistous ditetragonal (ditetragonal-pyramidal) class. The principal axis is always taken as OZ. 08' are like axes at 90 to one another. pyramidal-hemihedral) class. equal lengths on OX and Y must. other element of symmetry. the crystals of which have four planes of symmetry. It is clear bisect the angles between them . similar edges occur in pairs which are perpendicular to it and are at right angles to one another. 2S and 22. in which a sphenoid. in the crystals of which T is associated with a centre of symmetry C and a plane of symmetry II perpendicular to T. L. therefore. the axes 08. . in the latter and. It follows that 15 . The sphenoidal is (splienoidal-tetartohedral) class. the axes 08. 1 that the planes S and S' are like planes of symmetry at 90 to one another. in this class. This axis is a / AOA principal axis. in which four dyad axes 28 and are associated with the tetrad axis T. Again. save when the faces are parallel or One pair of opposite edges perpendicular to the principal axis. of each sphenoid are at right angles to one another and to the every form principal axis which is a dyad axis. be taken for parameters. and in translucent direction of the optic axis. for they remain at right angles to one another at all temperatures. for they are reciprocal reflexions in each of the planes S and S' which 2. but. The diplohedral tetragonal (bipyramidal. Again. since the axes of X and Y are reciprocal reflexions in each of the planes of symmetry S and S'. from the definition given in Art.SCALENOHEDRAL CLASS. 08'. equal lengths on them must always If the representation of forms possible correspond to one another. c. for two planes of They differ symmetry intersect also from the dyad axis AOA.

we shall denote them by a a We shall see in the course of the Chapter that. OZ X 4. desire to denote that lengths equal to a. The pinakoid.226 . f t t . OZ and the symbol (TlO). being taken as the parameters on OX and Y. and Y. 176. and also the planes S and S'. Prop. 3) they are parallel to the axes of this class is : X are interchangeable by a semi-revolution about either of them. We OY shall take 08 to be OX. The face i is brought into the position given by m. 1. The two new faces have the symbols (110). {001}. may be denoted by a. 174. 5. in Figs. or to an.A. face m symbol is therefore Similarly. are measured on h. CLASS I. rotation about FIG - 173 ' OX through 180 interchanges equal positive and negative lengths on OY. and (Chap. as a consequence of the principal axis. Prop. and that equal parameters can be taken on the axes of and Y. and when we H( a. But the face m t through AA its t parallel to S is also parallel to (iTO). TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. {110}. a face m to be drawn through A on OX parallel to S . of The tetragonal prism. and ni' into m that given by m". t t These lengths. Hence OA = OA. . ix. form is {001}. and let it meet OY at A f Then since S bisects the angle XOY. ix. the angles OAA OA A are equal. These two faces also interchange places by rotation through 180 about OZ. and t. and AA is parallel to the trace of S on the plane XOY. the faces of which are perpendicular to the Such faces are possible principal axis and to the planes S and S'. which we shall call OB' to be OY. 173 and 1 74. only one element varies with the substance in crystals of this class. a plane Let us suppose. are each terminated by the pinakoid. i . (TTO). GOT (a). and comprises the faces : The 001. each of them being 45. symmetry is always parallel to a possible face. The possible crystals shown in Figs. the crystals of each class of the system can be is the referred to three rectangular axes of which principal axis. This element may be taken to be the ratio of the parameter c measured on the principal axis to that measured along either or OX or OY. By Chap. Again. there must be a parallel on the opposite side of S which has . The simplest form on a crystal of a pinakoid.

to to Dim'.. In crystals of the class now under consideration the relations connect- ing the planes and axes of symmetry do not vary with the substance. The same holds for crystals of all classes of . TlO.. TTO. and f\AM O= I\OM. 175.. and the face (100) XOY MAM t XOY But and in vertical lines through through these vertical lines homologous ....TETRAGONAL PRISMS. 1TO . The form : therefore.. or with the temperature as long as it is not raised to a point at which the crystalline structure is destroyed. Faces of this form therefore pass through the traces MA'M'.A... each of these faces is repeated over the planes S' and S 152 .. of the other A face parallel to the principal OY axis and to one is and (say). is clearly possible. The tetragonal prism.. a rectangular prism having the faces 110... it follows that the m is parallel to S' &c. when its symbol is (100). and the new t t faces are parallel to one another and to OX.... (OTO). Similarly. may be drawn through A on OX. Their symbols are therefore (010). since angles mm. hence the angles of the prism and domes vary slightly with the temperature.. But t t MA Hence f\AMA' = A AM A = 90. M M t faces pass which are inclined to S and S' at the same angles as (100).. Again. necessarily perpendicular to the remaining axis OX. and its in Fig. This prism differs from the corresponding prism of the prismatic system inasmuch as the In a prismatic angles are permanently 90.. {100}.. and m. 6. 174. M". crystal the axes retain their direction whilst the temperature varies. : X this system.. The planes trace on the plane is given by in the of symmetry meet the plane traces marked S and S'... The parameters on the axes of and Y therefore remain equal when the temperature is changed but the ratio of a c changes with the temperature. 227 S. are all equal 90. The face dyad axes.. is. Fig. where A A' MO = A OMA. but the coefficients of expansion along the axes are different .

in the triangles HOK. 100. f\HOK= 90 common . (&AO). Let the new face meet the plane XOY have in the trace H'K'. also the side OH= the side OK'. OZ occurs plane The ditetragonal prism. H'K' into the positions face through the trace H'K' has A semi-revolution about OX given by HK it and H'K^ where OK The respectively. -r meet the trace of S Let HK in M. Fig. the two triangles Now in HOM. -=- The therefore the symbol (MO). where OH = a + h. the faces of {110} truncate the edges of FIG. it meets the line If a face (MO) parallel to XOY in a HK. each being f\HMO= /\OMK'. and brings the traces HK. and vice versa. and f\HOM = f\MOK'. where the angles between the faces meeting at M' and M" are 90. on a crystal. CLASS in the I. OM sides are equal. interchanges positive and negative lengths on OY. 177. The faces of this prism truncate the edges of the prism {110}. H'OK'. ll = -OK=a + k. K'OM. same face (100) which passes through the trace M' AM". {MO}. we have f\OHK= f\OK'H'.TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. Through M a new face can be drawn OZ and inclined to 8 at parallel to the same angle as (MO) makes with 8. and and Again. and OH' = OK= a k. Fig. which has the four 100. 010 (c). . vertical faces through the traces HK it and H'K t are (MO). OK = a. 176. and l OK =-OK' = a^h. 7. We have therefore a second rectangular prism {100}. k. 010. There- fore the remaining sides and angles are equal. Therefore A OHM = A OK'M . {100}. 176. the : equal angles on opposite sides of a plane of symmetry also the side Hence the remaining angles and is common to both triangles. we 45.

&c.. be produced to meet HK in p IG> N.. Further. MO. MO. alternate faces are at right angles to one another. by a semi-revolution about Y. MO. ^ ^1 K. F relation is Let H K' ti easily proved from Fig.. z ^>. MO. A NK'K = A OK' H = A OK'H' = A OHK... The four faces taken in succession from K'M'H /t are : MO.. the above four faces are brought into the positions of faces which meet OY at the same points as before. ti f\K'NH= f\OKff+ f\OHK= 180- . MO. alternate angles over the edges passing through the points M. A". 229 Again. Then the external angle But .. M'. (d). The F But the edges through H.. This important t H K . but in which the signs of the intercepts on OX are changed. The form {MO}.DITETRAGONAL PRISMS. 178. is therefore a ditetragonal prism of eight faces which have the symbols : MO. Fig. MO. MO. and so are the angles over the MO . MO. MO.. are all equal. r are never equal to those of the angles other set. 177.% K'NH= t\NKK' + [\NK'K.

175. The symbols Qhl. to The tetragonal bipyramid. where OH'^a^h. the new faces are: Qhl. Y and meet OZ at L. such as LM. are all equal so are also the angles over the horizontal edges MM'. Each face is an isosceles triangle. hQl. the crystal I remains the t t . CLASS It is easy to substances crystallizing in the tetragonal system. Fig. The form faces : Ml. where OL = c t Let one of the faces be parallel 1. where OA is now supposed to be drawn through a-^h. but the points M M OX. Qhl. (hQl). of we therefore have the face : MM L t t of Fig. the forms are closed figures. 179 is a tetragonal bipyramid. Qhl. semi-revolution about Y brings the replaced by face into a parallel position. 179. 53 36 8' {210} {320} 8. {MO} {310} 100 A MO 18 26' MO A 110 26 18 11 34' F=hkQ/\khQ. The face e (101) of the pyramid {101} occupies a position similar . turned through 180 about and same. ML &c. Qhl. &c. Qhl. the horizontal edges of which are at 90 to one another . When the faces of the forms are inclined to the vertical axis and to the horizontal plane. the symbol which is (hQl) the parallel face is (hQl). c -=- 1. The above four faces are now repeated over the edges LM. The two faces have therefore the symbols (hQl). {hQl}.230 TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. construct a table of angles for such prisms. which gives the angles for a few cases of common occurrence. it consists of the {hQl}. Qhl] hQl. 1 1 2). where it passes through M' M" and L MAM OH A t . . 26 33 34 41 26 19 52 22 38. Such a face can be -=- of Fig. hQl. the trace MAM again. and the points L and L are inter- changed. in which they t . Qhl)" and the angles F over polar edges (p.. : MM . but the angles over these t latter edges are in no case equal to the angles F. which differ from the preceding inasmuch as each single form completely encloses a finite portion of space. meet the planes S and S' in four new faces which are parallel to OX and meet OY at H'. If. similar to the following. of H t . and meets the axes is of X and Z at distances a H- A.

. (2*).. for vertical plane S.. the angle It follows that a crystal of this class has only one element which The element may be given either by the varies with the substance.. 231 The equation connecting must be the same as that given for the parameters on OZ and for a section of the pyramid a and the face r in (4) of Chap.I. The sphenoid.. the face e'(Oll) of the same pyramid occupies a similar But the faces e(101) position to q (Oil) in a prismatic crystal. : The parameter and it can only c may be greater or less than 1 be equal to unity under exceptional circumstances even if at any temperature c = a.. tan tan E = tan Ce = tan ZOe = c + a . xnr.. (2). to that of r(101) of a prismatic crystal. every face drawn through it. in which the OX : xm XOZ angle LHO is equal to the angle between OZ and the normal to e.. and the arc Ce by E.. the two faces are reciprocal reflexions in the Hence. the possible types of the special It will be noticed that the parallelism of the faces in them is due to the faces being in each case parallel to one or other of the dyad axes.. Hence.. Again.... the point L . parallel faces.. ZOe = tan LHO = OL + OH.. at the and e'(Oll) of the pyramid are inclined to the plane XOY same angles.. which we shall call the angular element of the crystal (see Chap. or by the ratio of the parameters c and numerical values of the parameters are introduced..... we have Hence.THE CRYSTAL-ELEMENT. a change of temperature will alter the ratio of c : a .. K {hhl\.. Suppose a face to be drawn through the line AA' of Figs.. or parallel to it.... We have now exhausted which have all forms in the class. . Hence.. from that along any 9. a.... angle E. and OH=OA = a... the symbol of the face is (h/d).. c ... for the coefficient of expansion along the principal axis differs line at right angles to it. But for e(101). OL = c.... 173 and 180 to meet the principal axis at the point L . When the it is usual to make a the element unit of length. by the plane gives a right-angled triangle LOH. denoting the pole of (001) by C. is also perpendicular to S. if OA is a -H h and OL Let this face is c H. since A A' is perpendicular to S. be turned through 180 about OZ. Art.. The relation c is t between the angular E and the linear element c J then given by = tan E . 26)... then..

are all is A by the other complementary sphenoid : faces of the tetragonal prism {100}. : The form.. similar isosceles triangles. the plane S contains the opposite edge q z q3 and bisects the angle between the two faces (hhl). The face q 1 q 2 q 3 has. &c. which the symbol is rotations gives no new of fore. q 2 q s are therefore like and interchangeable edges. hhl there- the faces hhl. (hhl) which meet in qq l Similarly. the faces of which are Its parallel to those of the preceding sphenoid. &c. . Each S'. The two forms can be placed in similar positions by rotating one through 90 about the principal axis. Since the faces of the two forms are parallel. for instance. similarly truncated truncated by the face (100). but not the the edge. in the edge. on Y and OZ. Further. of the faces is perpendicular to S or AA t . the face qq 1 q 2 is bisected by S in the line Lq? are The angles over the slanting edges passing through A.. The new position of the face is given by the symbol (Mil). Complementary forms connected by the fact that they can be brought to occupy the same space are said to be tautomorphous (p. possible. the symbol (hhl). hhl. symbol is K {hhl}.232 rehiains TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. but they are not equal to the angles over the horizonAgain. Repetition of the faces. This plane bisects the angle between the pair of faces (hhl). direction of to changes only the ends ql and q 2 of the edge meeting it. By a similar rotation about the face is brought into the position of qq 2 q s OY . for each face is bisected by a plane of symmetry . hhl. (f). the faces will be equal and similar. hhl. (hhl) which meet . . and the angles over the corresponding edges will be equal. when the sphenoid and The other slanting edges 5-5-2. OX (say). which are at right angles to one another and to the It is also clear that the faces are all equal and principal axis. the edge qq l is parallel to A A' and and lies in the plane S'. consists of (hhl). and it consists of the faces hhl. . CLASS I. all A'. hhl. hhl. but Similarly. The edge q l q 2 is therefore perpendicular OX. equal tal edges. 210). unchanged whilst the line A A' is transposed to the parallel meeting OX and OF at equal distances in the negative direction. The edges qq l . therefore. and is {100} occur together. a semi-revolution about OX leaves A unchanged interchanges equal positive and negative lengths line AA t . a semi-revolution about a dyad axis.

177. are interchangeable by a semi-revolution about the axis to which these edges are perpen. reason. symmetrical to the first with respect to ai H. 177. about OY.h c + l. khl.k semi-revolution about brings the above positions in which they meet the plane : The new face H'K'L S and has the intertwo faces into A OZ XOY in the lines HK tl and HK / I of Fig. and meet the plane XOY in the lines HK it . 7. These faces must therefore intersect in an edge. therefore. the disphenoid K. K {hkl}. cepts a -4. they are brought into positions in through 180 which they meet OZ at ///} where OLt = c-^l. Ln. Ln (say) of Fig. and the symbol (khl). the symbols (hkl). pairs of which intersecting in the sloping edges ntt rit t &c. . The pairs of faces which meet in the edges Lt t . the pair of lines and a f are symmetrical with respect UK HK and the faces through them and L must be so too. the symbols hkl. Such a face meets the plane of -=- a plane is symmetry S in a line joining L to which and H'K' a second face must is : M in the plane XOY. for the original set of four faces with which they change places are symmetrical with respect to the same planes. KH'. or scalenohedron.. If drawn through a line in the plane XOY. hkl} hki. 10. 181. lying in S'. such as HK of Fig. For a similar to S'. semi-revolution about gives no new faces. therefore. dicular.THE DISPHENOID. 181. we obtain a face which has the symbol (hkl). hkl. for successive rotations of 180 about OZ and are together equivalent to a A OY OX single rotation of 180 Fig. khl. through pass. If now the above faces are turned about OX. to meet the vertical axis in L at the distance c 1. FIG.. The new faces have. khi. (khl). khl. Hence. hkl} (g) * The faces are equal and similar scalene triangles. khl. : &c. The new faces have. . Again. 177. 181. khi. as was proved in Art. &c.{hkl]. The disphenoid. of Fig. These faces are necessarily symmetrical with respect to S and S'. the line of intersection Ln' of (khl) and (hkl) lies in S'. are reciprocal reflexions in the planes of symmetry through these . consists of: hkl.

... . 179 if is But. 12. such as Ltt . to determine the element when the indices h and I are given. : if know (hOl)... (3).. The planes through L and the lines are clearly possible faces.. khl.. tan Cn = = (rom (2))jtan.... one of the like dyad axes. mentary forms are tautornorphous. to.. lyiug in 8 or 8' .. the angle over one of the edges the angle LEO = /\LHL^2. we (001) and n is then A Cn = A LEO.. MM t of Fig. The form has the following hkl.. TETRAGONAL SYSTEM.. such as Ln. 177 we Hence they do not belong to this form. 1. C is measured. it follows position of those of K {hkl}.. hkl) . the faces of which are parallel to those of the form discussed in Art. . although HK. 177. Hence each disphenoid has three different angles (i) that over an edge.. also lying in S or : /S" . (ii) that over a dissimilar edge.. in Since also the XOY which the faces of both forms meet the plane can be interchanged by a rotation of 90 about OZ. whilst those over similar edges bounding different faces are all equal.... measurement of one angle will enable us to determine the symbol.. khl. that the same rotation must bring the faces of K {hkl} into the Hence the compleCrystals showing sphenoids and disphenoids were said to be hemihedral with inclined faces.. such as nt which and bisected by. lines of Fig. khl. when the angular element E.. khl. is known .. The angles over the dissimilar edges of different faces are unequal.. for they have rational indices and are parallel to a pair of faces of the disphenoid K {hkl}. Fig. t. or conversely. Thus. CLASS and are therefore antistrophic. t is perpendicular 11.ff h 7la . 182. =~ I Hence. obtain a complementary disphenoid K{hkl\.234 edges. and this term is still used in descriptive works.. hkl} ( >' The angles of the complementary disphenoids are necessarily equal.. and vice versd.. for pairs of parallel faces make equal angles with one another... hkl. 10.. or the parametral ratio c a. and (iii) that over an edge. If a bipyramid {hOl} occurs on a crystal. H'K' of Fig.

+ OC = /ic + AA' on l. Om by Om p and COm COp = 90 . 173. since the angles at . be The parameter calculated... c -=through A and A' 1. ~ .mA' = <kc. On the . which have been so far solved.. In the discussion of the very simple problems. But.. stereograms were not required .. 183 represent part of a section in the plane S. = OA cos 45 = a -r-^/2. primitive. at C. the sphenoid becomes o = K {111}.. cosF=cos*Cn. one of them (the faces of which we shall denote by o) is selected as c{lll}. (6).. When h = l.. the measured angle is that marked F in Fig... and the others have then the symbols K {Mil}. eye: the principal axis is always taken to be the diameter through the the pole (7(001) therefore occupies the centre.. are right-angles. tan ^ COp = tan CmO = Om = la COB 46 .. E sec 45 => /2 tan E .. If displaced where fa OA = OA' = a the intercepts are a.. But. and we have tan Co --sec 45 = tan c. sec* Cn = 1 + tan2 Cn = (from (3)) Should the only forms meeting the principal axis be 13. the angle Cn = OQlhhOl must be found from the a right-angle right-angled spherical triangle having arcs = CVi for the sides meeting at C.FORMUUfc OF COMPUTATION. 179. however. and A' (010) at the . 235 where i. at -H h... and OM is the length intercepted of Fig...e. = 45 are marked off by a protractor. e is (101) and A is (100). {CenA}.. Let Fig. If. therefore.R. and Hence. Hence.-... Now parallel to itself so as to pass the face (hhl) meets the axes at a -=. and the angular element E. l. arcs Am the pole ^(100) being placed at the bottom.. where Op is the normal (hhl). can.h. sphenoids..pOm = CmO. 14. o/ . The same expression can be easily obtained from the A. but more In such diagrams general problems are best solved by their aid. hOlhQhl.

is dots occupying opposite quadrants. are determined from is known. E fec. Fig. Four poles above the paper are given by Fig. we may have one of the i. Assigning definite indices to parameter or the required to find the element Measurement of one angle of the disphenoid suffices may be E to give the element. m sphere in the great circle projected in the diametral zone [Cm] [110]. and g = . t Now the zone-circle } [tt ] = [hkl. 15. if sphenoids are the known forms. Knowing the element E. the symbol of the disphenoid may be needed two angles must then be measured. 181. 134. such as Lt of Fig. we have by Weiss's zone-law -2le + g . e'(Oll). and let p be a pole of i.TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. which can generally be easily determined and drawn. on which the pole p lies. we may take e -h+ k. Cp can be marked off on [Cm] by the method given for e. are placed on the diametral zones [AC]. Two poles p lie on [Cm] above the paper. and two poles of the form are given by circlets to be placed round points at the same A disphenoid. the poles a knowledge of the angle Af. the positions of poles such as /. (h + k) 21. 184 represent a projection of the poles disphenoid K {hkl}. the faces. 184. CLASS I. 184. [A'C]. : Let Fig.p]. can then be drawn they determine by their intersections : and its homologues. [A'e]. &c. ii. such as t = K (hkl) in distance from C on the pole o ( 1 1 1) [CVraJ. or be the faces... If the element e(101). vn. Should a disphenoid be the only form present.'. Prob. The zone-circles [Ae]. form with brightest and smoothest two following problems to solve. khl] must the pole of the plane S with respect to which the two faces are The plane meets the symmetrical. and four poles below the paper are given by circlets occupying the other pair of opposite quadrants. At the same time right extremity of the horizontal diameter. by the method of Chap. it c. Hence p may be denoted since it lies y ( eeff)- But in the zone F IG . pass through t .. t of the the possible sphenoid which truncates the longer edges. most quickly and correctly placed by the intersection of zones such as [Cf] and [m. 1. Or. <fec.

and the element is determined in the way described under (a). where o is (111).... To find the symbol of the form.. we can by and (6) obtain the following relation -=- tan Cp tan Co = - = . [^'] = [001].. we Ct and l\pCt. (8).'.. But the indices of 237 p are equation (5) of Art.. The element If tt 1 E is then found from (7).... and Cp. This equation is a particular case of the general one holding for zones in which two of the poles are at 90 from one another. then pt = tt l + 2. right-angled triangle pCt the side pt and the angle pCt are known. Measurement of tt* gives pt. : Or if the angle Co (5) combining equations known.tt6 ) 2.2 . 35. tan Cp = is 9 -J 2 tan E = tan E . The element y.. I. -=. the indices are obtained from equations (1) and (7). When these arcs are determined. or We may be taken from a table like that given shall now consider the cases which may arise... From equation (1). if [Ct] meets has the symbol (MO).. But mf=5"~Af. therefore know two sides of the right-angled triangle mft. When Ct has been computed.. 7. 13. E can then be found from the measured angle. For cospCt = tan Cp cot Ct. in the /?. we must find both Af ii.FORMULAE OF COMPUTATION.. Cp can be found. from If is We which ft .. the arc Af= 45 pCt can be in Art. then / / we know t&nAf=k + h. xin.. a. and A pCt are both known and from the right-angled triangle Cpt. (7). sin Cp tan pt cotpCt.90 . t? includes m(110). Suppose A tt4 to be the measured angle. for the zone through the poles t.Ct can be found. is the pole in which the zone-circle Again. and corresponds to the equation given in Chap.. found. know 16. Hence. (7). -=- . of tt6 gives mt = (180 . in which connected with the angle Cp by e takes the place of h and g of I. The indices h. Then Ct = ttt 2. then mt = (180 . is . being known.. and of tt 4 gives -=... the measured angle. Art. k..

. If then from the triangle Ctm cos Ct and mt are the angles determined by measurement.. we can find the indices from equations (1) and (7). (hkl). The arc f\pCt Cp is then found from the triangle pCt of which Ct and are now known the rest of the solution is the same as before. . Then mf= f\pCt can be found from the triangle pCt of which Cp and pt are known. Hence Cp and Af.Af. TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. 15...45.f\pCt are both determined. replacing tan Cp by the expression given in (7). and E being known. Af= 45 mf. the arc can be found from the right-angled triangle mpt by sin Cp = cos mp = cos mt -=- cos pt.. we have The employment of this equation will simplify the solution of the problem discussed in Art.238 a. we find Cp /3. where t is the pole and the equation t by the following tan2 2 . But mf= 45 . Fig.tan Af\* (1 + tan 4/) 2 (A + 2 yfc) ' Hence. is can now prove that the arc connected with the element E indices of : We Ct. . y. = tan Cp since A pCt arc mf. .. J. cos pCt we have cot Ct .Cp the formula and mt are given from the measured angles. we have mt = sin Ct cos mCt = sin Ct cos mf. (9). CLASS If pt mp = 90 . and the indices can be found from (1) and (7). From the right-angled spherical tri- angle Cpt.. and A pCt from the right-angled triangle pCt. 17. Hence. and tan 4/= k -=- A. If pt and Ct are given from the measurements. Cp.2 tan 2 C = ^-p ^ . 184.

. If now P is taken to be coincident withy (MO).FORMULAE OF COMPUTATION. and Introducing these values in (10). Ao = cos A'o = cos Am cos mo = cos 45 Co = c cos Co .. cos 2 W r*P 1 cos 2 AP.. if P is right-angled spherical triangles cos brought to coincide with o(lll)..... The formulae established in preceding Articles can easily be obtained from the general equations of the normal P (hkl).... c Ce) Again. we have cos Af _ cos A'f _ sin Af ~~TT Hfc~ * ' since A'f= 90.. if each of the 2 = = = cos A'P. cos (Ae A'e = 90... (6). = sin Ce = c cos Ce = tan Ce = tan E ... (1). . . we have .E. C '. then Ae = 90 .. and that on the X principal axis to be c...... . (2*).Af....... since the axes are X.'.. For. A'mo..... rk :... Y.. we have rh = cos AP.. and rectangular.. rft .. which holds whenever the axes are rectangular. then from the A mo. = 90 :... i .....Ce = 90 . Z coincide with the axial poles the equations become cos ~A~ The last AP _ cos A'P _ c cos * is T~ 2 CP _ - 1 '" term obtained from the relation cos2 AP + cos A 'P + cos2 CP - 1 . cos2 A'P... sin Co. three first terms is made equal to r....-.. we have cos 45 sin = csec45-c N/2= ^2 tan E . CP. remembering that. + c = cos2 CP 2 r 2 (7i 2 + k* + Z 2 ^c)= cos 2 AP + cos A'P + cos2 CP=\. Taking the parameters on the axes of and Y to be unity... rl+c = :. the axial points A..... Introducing in (10)..... 239 18. If P is made to coincide with e (101). A'.

(9). 186. 186 Fig. 36) which holds when the axes are rectangular. from _ cos CP tan E :. CuFeS 2 . e 2 (from (10)) + 2 yfc +P -i- c 2 ) 2 2 2 -=. 184). aflfords good instances of = K {332} Fig. we have cos AP= cos 4/cos/P = cos Afsin we have c cos CP.. Copper Pyrites (Chalcopyrite).240 Similarly. P coincides with p (hhl). xni. FIG.. From the right-angled triangle APf (which may be taken to be the same as the triangle At/ oi Fig. CLASS I. Art. Cp _ c cos Cp (5).. if TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. cos A/sin CP _ 2 CP _ . 185. Ap = cos Am cos mp = cos 45 cos 45 sin sin Cp. for the cosine of the angle between any two poles can be obtained from equations (10) and the general expression (Chap. tan2 CP = f tan E sec Af 2 I = (from The formula P(hkl) and (I)) tan* tf . For Q (pqr) cos PQ = cos AP cos AQ + cos A'P cos A'Q + cos hp + kg + Ir -=- CP cos CQ (11). cos :. . from (10).. 185 represents a sphenoid T crystals of this class. Introducing in (10). FIG.2 c ) (p + ? + r 19.. .

The parameter c differs from unity by an almost insignificant amount. 1. Jour.o] is [112] and [mw] is [112]. and the pole lies L. 241 = * {772} with the disphenoid represents a crystal showing the sphenoid X = x{122} these crystals from French Creek. are shown in Fig. Other forms occasionally observed on the crystals are c {001}. and that the pole u also meets z and z t in parallel edges. with the exception of those of r. -f- ^2. 16 . and striated those of <a are usually small and bright. and c= -98525.-. In Fig. is associated with the complementary sphenoid <B = *{!!!} and the tetragonal pyra- mid dull z {201}. system. of Sci. and oo"=a>o>' is not far removed from 109 28' The crystals therefore have some(the angle of the regular tetrahedron). 34-5'. The angle E is nearly 45. obtained by (23) of Chapter v tively. 188. 187. which is often found alone. Fig.EXAMPLE (COPPER < PYRITES). what the appearance of those of one of the classes of the cubic system . : : Hence. p. therefore. from equations (2*) and c=i&nE= tan Co+J2 = tan 54 20' L tan 54 20' = 10-14406 9-99355. C. who states that the symbols of < and x are doubtful. and z' From the face in Fig. Hence. These circles pass through m. The zone [wi. Warn. . z is which the zone-circles through o and w perpendicular to the planes of symmetry intersect. and it was not until 1822 that the crystals were proved by Haidinger iv. respec The symbol of the pole z is. Fig. (7a> = <7o = 54 (6) 20'. Soc. .cos Ce. it is seen that o meets z in parallel edges . [iii] XL. e {101} and = K {513}. (110) and m(110). Edin. Hist. . (Mem. 1822) to belong to the tetragonal We can now Coe. Nat. The faces of o are usually large. 187 the sphenoid o = n {111}. therefore z is (201). in the right-angled triangle we know Co = 54 20' and Ce = E = 44 Co -=. $ and x. The best angle to measure would be <ao>' over the horizontal edge of the sphenoid K {111} this angle was determined by Haidinger to be 108 40'. 188. For. #=44 34-5'. The poles of the above forms.-. cos oe = cos o = 353-6' and ow=707'3'. 1890). 188. 207. p. C being (001). Hence. determine the angle ow = 2oe. were described : by Professor Penfield (Am. .'. Pennsylvania.

and the face is that of a tetragonal pyramid. A'. Pole r.-. The pole s is therefore (513). The angle zo can now be found from the right-angled spherical triangle Coz by the expression sin . such as q^ of Fig. for we between them. vu. 188 is constructed as follows. {ozsm. and rr" = 12851'. the pole p of [m.242 in the zone [CA].B. and diameters through A.} gives in the zone [zo] suffices to give the symbol of know the symbols of three faces and the angles 26-5' by measurement.. Poles. 25-5'. The below the paper zone-circles [m.K.: Co = tan oz cot 45 = tan oz. &c. its position is marked by a cross. Am=mA' = &c. 4. CLASS I.o] is determined by the construction of Chap. and belongs to the disphenoid K {513}. and the similar zones through (only partially shown by interrupted strokes). The angle over one of the slanting edges. on a small with C as centre.o]. Thus. and 1=3. e. m. &c. tan Cr 4. and the angle over the edge is 100 44'. The homologous r Ce = 44 34-5' is determined (Chap.4r = 50 22'. supposing the pole r to be inserted in Fig. if os is 28 A. are now described and m To find the position of s.. is by computation. are marked poles lie off. Knowing the symbol of the sphenoid r to be K {332}. and 110 if s is (hkl). in which A Cm =90. Amr sin 64 for the angles over such Ar cos Am sin Cr = cos 45 rr. h + k-2l=0.o"]. The the points o and w. TETRAGONAL SYSTEM.-. 180. The stereogram. 1). But Co = 5420'. The arc . e". obtained from the right-angled spherical triangle edges are bisected at the poles A. oz oz = 39 5-5'. = <i5 are then drawn. Cr 25-5'. log 1-5 + k_3 dA _ 5 fc _x But s lies . Prob. On [CA] an arc e'. On the primitive. They determine by their intersections with [CA] and [CA'] the poles z of {201}. 188. [m. {Com} angles. are then drawn. Prob. can be now . [A'e]. arcs A'. Thus..tan Co = 3 therefore. for the four poles circles [Ae ]. we can find the For. . Fig. we have the A. the 111 tan oz -r- tan os = 201 m hkl ^ ' 201 ilo hkl ~*-*' _ftjjk L tan (oz= 39 L tan (os = 28 h 5-5' ) = 9-90978 = 9-73371 26-5') = -17607. the angle over the horizontal edge. and m. A single measurement any pole lying in it. are then introduced by a pair of circle fix compasses. vu. cos .z = mz = 90 - = 50 54-5'. in [omj = [112]. &c.

Prop..]. The principal axis is now the intersection of four planes of aymmetry. for they are interchangeable by a rotation of 180 OX or OY. In order to avoid confusing the figure. [oz']. Z. intersects [om t ] in The homologous &c. the four poles of the form below the paper being indicated by circlets. 8). being parallel respectively to and those t .DIPLOHEDRAL DITETRAGONAL CLASS.. (marked off by proportional compasses) the equal distances from AT XY Z edges [ow]. the poles r and the circlets giving the positions of the inferior poles of the other forms are omitted. denote as the diplohedral ditetragonal In a centro-symmetrical crystal there must be a plane of symmetry perpendicular to each axis of even degree and an axis of symmetry of even degree perpendicular to each plane of symmetry (Chap. poles s1 . Props. The II. &c. If a centre of symmetry is added to the elements of symmetry which distinguish the crystals of the last class. by Chap. The plane 2 contains OZ and OX. are then drawn. ix. we obtain a class which we shall class of the tetragonal system. the lines of intersection of II with S and axes (Chap. Diplohedral ditetragonal class-. being parallel to ZY. 2S. and complete the figure.. 22. C. there plane of symmetry II perpendicular to the principal axis. ix. The crystals are therefore characterised T. The sphenoid o is first completely drawn. It is therefore. <fec. a tetrad axis. *S" A and are dyad A' They are about like axes. are then drawn is parallel parallel to the diagonal of the face o of the sphenoid and similarly [wz] to the diagonal of the face w. 162 . These edges and their homologues are . They will be denoted by respectively. and like planes of is a two dyad symmetry 2. Through points taken at and Z. {hkl}. of symmetry : 2A. and perpendicular to four dyad axes.. axes 8. The by a pair of compasses. 2'. through X. Hence. ma- 243 straight line p<r = on = 28 26-5' is . are introduced Drawing the crystal. The parallel edges [02]. 20. &c. the edges through Z. by the following elements 28. drawn through points on faces w. at equal distances from the vertices of the these distances [zo. Prop. the plane 2' contains Again. 8'. then measured off on the primitive. ix. [ow]. which were. &c. Y. &c. XZ. 8 and 11. perpendicular to each of the last section. 4). in the taken as the axes OX and OY. remaining lines being obtained by proportional compasses. separating the complementary sphenoids are then drawn parallel to the opposite sides of each face o.. Fig. OZ and OY. H. 187.

244 TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. {110} consisting of : TlO. MO. 22. OOT (Art. . MO. crystals of this class. hOl. The parameters on OX OT can. geometrically. MO. 189. MO. section can advantageously be retained in this class . Ohl (Art. The tetragonal prism {100} consisting of: 100. 8). The ditetragonal prism {MO} consisting of : MO. MO : (Art. HO (Art. MO. The tetragonal pyramid AO/. 8. for the lines are interchangeable. for. TTO. 4). and II by two sets of lines crossing at right angles. It is clear that the axes of reference adopted in the last FIG. therefore. 189. 010. CLASS of II. Ohl. : : The tetragonal prism 110. OTO (Art. It is described in Arts. be taken to be equal. 4 obvious that the special forms with parallel faces. hOl. the following forms are common to both classes The pinakoid {001} consisting of 001. 5). 6). The of horizontal the 2 planes by a series of vertical lines. The axes of symlines metry are indicated by of strokes alternating with dots the number of the latter giving the 21. The only unknown element is the parameter c on the tetrad axis OZ. hQl. and the student can easily see that those forms are geometrically symmetrical with respect to the new ele- ments of symmetry which result from the presence of a centre of symmetry. MO. TOO. {hOl} consisting of Qhl. The planes and axes like planes series S are indicated lines. or the corresponding angular element c is ^=OOlAl01 from which All the analytical formulae established in previous Articles of this Chapter are therefore immediately applicable to computed. 7). are not modified by the introduction of a centre of symmetry . 0/J. symmetry are shown by a in Fig. crystals of this class differ from those of the scalenohedral class only in having pairs of parallel and faces always associated together. Hence.

: dyad axes. in crystal to indicate which pair of . Then the pole n is (AOi). and the pyramid Q is not possible on the crystal. hhl. latter the coigns lie in A and A. {hid}. Were and this is impossible (Chap. and let the Let Fig. There is nothing. 191 show the poles of the two zone-circles [AP]. 9. If (hhl} is a possible face. 23. the arc pyramids P CP = &rc CQ. on looking back to Art. 6). S y . 245 K {hhl} is The tetragonal bipyramid. since CP=CQ. tan Now by equation (3). which consists of the faces : hhl. hhl.. forms P {hhl} and the zones [CM'].(i). Proof. The sphenoid changed by the introduction of parallel faces to a tetragonal bipyramid {hhl}. &c. Geometrically the pyramid {hhl} only differs from {hOl} in It is easy to find the condition that the angles of a pyramid of one kind should be equal to the corresponding angles of a pyramid of the other kind . cos 45 But. perceive the relations of the pyramid and the two complementary sphenoids.THE TETRAGONAL BIPYRAMID.. [A'P]. and by the same equation. they are essentially and though these latter are also different from the former pair. then l-^-h is irrational and the pyramid P is impossible. hhl. IX. in Structurally the pyramid {hhl} differs from a pyramid {pQr}. meet n'. hhl. Since the corresponding angles of the two and Q are to be equal. in n. from the right-angled triangle CPn. a. having different angles. = tan Cn cot CP = tan Cn cot CQ. 190. Fig. &c. however. hhl. however.. the one pair 8 interchangeable with the other pair A of dyad axes.. CQ -r tan E= p r -=. If. &c. hhl. Prop. and thus to show that the assumption contravenes the law of rational indices. then p+r is irrational. The student will. for and in the the former the coigns lie in the dyad axes S. hhl. the pyramid Q is possible. the principal axis would become an axis of octad symmetry.

hkl']'" All the faces are equal scalene triangles having their edges in three dissimilar planes of symmetry. l. can never become a regular octagon for. khl. the angle A OHM = /\ OMH. khl. and when a immaterial which pair is put in the and Y. v are unequal may be proved as follows. But. hkl. to be taken as the axes of reference. positions it is necessary to retain the same pair. 10 converts it into a diplohedral ditetragonal pyramid. The addition of parallel faces to the disphenoid of Art. or in like.. The ditetragonal bipyramid. of Fig.. khl. p. 25. 192. The angles between pairs of adjacent faces which meet in the same. -=-A. hkl. Art. planes of symmetry are equal. tan 26 = (Todhunter's Trig. The form {hkl} therefore consists of the faces hkl. Then X0# = 22 30' .246 dyad axes crystal is TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. the three unequal angles the edges of a face are the only angles possible between p.. khl. v over adjacent faces which meet in edges in an equably developed form. 177. were it a regular octagon. For. when once the axes have been selected. two pairs of parallel faces can be drawn through the parallel lines HK. HMK have the symbols pair through I HK (hkl). EM HM to the vertical axial plane XOZ at 90 -22 30') 30'. hkl.. The ditetragon. : That the angles X. shall generally express such a relation between the angles of X. 7. 177 to meet the vertical axis points OZ / at opposite L L where OL = OL = c + and t . (hkl). 56). khl. We a form by the statement that the form has only a particular number of different angles in this case the number is three. HMK'. khl. clearly. hkl ) hkl. and from equation (1) tan (Z0#=22 = By a well-known formula. first described. &. if it is desired to compare the symbols of the faces with those given by other observers. CLASS is II. Suppose the prism-face through . khl. The two faces meeting in (hkl). hkl. p. of Fig. . Fig. and would make 22 30' with OG the normal to the vertical face through to be (MO) and to be inclined OX. those over edges lying in dissimilar planes of symmetry are always unequal. {hkl}. the II have the sym: bols (hkl). Hence. khl. it is OX 24.

X cannot be equal to v. H M are equally distant from p. P* (hkl} and P4 (hkl} then. )-HiV ... It follows that the figure HMK'. cos/*... c+a changes.... the angles X over HMK v are. HL meet the axes of T and Z But OK=a....... of Art. P1 (khl).. c-j-Z = a-r^. ... But the and the from that along OT...... when The is the coigns and a regular octagon. cannot be a regular octagon. and the plane is not a possible face... But c changes by insensible increments as the temperature varies. and OL = c+l. from equations (10) ....a = tan E= l-^k. or c-j.. Hence... 7 ++p-rr^ 1 1 ay). These expressions may also under exceptional circumstances be convenient for determining the angles. 26.. 20 = 45. But. (14).. and k-^-h has the irrational value >JZ- 1. 2 2 )-... but they are not adapted to logarithmic computation. pi ccosCP1 forpj cosAP cos ccosCP7 ccosCP.THE DITETRAGONAL BIPYRAMID... 112) can only be equal....h..... But the angles /* and v over the polar edges (p. except at some special temperature. tetrad axis OZ and the dyad axis T are different physically coefficient of HM and v over HL are equal. if 2 p=v. ( '' "A- ~^TcoaAP1 -^A cosA'P1 cos A' PI cos A' P. 18. thermal expansion along OZ is different varies by insensibly small increments as the temperature But the integers k and I cannot so change. Hence... A - 2 =2M .. . p we have cosJP cosA'P : ccosCP 1 1.. always unequal. Therefore the We can easily obtain from (11) expressions for cosX. A Pt 1 -. when the indices aud parameter are known.. c-f-a is a rational number under all circumstances. and the method is laborious... .+k. therefore. 2 2tan0-i-(l-tan 0) = l. The angles and It is clear also that.. 247 when 0=22 30'. Hence.. and tan 20=1.. (12). In a similar manner it may be shown that X and /n are unequal..-. if the edges and at equal distances from 0. which enable us to establish the proposition generally. angles X and v cannot be equal. Therefore. cos/t=cos PP^cos APcos A P* + cos A'Pcos A'Pl + cos CP cos CP1 .. forP) for . Hence..-^ 2 2 .. cos v.. which the integers I and k cannot do. Let P be (hkl}.... tan 6 = */2 1 = k 4.... (13). and the figure HMK'.. indices are irrational. Solving the equation.

if s" = (lll A 111) is found by measurement to be 87 8'. SnO 2 rutile. if TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. Fig.248 Similarly. the poles A. they are uuiaxal and positive. &c. . TiO 2 anatase. A knowledge of mh=l8 ft or of Ah=2& proves that is (210) (see table in Art. apophyllite. is less also bevelled than the principal extraordinary index. 195. face m is taken to be (110). 7). from them A Cs can be calculated and will be found equal to that given by measurement of [sms /t ]. [sms.4iH 2 O vesuvianite. CLASS \=n.. Fig. i.J*. true as the temperature changes. These latter forms most frequently occur on a somewhat rare variety from Cornwall represented by Fig. . Examples. Fe) 6 Al(F. by narrow faces h (2 10}. 193. . class: The crystals of the following substances belong to this . CuO(U03 ) 2 P2 5 . By measuring the angles in [s.As] and [A'ss'"]. The faces A. then Cs = 43 34'. H 7 KCa 4 (SiO 3 ) 8 . and c = -6726. and that AJJ' = A*Cy = 90 . TiO 2 zircon. 193. o>. the student can prove the equality of the angles ss' and ss'". . The crystals are most commonly terminated by faces {111}. . i. The Cornish crystals in the Cambridge collection.: E = B3 ii. Such measurements enable him to place on the stereogram. m. m and s but the forms h and e are occasionally slightly developed.SiO 2 phosgenite. (Ca.e. e. the best measurements are obtained in the zones [s. (PbCl) 2 CO 3 torbernite. In crystals of the habit given in Fig. s and e and their homologues. ZrO 2 . Cassiterite. A is (100).J\. cassiterite. 194. . Crystals of the habit shown in Fig. The 26'. in the zone [Am] are usually deeply striated parallel to the vertical axis. the ordinary refractive index.(h .&) . and the images given when this zone is adjusted on the reflecting goniometer consist of bands.SiO 2 thorite. OH) A1 2 (SiO 4 ) 5 (?). 27. z. and occasionally by faces of e{101} and 0{321}. we fix the paraTaking meter c. are usually combinations of z.4s]. = 2Z 2 2 which cannot remain 4. 195 are generally much twinned. and can then find it and the angular element E from equation (6). c 2 II. m. and are often hard to decipher. The crystals are usually short tetragonal prisms the edges of which are truncated by A {100} and often z{110}. Optically. 55-5'. I? IG. to be (111). . To determine the symbol of the . 195. Thus.8H 2 0. Form . ThO2 . such that the angles read are of little value. which show the form z. then 34'. and tan E = c = tan (Cs = 43 M')-*-.

be introduced into this equation when the ratio of I + k is determined. If. the three indices can be found. Introducing the value 3 and 2 for k in equation (15). as angles mz = 25 0' and zz = 20 54' to be obtained by measurement.: /. and. the angle pCz can be found. zp. where e = h + k and g = 21. The angle be now computed 27' cos . is The expression cotj>Cz = cotzp sin Cp.R. =5 ^ (IS). in that Article. and the pole z is (321). the equation But if e is not present. unless the faces present and the zone [mse] can be measured. which can be readily obtained when E = Ce is known. [mzeT]. for h.]. by equations (6) and (7). we have tan mz -H tan me lin _ 2k r+ 101 If now they may the angles me and mz given by measurement are both fairly good. But. is fairly representing the A. h+ k-5l=0 Knowing now Cp and of Art. it and we lies in [m] = [lll]. h-k-l = 0. gives the symbol of z. A z=2541'. two angles in different zones must be measured. also. the measured angles are not good. . . from the rightangled spherical triangle Ame. are know that the faces are tautozonal. then. good. In this latter case we can determine either the angle mz or Let z be (hkl). by measurement. we have 1 = 1 . Then. a. we have from the right-angled spherical triangle mzp. Suppose the l Taking. 249 e form. . Again. let T be the possible pole midway between e and et in which the zone [me] meets [Cm. by computation. and the method given in Art. f e - = ?= = tan Cp h-t-k . by the table given in Art 7. since ze. it will be best to use the theoretical value of me. cos me = cos If then either mz. Cp = 6T 9'6'. and mr=90.EXAMPLE (CASSITERITE). For. zone [me]. h+ k by computation -^/. cotm/=cot 10 27' sin 67 9-6'. Taking the A. however. Therefore. cos mz = cos zp cos mp = cos zp sin Cp. by the equation of the zone. and this is equal to m/ 16=45-J/. p on [Cm] midway between z and z 1 to be (eep). and ^/=3341'. for cos sz = cos zp cos sp = cos 10 (Cp - Cs) = cos 10 27' cos 23 36-6'. 16 must be employed.R. then T has the symbol (ll2).: -r- tan Cs = tan 67 9-6'-=- tan 43 34 . we are not at liberty to assume that z is in the /3. or ze. / is (320). .: sin Cp=cos25 0'-=-cos 10 27' . sz can. given A m cos Ae = cos 45 sin Ce. mf=U 19'.

the arcsps andpz can be the symbol of z is then found in the way given under case /3. 196 cassiterite. are drawn. and the figure completed. &c. 41') cos (msz = sin msz sin sz. &n&pz = W 27'. The element following angles : and Fi . and C = 61 9-6'. lengths OC and 0(7. it is easy to verify the symbols of the faces represented in Fig. are then poles z are the points of intersection of zone-circles. 195. 28. of the tetragonal zone an arc Ce = 33 55-5'.250 7. 197. approximately. and can therefore be The cubic axes being projected by the method of Mobs or Naumann (Chap. i. for ms = 46 26'. Spher. the relative dimensions of the two prisms {110} and {100}. is made as follows. the vertical edges [Am] can then be drawn. [AmA'] having been inserted in the primitive by a These zones coincide protractor. The edge [As] is parallel to the polar edge [*']. t upper and lower pyramid are then separated by a prism {110}. and P. . or on [Cm] an arc 1. by computation. is marked off by the con- struction of Chap. on the axes of X and Y give the polar edges of the pyramid s. On [AC] iii. Hence. [Cm]. 47). To introduce the faces {100}. FIG. diametral zones [CA]. [me]. the edges having the length which corresponds to the particular crystal. A'. with the circles in which the planes of symmetry meet the sphere. CLASS To determine the symbol of z II. and tan#s = tan (sz=25 sin pz and Hence. [A'e]. such easily placed. &c. Fig. vn. 197 from the ^# = 31 43'. For. sin 2 7-5' sin 22 52-5' '33-5' sin 23 33-5" and A wz = 24 44-5'. The lines joining C and C to the axial points A. ps = 23 = 24 44'5'). &c. from measurement of mz = 250' and = 25 41'. sz TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. 35-6'. Prob. [hs]. From now found. vi). easily described- The zone-circles [Ae']. p. of the poles &c. ( = -6726 04") are measured off on the vertical axis.. A stereogram. cut off from the polar edges by proportional compasses equal lengths. The crystal is The drawn as follows. Zircon is found in crystals resembling those of The parameter and symbols of the faces would be determined in the way described in Art. Trig. 194. sides are by the formula which gives the angles of a spherical triangle when the known (McL. Taking p to be (111). The crystals from some localities have the habits represented in Figs. #^ = 29 57'... 27.. the right-angled triangle szp. such as will give. (78 = 43 34'. and similarly for all the homologous edges. The poles A m. The as [me] and iv. We now know the three sides of the triangle smz.

The forms shown in Fig.ZIRCON. Hence. FIG. 198. for cos ap Apophyllite occurs in simple prisms a {100} with the pyramid p {111}. 198 are m {110}. 200. . E= 6038' This pyramid . Anatase usually occurs in small crystals which are very acute pyramids. There is a good cleavage with a remarkable pearly lustre parallel to (001). The crystals have a good cleavage parallel to c(001). 197. and they are uniaxal and negative. and are sometimes positive. 198. and then The crystals are uniaxal and positive. and c = 1-2515. sometimes negative. ANATASE. APOPHYLLITE. FIG. 51 22-5'. by equation (6). The crystals have very weak double refraction . Therefore mp =-. 201. can also be found from the same data. : Fig. r {115}. Hence. E is found to be In Figs. = -6404 FIG. by equation (6). The angle ap being 52 0'. FIG. The angle of the pyramid over the face m is 43 24'. 199. and c=l-777. c {001}. u {105}. FIG. p {111}. e {101} and q {201}. 251 c #=32 38' can be computed. is taken to be {111} and is generally indicated by the letter p as in Fig. = cos am cos mp.21 42' and Cp = 68 18'. the arc mp can be computed . 200 and 201 crystals of different habits are shown . 199. the additional forms being c {001} and y {310}.

We shall in the following computations adopt Miller's angle. (6) Art. v{151}. and ah. all the af are The angle CM is given by Miller as 37 7'. o{241}. : the edges [ma] being often modified by faces of all these faces are. 202 are : a {010}. w?{221}. 202. Let p be any pole (hhl) in the zone [cum]. Between crossed Nicols plates of positive crystals show a dark cross and dull purple rings on a white ground some plates of negative crystals from Uto absorb most of the light and show a grey cross on a violet ground. x {141}. c{001}. The stereogram. or tan cp = h tan cu -i- . s{131}. striated parallel c {001} and of the pyramid w{lll} are generally well developed. ii 7. from equation c . z {121}. m{110}. n{113}. /{120}. although they are sometimes positive : the plates occasionally show segments which are irregularly biaxal. of them. from the A. g {021}. ?/{112}. = tan=tan (cu=37 c JE = 28 9'. Hence. from Brooke and Miller's Mineralogy gives the forms recognised in 1852. In the prism-zone. shall We now show how to find the angles in the principal zones. and are frequently the only faces associated with the prisms . and their edges m are truncated by a {100} . i{132}. iii. The double refraction is weak and the crystals are generally negative.B. the forms {210} or {310} The faces of to the principal axis. The angles of crystals from different localities vary. The faces are large.252 TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. 205. but numerous small faces are often found to modify the edges and coigns. {cpum} tan cp -H we have tan cu = h -~ I. whilst others show both phenomena in adjoining portions of the same plate. i. 18. and no single value of CM fits all FIG. : 29. A {130}. Fig. which otherwise seems to be homogeneous (Des Cloizeaux). The poles shown in Fig. e{011}. 202. 1. of the habit Vesuvianite (idocrase) is generally found in stout prismatic crystals shown in Fig. . and by Dana as 37 13-5'. CLASS II. given in Art. as a rule. and the parameter = -5351. from a knowledge of the angle cu and the indices given. t{331}. angles are fixed. r {441}. then. {!!!}.-.

-. 203 and 204. . &c. vi. obtain a formula which enables us to find each of the angles. 9'. Figs. as = 27 as 55'. cot av = 5 sin 28 9'. tan mP -=- tan mg = __ _ k-l~h + l' the two latter equations being obtained by taking different pairs of columns.-. {mPgu"} gives. /. If the angles have been measured. /. We have already determined A ce= E to be 28 9'. = 1. the two equations give the symbols of . tan CM? = tan 37 = 2 tan 37 .'. But taking the symbols for o(241). = 14 9-5'. for n(113). To illustrate the method of drawing Fig. cot ax =4 sin 28 s (131). . w(lll). Arts.-. mo = tan 58 mo =28 55'. v. it vertical axis OA" as is by c = -5351. tan iv. Assigning.B. Drawing.B. tan s (131). = 35 z(121). alone altered. . 7'-:-2. &o. 12-6'. Ac. . /. . .-. as = 46 39'6'. . For. From the right-angled triangle aum. = 39 mi" = 73 ms 39' . o. equal lengths Cd. But. cot as= 3 sin 28 /. y (112). 44-5'. . en . 203. {aQue'}. From {aQue'}.'. cr = 7143'. 53-5'. given. . cy = 20 43-5' cw = 56 32-75'.-. mg = 58 53-5'. tancj/ t0(221). . CA'. For any pole P(hkl) in this zone. the A. . tan (am = 45) A. Hence. n.'. x (141). y. vi. i" (132) vii. i".EXAMPLE (VESUVIANITE). 7'. The angles in this zone can be obtained in an exactly cos mg = cos am eosag = cos 45 sin (eg = 46 56-5'). tanaQ-i-tanau=h-t-k. projected in the way described in The or 23. *(331). . 11 Chap. from the A. tan en = tan 37 7'-r-3. we have: 53-5' -f 3. shown The pyramid is obtained by joining C to the points A. We thus get OC and OC and C . for g (021). av = 22 58-3' .'. 9'. ct = 66 13-6'. From A amu. cot az = 2 sin 28 9'. we can. B. c# = 46 56-5'. A'. 205 we give The unit cubic axes. 53-5' -r-2. for v (151). similar manner. = 28 9'). au = 64 Zone [mosgi"]. to 253 we have : p the indices of the poles. 7'. are pricked through from a permanent card. taking Q to be any pole in the zone [au]. V. 14-6' . Zone [avxsu]. in turn. we can find au . since m"=90.-. cotau = sin289'. r(441). = tan 58 tan mi" = 2 tan 58 tan ms /. From the edges CA. by multiplying in Fig. tan ct= 3 tan 37 cr= 4 tan 37 7'. cot au tan am = cos (mau = a'e') = sin ce'.-.. cotaM = sin(ce'=28 9'). t . and then.

or any multiple of 90. Prop. and to 701. of the pyramid is drawn parallel to C. 204. &c.. lengths Ay. &c. vertical lines are drawn of any desired length so as to correspond with the development of the par- ticular crystal. &c. Pairs of the points 55'. are cut off by proportional compasses. The coigns rest of the construction is obvious. lines y'p. respectively to meet A A' and A A. Acleistous (polar) tetragonal class. about the tetrad axis. a lf /3. are joined and give the face c (001). A second set of equal FIG. t III. Cd'. CLASS II. occur in sets of four. Should it be desired to introduce new faces. 205 produced. Cor. CA'. &c. therefore. and no other element of symmetry. Similarly through 7 and the corresponding . 30. Through a2 a 3 lines are drawn parallel to AA'. . the directions of the edges must be determined. 204. as shown in Fig. which change places with one another after each rotation of 90.A of Fig. are drawn parallel to CA and CA.254 TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. Crystals of this class have only a single tetrad axis T.. ix. A'y'. Through the points a. and lines parallel to them be drawn through points marked off by proportional compasses on the homologous edges already introduced. &c. 3. Through 7' the lower edge y'Z. can now be pricked through to a fresh paper and Fig. 203. ya. point on CA. Through 7 the lines ya. are cut off in a similar manner from the edges CA.2 is cut off by proportional comThe passes to represent the same length as Cd. one exception to this rule in the case of the possible face (Chap.. &o.. 1) which is perpendicular to the axis. and constitutes a pedion which is frequently There is . T {hkl}.. This face cannot be repeated. in a and Oj. AA. The faces must. and Z 8.. 701 are drawn parallel to CA' and CA.

edges of the pyramid is parallel to a possible face . mid which cannot by itself enclose a finite The class may therefore portion of space. or r{hOl\. Y and Z. then the homologous face. and the others are then assigned symbols which correspond with their positions. we can take equal parameters. Fig. and makes 45 with the axes of and Y. on these axes and such parameters are clearly the most convenient. and any pair of edges perpendicular to it which are at right angles to and T. These one another give the directions of the axes of X latter axes are parallel to the edges in which the pedion is met by the pyramid to which the symbol r{101}. Hence. axis is The tetrad taken as the axis of Z. But in every case the possible prism-face equally inclined to the axial planes is taken to be (110). i. : : by 1 : 1 : c. 255 The general form is an acleistous tetragonal pyracalled the base. 206 consists of the tetragonal pyramid T {hOl} with the pedion T {001}. such that they meet the pedion in lines inclined at various angles to one another. symmetry is uniterminal and the crystals are hemithey should show pyro-electric phenomena. gives the directions of the axes of X. The morphic 31. axis of . obtained . be called the of acleistous tetragonal class. r {hOl}. to limit the choice of the pyramid selected to give the axes. 206. If there are a number of tetragonal pyramids in different azimuths. one of the pyramids is taken to give the directions of the axes.e. The tetragonal pyramid. in Fig.ACLEISTOUS TETRAGONAL CLASS. There is nothing. The possible crystal shown in Fig. No crystal the class can consist of a single form. If the face parallel to OY is taken to 'be (hOl). 206 OY. The parameters may be given by a at c. or . But we have already seen that the plane through opposite polar MM'. The therefore the line MLM' MM t MM' parallel to possible vertical face through at a point such that meet X M M' t X must therefore OF OY=OX. representing the pyramid T {hOl} and the pedion r{001}. and the crystallographer is influenced chiefly by a desire to give the simplest indices to the faces. so that equal parameters are XOZ and YOZ measured on OX and 32. is assigned. but must be a combination of two or more forms. however.

Ohl (k). ITO. a the particular case of the pyramid in which h and are both unity. and has the symbol The remaining two faces are (hOl) and (Ohl). if a section of this crystal is taken in the plane LOX. faces through the similar and interchangeable M. TlO. OL = c + Hence.'. and if e is the pole (101). 206 can be drawn parallel to OZ. the form T {hOl} consists of the faces (Ohl). Hence. HO. parallel to . as those given in (2) and (3) of Arts. &c. passes through MM' and L. faces : 110. Ohl. 180 and 270 about OZ. I a n is the pole of this face. or E. and C is the pole (001). 8 and 12. then A Cn= f\LXO. {110}. : hOl. We. the one has the symbol r{001}. CLASS III. The prism is geometrically the same as {110} in the omitted. of Fig. therefore. hOl. edges Since the faces are parallel to two of the axes. classes. X M LM' t We have of Fig. 010. : (1} pedions . 33. MM'. they form complementary pedions and have different characters. They constitute a prism similar to that which has its faces parallel to the vertical axial planes in the two preceding t M Again. 100. 010. (2) tetragonal prisms. in which OX--=a + h. have the same formulae for determining the element c-^a. already had in Art. {100}. and if both faces are present. the positions of which are obtained by rotations of 90. 31 a prism-face (110) This face must be associated with three others. . tanCVz. . The special forms are {110}. Since they are parallel to the axes of and Y. two preceding classes. 2. The pedions are the faces perpendicular to the tetrad axis 1. by a rotation of 90. =T I -. and the other the symbol r{OOT}. T {MO}. have a right-angled triangle LXO. the symbols are 100. The symbol may therefore be written {100}. If tan LXO = OL+OX = ^-. we Again. then If we take I tan Ce = c -=- a = tan E. and the Greek prefix may be The prism {110} has the {100}. and l.256 TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. 206.

257 The tetragonal prism. where OL = c + l. One of the faces which 34. one of its faces may be supposed to be drawn through the line of Fig.ACLEISTOUS PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS.. 180 and 270 HMK this line is KH t brought successively into the positions K'H^. 177. 177 faces can be alternate edges HK. Through the lines A A'. If a prism occur in any general azimuth. in if o is which h = I. Again. MO. brought into similar positions without disturbing the arrangement of parts having the same physical characters. The has the intercepts OA OA' OL. 7 that alternate sides of the ditetragon of this figure are at 90 to one another. The two prisms cannot therefore be . used to represent -the faces of the particular case then the pyramid oisT{lll}. but it has no necessary connection with T {MO}. in Art. in. hkl. The plane inclinations of these XOY. t . are given by equations two pyramids to the pedion. meet at an apex if L OL = hc + 1. drawn to meet the tetrad axis at a point L. Hence T {hhl} consists of : first two indices hhl. of Fig. and the signs of the are alone changed. &c.1. through the H' of Fig. hhl (m). or (5) and (6) of Art. AA The tetragonal pyramid. khl (n). MO (1). HK t tj . : For we saw MO. These HK K t four faces are interchangeable by rotation about the tetrad axis and constitute a pyramid T {hkl}. it comprises the faces : in. and have the symbols : hkl. In all the preceding pyramids the apex L may be on either side L. hhl. to the 35. T {MO}. r {hhl}. MO. 177 . 17 . t the tetrad axis at the and the facial development and physical characters two ends are dissimilar. faces can be drawn to meet the tetrad axis at a finite distance on either side of the origin. 13. Similarly. K'Hti . face has therefore the symbol (hhl). hhl. The tetragonal pyramid. khl. t ti . or a a he -f. 173 in which the faces of the prism {110} meet the plane XO Y. c. r{hkl}. {MO} can be formed by drawing the faces through the remaining edges of Fig. prism r {MO} consists of the faces '. though the faces can be placed in a similar similar prism T A or geometrical position by rotation through 180 about the line the line But such a rotation interchanges different ends of OM OM . By rotations of 90. in. The three : : : : t other faces all pass through L. ni. Hence the.

. we remember that I may represent either a all positive or a negative cases which can occur. c" = tan E" = ^ -^ tan E = ^ Jtf + tf. number.258 of the origin . If. and this new value can be determined when we know the pyramids which have been changed and the element corresponding to one of them. elements c' is therefore the original c multiplied From equation (9) we can find E" and c" the values of the when a face t of the pyramid r {hkl} is taken to be (101). if (hkl) is (211). and let or cn-a be E the corresponding element . But we have already any pyramid may be taken to give the directions of X There can therefore be no essential distinction between and Y. the crystals are regarded as merohedral. caused by changing the series. by equation (2). and the forms of which are regarded . 37. T {hkl} which may be said to belong to three series.E". is to alter the value of the element (whether it be pyramids of the different E or c -=- a) . If a and a' are both taken to be unity. T {hhl}. f And by equation (6). and in the third they may occupy any azimuth which is stated that limited by the equation tan XOG = k-h. however.SYSTEM. and in the second representation let o be made (101). the have each one-half the faces in the bi- {hOl} and {hhl} of Class II. c" = cJ5. T {hhl\.tan E" when a" = 1 . tan Co = cJ2 ^a = j2 tan E. Thus. For Ct . In the first the edges of the base are parallel to the axes.-. which has the greatest symmetry possible in the system. But Co = E\ and tan E' = c' + a'. the above expressions include 36. TETRAGONAL . let e(101) and o(lll) be the faces of two pyramids in the first representation. Thus. CLASS and if III. We have therefore pyramids r {hQl}. tan E = tan Ce = c + a. so that Co is E' and the corresponding parametral ratio is c' : a'. The new parameter by V2. in the second they are at 45 to the axes. then c = tan E' = tan Co = J2 tan E = c^/2. The only difference which will be series. and c" . to which the pyramid giving the element belongs. Now. pyramids pyramids T {hQl}.

of which the facial development and the physical characters are the consequence. 172 . Ba(SbO) 2 (C4 4 6 ) 2 2 0. and by a variation in the axes of reference OX and OY. {110} are regarded as holohedral. a form which was in the first representation regarded as tetartohedral has in the second case to be regarded as hemihedral. Crystals of toulfenite (PbMo0 4 ) have been described which show forms of this kind.PRINCIPLE OF MEROHEDRISM. we can vary the manner in which these prisms are regarded. e=r{101}. the plane of polarization. 259 The pyramids T {hQl} and T {hhl} are therefore hemiBut the pyramid r {hkl} has only one-fourth the faces of the ditetragonal bipyramid {hkl} of Class II. 38. therefore. 207 includes the forms: n=r{lll}. it is a matter of choice on the part series of of the crystallographer which of the pyramids is selected to give the axes. as holohedral. and is therefore hedral. however. 39. As. whilst T {MO} is taken to be hemihedral . that the views underlying the idea of rnerohedrism lead to inconsistencies. The The principal axis being one of uniterminal symmetry should be a pyro-electric axis this has : not been established in wulfenite. Crystals of these two substances do not rotate p IO 207. and to representations of the We crystals which are not in accordance with the facts. {3ll}. It is clear that analytically the method of determining the symbols of the faces and the parametral ratio from the measured angles. the crystals of which are held to belong also to this class. the prisms {100}. the tetrad axis has been found to be a . The n = r{lll}. but in barium- antimonyl dextrotartrate. These difficulties are avoided when each class is treated as consisting of a group of crystals having definite elements of symmetry. must in this class be exactly the same as that given in preceding sections. the different series cannot be some of them hemiFor by taking (hkl) to give hedral and the others tetartohedral. 8=r{432}. (after Naumann) crystal shown in Fig. Similarly. tetartohedral. X=T element ^=57 37 '3'. see. the element c" we change a tetartohedral form into a hemihedral one. and c = 1-5771. or of determining the angles from the symbols and element. H H pyro-electric axis. or rather.

faces. analytical relations of the element.e.260 TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. 1TO. 8 and 22 as a possible form in each of classes I and II. angles and face-indices. is obtained from the possible or actual pyramid to axis. 4. therefore. The element c. They can. having its faces parallel to the and T. khO. occur in pairs which are Hence parallel to one another. Prop. The prisms given in class III remain unaltered. The bipyramid {hOl}. 32 IT. deduced from those of the preceding class by the addition of faces 35. be perpendicular to the tetrad axis. OX and OY are parallel to which the symbol {101} The and is given. or J. for the being parallel to a tetrad axis. and each of them encloses a finite portion of space. The bipyramid {hhl}. occur alone on crystals of this class. hkO. can clearly take axes having to one another the same is the tetrad relation as the axes of crystals of class III . 41. T10. a plane of symmetry The forms can. and therefore. Diplohedral tetragonal class . is geometrically identical with that described in axes of Arts. i. therefore. IV. 010. MO. CLASS IV. and equal parameters are taken on them. = r{hkO} {001}. 010. The faces perpendicular to the tetrad axis both occur together and form the pinakoid 43. TOO. which has its horizontal edges parallel to the diagonals of the square formed by bipyramids of the first series. We OZ the horizontal edges of any tetragonal bipyramid. is geometrically identical with {hhl} of Art. are identical with those of crystals belonging to the preceding classes. by Chap. obtained by regarding the plane LT as a mirror in which the faces are reciprocal reflexions. Or the new faces can be parallel to those given in Arts. The X bipyramid includes the eight faces given in table e. tr {hkl}. Crystals of this class possess a tetrad axis. The tetragonal pyramids become diplohedral. 40. the methods of solution of the problems which may occur. Fig. 179. symmetry. MO. a centre of ix. 23 and may be represented . : {100} consists of 100. 42. TTO. {110} ir{hkO} 110.

of which these several forms are the immediate consequence. and the element. khl. 209 shows a crystal having the forms: e{101}. It is clearly inconsistent with the symmetry of the crystals. by a mere change in the series which the bipyramid selected as {101} belongs. 4. of erythroglucine. but. . khl (o). Also. Art. The same remarks apply to prisms {100}. 24. and Z=TT {311}. 36. m : : m The angle mr=58 9'. 208. make a definite bipyramid holohedral in the one case and hemihedral in the other. hkl. 4 belong to this class. The faces o are usually present : and are sometimes those which predominate as a rule. Different crystallographers might. it was regarded as being hemiof the bipyramids {hOl\ hedral with parallel faces. h=n {313}. as it has only one-half the faces of the bipyramid of Art. 208 represents a crystal of meionite. in which /? ranges from 1:0 to 3:1. and have the symbols : hkl. . Fio. r {111}. The double refraction is weak and negative. Fig. there is no essential X between the tetragonal bipyramids of the different series.TETRAGONAL BIPYRAMIDS. + Crystals of scapolite (wernerite). CaW0 PbW0 . to give the axes of Since a bipyramid of any series may be selected arbitrarily and Y. Crystals of scheelite are optically positive. /??Ca4 of stolzite. 177. 45. The tetragonal Fig. khl. and it diminishes as the amount of sodium increases. to regard two of the series as holohedral and the others as hemihedral. of scheelite. and from equation (6) c = '43925. which pass through the sides of the square formed by the alternate sides of the ditetragon of Fig. 44. o{lll}. the values of the distinction element in the two representations are connected by the equations given in Art. The general appearance of the form is the same as that of each and {hhl}. variety of scapolite The forms are a {100}. khl. by : 261 it comprises the faces given in table i. hkl. whilst TT {MO} has only half the faces present in {MO} of classes I and II. hkl. The bipyramid TT [hkl\ consists of the eight faces of table j. when a change is made in the axes and element. 24. Fig. by selecting a bipyramid of a different series to give them. {110} which are to geometrically identical with those of the three previous classes. {110}. Al^O^ /iNa^l^i^d C4 H 10 4 . s=n {131}. 190 bipyramids of these two series are therefore apparently holohedral.

difficulties.-. The diameters through the points / and /' is to find h and give. By equation (6). The zone-circles [A'e]. ..-.-. 55-6'. . and give poor reflexions. knowing the symbols and the element. .-. element is computed from measurement of the angle 00. vn. shown in this position than in one conforming The development the common arrangement. 210. are then described. are then drawn and by the . &c. tan A'h = 3 tan 50 2-25'. the poles lie in the zone [A'eA. they are bright and smooth. construction of Chap. The diametral zones [CA]. we can determine the angles which h.B.. Hence. is determined on [CA] or [Cm]. poles The construction of the stereograni. <fec. A '/i = 74 23-6'. Fig. presents no A TO. or o. The simplest way of determining the points / and /' in [Am]. . c = 1-5356. the pole e. [Cm].= 49 27'. 1. as shown in Fig. The . if T is taken to be a pole (hkh) lying in this zone.&c. if T is taken to be * (131).]. and Af=A'f'=18 26'. where /is (310) and/' (130). 209 the axes have been turned 45 that o (111) is is more to the left than to is usual. or. o and s make with e. In Fig. paper would be given by circlets surrounding each dot. [Ae'].TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. from the right-angled triangle A'om. 210. . For. 43-5'). A. so better in the position usually occupied by (hQl). . by their intersection with the zone-circle The poles below the the poles h and s. . and to be h (313). =65 16-5') = 56 Zone [ehos]. tan A's = tan 50 2-25' -f-3 if and ^'s = 21 41-5'. Prop. we have cos A'o = cos (4'm=45) cos (mo = 24 A'o=50 2-25'. . {A' Toe} we have from the But. [eo]. and give good reflexions. Hence. The faces e{101| Hence the are striated parallel to the edges [eh]. vice versa. CLASS IV. in the zone [eh] enables us to Measurement of the angles determine the symbols of the faces. are marked off on the primitive at 45 to one another.

parameters and face-indices. and the angles between them be bisected by the other pair 8. 5 and 6. but a The arrangement of axes and parametral plane is the same as that in classes I and II. the like axes A. parameter on OZ. and a = b.. (OOT). are taken as and OT. the other pair by 8. which meets OZ at a finite distance from the origin.TRAPEZOHEDRAL CLASS. rectangular axes with equal parameters on Hence we have different and OY. This class differs from II inasmuch as it has no centre and no planes of symmetry. for it meets them at 47. OX symmetry does not. be denoted by the symbol a{hkl}. 7. however. 8. The general form may. and will give the parameter c by equation (6). axis being OZ. The two tetragonal prisms. may be taken as parametral plane (111). pair may as in class II be denoted A x . 46. a pair of like dyad axes which as the pair 8. The one . 8. In crystals of this all class the tetrad axis is associated it. For rotation through 180. The possible face perpendicular to A is then the most convenient one to select to give the parameters on and OY. A. Such have faces parallel to the axes of symmetry will be common to this class also. about a dyad. therefore. affect the formula connecting angles. Hence The pinakoid {001} has the faces (001). with of four dyad axes perpendicular to which necessarily consist two pairs of like axes. axis necessarily interchanges a pair of parallel faces which are both parallel to the axis of rotation. 8 Again. Any plane through the trace of this face in the plane XOT. of planes of all sequently those established for class I hold for this class also. The tetragonal bipyramid Art. or 2 x 90. 8 . and the ditetragonal prism {hkO} will consist of the eight faces given in Art. {hOl} will be the same as that given in . save that in crystals of this class there are no planes of symmetry. must be at 90 to one another. t t interchanges like elements of the crystal. of the forms of class II as 48. : will each consist of four faces. and conor absence. w{110} and A {100}. or tetrad. 263 V. Trapezohedral class. for a rotation of 90 about the tetrad axis by A. a (hkl\. The tetrad we may denote OX OX equal distances from the origin. which have the symbols given in Arts. The presence.

. is the only Fig. khl. a dissimilar dyad axis. In all the above forms the Greek prefix is usually omitted .. several of them are common to the other classes already discussed. It consists of eight four-sided similar faces which are Each face has metastrophic.264 TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. it be regarded as made up of that set of the faces of the bipyramid {hkl} of Art. finite The general form a {hkl\. 23. fty of the crystal is turned tetrad aft 90 about the The median edges to and each face are dissimilar the axial and are inclined Y at different angles . the forms do not differ from those of class II. . for. 49. and bisected by. perpendicular to A or A /? interchange places. Geometrically. The tetragonal bipyramid in the similar the eight faces given form in Art. a {hkl} has the following may faces : hkl. aft. geometrically. in which h and k are one geometrically characteristic of the class.. indices of the pairs of faces. which are interchangeable by rotation about the axes of symmetry. are different. hkl. and an equal rotation about OY interchanges equal and opposite lengths on OX and OZ.. hkl . have h and k in the same order. such as La and Ly. yS. The form is called a and gives its name to the class. two like polar edges. (P). plane and each of them is perpendicular to.. It will be noticed that the first two which meet in like median edges. since a rotation of 180 about either of these axes interchanges the axes of and Y. And.. and the last index changes X A pair of faces. meeting in edges perpendicular to 8 or 8 sign... CLASS {hhl\ consists of V. XO p IG 211 trapezohedron. for a rotation of 180 about OX interchanges equal and opposite lengths on OY and OZ. and unequal. khl. hkl. as has been seen. &c.. which change places all when through axis. which the edge does not meet.. 211. By paying t . Hence. khl.. 24. but the signs of the intercepts on the two axes of reference.. khl. The same rotation interchanges opposite ends of the axis of Z.

vi.. It is clear that the trapezohedron has three different angles between faces which meet in edges . the symbols of all the faces can be directly obtained without reference to Art. . We Then A Assume PP3 =PP5 . that the angle PP& over the edge not equal to f\PP3 over /3y. for the corresponding relation of the angles of using the equations and notation of that Article. and A MP=PP5 +2. The form a {hkl} may be drawn as follows. axial plane at 22 30'. And A-5-A=V2-l. 13). need not discuss We the possibility of making the angle over La equal to either of the other two for. can also prove the proposition as follows. : equality and would make the angles unequal. 26. il cosPP3 = (A2 -F-:-5)^^ 2 (17). we have : For fOr JT f. if a case were found. and the ditetragon of Fig.TETRAGONAL TRAPEZOHEDRA. points H. a/3 is The simplest and most direct proof. 25 that no prism-face can be inclined to a vertical HP= I\MP: for A HP = PP^%. is obtained in the same way as that. given in Art. has been shown in Art. determined on the axes of and Y. 212 is then drawn in the projected plane . H'. and angles over the dissimilar median edges a/3 and (3y and no two of these angles can be permanently equal. 50.-* 1 ^ and Hence.. an alteration of temperature. J = cosA'Pi = ccosCPz = J J 1 j Ty. K'. viz. n lt projected (Chap. \KIU). Hence. where OH=a--h. Hence the plane through the tetrad axis and the normal OP must meet the sphere in a circle which intersects the zone-circle [^rn^'J in a with centre at But it pole / lying exactly midway between A and m i.e.= cos A'P _ ^3 * 3 c uus cos CP3 __ Vff = . OH' = OK=a-^-k^ . causing a change in the ratio of c a. are tl K. Af 22 30'. / 7 uus * cos A * A P _ uub * = . those over polar edges La. K. 24. PP3 can never be equal to PP& . {hkl}. H H The axes having been K X &c. would necessarily disturb the . 265 attention to the effect of rotation about the axes of symmetry. 51. for e n TT\ P3 (hkl). Art.

Similarly.. the ditetragon intersect. If yHfi is of compasses.H' in s. The point y is determined by the intersection of this edge with Ly and fffi=Hy is then measured off by a pair of . are then easily drawn and will be found to pass &c. L.266 TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. and s. are the lines joining L on OZ (where OL = OL. are then determined by a pair of compasses. V.. a is determined. The remaining compasses. &c. &c.. on these polar edges. and known. We have. XOY. in the 52. its homologues being also obtained..H'.. Finally the edges Lfi. t . and The points a and e are therefore found . to determine through the alternate trace tl the points a.8. For the face (hkl) passes through HK. &c. y. there- fore. are obtained by a similar M t The student will be guided in his selection of the method he pursues in by considerations of the accuracy attainable. The complementary form a {khl} has all its faces. The upper polar edges Z a &c. 211 by lines of interrupted strokes. Fig. now. .. known.. 8 to LH'. CLASS the points M. If the direction La is Hs and L. hkl]. y8. in which alternate FIG. construction. M a/3. and the points equidistant from K' and K. which therefore gives the direction of the edge fitly. The LH is produced to meet L. 211. K'. The median edge through is but parallel to the zone axis [hkl.H' are shown in The line Ms gives the direction Mp=Ma. &c. K t median edges through M. parallel respectively to those of a {hkl}. Or we may determine the median edges line aJ/j3. which is the same as \hkl. hkl] sides _of and (khl) H H : these latter faces pass through the line LK.=c+l) to jVand the three homologous points. &c. M\ &c. determination of the points N any particular case. ft is determined. K'a is parallel to the line L. and a obtained by a pair The homologous edges 8. are drawn and complete the trapezohedron. all its edges. and ^V and . as follows. Hence. of the edge aMfi. and.

therefore placed in this class . Again the polar edges through L 213 are parallel to those through L t in Fig. but the symbols could . on which a [hkl] is developed. 211 and 267 made by drawing through K' through K t a line parallel to aK'. {201}. If crystals. {111}. have yet been observed showing either of the two general forms. plate 1 is mm. 54. C 2 4 (NH 2 ) 2 2 combinations of the pinakoid c {001} with one or several bipyramids .TETRAGONAL TRAPEZOHEDRA. The substances are by variation of the conditions under which their crystals are grown. (CH 5 N3 ) 2 H 2 CO3 c='9910. H H . or against. but crystals on which special forms are alone developed have been found to cause rotation of the plane of polarization. {100} slightly developed: small dull faces of a trapezohedron have been observed. Arguing from the analogy of quartz (Chap. With this character a difference in the optical properties may be expected. The direction of rotation may be with. 53. save those of guanidine carbonate. rotate the plane is of polarization clockwise. and vice versa. Unfortunately. to establish the correlation by the development of general forms. {101}. Similarly. 15 30'. The crystals are optically positive. the hands of a watch. no crystals. class IV). {221}. tals are S04 c = 1 '4943. 211. and are enantiomorphous. 213 showing a (ktd\ is immediately a line parallel to Se of Fig. The two forms are clearly reciprocal reflexions with respect to any one of the axial planes. The remaining median edges through are then M easily drawn. The crystals are bipyramids {111} with the forms {001}. those in which the complementary form developed may be expected to give a rotation counter-clockwise. Fig. Guanidine carbonate. and by a thick the rotation for sodium light of the plane of polarization . H changed. and H t the edges through are reciprocally interin Fig. Tetragonal crystals of the following substances rotate the plane of polarization of a beam transmitted along the principal axis and are therefore placed in this class. and we may hope. xvi. The crysEthylene-diamine sulphate. crystals of this class should rotate the plane of polarization of a plane-polarised beam traversing the crystal along the principal axis.

56. The crystals are negative and Isevogyral and the rotation for 1 mm. The only parameter. 17 4' (Tl) (Bodewig. (C 21 22 2 2 ) 2 2 S0 4 There is a good cleavage crystals are combinations of {111} with {001}.e. c = 1-3593. {hkl}. which axis. varies with the substance. c 3'312. H N H = the edges of the plate on opposite which conform to symmetry with respect to a dyad axis perpendicular to the edges of the plate. Crystals of this class have a tetrad axis and four planes of symmetry intersecting in it. will be identical with those of class II. and need no Greek prefix they. inclined to it. comprise the faces given in tables : b. but not to a centre of symmetry. and rotate the plane of polarization sometimes to the right. The planes places of symmetry consist of two 90 pairs S and 2 of like planes . Acleistous ditetragonal class . CLVII. 1876. and cleavage plates. is 17 '1 (Li). . 55. parallel to (001) . . The crystals 4 (C 2 3 O) 2 are optically negative. the OX OY parameters on them are equal.). CLASS The double 1 VI. It determined in the manner given in Art. fj. rotation for a plate refraction is is weak.268 TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. Pogg. respectively. The tetrad prisms. show sides of in directions . also. The mm. VI. and negative. {100}.and piezo-electric polarity. sometimes to the left the rotation for 1 mm. Ann. axis is uniterminal and is an axis of pyro. C 20 H 12 H : 19-7 (Na). 14 34' (Na). i. of one pair. 23-8 (Tl). . mentary form. is measured on the principal 8. the forms of this class consist of those planes which in the corresponding forms of class II meet at only one apex on the principal axis. c and d. 6H 2 O. {hkQ} have clearly the same faces as the similarly placed prisms of classes I and II. From this point of view the planes meeting the axis at the opposite apex form a tautomorphous comple- Forms with faces parallel to the principal axis. The prisms {110}. 57. p. 122. for each pair of like planes are at to one another and change when The planes pair. The taken as the axes bisected possible zone-axes perpendicular to 2 and 2' can be and . not be determined. for the angles between them are by the planes S and is c S'. Diacetyl-phenolphtalein. fine rectangular striae. The Strychnine sulphate. . and. as was shown in class I. is about 9 for red light. the crystal is turned through 90 about the tetrad axis. thick 12 35' (Li). etched by dilute hydrochloric acid. but no other element of symmetry. and the crystals are hemimorphic. bisect the angles between the other Geometrically.

None of the forms are closed. 58. 206 may belong both to III and to this 3. a single series of pits having the shape of isosceles . 214 of which the general symbol is //. in Fig. {hkl}. This peculiarity is explained by supposing the crystal to be a composite or twinned crystal (Chap. khl.. class. 269 possible are the following p. .. The other forms 1. hkl. Corrosionexperiments have confirmed this view for. and of penta-erythrite. hhl. III. (q). Ohl.. long to this class. Crystals are sometimes obtained which.. The more obtusely terminated end is the antilogous pole. by equation This is indicated by the + and signs which give the electrifications with falling temperature. AgF H 2 O C6 H 12 O4 be. and the crystals must in all cases be combinations of two or more forms. of which {001} is one. hkl . and mv = 222'5'. Hence.. manifest negative electrifications at the opposite ends of the principal axis. xvni) in which two similar halves are joined along a pedion... crystal of succin-iodimide having the forms A m{110}. so that both ends are analogous poles. .ACLEISTOUS DITETRAGONAL PYRAMIDS... : The form comprises the faces hid. acleistous ditetragonal class. {OOT}. the more acutely terminated end the analogous pole. These pyramids have the same faces as those denoted by and T in {hhl} in class The simple possible crystal represented Fig. C4 H4 NI. as the temperature falls. 215. of succin-iodimide. Acleistous ditetragonal py- ramids like Fig. . hOl... khl. hkl. is The element c by Professor Groth Cb=510'. khl. 215. hhl.. FIO. Acleistous tetragonal pyramids : n{hQl} consisting of hW. OM. o=/*{lll}. the complementary pedion being 2.. p. wio = 390'.. ?= M {221} '8733. and w' = /x{22l} given is shown (6). hhl.\hhl\ Ml. whilst normal untwinned crystals give on the faces m {110} . : Pedions p. The class will be called the Crystals 2 of silver fluoride. khl.

. placed in a general azimuth. in &c. ra \hkl\.Hii of Fig. VII. Attention has been called to the possibility of a class of crystals in which every form is a tetragonal sphenoid. may be represented by Fig. crystals FIG. The two faces have the symbols (Mil). triangles with their apices all directed towards the analogous pole. 215. The o= M {lll}. Fig. CLASS VII. 217. c = p. and often show anomalous optic phenomena. M'. &c. where K i OL = c + l. 217 are not drawing 1 The sphenoid TV K shown in Fig 218: the positions of n'g. Such a form. 59. are optically negative. (khl). M. the crystals having analogous poles at opposite ends ?w. . and HK {khl} has been drawn in preference to Ty{hkl} because the figure gives the geometrical relations of the sphenoid more clearly than a of the latter.. {001}. 216 shows a crystal of penta-erythrite having the forms: a{100}. give two series of triangular pits with apices directed respectively towards the opposite ends. The more distant points fl'. and are interchangeable by a semi-revolution about OZ. o)=/*{lll}. Sphenoidal class . save when the faces are parallel or perpendicular to the principal axis (though no crystal of the kind has ever been found). 217 a pair of faces to meet the principal axis at Z. &c. are indicated by short strokes bisecting ns. and may be obtained by drawing through the opposite sides H'K'. 216. of Fig. as shown by the three triangles drawn on of a face m in Fig.270 TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. The parameter c = 1 '0236. They are associated with a second pair of faces which pass through the parallel sides U and Hfi of the ditetragon of Fig. 218.

-TV {101}. Hence the triangles sLn. Of the sphenoids possible on a crystal of this class one is selected to give by its horizontal edges the axes of and Y . This can also be proved from we shall show can occur The sphenoids will of the series taken to give the axes of {hOl}. and the included angles are equal. and the for instance. and the face snri is an isosceles Similarly. 9 is divided by the planes of symmetry S t . the three sphenoids crystal has no planes of symmetry. and ris = ris. sLri are equal . the plane Lss is at right angles to the edge nri.TETRAGONAL SPHENOIDS. and as the faces meet the horizontal plane through the middle point of the principal axis in a square it follows that equal parameters can X be taken on the axes of X and Y. Again. 7). Ls of the other. r a {khl} described in Art. These two edges are therefore parallel to H'K'. at 90 to one another (see Art. (Ml). and the line Ls in the face (khl) must therefore be at 90 to nri . H K HKn are alternate sides of the ditetragon. when taken in succession. another. meet OZ at L where OL = c -H symbols (hkl). and are. Therefore sn = sri . the relations of the tetragonal prisms which on such crystals. The figure formed by these lines sides in the plane But the edge nri is is therefore a square. now respect to the axial planes it is a sphenoid similar to that placed in a general azimuth with consists of the four faces : khl. 271 I: the new faces have therefore the it t . then the pair of vertical planes which bisect the faces of one of them will not divide the others symmetrically. but it is . T {111}. ra \hkl\ of Fig. HK. hkl (r). AS". Qhl (s). and Ln = Lri. Ls of the one are equal to two sides ri L. ns = ns t . It follows that any particular sphenoid is divided symmetrically by the two perpendicular planes which pass through the principal axis and the horizontal edges. Hence the form 9. and as. Ohl. triangle. for two sides nL. . But the t . t hkl. RK'. X and : Y have the general symbol r a the faces of which are hOl. 60. hOl. 219. But if a crystal has several sphenoids in different azimuths. The faces are therefore equal isosceles triangles. and ss/ to t perpendicular to the principal axis and are at right angles to one XO Y HK . such as nri and ss in the same way that the sphenoid of Art. khl. n and ri are interchanged. but by a semi-revolution about OZ.

for the is parallel to [AOJ. 219. 219. c -4- a = tan E. through / Let q be the point at parallel to LM. then tan Cn = .* if. 61. and the triangle MMM' angles at M and M' each 45. Art. to LM an / axis OZ of the sphenoid r^Ol} h} is parallel Again. Again. then it is clear that the figure triangle MqM LMqM is / / is isosceles. 8. 220. Hence. One ratio is selected to give the parametral a. If n is the face (hOl) of a sphenoid TO {hQl}. e is the pole (101). OAf] [ACM. t t The trace MM' is therefore inclined at 45 to the axes OX and OY. as in (2) of Art.272 TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. X : TO {hOl}. But is this latter plane passes isosceles triangle through having the M M'. FIG. a similar vertical face can be drawn. t same is true of the other faces of the sphenoid TO- {hQl}. since the edge of Fig. We .tan E. the angle over one of symbol is the horizontal edges gives --"'. for the plane face a rhombus. CLASS of the sphenoids of this series c : VII. which truncates the edge and meets the axes at equal distances from the origin. through M an edge edge is drawn parallel to LM t . and of its Measurement T ff {101}. 220 by drawing through L an edge parallel to and through L an MM t t edge parallel to MM'. as was stated in and Y the face is then (110). an edge is drawn Similarly. M line which these new edges meet the horizontal through L/. as in Fig. Oht]. This latter sphenoid can be easily derived from the pyramid shown in Fig. 60. be taken on the axes of But through each of the other slanting edges of the sphenoid . the face through parallel to the principal is a possible face and is parallel to the plane through t Mq Mq LOM . Hence the vertical face through Mq meets these axes at equal distances from the origin and equal parameters can. Hence the (hOf) of the having its sphenoid is an isosceles triangle The sides double those of MqM .

i. 219. hkQ. The vertical planes truncating the slanting edges of the sphenoids of this series compose the tetragonal prism {100} the vertical faces parallel to the planes bisecting the faces of the sphenoid compose the prism {110}. in which the sphenoid ra {101} or ra {hQl} meets the axial plane XOY. taking ra : {khl}. angles of 45. A'. : p. 218. The other is that formed by the vertical faces which truncate the slanting edges of the sphenoid . . c. It is clear that : can be derived the one is from every sphenoid two tetragonal prisms that formed by the vertical faces through the sides of the square in which the sphenoid meets the plane XO Y . If the symbol of the sphenoid is given.PRISMS OF THE SPHENOIDAL CLASS. edge ns of Fig. and only differing from the latter in that the two vertical planes through the principal axis which bisect the faces are no longer planes of symmetry. khQ. 62. these faces are parallel to the vertical planes drawn through each of the horizontal edges bisecting pairs of the faces of the sphenoid. 63. and comprises the same faces. hkQ. those of the two prisms can be easily determined. zone-law. we must have the two faces of the pinakoid {001}. hkl]. of Fig. and since no distinction has. Let the second prism have the symbol ra If the face (qpQ) truncates the [khl. the former prism is {^0} and comprises the faces from the fact that its faces khO. 273 thus have a rectangular prism {110} similar to that obtained in each of the preceding classes. in the definition of the forms of the class. been made between opposite ends of the principal axis. &c. Again. 219.. This prism is also similar to that obtained in all the other classes. the faces of this latter prism are parallel to the diagonals of the square formed by the former prism. the poles of which are at A. The vertical faces through the is The face parallel to the pair of horizontal edges of any sphenoid a possible face . shown in Fig. TO of the second prism (ii) Thus. it lies in the zone Hence by Weiss's an equation which gives the ratio of q L. a crystal may have sphenoids T O {hhl} geometrically identical with K {hhl} of class I . 18 . and comprising the same faces the poles : are sides of the square. compose a second tetragonal prism {100}. The symbol can be obtained Weiss's zone-law. or (i) by are inclined to those of -ra {khQ} at {<7/>0}.

Some crystallographers give the relations of the faces of the sphenoid r a {khl} in the following manner.. face (khl) of the form is taken and rotated about the principal axis OZ through A 90. in which ti . TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. any face of the zone is possible. of a second face of the of the first face so as to This face must therefore slope in a direction opposite to that meet OZ at L The second face meets the . by equation -=- (MO).. and its symbol is (hkl). HK XOY necessarily form a square. . tan XOG' - tan 45 If tan X0(?' is replaced by AH. a face (hkl) meeting OZ at a third repetition of the operation brings the . 217. t face to its original position. &c. again. will be called tetragonal (Chap. CLASS Let VII. and tan XOG' = h + k. reflected in the plane Y. Art. The transposed face now reflexion in a mirror. is. the homologous face (khl) must meet the principal The joint result of the axis in the same point L as the first face. we have p which is _h+k-l _h-k the same result as before. 12). The special forms derived from {001}. (2) tetragonal prisms r this principle are (1) a pinakoid {MO}. such as have already been : described. : XO two operations is When the operation L is obtained and equivalent to a simple rotation of 180 about OZ. OF be the normal to (qpQ). the transposed face meets the plane after each rotation. plane lt second rotation of 90 about OZ in the same direction the same XOY HK operation is repeated the face (hkl) being. t in On a of Fig.k and tan 45 by 1. Then XOG' = 45 + XOF. repeated. situated in occupies a position which is the XOY. The lines H'K'.274 ii. form. and OG' be the normal to But. after rotation. &c. XOF = p q . 64. ix. in which a face inclined at 45 to A zone. tan (1).

II. tetrahedral-pentagonalIII. It crystals have also nine planes of symmetry three cubic planes.CHAPTER XV. each perpendicular to a tetrad axis . The dyakis-dodecahedral (diplohedral trigonal. which are either tetrad or dyad axes. and the triad axes and hemimorphic. and the opposite ends of the triad axes are similar and interchangeable. but the ends are not interchangeable. follows that the The tetrahedral (polar trigonal. The crystals have no other element of symmetry. The hexakis-octahedral (diplohedral ditrigonal. THE CUBIC SYSTEM. 182 . dodecahedral. : (pentagonal-icositetrahedral) class. are dyad axes. the five following classes I. parallel to the edges of the cube. class. These seven axes involve The plagihedral the presence of six like dyad axes which are parallel to the facediagonals of the cube of which the triad axes are the diagonals. in which the rectangular axes. in which the rectangular axes are dyad axes and are associated with a centre of symmetry and with three planes of symmetry. in which the rectangular axes are tetrad axes. each perpendicular to one of the dyad axes the distribution of faces about opposite ends of each triad axis is : similar. parallelare uniterminal faced hemiliedral) class. each perpendicular to one of the dyad axes. holohedral) the crystals of which have a centre of symmetry associated with the thirteen axes of symmetry described under class I. the cubic system was stated to include all crystals having four triad axes. IV. the directions of which are given by the diagonals of a cube they are therefore similarly situated : with respect to three rectangular axes. 1. IN Chapter x. parallel to the edges of the The crystals fall into cube. teta/rtohedral) class. and six dodecahedral planes.

from one another. It follows. V. diameter of a tetrad . that TT t 9 is less than TT^ is This contravenes the the least angle between and Ta are taken as the limitation imposed on a. But the point C. viz. CTl intersect. But in a crystalline substance.276 CUBIC SYSTEM. bounded by planes inclined to one another at finite angles. We shall begin with the two classes of crystals having three tetrad axes at right angles to one another. let a be the least angle : let their T and T l possible between any pair of such axes. Prop. T 2 we can in a similar still manner find . for rotation through 90 about any one of them interchanges the two others. however. ix. The hexakis-tetrahedral (polar ditrigonal. in which 1} T T is through T the great circles CT. and therefore any faces similarly situated with respect to each of them. are associated with six dodecahedral planes of symmetry intersecting in sets of three in each of the triad axes and in pairs in each of the dyad axes. and directions be given by the radii of a sphere emerging at of Fig. hemihedral with inclined faces) class. where CTT^ = 90. is the pole of the great circle TTU for the angles at T and 7\ are right angles. and r\TTz=l\TT l . initial pair of axes. new tetrad axes inclined to one another at a smaller angle and that the process can be continued indefinitely. the points T . 2. in which the three dyad and four triad axes of symmetry characteristic of class III. therefore. 221 further. that it It is also clear that. If the sphere and crystal supposed to be rigidly connected together are turned about the diameter T through 90. there cannot be an infinite number of tetrad axes making indefinitely small angles with one another. but it is easy to establish the proposition independently. If. by a rotation of 90 about the diameter through T brought to Ts on the great circle CTl . then T^ is brought to TS on the great circle CT. Then the through T z must be the direction axis similar to that emerging at t Similarly. In Chap. ii (c). Hence a cannot be less than 90. and the diameter must be the direction of a tetrad axis similar to that 3 emerging at T: also A T3 T1 = f\TT^. These axes are necessarily like and interchangeable . if tetrad axes. it was shown that the above is the only possible arrangement of several tetrad axes . T and T7 are 90 . For assume two tetrad axes to be inclined to one another at an angle a < 90. 12.

and meets it at 90 in the point 8". where ix. It was shown in Chap. that the three 3. tetrad axes are associated with four like triad axes. of rotation are obtained. 7). and interchangeable with. we have 1 -=- = A TP 8" pTT' cos T8" = sin 45 cos 45 = = 60. 221 obtained by a rotation of 90 about T and T^ rer spectively coincide in the point C. diameters through T and spherical triangle TpT' is isosceles. Prop. The same point p and the same angle successive rotations of 90 T" and T' are taken. and 7 3 T 277 of 'Fig. which are the diagonals of the cube having its edges. T'. p". 12. l\pTT'= A P rr=45. as a rotation of 90 about any one of them interchanges the remaining two. the points p'. ix. the distribution and arrangement of faces about each of them are similar. Hence in the righE-angled spherical triangle Tp8".'. and construct according to Euler's theorem (Chap. and.THREE TETRAD AND FOUR TRIAD AXES. sin 2 The external angle 8pT' of the triangle at p is 60. and the least angle of rotation about the diameter through p is 120: the diameter is therefore a triad axis. and A TpT' = 2TP 8" = 120. in Fig. if clockwise about the diameters through Hence all the angles at p are 60 . ii (c). i. they are all like and interchangeable tetrad axes . T". rotation about which is equivalent to rotations of successive 90 about the T'. The and the great circle T"p8" bisects the side FT'. axes. to. the three tetrad axes meet the sphere at the points T. A Tp = A F'p = A T"p. a. 222. to one another. Similarly. and the faces at each end of the axes are interchangeable.e. and The diameter through p is therefore a diagonal of the cube having its edges parallel to the tetrad axes. the pole of the great circle There can therefore be three tetrad axes mutually at right angles TT . the triangle TpT'. Op : they also are diagonals . p'" in each of the remaining octants above the paper are the extremities of diameters which are triad axes similar of the cube. Then p is the extremity of a diameter. Prop. cos Tp&" . Let.parallel to the three tetrad This proposition can also be established independently.

p". 223 (a). 223 (c) . and are exactly the same as through 120 through p. Similarly. 223 (b) FIG. 223 (ft). T"T. bisecting each of the quadrants T'T". which has its extremity at T of Fig. 223 (a) FIG.278 ft. 90 about the diameter through T" brings the axis p into the position of each of the other similar triad axes p. T' and T".. the . Successive Fig. rotation of triangle being one-half the angle of rotation about the respective axis the angle at 8" is also a right angle and the equivalent angle of rotation : about a tetrad axis T and a triad by Euler's theorem. Fig. several axes after this second rotation are shown in Fig. which is the crystal had been turned once in the direction of the arrow about the diameter if equally inclined to the diameters through T. 4. &c. p". the sphere. about 08" is 180. 223 (a) are also triad axes equally inclined to the It is also clear that successive rotations of adjacent tetrad axes. The point T is transto T. are. 223 (b) . each P T8". We can also prove the proposition in the following way. Hence 8" is the extremity of a dyad axis. and A pTS" = 45. p". 8'. The sphere is now turned through 90 about the right-and-left diameter. the apex of the For the angle Tp8" = 60. In the same way it may be shown that the diameters through p. with the crystal rigidly attached to it. equivalent to a single 180 about an axis emerging at 8". &c. T' In and T". and T Fio. The sphere is then turned through 90 about the diameter through T" in the direction of the arrow. axis p. posed to T. 223 (c). other points 8. CUBIC SYSTEM. p" of Fig. the direction The positions of the of rotation being indicated by the arrow at T. are also the extremities of similar dyad axes interchangeable with 8" and each other. rotations 223 (a). and the tetrad axes emerge at T. when the sphere is given by Fig. is in the initial position..

222. those in the plane of the primitive of Enter's construction gives the triangle 8"T"8"'. which meet the sphere in the points of Fig. Hence successive rotations of 180 about the pair of dyad axes are equivalent to a single rotation of 180 about the tetrad axis OT". and the angle of rotation about OT" is 180. 224. Fig. is 8". pairs of triad axes. and are given by lines of strokes and two dots. the i. and six dyad axes T. of Suppose two rotations of 90 about the tetrad axis. 8"'. we 6. 279 We have therefore thirteen 8 four triad. and are indicated by lines of strokes and four dots . Suppose the pair to be Then = external angle at T" is also 90 . 5. It is now necessary to prove that successive rotations about any pair of these axes give rise to no new axes. 224. : . and no new rotation has been introduced . the triad axes are the diagonals of the cube. axes of symmetry three tetrad. 225. and OT" the equivalent axis of rotation. are those of successive rotation. p and Fig. and are indicated by lines of strokes and three dots . But. No new axis. Now . edges of the cube. 8* and S 5 of Fig. and the dyad axes are parallel to the face-diagonals. 225 to be the pair of dyad axes. or a dyad and triad axis together or each with a tetrad axis. for 180 = 2x90 is made up ii. since the angle 8"T"8"' 90. If two dyad axes are taken as those of successive rotations. have two cases to consider (i) that in which the plane of the dyad axes contains a pair of tetrad axes (ii) that in which their plane does not contain a tetrad axis. respectively.THIRTEEN AXES OF SYMMETRY. and which are also shown in In this latter diagram the tetrad axes are parallel to the FIG. The combinations which remain to be examined are those in which pairs of dyad axes.

to draw great : 4 6 angles to the great circle 8 8 the extremity of the equivalent axis. 4 But 5 to find . after rotations of 180 about 08* and OS the crystal is in exactly the same position as if it had been turned through 120 about Op in a direction opposite to that required by Euler's theorem. Hence. and the arc 4 5 p8 = 90. if For is p angles pT"p and p^'p' are each 90. It follows that p is the pole of the great circle 84 8 5 which passes through 8"'8 Further. the of rotation external angle of the triangle 8 4p8 5 at p about the equivalent axis Op is therefore is 120. By Chap. ix. Similarly. and p are taken. Prop. A8'"84 =AS 5 8 = 60. 8 is at 90 from both 8 and T. Hence the two rotations are equivalent to a rotation of 180 about T" or T'.-. the diameter Op perpendicular to their plane is a triad axis. through p must meet the great have. The arc 8 4 85 A 84p8 6 subtended at the pole of the great circle 8486 = . Successive rotations about a pair of triad axes give no new axis. 5 Hence. /// -i- 2. therefore. These are the same as two rotations of 90 about each axis and hence we have no new axis and The . the axis equivalent to successive rotations about the axes S 4 and 85 we by Euler's theorem. The angle 2xl20 = 360-120.280 84 CUBIC SYSTEM. rotation being 120. 4 from the right-angled triangle T . 11. In the same way it can be are in the : and therefore at 90 from one another. circles Again. we have three dyad axes in the plane of the great circle 8'"848 5 inclined to one another at angles of 60. no new rotation. successive rotations about any pair are equivalent to a rotation of 120 about the triad axis perpendicular to both the dyad axes. 7. Hence. circle 8"'S 4 8 5 at right angles. cos S ^ = cos T"8* cos T'W = cos2 45 = 1 A 84 85 = 60. every great circle ttl . which is. the axis is a triad axis. or p7"p' according to the order and direction of the rotations. 8' same plane with T" and at 45 from it they are The axis S 4 is also at 90 from T' it is therefore at 90 from every point in the great circle T'p8'. . Or we can establish this independently as follows. and from every point in the great circle Tp8: hence arc p8 5 = 90. through 8 and 8 at right these circles meet at p. : proved that p8"'=p8/// =90. the triangle formed according to Euler's theorem pT"p'. Similarly. Hence. In the same way it may be proved that the directions of any other pair of dyad axes (not in a plane with a tetrad axis) are at 60 to one another and perpendicular to one or other of the triad axes. The least angle of .

If the two axes p Euler's construction 281 and p" of is pp'p" of the first rotations. and 8 triad axis are those in which a tetrad or combined with a dyad axis inclined to it at 90. The triad axes Op. bisects the angle between the two other tetrad axes. circle TT'. = 45. angle of rotation is 2 x p8"'84 = 2p85 84 = 180. or p"' is therefore 120. Fig. clearly fixed equally inclined to each of the tetrad axes. in Fig. App' = 2p8 = 70 32' = Ap'p" = &c. The angles between the several axes of symmetry are and constant. arc Tp = 90 . 28' = = &c. Similarly.ANGLES BETWEEN THE AXES OF SYMMETRY. Similarly. . we have TB" is But A T"8 = A 8T"p = 45. &c. 225 are taken. = 45. cot 45 = 1. 225. pp'"p" are each 120. from the right-angled triangle T"p8. /\p'p" App" = 2pT" = 109 (Art.P 8 = 54 shown 44' = pT' = pT". the planes containing each a tetrad and a triad axis. for the triad and dyad axes are a necessary consequence of the coexistence of three tetrad axes.) that AS4S5 =A8'"S4 = &c.e. It has already been 6. a combination of an adjacent p gives one of the adjacent tetrad axes. The p' angle of rotation about the equivalent axis i. Hence. successive rotations about p and 8* are equivalent to a single rotation of 180 about 8'" or 85 For according to Euler's theorem we have to construct a spherical triangle p8 4 8'" or p84 85 in which the angles at 4 6 p are 60 and those at 8 are 90. = 60. Hence. 9. for T" is the pole of the great The angles P T"T = pT"T' = pTT' = &c. Successive rotations about a tetrad axis T" and an adjacent dyad axis 8 are equivalent to a rotation of 240 about the adjacent triad axis p or p'. Further. Tp T'p = T"p. . tan p8 Hence also :.. T8" = &'T' = &c.*. are all all determined without difficulty. Hence. that about a triad axis. hence. . But this is the same as a rotation of 120 in the opposite direction about the same axis. and The angles can be it was proved that these latter must be at 90. The only remaining combinations . the triangle formed by or pp'"p" according to the order and direction But the angles pp'p". 10. Hence we have no new axis or rotation. 8. the apex is at 8"' or 8 and the is . = sin 45 and Ap8 = 3516'. ii. and . But the arc equal to the angle 7T"8". such as T"p. Rotations about a tetrad axis T" and a dyad axis 8" are equivalent to one of 180 about T or T'.

taking the first octant TT'T". But by a rotation of 120 about Op the axes of . 8 perpendicular to the possible face parallel to the 4 and 85 this face is always taken as the para: metral plane (111). lying in the plane dividing the octants. 8. Rotation through 120 about Op will necessarily interchange three of these triangles. 8 4 . its divided into forty-eight equal triangles. ix. and therefore necessarily When the axes of reference possible zone-axes (Chap. T'p8.. 6. for they are either dyad. Further. It is tetrad axes is clear that each octant in Fig. 12. 8 6 all But in Art. T"p8'. where the triad axis emerges. the face-diagonals of the cube are the directions of zone-axes but not of dyad axes for each of them is the inter: section of a face of the cube with the possible plane containing the two triad axes which join the extremities of the face-diagonal to the centre of the cube. &c. or tetrad. interchangeable by rotation about p. p. Prop. T"p8. we must clearly interchange similar sets of three triangles. if the sphere is turned through 180 about a dyad axis. CUBIC SYSTEM. the lines bisecting the angles between each pair are dyad axes. 2). axes which remain at right angles to one another at all temperatures. ii. Thus. to 8"'. we have the three equal triangles Tp&". it was shown that the radii made 90 with that through p. If now the sphere is turned through 90 about a tetrad axis. Tp8' which are interchangeable with one another but not with any one of the We first set.282 11. say. angles at one of the points T. but not with those of the other set. are only dyad axes. We shall in each class of the system adopt as axes of reference the three axes parallel to the edges of the cube. such that the triangles of one set are interchangeable with one another. 225 included made up of six equal triangles having a between common apex at a point p. such as T". Hence the sphere each of which has respectively. It is easily seen that the sets interchanged by the latter rotation are identical with the sets interchanged by a rotation of 90 about T". although the individual triangles of the two sets which change places with one another are is different. These triangles are divisible into two sets of twentyfour. When the axes of reference are tetrad axes. 8. have also the three similar equal triangles T'pb". each of the above sets of three triangles is interchanged with a similar set in either of the adjacent octants. Hence the diagonal is Op of the cube radii through 8'".

4 W= hW = cos?AP. and 13. for. the axes being rectangular. if P is the pole (hkT)^ a cos A P h a CosA'P a cosA"P /t ' ~~k lt I cancelled. 283 reference are interchanged. T" of Fig. proved from the equations to the normal Op of the parametral plane.THE EQUATIONS OF THE NORMAL. Adding the squared equations i 2 2 together. cos2 AP + cos*A'P + cos A"P=1. a. the equations are for. term is obtained as follows. It follows that in the cubic system no element of the crystal varies with the substance. we have cotfA'P. we : We by at a length measured on by a the same length measured on OZ. (010) by A' and (001) by A" they coincide with T. shall denote the pole (100) by A. But it was shown that cos Hence Tp = T'p = T"p. T'. Let each of the first three then ht kt = cosAP. which we shall denote by the letter o. It = cos A" P. 225. Hence it must meet the axes at equal distances from the origin This . . a can be each taken when the equations become as unity or cos^P cos^'P cos^l"P 1 IT The terms = last t . The points p are the positions of the poles of the faces of the octahedron. whilst the direction of the plane (111) remains the same. But the equal lengths. a. and that the angles between faces with known symbols must be fixed and constant. Further. shall denote lt T equal to a on OX. W = co&A"P. respectively. and o=b=c (1). (A + k2 + Z ) = cos2 A P + cos2 A'P + cos2 A"P = 2 1 . and = cosA'P. This can also be proved from the equations of the normal. Tp = cos T'p = cos T"P . which are may also be a cos Tp = b cos T'p = c cos T"p..

cos -4$ But the general expression pqr cos^'^ cos and for Q the similar equations : A"Q ~ 1 for the angle + Jj? + q> r>' between two poles. but no other element of symmetry. CLASS I. as will be shown in later articles. we have cos cos A"P cos A"Q. The class FIG. From equations (2) and (3) all the angles corresponding to any particular cases can be deduced.(3). I. given in Chap. A'P. 36. is clear therefore that the arcs AP. and we shall use the symbol 14. 226 . cos AQ. a {hkl}.. we shall call the plagihedral class of the cubic system . taking P (hkl) and Q (pqr) to be the poles of any two faces. xui. the two normals. The angles between any two faces whether of the same or of different forms. A"P can be computed any values of h. k and I introduced into equations (2). is in this system + cos A'P cos cos PQ = cosAP cos AQ A'Q + &c. For. having three tetrad axes. four triad axes and six dyad axes. Plagihedral class. is therefore only necessary to introduce on the right side of (3) the numerical values of the face-indices to obtain the cosine of the It angle between any pair of faces.284 It CUBIC SYSTEM. Introducing the value of cos^lP. Art. we have for P for the equations (2). must consequently be fixed and constant. from the equations of PQ = hp + kq + Ir .

Hence no other to a single rotation about one of the may faces can belong to the form. {100}. vi.THE CUBE AND OCTAHEDRON. denote its faces. &c. . 285 a {hkl} to denote the general form which is a pentagonal icositetraThis form is the only one which is peculiar to the class. 15. 226 where the tetrad axes meet the cubic faces. The method of drawing the cube was described respectively. 9-12 and 22. it (TOO). Such an ideal figure is shown in Fig. of which the a face. 227. in Fig. for convenience. and the poles by A. parallel to the tetrad axes. meet in sets of three at coigns p on one or other of the triad axes. Fig. (OOT). and the Greek prefix will be omitted before the symbols of the special forms which are common to cube. it is brought into the position of three other faces which have the symbols (010). edges. except when the contrary is expressly stated. edges and by the letter a 16. face is The parallel to two of the tetrad axes The simplest form is that in which each and therefore perpendicular If the vertical face (100) is turned through 90 third. which be denoted by the symbol {100}. 226 : since it serves as the basis for the construction of several important forms of the system. 23. cubic edges and cubic coigns.. hedron. {111}. . three times successively about OT" of Fig. so that the figure is readily drawn. (TOO). 227. The faces are usually denoted in Chap. In theoretical discussions the faces are. We have already seen (Art. and are each bisected The at right angles by one of the dyad axes. T". supposed to be of equal dimensions. Arts. is The form {111}. with eight equal faces. respectively. this and the next class. coigns as cubic faces. &c. brought to the positions in which the faces have the symbols (001). respectively. is a regular octahedron. we shall. 226. A". A'. and includes the six faces: 100 010 001 TOO OTO OOT (a). 3) that successive rotations about OT' and OT" are equivalent triad axes. each of which is an equilateral triangle parametral plane : 111 1T1 TTl Till 11T ITT TTT TIT/" The coigns are at the points T. to the is By similar rotations of 90 about OT'. T'. when the cube has been projected by FIG. The octahedron. (010).

. for .. tan Ao= J2 44'... are apt... parallel. This angle can also be found from the equations (2) of the normal. When the points . and pass through their middle and the dyad axes are parallel to the edges.. each face is an In Nature the faces equilateral triangle. to be very unequally developed. 225 is at 90 from p. to 70 32' .e. Each face is therefore parallel to two triad axes .. '.286 either of the CUBIC SYSTEM. it there- makes equal intercepts on these axes of reference.. 2 . owing to the accidents attending the deposition of the crystalline matter. 228. similarly.. Another important form 17.. The angles over the edges of adjacent faces of the regular figure are clearly all equal to the least angle between FIG. The face of which S is the pole is also parallel it is to the tetrad axis 8 4 OT' and the dyad is axis 08'.. for the arcs &T' and equally inclined to the two other tetrad : 8' are also 90 the face axes.. as is shown in Fig. vi.. for it was proved in Art. and Aoo'= 2^o = 70 32'.. 228. {110}. pairs and interchangeof which are they are parallel to both a tetrad and dyad axis. is The rhombic dodecahedron... 6 that S of Fig. for fore f\&T= f\8*T" . for it was 4 proved in Art.. 1 -r- ^3 . The same relations hold for the faces perpen- dicular to each of the other dyad axes.'. tan 2 . 10 that pp = p'p" = &c. that which has each of its faces perpendicular to one of the dyad axes. and. and its symbol is (T01). and the form must consist of twelve similar able faces.. the triad axes. CLASS I.... i. (4). (5).. form is equably developed.4o = sec 2 Ao-l = 3. methods given in Chap.. 4 at 90 from p".1 = . The triad axes are perpendicular to pairs of parallel faces. which become for o (111) cos : Ao = cos A'o = cos A"o = . = 70 32'..

and the crystals then sometimes simulate tetragonal crystals. and that DD' lies in the face and bisects the line PPii at 8". 229. where point. D. Those which have their symbols in a column meet at the alternate coigns p. through its middle On these axes points D'. the angles between alternate faces meeting at tetragonal coigns. 230. interchangeable about the tetrad axes OZ. and taking the axes OA. parallel to the triad axis are each of them 60 (Art. is most easily drawn by first constructing the cube. the plane figure is a parallelogram. when four of the faces parallel to one of the tetrad axis are very largely developed in comparison with the remaining eight. and equal and parallel to pp'. The faces having their symbols in a row are parallel to and and Y. 6) . A'D' = OA' = OD' H- 2. &c. : Hence The point Also. D'. on DD' and bisects it.... are each of them 90. and give the edges of the form. &c. . such as Dp. OD' = 20A'. OX In Nature the faces are often very unequally developed. For . contains the cubic edge 'pp ti parallel to the tetrad axis OD" . respectively. Fig. 230. . are marked off. OD = 20A. such as DpD'p ti interrupted strokes. 287 The form. The form includes the twelve 110 101 faces : 110 110 TOI 110\ I on on on on TOT IOT (c). Again. : -=- 2 = OD -=- 2. since A'D' 8" therefore lies and AT = pp AT = OD' OD. as in Fig. &c. These points are then joined to the D y four adjacent cubic coigns p. p respectively. In other cases they simulate rhombohedral crystals. ODpp Op. Therefore Dp is equal and parallel to The edges of the rhombic dodecahedron are therefore equal is OD parallel to the triad axes joining the centre to the coigns of the cube. In the diagram the front edges of the cube are shown by lines of It is clear that a face. t . the angles between adjacent faces which meet in edges. <kc. and measurement on the goniometer will establish the fact that the only angles are 60 and 90. p tii p".THE RHOMBIC DODECAHEDRON. OA'. The physical character of the faces will often enable the student to see that they are homologous faces . all FIG.

231. Hence. when it is a the rhombic dodecahedron. ditetragons in each of the planes YOZ. Fig. Hence the eight faces parallel to OZ drawn through the lines HK. The lines joining origin. &c. CUBIC SYSTEM. {MO}. . As this is an axis of reference the corresponding index must be zero . equally distant from the .OA' = &c. or special forms of three different types... 177 are associated with two similar sets of eight faces parallel rethe symbols of the two new spectively to the axis OX and OY sets of faces being given by constructing similar and equal . of the faces are then produced to points H.. finite when face of it is a face of the cube . The same relation holds in the form to this case. &c. 177 applies also form is due to the triad axes. ZOX. = k -H h. The form. &c. one of the faces parallel to OA" (say) is (MO) . The tetrakis-hexahedron. 231. xiv. has twenty-four faces each of which is a similar isosceles triangle.. 231. to the four nearest coigns p of the cube give the equal sides of the faces. CLASS I. the third sides being the cubic edges pp'. p'p". and 57. simplest way of constructing the form The axes through the middle points A.. but not to any other axis of symmetry. which interchange the tetrad axis OZ with each of the axes OX and Y at right angles to it and to one another. 7. 177 are associated together. 48. //'. Arts. and the face meets the two other tetrad axes at unequal but distances from the origin. &c. where AH-s. hOk hOk kQh kOh hOk hOk kOh) to The cube.OA H. and the form {MO}. 22. therefore consists of the following faces : MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO) OM OM OM OM OM OM OM OA*[ kOh (d). When tetrad. &c. On referring to Chap.A'H'-t. so that Fig. the reader will see that eight faces parallel to the principal (tetrad) axis and passing through the lines HK. Suppose a face of the form to be parallel to a tetrad axis. Fig. &c. axes we have the faces are parallel to only one of the dyad. of Fig. H". is first draw the A'. FIG. now under The difference in the discussion. of Fig. or it will be parallel to a second tetrad axis. H'.288 18. or to a dyad axis.

such as ff. brings . the angles over which are equal and will be denoted by G. passes the point of bisection of the cubic edge pp it At this limit the two faces (hkO). //'. for zero. Further. as well as the three faces given in the second column but not a face of the one column with a face of the second.. The angles between Four faces //.. bisect a pair of opposite cubic edges . when the line HH' through dodecahedron {110}. . coalesce in : the cubic face. counter-clockwise. 292) . and rotation through 180 about one of them interchanges the pair of with the dyad axis and opj)osite ends of the tetrad axes The dyad axes each co-planar L. and two of the indices of each face are cannot be made greater than 8. indices in the symbols of each triad are in cyclical order is the reverse coign. but leaves If the rotation is in the opposite (hkO) changes place with (hOk). have symbols in which the indices are in reverse for rotation through 90 about OX brings OY unchanged. From the 289 the form regard the result of placing on each cubic face a like tetragonal pyramid . on the triad axis Op are given in the first two columns of table d and the pair of them in each row meet in one of the cubic edges forming the cubic coign p. H' to H". when the four faces meeting at a tetragonal coign. The limiting form is then the cube {100}. orders. and and interchanges the three faces given in the first column. (ii) k = 0. to OZ and OZ to OX direction. and hence its name. The height . adjacent faces meeting in the edges pp y/ &c. 19 . H Rotation through 120 H" to H . 231 that the faces which change places. the limits of the form are as method of construction we may given (i) by supposing the height of the pyramid to be nil . when the crystal is turned through 120 about Op. OH= OH' = 20A. and than h.THE TETRAKIS-HEXAHEDRON. are alternate faces. Hence the face OF. of the cube used in the construction are also all necessarily equal and will be denoted by F. to H'. 19). &c. (MO) coalesce in a face of the rhombic OA. about this axis. (hkQ) is brought to (hQk). Hence k is always less meet in a tetragonal coign at each of the points and the edges from these points to the adjacent coigns of the cube are all like and interchangeable edges.. The (Art. It can also be seen from Fig. such as cyclical It will be noticed that adjacent faces meeting in a tetragonal H. whilst the cyclical order of the one triad of that in the second triad. The symbols of the six faces meeting at a ditrigonal coign (p. c.

(MO)... 232. 7 and 63. gAg Again. xiv. as g ..... < 7 >- G between two adjacent poles. F and cos general expression of The following are the angles for a few of the tetrakis-hexahedra most frequent occurrence : F=hkQf\khQ {210} {310} {410} 26 34' 18 26 14 2 53 61 36 52' 8 56 36 52' 25 51 19 45 .cos G G can be easily found from the The values of cos (3). and similarly (AJfcO) with (MO).. If OG is the normal to the face (MO). such as (hkO). alternate faces in a tetragonal zone. cos -247.'..... perpendicular tetrad axis. Further.... Art. as in Chap. F = cos gg 2 sin 1 = sin 2Ag = Ay cos 2 Ag tan 2 tan Ag cos Ag 2 tan Ag 2 Ag sec2 Ag 1 + tan2 Ag its ' Replacing tan Ag by * given in (6). xiv.. in Fig.. the arc .. F=gg = 2g8" = 90 Hence... from F and G can be Thus. see Chap. 7..... & 6 But .290 CUBIC SYSTEM. (6). 1 a stereogram of the poles of the form {MO}. by Napier's rules.. Fig. Arts..... we have value . ttmAOG = k + h .. such and g 6 is the hypothenuse of an isosceles right-angled triangle 5 Hence.. cos G = cos gg = cos Ag cos Ag = cos2 Ag. are at 90 to one another. CLASS I. we have. Thus by rotation about 08 the face (hkG) changes place with (MO) . 232 is which the angles easily found..

axes with p (the extremity of the triad axis) as centre. or opposite. similarly. Z k and I of the first face of a triad. are attached to X. t . set. The three faces connected together and interchangeable by rotation about a triad axis are hkl. If the Ihk. employed in Art. but the faces of the crystal and the axes of symmetry are moved into homologous as a -rh t ' Hence the length a h on OX is after rotation measured on OY. tl /t by writing the indices against the corresponding axes and in different type. we have a second triad of faces interchangeable by rotation successively through 120 about the triad axis. Y. and. The axes of reference themselves retain fixed directions in space. and one on OZ to OX. the symbols of which have one cyclical order. a length on 120 OY is transferred to OZ. 233 and (6). The indices h. 233. similarly. A third repetition brings the face back to its original verify that a repetition of the indices gives the original . and klh. and. -=- positions. The symbol of the face in its new The change in the order is indicated in position is therefore (IhK). A second rotation in the same direction produces similar changes and the length a 1 on OX is now transferred to OY. any length on OX is transferred to the axis OY. the symbols of which are said to be in the reverse. a + h on OF is now measured on OZ. (a) 233 outside the circle -=- . on OZ as a + k on OX. and the reader can easily the process on the last arrangement of position .CYCLICAL ORDER. 4. The symbol of the new face is and the change is shown in the diagram by letters of (kill) Fig. 192 .. 18 can be explained In the former a small circle may be FIG. a^k on OF as a -^-k on OZ. and a -T-l on OZ as a-^-l on OX. 291 The cyclical orders (a) by Figs. (&) of the supposed to be described through the extremities X. When now the crystal is rotated with the arrow through 120 about Op. 19. indices in the symbols are taken in the reverse order. different type placed inside the circle.A. and a. cyclical order. Y and Z. interchangeable by rotations of about Op.

where H t OH=OH'=&c. 234. starting from each index in turn. pairs of like planes can be drawn to /t . given by the unfeathered arrow. i. Fig. to edges being twelve. they are taken in the direction of the feathered arrow. h>l.. Let. faces =/ta + l. the above symbols are a necessary consequence of the fact that rotation through 120 about a triad axis interchanges the axes OX. cyclical order to the first viz. The triakis-octahedron. &c. we obtain the triad . we have two forms with Two planes are parallel faces which can be constructed as follows. CLASS I. Ha where OH" = OH = ha^ + the points H being t/ . and the faces of formed by three faces having their symbols in cyclical called a trigonal coign . .292 CUBIC SYSTEM. khl. The number of octahedral 20. symbols of the triad of faces in one cyclical order viz. Through the H and H The similar edges A'A". H"AA'. Ihk. axis. drawn through each edge of the octahedron to meet on opposite sides of the origin that tetrad axis which is perpendicular to the octahedral edge at distances ha + l. Ikh. A"A to t . and if. AA on Y. l it more remote from the origin than the points A. the forms have twenty-four faces they differ in angles and in the shapes of the faces according as h < I. and OZ.. AA'H". or opposite. the symbols of which are in the reverse. . of (d) are those of triads. If the faces of the form are parallel each to only one dyad an edge of the octahedron. If. one formed by two triads of faces the indices of which are the same numbers taken in opposite cyclical order is A coign is orders called a ditrigonal coign. If the indices alone are written circle. on OX. pairs of similar through A" A. : H AA' be two faces drawn through the octahedral edge A A' to meet OZ in H". rearranged in triads such that the faces of each triad are interchangeable about any of the other triad axes each triad are in cyclical order. we take them in the reverse order. A A" II' pass through A. hkl. the faces of each of which can be The faces can be easily interchanged by rotation about Op. hlk. of faces. Mh. we obtain the 233 (6). and meet the plane . however. and drawn planes can be H' and &c. They are of concyclical The orders of OY siderable assistance in verifying the correctness of the symbols of Thus the symbols in each of the columns the faces of a form. {hhl}.e. in Fig. on the circumference of the starting from each index in turn.

therefore meet at a point on Similarly. 234 has the intercepts a a 1tait -=.. and the tetrad axes are not continued through the origin. -H I. are fr. only one dyad axis is drawn. These lines interon the dyad axis 08. 8' being a point on the dyad axis 08' in which AH" and A"H intersect. The two edges A8 and A'8' are common to the face AA'H". and the two faces meet in the edge A8. The figure may be regarded as the result of placing on each face of the octahedron a like trigonal pyramid having its base congruent with the octahedral face on which is it is set.THE TRIAKIS-OCTAHEDRON. rotation about the dyad axis 08" must interchange and Y. respectively.1. The form known as the triakis-octahedron. Four similar triads. When transposed parallel to itself. and by the symbol t : t : the diagram the lines of construction are not Several of the points on the dyad axes are indicated by crosses . 235 the face p" drawn through : : AA'H" of Fig. occupy the four octants behind the paper. respectively. AA'H The triads meeting at p" and p are obtained in a similar manner. A"H. the faces AA'H". the two faces A'A"H and A"AH' meet in the line A"8" which also passes through p. The edge AA' is at right angles to 08" and is common to both the faces AA'H". . and equal positive and We therefore have the three faces negative lengths on OZ. and therefore meet in a point p which must lie on the triad axis for the . and the four triads can be interchanged by successive rotations of 90 about OX. A* and must it. the face may be given by a H. Flo 2341. The edge of intersection is therefore A'8'. 1 To avoid complicating all shown.h a H.h a. and meet the plane ZOX in the lines AH". A"H'. A'A"H have A' in common. meeting in the edges Ap/it A'p A^p^. having A for common ditetra- X . t gonal coign. 293 YOZ in sect at 8 the lines A'H". ' three faces interchanged by rotations of 120 about this axis. In Fig. which can be drawn in the same way as those meeting at p. ti lt . Similarly. Again.

which the planes containing two triad axes. The faces of {hhl}. The limits of this form are given the height of (i) by taking the trigonal pyramid above the octahedral face to be nil. lines parallel to the octa- hedral edges. It is is parallel to each of the edges which lie in the clear also that a combination of the octahedron I. and in drawing the combination {hhl} should be drawn first. consequently one or more of the consists of the following faces : The form hlh Ihh Ihh hhl Ihh hlh hhl\ hlh I hhl hlh hhl hlh Ihh hhl ihh Ihh hhl hlh ihh Ihh hlh 7ihl hhi I ^' } hlh As particular instances we have {221}. 236. The triads in the other octants only differ from the preceding triad inasmuch as one or more of the axes of reference are met on the negative side of the origin indices change signs. h> is A'p. Similarly. therefore.h . are equal. 234 and intercepts (hhl). 236. {331}. {332}. when the : . The indices in the three symbols are in cyclical order and. and that a dyad axis axial planes. since two of the indices : : . bevel in pairs the edges of the octahedron . {111} with {hhl}. it is (Ihh). In the same way it may be shown that p' is (hlh). Fig. &c. {443}. <fec. 1 lengths on the axes in the ratios a a. CLASS I. the face p is A'A"H of Fig. equally distant obtained by drawing through points on Ap. from p. there is only one such arrangement. -=+ h a tl -=. the poles lie on the zone-circles in Ihk FIG.. p'. one tetrad and one dyad axis meet the sphere.. In the stereogram. From the construction it is clear that pairs of the faces are tautozonal with pairs of octahedral faces.294 CUBIC SYSTEM. .

to infinity. are all equal./ (Mh). cos Ap' cos A "p' for p 4 sAp* (hlh). Similarly. tan becomes I. 237. 234. the cosines of the angles cos for 4 p we .. when h = . tan Ap = j (10). over edges A"p.. H". find. can D. Now Od OA' cos 45 = a -r. and Op being the normal to the face. the angles over octahedral edges.. from equations (2). The angles. <fec. coincide with A.. and will be denoted by D.. we have seen that p Ao = J'2. latter expression identical with that obtained from {Aopd}. A". by G and Thus. :. p Ap _ cosA'p _ co&A"p _ cos A'p' (Ihh). p'. &c.. in the plane X08 of Fig. then coalesce in a face of {HI}. Ap.. A'. The the A. R. the general expression. or from the geometry of Fig.. (11). . ~W JW+p* 1 1 for . (ii) <fec. : 295 the three faces the points faces through each octahedral edge then coalesce in a plane parallel to that tetrad axis which is perpendicular to the edge this plane is a face of the By removing H. {Aopd} . to the axial poles The angle Ap can A. A Op = tan OdH = OH+Od Further. R. The two : <fec. OH=ha tan A A Op = A OdH. by the general relation (3). {110}. &c. also be obtained from the A. with o(lll). &c. cos A'p* cosA"p* Hence. such as pp'. rhombic dodecahedron.^2 . . clearly all equal and will We can obtain the inclination of p (Ihh).'. Taking the equations of the normals to p. H'. tan Ao is coincident Hence. which gives part of a section + l. <fec..THE TllIAKLS-OCTAHEDRON.. H'.(12). points H. A'. when 1 = 0. are be denoted by G. such as AA'. p'p". &c.

for .cos 2Ap = sin Ap tan2 Ap . Fig. which join the coigns of the octahedron to the points II. which only differ in that now the equal indices are each less than the third index. form. in Fig. 8. 238. The following octahedra of most {hhl} table gives the angles of some of the triakis- common 76 44' 70 32 occurrence : D=hlhl\hlh 26 32' 38 57 50 29 G=lhh/\hlh 37 52' 27 16 17 {331} {221} 64 46 20 is is The icositetrahedron. h<l. H'..CUBIC SYSTEM. &c. &c. &c. AH'. I.~ 2A2 + The angle G may be obtained from the relations of the triangle pp'o of Fig. CLASS I. 236. 238. YOZ. H". 238. {hhl}. but the trigonometrical transformations are not so simple as those given for cos D.1 sin2 Ap . A'H". its base congruent with the The faces t of the icositetrahedron {hhl}. at distances Aa I on the These lines intersect in points 8". 2 cos D = . three like faces meet at coigns on each of the triad axes. the form bounded by four-sided faces which are not parallelograms it A< : As in the preceding therefore sometimes called the trapezohedron. consists of : The form hhl Ihh hhl Ihh hhl hhl} Ihh Jdh hhl Ihh Ihh Mh hhl Ihh hlh Mh hhl Ihh hlh hhl Ihh hlh hlh in hlh The edges XOY. A'H.'. -H- . but they do not compose a pyramid having face of the octahedron. When 21. ZOX the planes are the lines FIG.. have the same general symbols as the triakis- octahedron. The latter expression can easily be deduced from J) (9) . _ ~ = l80-2Ap.. situated on tetrad axes.cos2 Ap cos 2 2/t 2 Ap -P I 2 ' sin2 Ap + cos2 ~" _ 4p tan" Ap+\.

relative magnitudes of h and can find cos Hence. - . 8"H' &c. since A fed* = 90% cos W4 = cos At cos At* of the = cos2 At. The expression cos for cos F will be of the same form as that for G of the previous Article. . (13). The limits of the form are given by the limiting values ha -. When this is zero. On the other when the distance Off be- comes OA. will be denoted by D. Each of the edges meeting at a trigonal coign p join it t an adjacent point 8. But from the equations cos normal At cos A't cos A"t . For. pass through a point A on the tetrad axis lying in the plane which contains the edge and the triad axis through p these edges are similar and interto : changeable . &c. axes of reference. and the angles over them (denoted by F) are all equal to one another. Beyond : this limit the form changes the shape of its faces and becomes the triakis-octahedron described in the last Article..*. H8'. and form similar and interchangeable edges H8".THE ICOSITETRAHEDRON. cos ^= (3) ... We D from the general relations it is given It may also be easily found from equations (2) and the right4 angled spherical triangle tAP of Fig. and the limiting form hand. 297 the dyad axes. dices is of the cube. The equal angles over each of the edges ff&". and the three inbecome equal the limiting form is the octahedron. and will. if continued. 239. h = 0. for the only difference is in the I. and two indices of each face are Each face is parallel to two zero. cos D = cos 2 At = Also.1. h = I.

241. and the desired lengths of H?>.298 CUBIC SYSTEM. I. are readily determined by means of proportional compasses. {112} {113} 35 6 22. and its symbol is a {hkl}. <kc. The icositetrahedron sets of six. Fig. When the indices finite integers. the faces of {211} of be narrow planes truncating the edges In constructing such a com{110}. three like and interchangeable faces meet at 23. conversely. tautozonal in which l=2h. common to all five system. The coigns 8 must all be modified in a similar manner. the four other forms are classes of the system. all are unequal similar trigonal coigns at opposite ends of each of the triad axes. a {hkl}. the faces of {110} will be rhombuses replacing the coigns 8. it bination. rhombic dodecahedron classes of the cubic are. the angles of {hhJ} most commonly met with are {112} and which are : 100 A IMi 35 16 25 14 D = lhh/\lhh 48 11' F=lhhl\hlh 33 50 33' 29.. parallel The faces special forms given in the preceding articles all have and are geometrically centro-symmetrical. In a com- bination of the forms. is best to draw {112} first and then to introduce the faces of {110}. . Owing to the axes of symmetry. This is due to the faces in each form being parallel to one or more dyad axes. as shown by the poles d and n in the stereograiu. The forms of this series {113}. the pentagonal icositetrahedron. 239. Fig. CLASS {112}. The forms therefore remain unchanged when a centre The cube and of symmetry is added to the axes of symmetry. in which each face is a pentagon. Such a zone has a triad axis for zone-axis. 240. common to this and to two other The pentagonal icositetrahedron. we obtain forms of the type shown The form is called in Fig. A face of {112} truncates eacli of the edges of {110}. and the edges will be parallel to the diagonals Hp of the faces n. and. has its faces in with six faces of the rhombic dodecahedron {110}. If the faces will {110} are large. a face of the rhombic dodecahedron makes equal angles with pairs of the faces n which lie in a zone with it. as we shall see.

we discussed the connection be- places tween the three faces which change by rotations through 120 about a triad axis. axes. The same relation holds for each of the tetrad axes. and they lie will be said common only one of the axes of reference when the octants have only the origin in common. face will be said to lie in that octant in which A octants separated by one of the axial planes to occupy alternate octants when the poles in .THE PENTAGONAL ICOSITETRAHEDRON. the two others meeting at p are (Ihk) and (klh). such as Fig. arrangement of their symif (hkl) is one of the faces. and negative lengths on each But this only changes equal of the axes at right angles to the axis of rotation. Two successive consequently for faces arranged about rotations of 90 in the same direction are the same as a single rotation of 180 positive OY about the same axis. Again the pendicular fifth (single) to. its pole lies in the corresponding stereogram of the form. It follows in octants having and in opposite octants from the preceding discussion that the symbols of the faces in one octant are in the reverse cyclical order to those of the faces in the two adjacent octants and in the opposite octant . . and also two similar edges at points. the and is always different In Art. and and OZ. On the other hand. faces will be said to lie in adjacent octants when their poles occupy the cyclical order being the same as at first. Hence the fourth face meeting at H is (hkl) . and explained the cyclical bols. whilst the sign of one of the indices Thus. a rotation of 90 about a tetrad axis interchanges faces the symbols of which are in opposite cyclical orders. but that the triads in alternate octants have the same cyclical . But the is pair of edges meeting at p are always unlike those meeting at II". such as //". It follows that. rotation referring to the rotated tetrad axes is changed. from the four other edges. and to (hlk) on OX the other. on one of the tetrad axes. 299 and four faces at similar tetragonal coigns on each of the tetrad Hence two like edges of each face meet at a point p on one of the triad axes. edge per- dyad axis. 19 and bisected by. about brings P(hkl) to P'" (hlk) on one side. 242 .

and interchange places on successive rotations of 90 about this axis.g.g. F'F". The form has three different angles between adjacent faces meeting in edges. hkl Ihk klh khl hlk hkl Ihk Ikh klh . These are F between faces meeting at a trigonal coign. khl hlk Ikh 1 (g) hkl Ihk khi klh ilh khl hlk Ikh ' j hlk hkl ill klh faces in each The four column are symmetrical with respect to OZ. cos A'P" cosA"P" cosA"P" cosAP"' cos A'P"' Hence. The equations of the normals to adjacent faces of the form are : cos ~h Z (IflrGj) AP _ cos A'P cos ~& cos A'P' A"P _ I 1 Jh 2 ' + tf 1 +P cos4.300 order. CUBIC SYSTEM. combining the normals in pairs. 13. I cos A = cos P"P'" . 241 . and introducing the corresponding values into equations (3) of Art. e. T between faces meeting at a tetragonal coign. e. ~t~ .P' cosA"P' P" co&AP" (klh). The faces may also be arranged in tetrads symmetrical with respect to or to OY.g. PP'" and A over the edge bisected at right angles by a dyad axis. OX and pairs symmetrical with respect to each of the dyad axes. The symbols of the faces can therefore be easily given and the form a {hkl} has the following twenty-four faces : . e. CLASS I.(16). in : and 242 . we have: cos T = cos PP" = cos (hkl A klh) = cos T = cos PF" = cos (hkl A hlk) =- hf 2 + k" .cos (klh A hlk) . PF or PF' of Figs.

As no limit has been placed on the relative values of h. 24. belongs to a distinctly separate form which may be denoted by The reader will. 243. consists of the twenty-four faces : Ikh hlk khl klh hkl Ihk klh hkl Ihk Ikh hlk khl (h). k and I. Tkh hlk khl klh hkl Ihk klh hkl Ihk Ikh hlk khl is parallel to one of those in the preceding form . The method of drawing the above forms will be best given at a later stage. (hkl) is a possible face. when the drawing of the general forms characteristic of all classes of the system can be discussed at the same time. and that the angles over the edges It will be noticed that each of the faces in this form of a face are the a {hkl}. although the two faces cannot occur together as members of one form of this class. for it there is no centre of symmetry. the relation is clearly Hence. but this has not been observed in any of The the substances so far placed in the class.THE PENTAGONAL ICOSITETRAHEDRON. have their symbols in the reverse cyclical order to those in which all positive : the indices are in other the symbols of faces opposite octants are also in reverse cyclical orders. Fig. on referring to the symbol a {hkl}. perceive that the triad of faces. the two forms are reciprocal re. the parallel face (hkl) is also possible . crystals of this class would therefore be expected to rotate the plane of polarization . and this relation necessarily entails that the faces are similar. as same as those over the edges of the parallel face of The two forms are complementary and enantiomorphous is evident from the figures. in which all the indices are negative. the pentagonalgeneral. or a {Ikh}. . cept icositetrahedron a {Ikh}. for. flections of one another with respect to the axial planes. 301 if By the law of rational indices we know that. If then (hkl) does occur. table g. exthat they are finite and unequal.

244. CUBIC SYSTEM. as shown in Fig. crystals of salt. crystals are octahedra . Fig. 246 and {111} with {110} and {100}. KC1. Combinations of or the cube {100}. The alkaline chlorides are included in the class. 245 {111} with {110}. . a {hkl}. Cu 2 are placed in this class although general forms. of sylvine. . Cuprite. . two. (^ 104 X found in cubes sometimes in cubes having their edges bevelled by faces of Occasionally the {210}. and the absence of planes of symmetry. corrosion-figures on the cubic faces indicate the presence of tetrad axes. and of cuprite. Fig. 246.g. as a result of experi- ments on the corrosion of the Salt is visually crystal-faces. or more. CLASS The I. the plane of polarization. have only been observed on crystals of cuprite. AgCl.302 25. The crystals are often single forms the octahedron {111}. NaCl. of ammonium chloride. and these sometimes have their edges truncated by the faces of the The rhombic dodecahedron {110}. or the rhombic dodecahedron {110}. 4 C1 provisionally of silver chloride. Fig. . of these forms are also common e. the cubo-octahedron. and not one of the substances rotates NH .

they are like planes they will be called the cubic planes of symmetry II. II. by Chap. They are called the dodecahedral planes of symmetry. axes. and to the faces of the cube now parallel to planes of symmetry II at angles of 54 44'. and will be denoted by "S. Fig. II'. two of which are cubic planes and two are dodecahedral the dyad axes are also the lines of intersection of a cubic . of elements symmetry any crystal. with a dodecahedral plane of symmetry. Hexakis-octaftedral class. ix. Hence the tetrad axes are the lines in which four planes of symmetry meet. 249. and most complex possible in set. they intersect one another in sets of three in each of the triad axes (Chap. then nine planes of symmetry must also be present . the faces of the plane of symmetry is one of even degree.HEXAKIS-OCTAHEDRAL CLASS. being each perpendicular to one of the triad axes. for. . which are neither of them angles possible between planes of symmetry (Chap. being interchangeable by : rotations of 1 20 about each of the triad axes. 311 and 62. Prop. 3T. The planes of parallel to the faces of the cube. 4. 26. Prop. Pratt. {hkl}. in a centro-symmetrical crystal. H. ix. and the least angle between any pair of planes of a triad is 60. symmetry perpendicular to the tetrad axes are and. and (Art. 17) : contains one tetrad. If to the axes of symmetry characteristic of the last class a centre of symmetry is added. Prop. 5). 9). The planes parallel to the faces of the octahedron. cannot be planes of symmetry. in which the predominant faces z belong to a {13 10 12}. II". octahedron are inclined to one another at angles of 70 32'. They also intersect in pairs in each of the tetrad axes. 68. J. 303 Similar crystals. x and the smallness of the faces of the cube. to these last have been described by Dr. For. one dyad and two triad. the axis perpendicular to a Further. Each of the six planes of symmetry perpendicular to a dyad axis is parallel to two faces of the rhombic dodecahedron. This of is the greatest number. a plane of symmetry is perpendicular to each dyad and tetrad axis of a centro-symmetrical crystal. The elements of symmetry present in crystals of this class are : 4p. C. ix.

Art. h>l. 6. The addition of parallel faces to the general form a {hkl} of the preceding class is clearly the same as the association of a {hkl} with a {Ikh}. h<l. The icositetrahedron {hhl\. Hence. those given in equations (2) Art. The special forms of the last class all have their faces one dyad. Art. consists of the following forty-eight faces \ : hkl khl hki kli . 20. The tetrakis-hexahedron {MO}. The cube {100}. 4. 1 6. II and 2 are actual planes of symmetry. 3. 5. as in the preceding class. The hexakis-octahedron. a = b-c. 250. the form {hkl}. and the angle between P (hkl) and Q (pqr) is given by the general expression (3). 21. and are therefore unchanged by the introduction of a centre of symmetry. {hkl}. The equations of the normal P (hkl) are. as before. axis. the following special forms are common to both classes parallel in pairs to at least : L 2. 17. and need no fresh description when : they are forms of this class. 15. The triakis-octahedron {hhl}. and a face of the octahedron for parametral plane.304 27. Art. Art. 13. These forms are easily seen to be geometrically symmetrical with respect to the planes II and 2. Fig. 18. 29. or tetrad. {111}. Hence. 28. It is CUBIC SYSTEM. Art. Art. The octahedron The rhombic dodecahedron {110}. Hence. clearly convenient to retain the three tetrad axes for axes of reference. CLASS II.

(hkl) and (khl) are symmetrical with respect to that plane 2 through OZ which bisects the angle between the positive directions of the axes of X and and the several pairs of Y: and so are. for equal lengths on on opposite sides of the origin are OF reciprocal reflexions in this plane. but not with those of the other triad. hkl. each of the 2 planes. L.. meet at a ditrigonal coign on one of the triad axes. II". and the figures give the relations of the indices of the faces symmetrically placed with respect to those dode- cahedral planes of symmetry which are perpendicular to the planes of the figures . II'. fec. the student must be careful as to the signs of the axes which are reciprocal reflexions in the particular plane of symmetry. parallel faces which meet OZ on the negative side of the origin. given by the symbols in each row of table i. the several pairs. Thus. 177 of that Article can be drawn in each of the axial planes . The faces can easily be arranged in pairs which meet in. Thus. symmetrically placed with respect to. c. The faces symmetrically X placed with respect to this plane differ in the sign of the second index . and symmetrically situated about. are symmetrical with respect to the plane II' which contains and OZ. Fig. Ikh . and compose two triads such that the members of one triad with symbols in cyclical order are interchangeable amongst one another. klh. The faces of the one triad are antistrophic in pairs to those of the other. In taking distant pairs of faces. Mk. 20 .. We clearly have eight similar pairs of faces meeting in. is that the indices referring to the latter axes are interchanged. The six faces. the symbols of which are in the opposite cyclical order. hkl. hlk klh. THE HEXAKIS-OCTAHEDRON. likewise. such as (khl] and (hkC). and are . The same is true of pairs of incontiguous faces. for they are reciprocal reflexions each to each in dodecahedral planes 2. for each plane 2 passes through one axis of reference and bisects the angle between the two other axes. klh . Ikh . hkl. klh. khl . each of the planes IT. 305 respect to a plane of symmetry passing through one axis of reference and bisecting the angle between the two other axes.

G over dissimilar edges. have h in the same position. sets of eight Four faces meet at a coign on each of the dyad axes thus. The re- maining faces of table i can be arranged in similar which meet at the other ditetragonal coigns. P - . and h is the The symbols of the eight faces.-5n^c. CLASS II. the edges of which join pairs of coigns of different character. . for they have the same symbols as the faces of a {Ikh}. khl. Thus. " ^-jT. the faces meeting at H are : hkl. and dodecahedral planes of symmetry the angles over each of these edges are in all cases different. for a face of the one set is the reciprocal reflexion of a face of the second in one of the planes of symmetry. meeting the axis greatest integer. the faces meet in sets of eight in ditetragonal coigns OH=a + h is the shortest intercept. khl. likewise F and and can be readily found from equation (3) by introducing into this equation the indices of two adjacent faces taken in pairs .306 CUBIC SYSTEM. Similarly the remaining twenty-four faces are : interchangeable with one another. /. A 73" ^ A' D" ^ A"D" ^ P" . hlk. Twenty -four of the faces are interchangeable those constituting geometrically the form a {hkl} with one another. and lie in the cubic . hkl. The angles over the dissimilar edges may be denoted by D. &c. where Again. for example. hlk. hkl.x cos AP cosA'P cosA"P 1 being V/t/t-t.. H'. hkl. hlk. (hkl). hkl meet at d". Each face is a similar and equal scalene triangle. hlk. 250 and 251. 7 . in Figs. and the faces of the second set are each of them parallel to a face of the first set. The faces of the two sets are antistrophic. in the same point.. Thus. hkl. ff.

they denote a combination of the corresponding first forms.SUBSTANCES BELONGING TO CLASS II. it denotes that crystals consisting of the single form occur . d{UQ}. be used in giving corresponding They are systematically used also in Dana's Mineralogy. a single e{210}. a {321}. the letters attached to the symbols : o{lll}. in Brooke and Miller's Mineralogy Substance. In the table of common forms and combinations we shall denote the forms by a {100}. when two or more letters are joined together. w{211}. m{311}. When letter is given. 307 list 30. The same forms in other classes of cubic crystals. Crystals of the substances given in the following belong to this class. {421}. p{221}. and Chemical composition. usually that placed p 251 being the predoletters will minant form. Si Silicon Iron Fe Ft Platinum Copper Silver Cu Ag Gold .

crystals of the above substances generally consist of single forms the cube. the octahedron. CLASS II. FIG.'. 253. . Fig. in the same way but it would probably be simpler and then to introduce {100} and {110}. such as Fig. 254 might be constructed FIG. to draw {111} first. 001 /(-'I d'\ioi . 253.308 The CUBIC SYSTEM. the rhombic-dodecahedron or the icositetrahedron In drawing or of simple combinations of the first three forms. FIG. ^-^. 254. it is best to construct {110} first and then to introduce the faces of {111}. {211} simple combinations. 252.

260. should be drawn are then first .EXAMPLES (FLUOR. t {421}. the icositetrahedron In drawing this combination. Fig. Thus. The form {421} FIG. drawn and complete the are rare and especially so sometimes occurs associated with the cube on crystals of fluor. In these crystals the relative dimensions of the faces of the two forms vary much. Fluor crystals have also been found in Cornwall which have the general appearance of octahedra. The form t should be first completely drawn. In analcime the common form is n {211}. for instance. 257. . Crystals from a few localities have the habit shown in Fig. t as simple forms. built up of small cubes in the manner shown A in Fig. 258. General forms such as s {321}. 261.). from the coigns on the dyad axes the edges [an] figure. . fluor. 255 represents a combination of the cube and rhombic dodecahedron {110} which often occurs on crystals of argentite. and other substances of this and of the other classes. when the faces a of the cube are easily introduced. FIG. 309 similar combination occurs in crystals of^wor. FIG. 259 : in this combination the icositetrahedron FIG. 260 represents a crystal of magnetite showing a rare form v {531} associated with the rhombic dodecahedron {110}. Fig. but the faces bevelling the edges of the cube generally belong to the form {310}. ETC. &c.. as is shown in Fig. it is not uncommon on crystals of cuprite. 259. v i{311} and the octahedron o {111}.

indeed obvious from the definition of a triad axis that. in other cases the faces n appear as narrow planes truncating the edges of {110}. 12. we need not repeat the proof that there can only be four such axes. The two preceding classes . 263. The two forms are also often associated together. iii and (d). but the facial development at adjacent coigns of the cube though similar strophic. FIG. and (2} four like axes are given by the four diagonals of a cube. and also as icositetrahedra n{211}. the introduction of the faces of n {21 1} is easy. sometimes we get crystals re- sembling Fig. and the relative dimensions of the faces of the two forms vary much . CLASSES first . ix. 261. inclined to one another at the same angles as those in the preceding classes. established the proposition generally in Chap. Fig. Having.310 CUBIC SYSTEM. are those in which (7) four like and interchangeable In Chap. there must be at least two others . There are three classes in which four triad axes. which must be the directions of like triad axes. have exhausted the cases in and we shall now consider the other classes of the cubic system in which tetrad axes do not occur. and lastly the faces o. if two triad axes are present inclined to one another at a finite angle. 263 shows a crystal in which the forms d{llO}. 262 represents a crystal showing the forms d in such a com{110}. : triad axes of uniterminal symmetry are given by the lines joining the centre to the coigns of a regular tetrahedron . III V. should be constructed then the faces m and d should be introduced. and that they occupy the positions just given. . Prop. and s{321} bination the form s should be drawn : first. Garnet occurs frequently as simple rhombic dodecahedra {110}. not included in the two preceding classes. however. it is shown that the only (c) arrangements of several triad axes. 12. s {321} and : n {211} occur together when the previous figure has been drawn. ix. are which three tetrad axes occur associated with three dyad axes parallel to the edges of a cube. whilst that at alternate coigns is is anti- It is alone metastrophic. Prop. Fig. 31. for a rotation of 120 both ways about one of them must bring the second into two new positions.

. 265. which join the middle point of a tetrahedron. shall discuss the classes in the following order tetrahedral class. Fig. to its coigns p'. be described with centre at the middle of the tetrahedron. interchanges similar extremities of each of the three other axes. a rotation of 180 about the axis 8 interchanges the similar pairs of extremities r. r t . for rotations of 180 about any one of them interchange similar ends of the triad axes.TETRAHEDRAL CLASS. and are equally distant from the . The crystals of this class have four similar triad axes. This class is coextensive with case (2). The similar extremities p. e. r and p it t . for instance. 264. The dyakis-dodecahedral class. r {hkl}. Again. which Tetrahedral class . or similar but not interchangeable. the shall We now show only axes of symmetry which can be associated with them are the three dyad axes bisecting opposite edges of the tetrahedron. For a rotation of 1 20 about each of the triad axes. III. p". &c. each perpendicular to one of the dyad axes. IV. as. The hexakis-tetrahedral class. : 311 We III. p tl lie on diametral circles inclined to one another at angles of 120. and which when produced towards r. and with radius Op . when the opposite extremities of the triad axes are dissimilar. Fig. each joining the middle points of The a pair of opposite edges of the tetrahedron.g. p". Fig. in which the axes of symmetry of class III are associated with a centre of symmetry. meet the faces opposite to the coigns at right angles in their middle points. p". and three planes of symmetry II. 264. 32. that. such pr. and therefore leaves the direction of the face p'p'"p lt through these extremities unchanged. the lines joining the middle points of opposite edges of the tetrahedron are dyad axes. 264. Let a sphere. &c. Fig. and point let the triad axis pr be the diameter perpendicular to the paper. in which the four triad axes of case (1) are associated with three dyad axes. in which the axes of symmetry of class III are associated with six like planes of symmetry 2. V. intersect in sets of three in each of the triad axes.

But this rotation leaves the sphere in the position in which it would t/ be left by a rotation of 120 about Or in the opposite direction. .p'" is bisected at 8. t/ tt tl tl fl . since the external angle r8'p if of the triangle r8'p is 90. Further. /\rp . Similarly. bisected at 8". successive rotations of 120.p'. by the same theorem.. the great circles p'p /t . ix. p'p" are inclined to one another at an angle of 120. and the angle p^p'p" is bisected by the great circle rp' hence /\ rp'p = /\ rp'p" = 60. By 13) successive rotations of wise. CLASS III.. of 180 about OB' and of 120 about Op are equivalent to a single rotation of 240 about Or.r = cot 60 = cos 8p sin 8p r. about the diameters through r and p are equivalent to a rotation about the diameter through 8'.7 cos 8rp /t 60.'. clock- and p" are equivalent diameters through p lt to a single rota- tion clockwise about the diameter pOr . we have no new axis and no new rotation. for a rotation of this amount about Op interchanges p and p" . the least angle of rotation about r is 120. clockwise. . Hence. counter-clockwise. and. the angles in great circle p^p'" are right angles and the arc p. we have tt then no new class axis and no new rotation.312 central point r. A"8= Afy>.r8' = 60. 120. since the external angle p. The same is it : lt true of each of the angles at p t/ and p". Again. Successive rotations. respec- tively. and the diameter through r is a triad axis. about the Euler's theorem (Chap. which the diametral circle rp' meets the Again. having only four triad axes and three dyad axes we The angles between the axes are and do not vary either with the substance or with the tem- perature. and the diameter is a dyad axis. CUBIC SYSTEM. Art. successive rotations of 120 about Or and 180 about 08. . cos r & = cot &P. The fixed. Similarly. the least angle of rotation is 180. = cot 8rp cot 8p r = cot 2 60 = cos r & s i n ^ rP/.70 31 -7'. are equivalent to a rotation of 240 about Op . shall call the tetrahedral class.. . and. counterclockwise. The angles at r and pt/ : in the right-angled spherical triangle rSp^ being cos rp tl cos 8/3. each of the arcs p.. p'p" right angles in the points is 8'. we have /t ti ' Hence. = 54 44'. cos 8p = cot 8rp = cot 60.

:. are equal . 226. as before. P and Q. which must therefore be Hence the lengths intercepted by (111) on the axes a . and joining the pairs of points The form . are the most convenient axes of reference. the equations of the pole cos P (hkl) ~ = are 1 AP _ cos A'P _ k cos A"P I ~~h V/^+^ + J 2 ' equations already established in Art. 264 to be the parametral plane (111). . 111 Til III most easily drawn by first constructing the cube by one of the methods given in Chap. and we shall take to coincide with 08. as it is perpendicular to pOr. 08' and 08". it will retain the same direction But a rotation of 120 after each rotation of 120 about this axis. 313 33. are then joined so that three edges bounding each face cut off portions of the cube at alternate coignsBy tracing Fig. 13. such as p. whichever the class to 34. vi.THE TETRAHEDRON. These equalities can also be proved from the equations of the normal Or to the face (111). equal lengths. shall also with 08'. 1). It follows also that expression (3) holds for the cosine of the angle between any two poles which the crystal belongs. faces: The tetrahedron. and. T{111}. and about pOr interchanges 08. We take the face p'p'"p of Fig. Opposite corners of each face. As the above axes of symmetry with their consequent rotations exist in all cubic crystals (Art. Further. The dyad axes. which are a cos But XOr _ b cos YOr _ c cos ZOr ~T~ ~~Y~ ~1~~ XOr = YOr = ZOr. it follows that the same axes and parameters can be taken for crystals of all classes. 226 on thin paper. 111 is This form consists of the four (j).b = c. and by a when it is measured on OZ. use A lt to represent the pole (100). A' (010) t and A" (001) and we shall denote a length a by a when it is measured on OY. a= b = c. being at right angles to one another. and OZ with 08". OX OY t. p" of Fig. being the least assemblage of axes of symmetry which can occur in any crystal having more than one triad axis. We shall.

Art. CUBIC SYSTEM. In drawing such combinations the cube should be first constructed. 2. {100}.c. shall use the letters o to denote the faces of T{111}. Art. and those of the tetrahedron r{lll} are small. which bisects the angle between the normals to the two tetrahedral faces meeting in that edge through the middle point of which the axis passes. the other. and must therefore occur in pairs of parallel faces which truncate opposite edges of the tetrahedron. m. and adjacent coigns of the cube.314 p'. is In the first the tetrahedron the predominant form. for the edges are all diagonals of the faces of the cube. a possible form of this cube. For each face is perpendicular to a dyad axis.. and similarly placed If the pairs of coigns p. is The in table a.. a geometrically equal and similar tetrahedron can be formed from the same octahedron by retaining the faces omitted in the first . Further. p. and generally the letters w to denote those of the complementary form We 35. 15. &c. &. and extending the faces retained to intersect one derived from the another as shown in Fig. the student \vill form a tetrahedron T {111} similar to Fig. 226 are joined. This is tautomorphous with r{lll}. From the method of construction it is clear that each face is an equilateral triangle. for a rotation through 90 about one of parallel to the edges of the the dyad axes cube interchanges the two diagonals of the cubic face to which the axis is perpendicular. 266. Hence the complementary : tetra- hedron can be represented either as T{llT} or by T{ITI}. III. 2bo. p'". the faces of which are given class. In the second the cubic faces are large. 264. the tetrahedron can be regular octahedron by omitting alternate faces of the latter. p"'. of Fig. and the faces of {100} are narrow planes truncating the edges. Figs. we obtain the complementary tetrahedron r{llT}. Tlie cube. = r{lll} . p/. As was shown in Chap. p". CLASS pti . The faces are each parallel to two dyad axes. p'. and the faces of the one are parallel to those of riG. 267 and 268 represent two possible crystals in which the cube o is combined with a tetrahedron. pti . comprises the faces and 111 111 111 III.

but on the negative side.THE RHOMBIC DODECAHEDRON. the axis By rotations of 20 about one of the triad axes. and the four faces just given must be repeated in two sets of OZ four similar faces passing through the cubic edges parallel to the axes of OZ and is OX. and Fig. which give edges parallel and complete the figure. 315 proportional compasses on each cubic edge Equal lengths. - FIG. . The. 17. 36. Y brings these two faces into the Again. the The form rhombic so con. By a semi-revolution about OX this face brought into the position of one through the lower horizontal cubic edge and meeting OZ at the same distance from the origin as then is first. measured from alternate coigns. {110}. it must meet the two dyad axes perpendicular to that edge at equal distances from the origin. 10T. p IO 2 69. the We faces : 101. T01 . If a face is drawn through an edge of the cube making equal angles with the cubic faces forming the edge. are then cut off by and the pairs of points . Suppose the face to be drawn through the upper horizontal cubic edge parallel to OF. its symbol is therefore (101). 269 is most easily drawn by determining the scribed in Art. r/tombic dodecahedron. which was fully de- As was there shown the edges are parallel to the triad axes. OY is brought in succes- sion into the position of and OX. TOT. 268. its symbol is (101). to the face-diagonals are afterwards joined. and the angles they make with one 1 another are 90. a semi-revolution about therefore have the four tautozonal positions of parallel faces.Dt structed dodeca- hedron {110}.

(kQh) constitute a triad meeting at an apex on Op. &c. D'. Fig. AHA'H' = &. it in which meets Y at the origin . &c. T {MO}. 270. Similarly. where Fig. face. 231. for they are parallel to those of the cube. for three faces of Fig. We have also seen in Art. where h is greater than k. is it When a drawn through a cubic edge faces through that edge. can be most easily drawn from Of the four faces meeting at a tetragonal coign II. and OY. unequally inclined to the cubic meets the axes perpendicular to the A edge at unequal distances from the origin. The above edges are often called the cubic edges. horizontal edges have to be parallel respectively to the axes of and Y. As the elements of symmetry characteristic of this class occur in all classes of the cubic system. which therefore consists of the twelve faces : MO MO MO MO Ohk Ohk Ohk Ohk (k). edge e'e t . it will On comparing this table with (d) of Art. those order. tl : OX the same distance on the negative side of and the new face is (MO). Hence (MO). parallel to the vertical axis. kOh kOh kOh kOh 18. Owing in to the triad axes. The new pair of faces therefore have the symbols (MO)..ka-^h. viz.316 CUBIC SYSTEM. on the axes at distance 2a from the origin. and the two new faces must belong to the form r {MO} .c. respectively. (Ohk).. be seen that twelve of the faces of the tetrakis-hexahedron have been which have their symbols in the same cyclical The form.. 19 that the faces changeable by rotations of 120 OX inter- about a triad axis have their symbols in cyclical order. brings them into positions parallel to their original ones. 37. points D. The dihedral pentagonal dodecahedron. let the face be Hpp of Fig. H". The cubic coigns p remain drawn X coigns of r {MO}. it follows that the cube all and rhombic dodecahedron are common to classes of the system. a semi-revolution about the dyad axis OZ. parallel to the two faces. 231 still meet at these coigns . Again. and joining these points to the four nearest coigns of the cube. (MO). 270 its symbol is (A&O). through H'. semi-revolution about brings the face into the position Hp'"p. two only are retained which intersect in an retained. CLASS III. this set of tautozonal faces is repeated to two other similar sets of four faces parallel. Thus.

Therefore p'e = pe pe" = &c. &c. it may be for the faces occur in pairs called the dihedral pentagonal dodecahedron . such as pe. and A'8 = a (see OH'8 = A'Z + A'H' = h + k. and H"&' to meet in the vertical cubic edge through e" . face is a similar and equal four sides of which are the cubic edge differs like edges. Similarly. The form is generally called the pentagonal dodecahedron but. when it has to be distinguished from the less common form described in Art.THE DIHEDRAL PENTAGONAL DODECAHEDRON. But the form consists of pairs of parallel faces hence.. and also in pairs which are parallel. shall . as can be easily proved from expressions (17) and (18) 318). meeting in cubic edges. (p. By a rotation of 120 about Op. in the e. by rotation through 180 about the dyad axis OX. Thus. Hence. We equal. only necessary to find the points complete the figure. drawn to the middle point 8" of pp It is. 270 to meet the horizontal cubic edge through H' in the point marked e". A'H' . e'. The trace #8" in the of the face (MO). The same is true of each of denote the angle between pairs of faces meeting in an edge. Art.'. (/ . in Fig. meeting at p are interchanged and the edges pe. which can be obtained either from the general expression or from the geometry of the figure. to be able to plane is XOY therefore. Each of these points is then joined to the two nearest coigns of the cube. and the angles over them are : all equal. (3). . pe'. and the figure is completed. and the angles over them must be equal. 270. H'8 is prolonged to meet the cubic edge through H" in e. and the angles over both sets of edges must be t . Each pentagon. by U and that over a cubic edge. 18) . pe" must be similar. tan =ka + h. the three faces . and the angles over them equal. whilst the fifth from the others. the edges at p are similar to those at p.. t all equal. such as e'He^ by D. produced in Fig. 43. and so on for all the homologous H points e. the edges at the coign p' must be similar and parallel to those at p. . the coigns p and p are interchanged and the triad of edges meeting at p must be similar and equal to those meeting at p. The angles D and U can never be the other faces. Again. 317 new figure.

be each prolonged to meet the cubic edges in the same axial plane in new points which may be denoted by e'. and let these points be joined. Let also OY.318 But if CUBIC SYSTEM.'. we have cosZ? poles Again. and cos TT 6- The following are the angles for few of the forms of most common occurrence : r{310} T {210} r {320} 18 26' 36 52' 53 8 72 32-5' 26 34 33 41-4 66 25 62 31 61 19. &c. mentary form T {MO}.sin AP 2 Dividing the numerator and denominator of the last ratio by cos2 JP. 7. and (MO). r{430} 36 52 67 22-8 73 44 ff. xiv. hold for the angle Ag in a tetragonal zone. the faces of which have their symbols in the . in directions at right angles to those in the form T {MO}.AP. A and P of .sin AP cos AP + sin AP = 1 2 2 2 . that is.OH''8. which shows the P of the form T {MO}. H'S". to tan AP = cot OH'S = k + h..OH*" = 90 . U= cos P/" = cos A'P' cos . OZ and OX new lines of construction US'. . and replacing tan A P by its value k -=- h. Fig. in Fig. CLASS III. 2 But cos since D = cos 2^P = cos AP . This is the same expression as was shown in Chap. we have taivMP. to the The drawing represents the complenearest coigns p of the cube. replacing sec JP by AP by k + h. 271 are the poles (100) . 271. &c. we have the right-angled triangle cos PA'P' . 38. Art. 1 4- tan 2 Transforming the equation. Suppose the cubic edges through H'. AP = 90 .*.4'P = cos AP sin ^P A'P' = AP. and since 4T = 90 . and . cos 2 AP. as before. H" to be drawn parallel to the axes respectively.

k. and the two complementary forms are tautomorphous. Hence. corresponding to those similarly derived in Arts.. The as the deltoid dodecahedron T {hhl}. and triakis-tetrahedron. : . &c. and cosZ)=cosZ7. A-ff hk " t_ 2 . The angles over corresponding edges are therefore equal for the same values of h and 39. 272.. 40. p" must and the in the must both h -=- lie But this face la 4: distances meets the axes at h a and a la. L". 20 and 21 from the octahedron. when h < 1. we obtain special forms. to be constructed. h<l. Suppose the tetrahedron and let the axes intersect the edges at A. . DU. the edges are all equal. T {hhl}. a value involving a surd. &c. at distances a from the Points L. h>l. A". The indices are therefore not rational and the form is inadmissible as a particular case of this type of pentagonal dodecahedron. taken on the axes at distances la + h from the origin. L'p'" face. The forms are known as the triakis-tetrahedron T {hhl}. Then LL' is parallel to A A'. lines Lp'. that the regular pentagonal dodecahedron of geometry is not an admissible form of this kind. By drawing pairs of faces through each edge of the tetrahedron to meet the two dyad axes. which do not intersect that edge. are now origin. p'p ti p'"p. Fig. By rotation through 90 about one of the dyad axes the form T {MO} can be brought into a position geometrically identical with T {hkO}. The face through L and p therefore pass through L'. L'. and it may be regarded as the particular case of r{hlcQ} in which the angles over all the edges become shall We now show equal. at distances la + h from the origin. in the regular polyhedron. A'. For. and A A' is parallel to p'p". 319 reverse cyclical order to those of T {hkO\.THE TRIAKIS-TETRAHEDRON.

h : a t H- h : a -=it 1 . and the face : (Ihh) t the limiting form is therefore the cube. the form. are given by the three poles positions of the poles of T {hhl} of Fig. The form has two different angles between pairs of adjacent faces = Ihh A hlh... : : t it Lp is common to both faces...TiAo But. viz...... trigonal coign p of the tetrahedron over tetrahedral edges. and having its base congruent with the The form T {hhl} consists of tetrahedral face on which it stands. The other limit tetrahedron... cos T=lhh A sin2 T= cos 2At = cos2 At At = -~ 1 + tan At (see Art.. L"p therefore one of the edges of &c. (ii) L A in the tetrahedral edges the and the form coincides with the L to infinity. tKnAt = hJ2 + l = ^ta..... and contains the lines Lp. Figs.. its symbol is therefore (hhl).. the twelve following faces hhl : hlh hlh Ihh Ihh ' hhl hhl hhl ... . and angles T If t is the pole as (Ihh). .. when : the coincide with the points height of the pyramid is then nil .....h. those below the paper would be given by surrounding the corresponding poles in the two other octants.. For the same reason. and the symbol is (hlh). then. was shown in Art... CLASS face has the intercepts a -=- III.. 21. over edges joining a meeting in edges . is given by removing the points The index h must then become zero.. the face through : L and p'p tt also passes axes are la through L".. angles F to the apex r of the pyramid...320 parallel CUBIC SYSTEM. are all edges of it .. Hence the figure is drawn by joining each coign are most distant from it. 239 and 272.. and is the form. L"p it the intercepts on the -H h a But the line la -4.. 37). (19).. hlh hlh Ihh'' Ihh : The points limits of the form are given (i) by making I = h.. of the tetrahedron to the points L which The figure consists of an equal and similar trigonal pyramid placed on each face of the tetrahedron.. (20). Similarly. = (from (19)) l ..... L'p".. 239 which lie in the alternate octants above the paper in becomes (100) The which o and o" circlets lie.

Similarly. the axes and several other lines of construction are omitted.p'". be taken at distances la + h from the origin. &c. L'.. L"p". The line L'L" is parallel to A'A". is tautomorphous. The deltoid dodecahedron. The line L'p" is common to the two faces.. c.. LL". p'p tl &c.. are parallel to the opposite edges p'p'". in Fig. Let. as they would unof duly complicate the diagram. Similarly. 41. Since these points and the edges the figure lie within the auxiliary tetrahedron. LL'. Hence the angles r{lhk} for the following forms are : At=lW/\lhh 25 14' 35 16 T=lhhf\lhh 50 29' r'311} 50 29' 33 33 b TJ211} 70 32 The complementary form and offers no fresh characters. and to the opposite tetrahedral lt coigns p and p".p . of the tetrahedron.. 274. F is most easily obtained from expression 2 which gves C osF= C os(lhh/\hlh) = (21). is an edge of the form. This form can be constructed from the auxiliary tetrahedron r{lll} in a manner similar to that employed in Art. &c. Fig. . the auxiliary tetrahedron be p'p"'p. L". and on the axes OA. OA". The angle 321 (3). h> I. 273. <fec. and L. let the points L. . Hence the face through contains the lines L and p'p'" joining L and L' also passes through L'. the plane through L' and p'"p also contains L" and the lines L'p'". For the same reason 21 . It can be constructed jn a manner {1 IT} similar to T {hhl} the tetrahedron T being taken as the auxiliary form. r{hhl}. OA'. T {hhl}. 40 to give the triakis-tetrahedron..THE DELTOID DODECAHEDRON. and the latter is parallel to p.

are similar III. &c. and each pair of unlike edges meeting at a coign on a dyad axis. Again. L'. &c. Since the face approximates in shape to a delta. each away from the tetrahedral coign . 212 212 ) The limits of the form are easily determined. &c.. the face (Ihh) then becomes But OL = la-=rh. reach the origin. the line Lp'" is common to the faces LrL' and Lr L t/ . for a face has to be drawn through L and p'"p which also passes The line Lp" has therefore to be produced on the side through L ti t . give the symbols of the faces of the particular case T {221} in the following table : We 221 22T 122 212 22T T22 212 221 | 122 T22 [ (m). Or it may be stated thus. Each face is bounded by two different pairs of like edges. each pair of like edges meeting at a dissimilar trigonal coign. The general symbols of the faces are given but the relative magnitude of the equal indices to the third is altered. and these edges meet in triads at the trigonal coigns R. CLASS Lp. The similar lines L'p. ii. i.. L"p'. They meet in triads at trigonal coigns r. have to be produced. in table 1. CUBIC SYSTEM. edges of the form.. the form is called the deltoid dodecahedron. and at the limit I : (Oil). The points : L cannot be further from the origin than the points A at this limit the three faces meeting at a coign r coalesce in the face of the direction tetrahedron r{lll} overlying them. the latter being the least. Each face is parallel to the plane .322 L"p ti . The limit in the other is attained when the points L. remote from p" to form the edge.

Thus the poles p. for the cosines of these angles are most easily found from geometry of the figure or they they are : may be deduced from the (22). passing through a tetrahedral edge and the origin containing an axis of reference and two triad axes is parallel to two faces of the rhombic dodecahedron {110}. those below the paper would be given by circlets in the two remaining octants. 41. for a rotation of 90 about one of the dyad axes will bring the faces therefore equal of one of them into the same position as those of the other. which is the limiting form. G hlhf\hhl over edges joining the obtuse trigonal coigns r to the coigns L. L'. 275. and the coigns joined to the points L. between the tetrahedral poles o and the adjacent poles d of the rhombic dodecahedron. Fig. The form {110} is the limiting case in which both these angles become equal to 60. The two forms have . = The expressions (3). .THE DELTOID DODECAHEDRON. In a stereogram the poles lie on the zone-circles [Ao]. angles they are also tautomorphous.. <kc. cos T = cos (Mh A Ml) = h* ~ For the following particular cases we have r{hhl} T {332} : A"P=OOlf\hhl 64 46' O = hlh^hhl 1720'5' 27 16 37 52 T=hlhf\hhl 97 50' TJ221} r{331} 70 32 76 44 90 80 55 42. 236. are those above the plane of the primitive. and T=hlh/\hhl over edges joining the coigns L to the acute trigonal coigns R. the faces of which are each parallel to one of the faces of r{hhl}. we obtain the complementary deltoid dodeca- hedron T{hhl).. If the complementary tetrahedron r{llT} is taken. The form has two different angles. which lie in the alternate octants containing o and o" of Fig. : 323 this plane. viz. in the manner described in Art. fcc. 212 .

the axis through the point. Ihk kih kih klh On referring to table g. it was seen in Again. are respectively denoted by p and in Figs. and they are two face faces of a triad meeting at a trigonal coign R". half of the faces of a {hkl} would give rise to a similar pentagonal dodecahedron T {Ikh}. each of which meets in an edge the single able. so that h.324 CUBIC SYSTEM. The three faces meeting at a trigonal coign are similar and interchange- R and have their symbols in cyclical order thus. H t . which is tautomorphous with T {hkl} . 276 are (hkl). must have its indices in the same cyclical order. of Art. When the faces of the form occupy a general position. for the triad axis : OR" interchanges the (Ihk). 276 and 278. which meet at coigns p in alternate octants. where intercept on the axes: each of these edges is bisected by. for the faces of a {hkl} in adjacent octants are interchangeable by a rotation of 90 about each of the axes of reference. such that those meeting at opposite ends of each triad axis compose dissimilar trigonal coigns. these are adjacent faces intersecting in a line at right angles to OX\ when the form is. : is the least edge passing through one of the points H. and at Thus the face right angles to. The faces are also grouped in pairs. 23. k and I are all unequal finite numbers. The third and must meet OY at the point R three points H. like the figure. OH (hkl) is repeated in a face (hkl) . CLASS III. and. h being the greatest index. The tetrahedral pentagonal dodecahedron. 43. the form is bounded by twelve similar The faces are grouped round each triad axis in sets of three. 29 that a {hkl} consists geometrically of one-half of the faces . the faces meeting at p in Fig. Art. equably developed. (Ihk) and (klh). But (hkl) also meets (klh). r {hkl}. which and interchangeable pentagons. so that the form T {hkl} consists of the faces : hkl Ihk hkl Ihk hkl hkl Ihk kih (n). the reader will perceive that geometrically the form consists of that half of the faces of a and have {hkl}. f and H" hence the face has the symbol The same process can be repeated with respect to each set of faces. the edge will also be bisected at H. their symbols in the same The second cyclical order.

T being hkl/\hkl. <f> T. From a {Ikh} of Art.THE TETRAHEDRAL PENTAGONAL DODECAHEDRON. and the angles over the dis- similar edges are always different. which we shall denote by T. 9^ ^A/ A?' ~ . klh klh klh klh T {Ikh} The two dodecahedra. has the faces: R~^ //' hkl Ihk hkl Ihk hkl Ihk hkl Ihk ' (O). shown in Fig. T {Ikh} and r{hkl}'. the poles of one-fourth of the number and was formerly regarded as a tetarthe form are shown in Fig. TTv co$<f> cos(klh/\hkl) = til M~"W" (24). tohedral form. The edges meeting are never similar to at p and K one another or to the single edge . we can also obtain two similar pentagonal dodecahedra. and : and T hkl /\ klh. _being being klhf\hkl. Expressions for the cosines of these angles can be easily obtained from expression (3). d'" and of the single edge passing through the point II on the axis of reference. T {hkl} has The five edges of each face consist of a pair of like edges meeting at a trigonal coign p. 277. are tautomorphous. of which the latter. in the 325 form {hkl}. and are cos r = cos (W AHA) = = . for each of them consists geometrically of those faces of a {Ikh} which are situated . 278. cos T 7 = cos (AJW A hkl) = 24 h' ** P 44. and T {hkl}. Hence of faces in this latter form. Hence we have three different angles between adjacent faces. of a second pair of like edges meeting at a trigonal coign ft.

But neither T {hkl} nor T {Ikh} can be brought into a The dodecahedron position of congruence with T {hkl} or T {Ikh}. Barium nitrate Ba(NO 3 ) 2 Sr(NO 3 ) 2 &c. and is a triakis-tetra- hedron (Art. may be said to be the inverse of T {hkl} of Fig. oa>. . 46. T {hkl}. aocat. the faces of the one are parallel to those of the other. o. aa>de.280(a). 39. If the regular pentagonal dodecahedron of geometry can be a 45. Na3 SbS 4 9H 2 O NaSrAs0 4 9H 2 . but not for all the substances placed in the class. 276. when the former are parallel to one of the dyad axes. oa>. a case already discussed in Art. for the faces of the one are reflexions of those of the other in the axial planes. . the numerical values of the indices being the same. Crystals of the following substances belong to this class Substance. pentagons. : Chemical composition. Sodium chlorate <%j = T{210}. This equation is satisfied if 1 = 0. and all the faces of a {Ikh} can be interchanged by successive rotations of 90 about any of the axes of reference. The first indicates that the symbol must be r{MO}. 2 )3 NaUO 2 (C 2 H 3 .326 CUBIC SYSTEM. T {hkl} and T {hkl}. 40) or a deltoid dodecahedron (Art. the angles r. in alternate octants. and the is faces are not dodecahedron not admissible as a form of this type. CLASS III. the form has the symbol r{hhl}. When A+&=0. aa>de. ocade. Equating the expressions for cos r and cos $ given in (24). It follows that the regular pentagonal 41).Fig. od. ocoa. adop= r{120}. ocode^r {120} . particular case of this form. and must be all equal. Fig. and parallel faces can only be interchanged by the axes of symmetry of this class. Crystals of this class may be expected to rotate the plane of polarization of a beam of plane-polarised light traversing them : this has been established for crystals of sodium chlorate and sodium bromate. Sodium bromate Sodium uranyl acetate Sodium sulphantimonate Sodium strontium arsenate NaBr0 3 ao&d. oa>. 278. and vice versa. we have < T hk-kl-lh. or if h+k = 0. Forms and combinations. ao<o. 280(6) .Fig. For. Again. are enantiomorphous. Strontium nitrate Lead nitrate Pb(N0 3 NaC10 3 )2 o ca ae = r{210}.

BARIUM NITRATE. the largest were taken tobe7-{lll}: the crystals also showed sometimes faces of r {120}. iv. crystals are deposited which resemble regular octahedra. 280 (b) rotate the plane of polarization to the right i.e. 280 (a). 279. Wulff (Groth's Zeitsch. Kryst. Crystals of strontium nitrate and of lead nitrate have very nearly the same characters : they also manifest anomalous double refraction but no rotation of the plane of polarization. u. Fig. He observed that when crystals of barium nitrate are deposited from pure aqueous solutions the cube predominates. having their coigns modified by faces of the cube {100} and by very small faces of the forms X and r{120}. or rotate the plane of polarization of a plane-polarised beam to the left . 279 represents a plan on the plane showing an exceptionally large number of different forms namely . 280(6). 1879) has exhaustively studied the crystals of barium. and the forms X. but anomalous. 280 (a). never occur together on the same crystal. of the faces X could not be fully determined. and sometimes elongated triangular faces of a tetrahedral pentagonal dodecahedron X. so that the The crystals manifest a weak. The (ii) by d{110}. nitrate. Fig. r{210} and r{120}. When obtained from aqueous solutions at ordinary temperatures. but they approached those When sodium nitrate is present in the solution. SODIUM CHLORATE. Fig. 327 Barium YOZ of a crystal : tf Dr. jo = i-{210} and tetrahedra O=T{I!I}. shown in Fig. In all the above crystals r{120} and the tetrahedral pentagonal dodecahedron X occupied the same relative X faces were nearer in position to the faces of the complementary form r{210} than to those of r{120}. 122. the crystals are cubes h {100}. i. The crystals . having their edges and coigns modified (i) by narrow faces d{110}. The cubic coigns are modified by faces of the complementary tetrahedra of unequal size. he ob tei ned more complicated crystals in which the faces of the cube and tetrahedra were absent: the predominant form was r{211}. strontium and lead nitrates. . The positions of r {421}. From solutions containing also potassium nitrate and sugar. : = r{120}. positions. double refraction. and o = r{lll}. under similar circumstances This rotatory power is to those of the first case the rotation is clockwise. and of which Fio. The crystals represented by Fig. and no rotation of the plane of polarization has been established..e. to an observer receiving the light transmitted by a plate of the crystal the rotation is counter-clockwise. Sodium chlorate. jt> complementary pentagonal dodecahedra. . Min. 7-{120} and r{221} appeared as small faces modifying the acute coigns of the triakis-tetrahedron. f.

and invariably associated with the arrangement of the faces given above. The rule connecting the direction of rotation with the facial development may be given as follows. If a centre of symmetry is symmetry. II. i. and its vertical face (210) is to the left of (110) in a dextrogyral crystal the form is r{120}. 47. Dyakis-dodecahedral class . The triad axes in untwinned crystals have been found to be pyro-electric . having the vertical face to the unequal indices. 1883). . The arrangement of axes . have never been if such forms are discovered. finite that. forms having But we may anticipate laevogyral crystals will these forms the limit. 311. be expected to show r {khl} and r {kht}. axes (Friedel and Curie Bull. CLASS IV. observed. then in a laevogyral crystal the pentagonal dedecahedron is r{210}. The general equations (2) and (3) of Art. have r{hkl} and r{hJct} in which h>k>l for in when 1=0. . all simple (i.e. r{hkQ}. on the other hand. and parametral plane (HI) of the last class is clearly not altered and. The cube being placed in the usual position with the tetrahedron as r{lll}. de Min. .328 possessed by is CUBIC SYSTEM. is a pentagonal dodecahedron. there must also be three planes of symmetry. the limiting form r (MO) having its vertical face to the right of (110). each perpendicular to one of the dyad axes. of the class may be represented by 38. added to the assemblage of axes of symmetry characteristic of the last class. 280. left of (110). p. FIG. of symmetry C. Dextrogyral crystals may.fran$. Soc. : The elements 4P . as before.e. 13 will therefore hold for the angular relations of faces in this class. These planes are parallel to the faces of the cube having its edges and are called the cubic planes of parallel to the dyad axes. IT {hkl}. 191. (120) is to the right of (110). and its vertical face General forms. vi. IV. untwinned) crystals of the substance.

we have the triakis-octahedron identical the icositetrahedron prefix No Greek {1M}. 329 to one or The forms of Class III having each of their faces parallel two dyad axes belong also to this class. for they have Hence. and from the deltoid dodecahedron T {hhl}. we obtain the octahedron {111}. having been fully described in Arts. the pentagonal development. and the forms are therefore The symbols of the faces are given in geometrically identical. II and IV. 238. Tlie I dyakis-dodecahedron. finite The face (hkl). at equal distances on opposite sides of the origin. described in Art. whether they appear in crystals of this class or of Class III. and 2 1 . 16. h. 50. 21 and represented in Fig. the cube {100}. the faces meeting the axis of reference perpendicular to the cubic plane at points where L OL = ha + l. This pair of faces must be associated with a pair of similar faces through the same points L and the opposite edge of the octahedron . CLASS. perceive that the faces of these forms are symmetrically placed with respect to the axial planes. The reader will. {110}. the indices k and being and unequal. : The remaining forms of Class III are all modified by the addition of parallel faces. but the four faces are those in the similar construction of Arts. 17. have the same facial parallel faces. on referring to Arts. and that groups of them are bisected at right angles by these planes. 16. Thus we can draw through any edge of the octahedron a pair of faces equally inclined to the cubic plane of symmetry through this edge . h > I. 235. The dihedral pentagonal dodecahedron. 20 need no fresh discussion . and 37. (klh). but they can be derived inde- The pendently from the elements of symmetry characteristic of this class in a manner identical with that given in the Articles quoted. is denoted by the symbol TT {MO}. tables e and f . is associated with two other like faces (Ihk). the faces of which are given in table b of Art. Thus. {hhl}. we obtain geometrically with that described in Art. forms for geometrically they are the same as the similar forms of Class II. and the forms are common to Classes I. 20 and 21 . is placed before the brackets in the symbols of these . From the triakis-tetrahedron r {hhl}. Tr{hkl\. the rhombic dodecahedron dodecahedron r{hkO}. when it is regarded as a form of this class the symbols of the faces are given in table k. 20 and represented in Fig. forms. 15.THE DYAKIS-DODECAHEDRAL 48. from the tetrahedron T{111}. the symbols of which are in the same cyclical . 49. h < I. of which good instances are observed in pyrites.

and the remaining twelve are parallel and opposite each to a face of the all similar first set. since the axes of reference are dyad axes. consists therefore of the twenty-four following faces : hkl Ihk hkl Ihk hkl Ihk hkl\ Ihk klh klh klh klh hkl Ihk hkl Ihk klh hkl Ihk klh m Ihk . 281 and 282. 43. are interchangeable. parallel to one of the first set . the second set of faces constitut- ing T {hkl} of Art. The twelve faces so connected constitute the But. The form IT {hkl}. each of which is form T {hkl\ of Art. 19). the above twelve faces are associated with a set of twelve faces. since the crystals in the present class are centro-symmetrical. and equal Two of .330 CUBIC SYSTEM. The faces can also be The arranged in pairs. in each of the alternate octants. order (Art. Again. 44. Since twelve faces. symmetrical with respect II' symmetry and II. it follows that the faces are the edges of each face meeting at a trigonal coign are also equal.(p). consisting of the triads in alternate octants. klh faces in the upper half of each column are symmetrical in pairs to those in the lower half of the same column with respect to the horizontal plane of symmetry II". for they change places when the trapezia. there must be similar triads. Figs. CLASS IV. such as (hkl) and to one or other of the planes of (hkl). having their symbols in the same cyclical order.

the faces having their to those in ?r {hkl} are complementary form which can by a rotation of 90 about any one of Fig. and W-hkl f\ hkl over the shorter edges lying in the axial . 24. 283. therefore. T = hkl A klh over edges converging to a triad coign. the axes of reference be brought into a position identical with that of TT {hkl} . . equal. for it was seen. jacent pairs of faces viz. crystal is 331 turned through 120 about the axis through the coign. they are /i 11 77v = hk + kl + lh = planes. and that the angles over corresponding edges are. one pair of like edges lying in the same axial Hence the crystal has three different angles between adplane. that the two forms are tautomorphous. cos D = cos (hkl A hkl) = . H Expressions (25) for the cosines of these angles are easily obtained from (3) . D = hkl A hkl over the longer edges lying in the axial planes.r{321} 7T{421} 29 32 12 19 48 48 11 25 19 13 45 56 w {531} 51.(25). but they cannot occur as a part of this form. the law of rational indices. in Art. that a rotation of 90 about an axis of reference inter- changes faces having their symbols in opposite cyclical orders. : cos T cos (hkl A klh) - . It follows. on an axis of reference consist The four edges meeting at a point of two dissimilar pairs. They however constitute a ir{lkh}. cos W = cos (hkl h hkl) = of the angles for The values met with are : some of the forms most commonly r 38 13' rftfi} =IW f\hkl 36 42' D 31 0' W 64 51 37' .THE DYAKIS-DODECAHEDRON. 55 28 60 By symbols in the reverse cyclical order possible. for the same values of the indices.

in one of which the striae are parallel to the cubic edges. oe. {331}. 285. Crystals of the following substances belong to this class Chemical composition. Different portions of the ^^/ : -^-a^ooi . a. &c. oa. e. The pentagonal dodecahedron n {210} the crystals can be is fairly common . so that a rotation of 120 about the triad axis interchanges the striae. &c. oe. Hauerite MnS 2 Potash Alum also the K 2 A1 2 (S0 4 ) 4 . rally single is This very common mineral is found in crystals which are geneforms or simple combinations. and J. a. 1885) has shown that the crystals striated parallel to the cubic edges are more positive than antimony. and the faces are usually striated : divided into two groups. and the faces are often striated.^^N same face are sometimes striated in directions at right angles to one another. 284.24H 2 salts of o.. Cobaltine Smaltine Sperrylite CoAsS CoAs 2 PtAs 2 a. CLASS IV. o. a. as shown The striaa on adjacent faces meeting in a coign are parallel respectively to the edges meeting in it. striae. oe. [aes. CUBIC SYSTEM.. Rose discovered that the crystals of the two groups are thermo-electrically active. parallel to [ae"]. The thus (100) would be striated relative dimensions of the two forms . ao. e Pyrites FeS 2 = 7r{210}.e. the faces of which are usually smooth and bright: occasionally they each have three sets of FIG. which is fairly common. aeo. a*=7r{321}. Skutterudite CoAs3 on = {2 11}. Stannic iodide SnI4 Pyrites. Curie (Bull. oda. Substance. is shown in Fig. viu. i.frang. o. ao. Another common form is the octahedron {111}. and these portions are thermo-electrically different. ae. common in Fig. parallel to those faces of TT {210} which are inclined to it at the least angle. : Forms and combinations. in the other they are perpendicular to these edges. 127. vertically.332 52. aoe. Soc. whilst those striated perpendicular to the cubic edges are about as negative as bismuth. parallel to the lines in which the face would intersect the adjacent faces of TT {210}. 284. ond. de Min. A combination of the cube and n {210}. 285 in such crystals : each face of the cube is usually striated FIG. forms {hkO} rare. oe. rr a. isomorphous ammonium. o. The cube .

e being tautozonal). inclined to one another at angles of 45. 285. crystals of this latter mineral are also often found with the habit given in Fig. 62. The planes are parallel to pairs of faces of the rhombic dodecahedron. first (PYRITES). it sometimes found in crystals of is more frequent in crystals of cobaltine. In drawing the combination it is best to Fig. e=ir {210}. the octahedral faces can then be introduced [so] (o. The elements of symmetry of the class may be represented by : : 4 P 38. may be added. 191. s. 286 but pyrites. To the assemblage The forms are not centro-symmetrical. for each of the planes of symmetry would in that case be associated with a dyad axis perpendicular to it. 2. crystals of pyrites from Elba. the form ir {210} should be completed. vi. when the faces of the cube are easily introduced. de Min. Prop. 333 In drawing such a combination. 287. o{lll}. . and three dyad axes of Class III six planes of symmetry. and we should have four axes of symmetry The axis of in a plane. and have been shown to be pyro-electric axes in crystals of blende and boracite the pyro-electricity can be tested by a simple method invented by MM. .EXAMPLES vary much. The dyakis-dodecahedron ?r{321} also occurs as a single form in crystals from Elba. which intersect in sets of three in each of the triad axes and in pairs in each of the dyad axes. /u. The Fro. a combination not infrequently observed in The forms are a {100}. Hexakis-tetrahedral class of four triad . . and s = n {321}. Soc. 287 represents construct TT {321} first. symmetry perpendicular to this plane would then be a tetrad axis (Chap. The combination of the octahedron {111} with TT {210} (slightly is developed) shown in Fig. Friedel and Curie (Bull. and the edges [se] are parallel to adjacent edges so that the figure is quickly completed. and are called the dodecahedral planes of symmetry. p.franq. The triad axes are uniterminal. 11) . V. 1883). {hkl}. 53. ix. and the elements of symmetry would be those characteristic of Class II.

Further. a= b = c. {hhl} having been fully discussed in Arts. 40 and 41. the triakis-tetrahedron and the deltoid dodecahedron of Arts. and vice versa. 1. tetrahedron are also possible. and a face of parametral plane (111). and contains the t edges rp. For instance. We have therefore first the triad (hhl). the second plane of symmetry through OL also passes through p p". and. symmetrical to in pairs with respect the planes of symmetry through Or and each of the axes OL. The faces of the for they are parallel to the edges of this form. ix. need no When they are forms of this class. 55. 272. 288. 272. identical geometrically with Fig. (Ihh). the rhombic dodecahedron and the tetrahedron It is easy to see that these symmetry. these normals are possible zone-axes. moreover. p ttr p". and the analytical relations established in Art. 13 hold for crystals of this class. OL". OL'. forms are geometrically symmetrical with respect to the planes of As. the symbols The symbols of the faces in /*. for the edges are parallel to the normals of the planes of symmetry. as we saw in Chap. 40 and 41 belong to this class. p. Again. as before. the plane through OL and Or of Fig. and the above triad of faces is repeated over the plane in a similar triad /t But this is the triad obtained by a rotation of 180 meeting at rt about the axis OX. are used.. The student will perceive that Figs. Hence. Prop. Hence no new faces are introduced. The of Class III belong also to this class. CUBIC SYSTEM. CLASS V. to those of the rhombic dodecahedron. cube. bisects the planes p. Hence. the planes of symmetry are parallel to possible faces. the other is (hhl). viz. The dyad axes are the tetrahedron as selected as axes of reference.rp". 273 and 274 are symmetrical with respect to planes passing each through an axis of reference and a triad axis. r p formed by faces which are reciprocal reflexions in the plane. figures. the one face being (hlh). The . (hlh) in the octant. t It is clear that the plane of symmetry repeats the point L' in L". {hhl} are given in . fresh description. we can in this class prove that the triad axes are possible zone-axes .334 54.

k and I being finite and unequal numbers. Fig. MO. I. there must be two other similar sets . hkO. (Ihk) and (hlk). A face (hkl) having any general position. 289. h. of eight faces parallel. Art.e. OY and OZ OY cally related to them. < I. the faces are arranged in pairs equally inclined to each of the three planes of symmetry traversing the octant which contains the face. 320 : for the triakis. of shown that a The tetrakis-hexahedron. (khl) is its through OZ and X Y : . and at the same time any faces symmetriHence.THE HEXAKIS-TETRAHEDRON. respectively. these angles being bisected by two dyad axes perpendicular to the first axis. occur together in any form which has such an arrangement of elements of symmetry. We. and dodecahedron h > 56. MO. MO. For rotations of 1 20 about the triad axis bring the face to the positions given by (Ihk) and (klh). Thus (hkl) being one of the faces. MO. In Chap. (hlk). is repeated in seven other to the first faces. p. (klh) and (Ikh) are pairs of faces which But (khl). MO. The hexakis-tetrafadron.tetrahedron h I. is prefix is {MO} of the form. dropped before the symbol which includes the faces given in table d. table 1. The form therefore common to Classes 57. MO. tetragon of _Fig. Pi of that figure. xiv. hkO. 18. reciprocal reflexion in the plane of symmetry and bisecting the angle between the axes of similarly. i. the symbols of which are obtained by taking the indices in the two opposite cyclical orders. 335 for the deltoid p. Again. 289. dyad axis are given by the Their traces in the axial plane perpendicular lines forming the di- Hence the faces. therefore. such as Hp. and and symmetrical to OX with respect to the pairs of planes 2 through these axes. The Greek FIG. II and V. is associated with five other faces. (Ikh) are reciprocal reflexions in the same plane. geometrically identical with Fig. {MO}. obtain a twenty-four faced figure. H pp'. The planes of symmetry pass each through a set of edges. 231 described in Art. 177. The triad axes interchange the axes OX. 7 it was face (hkQ) parallel to a dyad axis. {hkl}. in which two planes symmetry intersect at right angles.

are in cyclical order that opposed to the first . CLASS V. and the form has three different angles. 290. The six faces meeting at a ditrigonal coign in one octant are hkl Ihk : klh khl Ikh hlk. faces : The form hkl hkl Ihk p. surrounding the tetrahedral poles o situated in alternate octants they are shown in the stereogram Fig. includes therefore the khl klh Ikh hlk Ihk ihk klh kih kih lie Ikh Ikh hlk hik khl khi khi (a). 290. and there can be no other homologous faces meeting at the same coign on the triad axis. FIG. These six faces are repeated in a similar set of six faces by each dyad axes forming the edges of the octant . viz. those we shall denote them by over the dissimilar edges of each face : . and hence it is : called the hexakis-tetrahedron. The form may be regarded as the result of placing on each face of the tetrahedron a similar ditrigonal pyramid. 291. {hkl}.336 CUBIC SYSTEM. The faces are all equal and similar scalene triangles. Fig. 291. Now rotation of 180 about an axis of reference changes the signs of the indices on the two other axes but of the not their order. hkl hki ihk ikh in sets hlk The poles of the faces of six on small circles FIG. and the four sets occupy alternate octants.

337 G and T. Haiiyne Eulytine om. &c. which have their edges replaced by grooves in the way shown in Fig. o. aow. o<o. p {221}. ons. n. 22 . : Substance. the letters. 293. Mg7 B 16O30Cl2 Mn. Forms and combinations. Another apparently regular octahedron is shown in L. am. ou>d.oa. dao. '{430}. we obtain a complementary hexakis-tetrahedron p. n. Fe)7 Si 3 12S Na. The two forms tautomorphous. . for a rotation of 90 about one of the axes of reference interchanges faces The angles adjacent octants. Expressions for their cosines are obtained from (3) . ad. c. By raising similar ditrigonal pyramids. oa. As) 2 S 3 . aw. d. oa>. 292. This mineral is sometimes found in apparently regular octahedra. Diamond. Fig. a. o. Crystals of the following substances belong to this class Chemical composition.THE HEXAKIS-TETRAHEDRON. ond. { 1 1 1 }. aoa>c? Helvine o. d. on. they are cos /^= cos (hid A khl) ' = h? K + k2 + P cos G = cos (hkl A hlk) = =g For the following particular n{hkl} cases. aou>. over the corresponding edges are equal for the same numerical values in of the indices. the faces of which are parallel respectively to those are of n {hid}. the angles are : F 21 17 47' G 21 47' T 69 5' p {321} ^{421} /*{531} 45 35 57 27 40 55 9 27 40 57 7 58.Ca(NaSO4 Al)AlSi s O 12 (Be. dm. &c. Bi 4 Si 3 12 nan p. {hkl}. one on each face of the tetrahedron u. Diamond Blende Fahlerz Boracite c ZnS 3(Cu 2 Fe)S (Sb. 59. od. &c. da. F.

indeterminate form {hkl}. in the points D. 294. 295.. = 300^2. but in this Fig. D D 6 &c. and of the tetrahedron /i{lll}: it is also frequently associated with elongated triangular and rounded faces of a form fi {hhl}. On each of the axes 5 off. modifying those edges which meet the trigonal coigns in Were the form p. 17). {110} which are perpendicular to the axial plane containing DD. bright. been observed which are hexakis-tetrahedra. and often dull and pitted. the faces being too rounded for the angles to be measured occasionally the obtuse coigns of these hexakis-tetrahedra are modified by faces of the tetrahedron. 295. A'L lf . Ac. o> The crystals are latter being developed. Od being the semi-diagonal of the cubic . They give the traces of plaues through the origin parallel to those faces of 5 5 . h<l. These two forms are often = /*{lll}. we should have the crystal shown first Fig. Drawing the faces of {311} through the points L. p. Fro.. and striated. face. are marked drawing {110} (Art.. This form usually associated with faces of the cube FIG. the edge pe = [0ll. marked on them and. sometimes combinations of 0=^(111} with the faces of the slightly associated with the cube. . The edges [pe] of intersection of the two forms are given by joining the points L on one axis to the points is D situated in the perpendicular axial plane. 295 is made by of reference points L are &c. in Fig. CLASS V. FIG. 293. Thus. D B . whilst the faces o are large. where OL = 30A . 131] parallel to the Hue . 294. and the lines DD. A few crystals have : Blende. .: these traces meet DD. But is the most common and prominent form its faces the rhombic dodecahedron being is parallel to perfect cleavages. &c. origin parallel to the edges of the tetrahedron. alternate octants.338 CUBIC SYSTEM. &c. D D S . the faces of which appear as narrow truncations of the edges of /i {111} when this form predominates. OD = OD 5 = &c. the edges of which are also replaced by grooves case the sides of the grooves are made by rounded faces belonging to an . their traces on the axial drawn through the DD 5 planes will be A'L" . {113}.

297 . 296 sometimes with those of {110}. markedly tetrahedral owing to the predominance The tetrahedron is sometimes FIG. alone and occasionally with their edges truncated by narrow planes of FIG. 296. modifying the edges and coigns of p {111}. the directions of which are obtained in the manner given in Art. occasionally Boracite. Fig. If the points BO obtained are joined in pairs by lines parallel to the opposite sides. 113] is parallel to is then drawn parallel to the edge of the tetrahedron /* {111} intersecting the . Occasionally the complementary tetrahedron /* {111} is present. 222 . and similarly for all the homologous edges. These crystals are found in tetrahedra ^{111}. Fig. On each of the faces of the latter a trigonal pyramid is j? IO 298 raised by drawing through the coigns lines parallel to the edges of the rhombic dodecahedron. BORACITE. FIG. In drawing Fig. 299. Fahlerz.FAHLERZ. Fig. {Ill} is made. associated with narrow faces of {100}. 300. OL on the same side of the origin . and sometimes with p {211}. FIG. 311] the edge [110. The edge [311. D . measured from the coigns. 17. a combination of /* {111} with /j. Several of these . which sometimes occurs alone. 297 the tetrahedron first jt constructed. The habit is of ji{lll}. are then cut off by proportional compasses. subordinate forms often occur together. 297. 339 LD S axis S and so on. the faces being usually small. 298. Equal lengths on all {111} is the edges.

K in and L are determined. each of the axes three points H. 8". When all these lengths are very short. where OH = a Fig. These pairs intersect in &c. Fig. H"o". in their plane. Fig. 300. it {321}. The drawing of the hexakis-octahedron {hkl} is made On the basis for that of the general forms of the other classes. and similarly for other pairs of the faces. each Assume therefore OH to be the least intercept and OL the greatest. points on OY -4- being distinguished by single dashes. on the dyad 8'. crystal of this habit showing also A forms n. Fig. For the face (hkl) passes through HK'L"... give the edges Hp. axes lying The lines H8. and its coigns being modified by one or both tetrahedra.. being six times the length given by the facesymbol. having symbols in which h occupies the same place. TT {hkl}. 60.340 {100}. as shown h. 299. points on OZ by double dashes. . OL = 6a. &c. L'K" and K'L" in points 8. is best to take Off=2a. Pairs of lines are drawn crossIhk wise in each axial plane joining a on point L on one axis to a point K the other. {hkl}. 296. {hkl}. FIG. e. OL = a + l. 301. CUBIC SYSTEM. and (hlk) through HL'K". meet in each point H. OK=3a. 302. the rhombic dodecahedron {110} predominates. its edges being truncated by {110}. In some crystals. its coigns being modified by faces of the cube {100} common form is that in which the cube and of the tetrahedron /n {111}. p. 301. H'o'. Ik. = /t {211} and v= t i {531} is represented in Fig. a {hkl} T {hkl}. three are multiplied by some conThus in drawing venient number r. and h>k>L Then eight faces. OK=a+k. A predominates. of Fig. To draw the general forms and {hkl}. &c.g. H'p.

These points are found by joining crosswise in pairs the points on one axis to the points K' and K" on the others.DRAWING THE GENERAL FORMS. (hkl) and (khl).. and [klh. 304 be prolonged to meet the edges t : K [klh. meet the respective dyad axis. the edge H'd of Fig. kc.. such as (hkl) and (khl). &c. L'pd'. Thus. The figure is now com- K pleted by joining the points 61.. Fig. Further. {hkl}. {hkl} p. 302. and the line Ld coincides with the edge pd of Fig. pd'. of Geometrically this form consists of the faces of Hence the six. one pair of new the edges in each axial plane meeting at coigns remain edges of TT {hkl}. and of the six faces. pd. have to be all prolonged to meet the triad axis traversing the adjacent octants at the points R. The coigns p on the 341 triad axes being now determined. 62. H to the adjacent points d. &c. remain coigns of the dyakis-dodecahedron IT for four faces meeting at each coign {hkl} of the forms. in Fig. L"pd". 303. klh] at new coigns easily These new edges are for constructed they are . p^ p ///} and the edges pH.{hkl}. &c. and p TT {hkl}. it only remains to find the points d at which two pairs of faces. klh] e. 301. p". pleted by joining each of the points H to the adjacent coigns R. R'". plf. and the points H to the points H'. meeting at each ditrigonal coign former. All the coigns H H are common to both of . H". which occupy alternate octants in sets of coigns p. 302 and the corresponding edge joining H H' to a point tt on OZ remain they have to edges of Fig. a triad having their symbols in cyclical order remain in the form. 302. coigns and edges of p {hkl}. But at the points d only two faces meet. H'K" and K'H" intersect in d on the dyad axis in their plane. remain The figure is comFig. and the edges Lpd. Thus.

&c. 304. is drawn in a manner the edges Hd'. pe'. those of TT {Ikh} t/ . The edges of a {hkl} meeting at a tetragonal coign If are found to four points o. F IG . By first meant that in which all the indices of . p'". The complementary f orm ir{lkh}. mined. edge 1 [hkl. to meet new edges H"L = [Ikh. the face (Jikl) meets the plane YOZ in the trace K'L" the face (hlk) meets the same plane in a trace L'K where OKti is a^ + k measured on OZ These traces meet at a'. and have all to be replaced by new ones. . hlk] octant is is the line joining H to a'. 302 remain coigns of for the same reasons as were given in Art. e". a {hkl}. 306 which meet at these coigns.. meeting at p. in homologous points e r e cent points p. tl .. [pe']. of Fig. The coigns // and p of Fig. 301. '. &c. which are the intersections of by joining H alternate sides of the ditetragon formed by joining the points and L in the axial plane perpendicular to the axis through H. Similarly. &c. edges fix being deterthe directions of the &c. L' . p t and p itl in the first and alternate octants are the same as those of TT {hkl\ which lie in the same octants. being prolonged . 306. &c. 302 63. The homologous e. 305. 62 for the retention of these coigns in -rr {hkl} . but the edges of Fig. 1 The triads of faces of a {hkl}.. and the lt . similar Fig. Fig. and coigns p'. and their homologues pe" in the alternate octants are common to In the adjacent octants the faces of a {hkl} are the same as both forms. the edge a face are positive. in Fig. p the edges in these octants are the edges of Fig.. H ". the lines joining the pairs of points points e. K Thus.342 CUBIC SYSTEM. Ikh]. Hence the edges pe. a {hkl}. [pe]. p". 305. H'd". 305. which meet at the p of Fig. H"d. These are then joined to the adjaso completing the drawing. &c.

then 65. + (h + k-l). The same true of each of the other trigonal coigns R..DRAWING THE GENERAL FORMS. &c. hlk] is 343 of K'L" and L K". Through the point H. (thk). Fig. To a reader to find method is Op = 0r + (h + k + l). give the edges which are bisected at right angles by the dyad axes at the . being now joined. xiv. are obtained in a manner. common to (hkl) and (hkl). r {hkl}. and the adjacent pairs of these coigns. OR.. &c. edges &c. are the same marked in Fig. Ha. like <fec.. &c. &c. R'". situated in alternate octants of Figs.. t the line joining // to a". are common also to the pentagonal dodecahedron.. the semi-diagonal of the cube giving the parameters. which bound the same faces at new coigns. pff. (hkl). pe'. 301. die. 64. is drawn in the perpendicular axial plane . &c. The lines Ha. meet the edges from p/t p. 304 and 306. 307 meet at the is same point: the pleted. Similar points are found in each of the other axial planes and joined to a point // on the perpendicular axis. points d". viz. of those triads which have their symbols in one cyclical order and lie in alternate octants. Fig. in terms of the corresponding lines of the cube..". The figure can then be com- familiar with analytical geometry. Od=0d + (h + k). on the triad axes traversing These points the adjacent octants. triad is (klh). and then to mark off the Thus. 307. where a" is the intersection The construction of these edges is the same as that of the polar edges of a {hkl} of Chap. . R'. H". Fig. [hkl. a line parallel to the trace K'L". a simpler the lengths Op. Art. and the similar edges through each of the points H'. OR'" = Or"' And if Od is one-half of the face-diagonal. Od.. d'. faces meeting at R'" figure. &c. These edges meet the in new coigns which have to be joined to trigonal coigns R'". 303. 52. d. three as the coigns so For of the six in this {hkl} latter remain in r and must in Fig. &c. This form consists geometrically of twelve of the faces of each of the three last forms. if Or is lengths on these lines by proportional compasses. 224 . Hence the edges pe.

hedral) class. trigonal-pyramidal) the crystals of which have a triad axis but no other element The diplohedral trigonal (rhombohedral. : : it coincides in direction with the I. or is associated with only a centre of symmetry. class. The trapezohedral is the triad axis V. in associated with three like planes of symmetry intersecting in the triad axis at angles of 60. Owing to the unique character of the triad axis. holoJiedral) class. it is often called the principal axis The classes are optic axis. ditrigonal-pyramidal} . 1. and with three like dyad axes. The acleistous trigonal (tetartohedral. III. but it This can be proved to be the case in five of the classes . in which the triad axis is either the only element of symmetry. IV. in of symmetry. II. parallel-faced hemiwhich the triad axis is associated only with a centre The scalenoliedral (ditrigonal-scalenoJiedral. (trigonal-trapezohedral) class. in which associated only with three like dyad axes making right angles with it and 120 with one another: the opposite ends of each dyad axis are dissimilar. each perpendicular to one of the planes of symmetzy and therefore to the triad axis. THIS system includes the seven classes of crystals which have a single triad axis. THE RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. The acleistous ditrigonal (hemimorjjhic. cannot be established as a deduction from the law of rational indices in classes I and II. and we shall assume that this axis is in all classes a possible zone-axis perpendicular to a possible face. rhombohedralwhich the elements of symmetry of class II are of symmetry.CHAPTER XVI.

associated with other similar triads tautozonal with the first triad . opposite ends of which are dissimilar. and it must in any crystal be FIG. as in Fig. occur in the crystal. such as that shown finite angles. associated with a pedion. 308. classes compose a trigonal prism. Their zone will be called a hexagonal zone. IX. when the crystal is turned through 120 about the axis. is VI. and the faces are inclined to the axis at other than 90. and. in which the elements of symmetry of class VI are associated with three like planes of symmetry intersecting in the axis at 60 to one another: the intersections of these planes with the plane of symmetry perpendicular to the triad axis are dyad axes. The trigonal bipyramidal class. Such a pyramid cannot occur alone. The ditrigonal bipyramidal class. the 308. in general. 308 .TRIGONAL PRISMS AND PYRAMIDS. . a centre of axis. Art. symmetry. In a crystal having a single triad axis those faces which are not perpendicular to it occur in sets of three . according as the facial is development at opposite ends of the axis this face is often called the base . or with another acleistous trigonal pyramid having its apex at the opposite extremity of the principal axis. 12). and the form is either a hexagonal or a dihexayonal prism. in in Fig. 345 in which the triad axis is planes of symmetry intersecting in associated only with three like it at 60 to one another. they compose an acleistous trigonal pyramid. When the faces are parallel to the triad axis. VII. similar or dissimilar: for in drawings of rhombohedral crystals the principal axis is always placed vertically. 2. for a face can be found in it at 60 to any other of its faces (Chap. must be that of a pinakoid or pedion. the three faces are. class. and in some further. they occur in sets of three tautozonal planes inclined to one another at angles of 120. When. the three faces of each set change axis The face which is perpendicular to the principal places. or planes of symmetry through the or dyad axes perpendicular to it. in which the triad axis associated with one plane of symmetry perpendicular to it. having its apex triad axis. When the triad axis is the only element of symmetry.

The set of axes. 309. resembles the legs of a crosslegged stool. The two cases differ. ZX are all equal. XY. i. the pedion. and for the following reason. and a face perpendicular to the triad axis. in a very important respect. pY and pZ are But the equal. Such a crystal may be represented by the upper or lower half of Fig. YZ. YOp. the seat of which is an equilateral triangle and serves If X.346 RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. Further. and if the model of the axes is rotated through 120 about the principal axis Op. 3. 309 and suffices to give a set of axes of reference and parameters which will . that of OZ. points of the triangular base. and OZ that of without OX OY OX of disturbing the apparent position of the model or the direction the parametral plane. are isosceles they triangles. relations The above resemble those established in the cubic In both systems three like system. is taken as parametral plane (HI). OpZ are all equal to 90. the parameters are all equal. OpY. When the faces of the pyramid are equably developed. Y and Z are the angular for the parametral plane (HI). We select for the axes of X. all angles if OX=OY=OZ. and we select the base (pedion or face of the pinakoid) for the parametral plane (111). and the base is an equilateral triangle having its centre in the axis. however.e. which interchanges the axes of reference. for the parametral Hence plane is perpendicular to the triad axis. is taken to be (111) : may be taken the parameters on these axes are therefore equal. 309. OpX. and interchangeable lines are taken as axes. or face of the pinakoid. FIG. ZOp. and the sides f\XpY= I\YP Z= f\ZP X=I20. In the cubic system the axes are at 90 to one . Hence the lines pX. Y and Z three lines parallel to the similar and interchangeable edges of any trigonal pyramid which meet at an apex on the triad axis . The simplest crystal possible in this system consists therefore of a trigonal pyramid having the pedion for base. the axis takes the place of OY. and so are also the angles XOp. Fig. and to be unity. serve for every class of the system.

Y. are not 90. ZOp of . From the assumption made zone-axis. in Fig. r'. Y. r. adopt such an axial system in every triad axis will be placed vertically and the parametral plane horizontally . a set of pyramid-edges were found at right angles to one another. and vary with the temperature and so do the angles the they were. the normals r. Let. 4. for this axis to be the is would require the same as that coefficient of in directions at right angles to expansion along the triad it. and FIG. since the angles XOY. they could not remain so at all temperatures . 310. the faces of which are inclined and to one another. and the eye will be supposed to be at the lower end of the axis. TO'. A XCY = A YCZ= f\ZCX = 120 . for. under certain special circumstances. YOp. and we shall take the positive directions on the three axes to be measured upwards. class. now under if consideration the axes are it is clear we should have more than one triad axis. Chap. will be at the centre and will coincide as to Op being a with the extremity of Op.Z be the axial points in and let TO. YOZ ZOX Art. pyramid-edges make with the triad axis. Then /\CX= ACT = I\CZ. relative We proceed to show the positions in a stereogram of the poles r and the axial points X.RHOMBOHEDRAL AXES AND PROJECTIONS. The wards : the faces and normals of the pyramid which gives the directions of the axes will in all classes be denoted by r. 347 another and are themselves axes of symmetry of even degree. the negative directions down- We shall. 309 meet the primitive the extremity p coinciding with the pole C Fig. The angles between them are not 90. there will be in the primitive a number at 120 of possible poles arranged in triads. denoted by 6'. X. and the angles between them remain fixed and constant at all tem- In the system peratures. m" be the points which the planes XOp. as already stated. Y. The triangles and XYZ rr'r" are polar triangles (see 6). XI. 310. . The pole (111). r". not axes of symmetry . Z. Even if. which not the case. Further. In a stereogram the triad axis will be placed perpendicular to the primitive. (111). Z. r" to the axial planes never coincide with the axial points X.

vice versa. GX Ce". lying between C and m makes with m an angle >90 and with C an angle < 90. r" are nearer to C. t\rZ= t\rY. arc But the arc mm' = 120. the normal to one of the axial planes we shall denote as the of a rhombohedral crystal.348 latter RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. r of two of the axial planes. Similarly. and the Cm= 90. and on the same side of C as the axial point X. and the have the common angle rCr 120. when rY being 90. Similarly. represented in Fig. or parallel to. FIG. and the angle XO Y between any pair of the axes can be found and. it r must therefore be in the : plane XOp. angular element We shall now show how from the angular element D the angle between the poles r. XOYis The given. and CZ= 90 . between the triad axis and 5. for any point r The pole r(100) in [Cm]. y. pole r(100) is at 90 from Y and Z . r lies near Y between C and m' and r" near Z between C and m". how the angle D can be determined when either of the angles rr' or . Again. for the normal to a face is at 90 to every line in. For Z more remote from it. or the arc Cr. as in Fig. ' Now the angles are also the arcs mm'. XY>rY.'. r is. m'm' and m"m. XCY The are both isosceles. lies therefore between m and C. sides rr and XY of circle triangles are also bisected at right angles at the points e". nearer than X to C and XY> 90. r. sin re" . Zr' Z is at 90 from every point in the great circle rr'. Therefore Y. Ze' = 90. The point r is also at 90 from Z. Zr = . according as A each of them greater or less than 90. 310. or the axial points X. since. D The angle pOr. by the great . since XY= sin 60 = 90.'. Hence there must be a point r between m and C which is at 90 from Y. . Hence. Again r. which bisects the angle between the axes of Y and Z. than XY= A YZ = I\ZX are it is clear that . 310. 310 by the diameter Cm. (2). ZCy = sin (rCe" rr' sin sin = 60) sin Cr = sin 60 sin D sin (1). 7. spherical triangles rCr'.

... we may call c the linear element of a rhombo- hedral crystal. 311... the angle ZGO. 3 as the Millerian parameter....... by the well-known properties of the centre of gravity of = 2pG..3 of this Article with tanZ> = .. Since A ZGX=W... and to conform to the usage of the crystallographers c a... (4). Zp = 3acos30 . and ZG = 3pG.. Again.... P is = acos30 .'.. (6). (5).. A ^=30 .. and ZG = Jr^cos30 a triangle. whena=l......... relation.. We shall denote by c a length on the triad axis. c = tan D cos 30 ......... the angle CX is found from (3).. which is the distance of the apex of the axial pyramid (often called the fundamental pyramid) from the pedion XYZ and we shall denote by 3 the length of one of the sides of .. ........ The two are connected by the following OX sin XOp = XP =Yp = Zp = 2a cos 30. (7). Hence The angular element D The reader the length 0p^ p = c^acos30 ...... FIG. 311.... Op of Fig....... who to be take for element the ratio : If we take a unity. 311. Also 349 rCe". (3)... must not confuse the a= XY+....'... OX which is used in Art... .... OXsmCX=2acoa3Q" ... equilateral triangle the factor 3 being introduced to avoid the recurrence of fractions. CZ=CY= CX.. such as 6..... We relation shall now find the between c-f-a and D from the geometry of Fig. If D is known... the inclination of a face of the fundamental pyramid to the pedion.. and from the spherical triangle cos 60 = tan Ce" cot Cr. (4*). the XYZ.RELATIONS OF CRYSTAL-ELEMENT. :.. and ZG bisects the angle XZY.

it follows . The pedions r{lll} and T{III} are two distinct possible special forms. xv. when cleavages are discovered parallel to the faces of a pyramid.350 RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. then (hlk) is also a possible From the equal inclination of the axes to the vertical. and has the largest faces. for the choice has been guided by a desire for simplicity of symbols and facility of identification. T {hkl}.klh cyclical (a). Again. pyramid r{100}. 8. order. between the pyramid r{100} and that having the general symbol r{hkl]. then the parallel plane also a possible face . the general form consists of a trigonal pyramid such as was employed in the preceding articles to give the axes of reference of any rhombohedral crystal. having single triad axis symmetry. no essential cleavages for the axes of reference. however. The second face does {hkl}. 7. That pyramid which is most frequently met with. a^k. it is most convenient to take the intersections of these difference There is. Since the faces are parallel to those of r {hkl}. follows that the form T {hkl} consists of the three faces : hkl. T of this class I. or axial. From the facts that the it axes are interchangeable in order and the parameters are equal. They give equal parameters on the axes. the angles over the polar edges (p. crystals The a and no other element of Any pyramid possible on a crystal of the class may be selected as the fundamental. a it -^l (a (hkl) is being OX]. The trigonal pyramid. in which the indices are taken in fact that the axes are no longer axes of symmetry at 90 to each other in no way affects the cyclical order. This cyclical order was explained in Chap. for the indices are rational and only differ in sign not belong to the form T which includes the faces from those of the first face. is usually taken. but. kih. lhk. 19. If a plane (hkl). intercepting on the axes the lengths a -f- h. is a possible face. but to a complementary form T {hkl} : hki. Art. {hkl}. the face (hkl) being possible. 112) of the two forms are equal. I. and was there shown to be a consequence of the interchangeability of lengths on axes The of reference similarly placed with respect to a triad axis. CLASS Adeislous trigonal class. Ihk. and from their lying in vertical planes at 1'20 to one another. face.

9. lengths OX. (hkl) and (hlk) are reciprocal reflexions in the plane XOp. is equilateral. f.:\ and YY OY Hence the plane = OY. 309. the face has the symbol (Oil). have also a fourth form r{hlk}. T {Oil}. But (hlk} belongs to a of the triad of faces : pyramid T {hlk} consisting hlk. Since the triad axis Op and the edges of the pyramid selected to give the axes of reference are possible zone-axes. is parallel to the first index is a possible face. But the equal Therefore and OZ can be taken as the parameters.e. Since the faces of the two pyramids are equally inclined to the horizon. the symbols of which are in the reverse cyclical order to those of T {hkl}. which is the trace of the plane on the pedion and since the triangle formed by the points JT. OY . the faces of which are to those last discussed. OY + T. for parallel planes meet a third plane in parallel straight lines (Euclid xi. r{011}. Now the plane containing is parallel to OX OX OX and Op passes through the line XpE of Fig. 312. in its transposed position meets the axes at distances OX ^ 0. Z. 16): z E__ y therefore similar. 312. according to the principle of merohedrism. i. it is clear that If the plane is transposed.THE TRIGONAL PRISM. :. where the axes meet the pedion. OZ+ 1. Since the face zero. khl. and the angles over the polar edges are equal. the triangles ZYY vi. YE = EZ. until it passes through Z. The trigonal prism. FIG. as shown position meet the plane ] parallel Y. they are geometrically similar . . 351 that the two faces are equally inclined to the horizon and to the vertical plane XOp . and they can only be brought into similar positions by turning one about the principal axis through an angle which varies with h. remaining parallel to its original position. OXpE YOZ ZY in Fig. EYO = are Hence (Euclid < 4). But the two pyramids are distinct and separate forms . formerly regarded as tetartohedral forms derived from the general parallel We form of class III. a plane containing Op and one of the axes. 77: YO = ZY:EY= 2. which gives the lines in the plane YOZ. Ikh . k and I. These four forms being geometrically similar were. it must in its new in a line to OE. (say).

is The three faces of the prism r [hkl\ have the symbols : hkl. shall now establish a relation existing between the 10. (TlO). r{OlT}. having its faces also parallel each to the triad axis and to one of the axes of reference. Ihk. and it meets transposed in the opposite direction so as easy to prove that it will meet OZ at symbol of this new face is therefore (OlT).e. 101] = [111] and by Weiss's law. it t is where OZ =. Art. From two of the faces of the prism r{011} the zone-symbol can be determined. 4) the zone-symbol is [OTl.OZ. : Oil. The poles are indicated by a.OZ. k. a and a" in Fig. Z t OX OZ Z t where OZ = . klh. includes the faces (b). which are complementary. ti order to those in the first . 10T. 101. The complementary trigonal prism. (8). v. i. Fig. 316. a /} Besides differing in signs from those of the first triad (b). The The two parallel faces (Oil) and (OlT) are not associated together in crystals of this class. CLASS I. but belong to separate trigonal prisms r{OTl} and r{OlT}. 110. The angles between the faces are 120 and the poles are those marked a. OXpE is to pass through Y. rotation in the same direction brings the plane through Op into the position A OZpG. h+k+l=0 Hence a indices is face : zero parallel to the triad axis when the sum of its some of the indices must necessarily be negative. I of a face when it is parallel to the triad axis. and the face (Oil) into a position in which at at X. the rule (Chap. By .352 If the plane RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. and the parallel face to meet OX at X and OF at Y its symbol is The trigonal prism r{OTl}. for these faces We N are not parallel to one another. consists of the faces Oil. rotation through 120 about the triad axis Op brings the plane OXpE into the position OYpF. t The new face has second therefore the symbol (10T). the symbols of this last triad of faces are also in the reverse cyclical and a . : t 313. . indices h. Again. TlO . hence there can be only two comple- mentary forms having these symbols. is one of the faces of a trigonal prism.

in the plane ZGL are similar. can be given but. and meet OZ in L t Then a plane OZ and which must the two triangles angle GZL and through GL it in the line Op intersects the prism plane be parallel to Op. 315. Its faces and poles will always be denoted by the letters m. such as it Y . the triad axis Op. for they have the common ZOp. XYL ZLG OL t . 4). P to any face (hkl) iv. The trigonal prism.THE TRIGONAL PRISM. 313 and 315 are terminated by the complementary pedions T {111} and T {III}. pZ = 2pG L t /. OZ=WL on the negative side of the origin. t But (Art. position of the normal (1) of Chap. . T 11. are parallel. 12. t t . The symbols can be the faces found from the geometry of Fig. since t lies the fact that the face lies in the zone [111. The prisms in Figs. Fig. Rotation through 120 about the triad axis brings the face into positions in which it passes through the other edges of the triangle XYZ. Therefore. 353 An important trigonal prism is the faces passes through one edge of the equilateral triangle in which the axial of pyramid meets the pedion. m'. It can also be found from (8) and Hence. The prism T { 1 1 2} consists therefore of the faces : 112. 23 . m". 001]. OZ = pG :pZ. 121 (C). 314. has each to a face of the preceding prism. The complementary of its faces parallel trigonal prism T{2lT}. r {112}. . OZ+2. since the parameters C. 6). 315. OY. parallel to FIG. and its faces can be drawn through points. the prism-face XYL intercepts on the axes the lengths OX. Let a plane be drawn through XGY . Hence (Euclid vi. The symbol is therefore (112). 315. 314. 'FIG.L of X t Fig. the third sides Op and : t GL t . that of which each of {112}. The by the general equations L. 211.

k and of any prism-face is zero.(ll). Y and Z be the axial points. 316. be the diameter through the eye. Hence. k and I of a N equations In Fig. Zm"N. triad axis. Then the Describe the great circles XN.cos Zm" cos m"N= sin GZ cos m"N XN. cos ZN . YN. be unity. and let X. emerging at the pole (7(111). cos mN sin OX cos mN. . then. The numerator : of the last term of (9) therefore vanishes when the pole (hkl) lies in the primitive (i. cos cos Ym'N. cos we have + XN + cos YN + cos ZN= sin CX (cos mN + cos m'N + cos m'N). for the normal P ^ p _ cos XP _ cos ~~h~ ~T~ ~T~ YP _ cos ZP _ cos XP + cos YP+ cos ZP h+k+ l term being obtained by adding the numerators and denominators of the three preceding ratios to form a new ratio the last equal to each of the preceding terms. prism-face Equation (8) connecting the indices can also be found from h. that of the perpendicular on the face from the I origin. the equations can be simplified by taking the parameter to to a face (hkl). when the face is that of a prism) the denominator must consequently vanish .354 RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. and ( m"N= 120 . we have FIG. m'N= 120 But . YN= cos Ym' cos m'N = sin CFcos m'N.cosmN) = O. for each of the terms of (9) is equal to a finite length OP..(10).mN.e. from the right-angled tri- ZN angles XmN. poles N.mN) mN. and . (1 20 cos m'N + cos m'N = cos 1 20 + cos + since /. let the (9). Therefore adding equations (10). . we have Hence. 2 cos = 2 cos 1 20 1 20 = -1. are equal.cos Xm - . 13.'.. the sum of the indices h. 316. cosXN + cos YN + cosZN=sin CX(cos mN.cos mN mN) . cos mN = . N' and N" of the trigonal prism r {hkl} lie in the primitive at 120 from one another. CLASS I..

. become 3 cos Hence. for But it was proved cos . Fig. FIG. it follows that N. (14). Spher. any pole 0. . is the pole (111) of the parametral plane. in Art. CZP.(12). But we have already seen in Art. P.'.EQUATIONS OF A NORMAL. poles Let Fig. 10 that the primitive has the zone-symbol [111]. I h. PT and PZ. YP = cos C Y cos CP + sin C Y sin CP cos YCP = m'N}. by addition. and let diametral the zone [CP] meet the the great primitive at N. the point of intersection of the zone-circle [CP] with the primitive. 355 (9) The numerator of the last term of equations can now be expressed in a simple manner whatever may be the position of the pole P(hkl). the point at which the triad axis meets the sphere. ( . v. is a possible pole to which we shall give the symbol (efg). 4. ZP= cos CZ cos CP + sin CZ sin CP cos (ZCP = m"N} But CZ= CY= CX.. h+k+l 15. and by Chap. equations cos XP _ cos YP _ cos ZP _ h k~ I CXcos CP (13). mN + cos m'N + cos m"N = (9) cos XP + cos YP + cos ZP= 3 cos CX cos CP. 317.. 232 . 36) cos cos cos XP = cos CX cos CP + sin CX sin CP cos (XCP = mtf). 317 be a projection of the P of a pyramid r {hkl}. circles Describe PX. 13 that. N h. from the spherical triangles GXP. k and I by the following equations (Chap. Then.*. table 23) : = M-e . the symbol of [CP] is .I. CYP. p. and Trig.. 14. Since C. cos XP + cos YP + cos ZP = 3 cos CXcos CP + sin CXsin CP (cos mN + cos m'N + cos m"iV). h Hence the indices of are given in terms of [k k].. I. 317. Art. N lying in the primitive. we have (McCl. v.

CLASS I. we add the for (pqr) given by (16) are correct. {NPCQ} gives smNP sin NC Employing the first . and two of them. Now. ix. Art. and the H.356 RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. it shall use in the dis- follows that Q is also a pos- where A CQ = A CP (Chap. where 6 = h + k + I an abbreviation which we cussion of rhombohedral and hexagonal crystals to denote the sum of h. k and I. when we find each ratio = From P+q+r r = P+_V + (17) Q. : it is required to find the relations conand Q. R. or the first and third.qh i""r7*vjHT/ from (11) '' I*-?*. necting the indices of P FIG. another. Art. ' The equality in of the third ratio involving r and I to the others (16) is inferred from the symmetrical manner in which the several indices enter into the expression (15) for the harmonic It can be proved by taking together either the second and ratio. C in the zone [CP]. the equations of the normals to P and we have cosTP h k cosZP 3cosCXcosCP CX cos (CQ = cosZQ cosYQ cosZQ r _ 3 cos p+q+r . ' sinQP _ ~ sin 1 . If and (7. H. third columns of the right side of (15). We numerators and denominators together.4ft hkl pqr hkl QC 2 pqr 111 (15)- 111 two columns 1 in the above expression. 2). {tfPCQ} = l + 2. we have _ ek -fh pk . But. 317. Let the symbol of Q be (pqr) sible pole. R. are at 90 from one P. o*(3*-g)-M3*-g)_ - --- 2*. since there are three poles N. 14. have now to establish that the signs of the equivalents To prove this.

\ 9k = 2(p + q + r)-3q\ 91 = 2 (p + q + r) . 16. together equably developed. Q being the known P unknown one) is For.3 (h + k + = 3 (h + k + I) = 30. q and r . I) From equations and (the I (16) or (18) it is easy to obtain expressions in terms of p. and both negative when the two poles are below the primitive. Hence. 6 a. must be both positive when P and Q are above the primitive. forms are geometrically similar in each and the angles between adjacent faces of the one form are equal to If the forms occur those between corresponding faces of the other.udp + q + r.( (18). cancelled. Hence the denominators.\ 2l. so that.k + r=20-3Z = 2h + 2k+ r = 3 (7t + k + I) hence 2l. The student should bear form need not be in faces of a general all positive. two. connected together by the relations (19) will given for the in (16) and be called will dirJiombohedral poles. or three. 17.Zp. = 2 (p + q + r) .3r } 9A factor is (19). The numerators of the last ratios in the equations of the 357 two normals are equal. adding together equations (18). 317. such as P and Q. k pole. They belong to separate forms. 60 . is The pole Q given by the ratios (16) expression (17) is positive. and when both are present it is often easy to distinguish by their physical characters the faces of the one from those of the other. p = 20-3h = -h + 2k + ? = 20-3& = 2h. when the indices are introduced Poles. The relations between the indices of and Q can also be given P as follows : The sum p + q the sums of the indices . therefore on the same hemisphere as P. determined from Q. as is required by Fig. they will compose hexagonal or dihexagonal pyramids according to the class to which the crystal belongs. are both positive or both negative at the same time. we have f) p+q+r= Hence. But the forms are independent. The common into the symbol. for h. which be called dirhombo/iedral . mind that the indices of the and that there may all be several forms on a crystal in which one.DIRHOMBOHEDUAL FORMS. class of the system. of .

P lies on the and when k is negative. the origin directed upwards. similarly. These relations are general. in TJ2TT}. positions [r"r]. XP is positive. two are always negative. the sign of the numerator depends on the value of A CP. all classes of the system. But. But. (klh) and . P lies on the same side of [r'r"] as C when h is positive and. . then cos of the indices of a face. negative. primitive. Hence. CP being less than 90. .358 the indices of RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. the other faces of the plane XOp. It is therefore often necessary to determine on which hemisphere of the sphere of projection a pole lies . are possible. for any pole lying above the paper in the stereogram. and fourth terms cos For. Hence the sum of is negative . Similarly. meets the triad axis at the end which is above or below the plane of the to determine whether a face. k and faces (hkl) was shown in Art. are. when k is positive. since A CX is less than 90. the poles with reference to the zone-circles [rr]. and hold for same side of [r"r] as opposite sides of [r"r]. cos XP = . Thus in the prism T {Oil}. or. in and (Ikh). h + k + I > 0. negative. 18. when h is negative. and P lies on the side of : [r'r"] remote from C. P and C lie on In the same way I is positive when C and P are on the same side of [rr'] and I is negative when C and P are on opposite sides of [rr']. r {hkl} and T {hlk}. and for any face which meets the triad axis on the side of Fig. viz. 8 that. But cos CP is positive when CP is less than 90 the denominator must then be also positive. of equations (13) respectively. viz. The [r'r"]. and XP is less than 90. if CP is h + k + l<0. Hence. one the indices always negative. determined from the second. must be always positive. /\XP>$0. For this purpose the last term in equations (13). If if h is positive. the and (hlk) of which are reciprocal reflexions in the vertical Similarly. pairs. C . CLASS may be is I. and f\XP= 90: the pole P then lies on [r'r"]. reciprocal reflexions in XOp . h. third. for any particular values of two similar pyramids. It /. and greater than 90. meeting the is CP triad axis at the end directed downwards. h= 0. 317 for the ratio . (Ihk) two pyramids are. 3 cos (7Z cos OP ' h+k+l affords a ready test . having a known symbol (hkl). what is the same thing.



The pyramids




and the
of plane-

crystals should rotate the plane of polarization of a


This has been polarized light transmitted along the triad axis. established in crystals of sodium periodate. The enantiomorphism can only be recognised geometrically, when pyramids are present

having their normals in azimuths differing from 60 ; thus, in Fig. 318, the angle between the azimuths containing the normals
(010) and (T85) is 16 6', that between the zone-axes [111, 100] and [111, 504] in Fig. 319 is 49 6'. The triad axis is uniterminal, and should be a pyro-electric axis this does not seem to have been proved for crystals of sodium


Crystals of sodium periodate,

NaI04 3H 2 O,

belong to this


and 319 represent plans on the pedion T {ill} of two crystals described by Professor Groth (Pogg. Ann. cxxxvn, p. 436, 1869) the
Figs. 318

Fia. 318.

FIG. 319.

forms being: r = r{100} and c,=T{lll} (both largely developed), d=r {Oil}, e=T{lll}, z=r{504}, and t = r{l85}. On such crystals the angle c,r, or the angle rr' may be measured. In the former case, the angular element Z) = 180 e,r=5137'6' is obtained by direct observation. Measurement


A f = 100 A 010

gives 85 31 -5', from which



calculated by equa-


The angle D being known, the height
is is

fouud from equation

(5) in

c of the apex of r above the pedion terms of the sides of the triangular base it

The crystals rotate the plane of polarization of a beam traversing them in the direction of the triad axis ; and sometimes the rotation is to the

sometimes to the


those shown in the figures are laevogyral.

Composite crystals are sometimes obtained, which show in convergent such crystals are generally regarded as polarised light Airy's spirals twins of a dextro- and a laevo-gyral crystal united together along a common pedion the bases c, of both being parallel and directed outwards






Diplohedral trigonal class;





a centre of symmetry

associated with a triad axis,

no other element of symmetry

necessarily involved.



having these two elements of symmetry we shall call the diplohedral trigonal class ; it has been known as the parallel-faced hemihedral
class of the system.

FIG. 320.


to the triad axis,

any face


Fig. 320, inclined at a finite

angle (other than 90) to the triad axis is repeated in two similar faces r and r", which have to one another the relations of the three

pyramid in the last class but, since the crystals are centro-symmetrical, the above three faces are associated with rtt each parallel to one of the first set. three similar faces r, r The first set of faces meeting at an apex F, the second set may be
faces forming a

t ,


drawn through an apex V
But, since the face r



at an equal distance from the origin. meets the parallel faces r" and r tl the

edges Vp. / and /A/A /7 must be parallel (Euclid xi, 16) and, since the face r meets the parallel faces r and r the edges Vp. fl and /A, /A must Hence the face Vfijtp^ is a parallelogram. It is also be parallel.
t ,

also a rhombus, for the

two sides Vp. tl and I /*,, meeting at the apex, are interchangeable when the crystal is turned through 120 about the triad axis. Similarly, every other face can be shown to be an and


Hence the form is a rhombohedron; equal and similar rhombus. shall call the like and it has given the name to the system. interchangeable edges which meet at the same apex, such as V,




those, like




which occupy a middle

position the




similar to the faces of the
axial planes,

Since the three faces meeting at one of the apices are pyramid selected in Art. 3 to give the

we may take the axes
t t


X, Y and


to be three lines

through the middle point


respectively, to the co-polar

V p., V p.', V p." of some conspicuous rhombohedron. This rhombohedron we shall therefore call the fundamental rhombohedron and we shall denote its faces, and their poles, by the letters

r, r', r",

shall also take the


upper face of the pinakoid perpendicular

to the triad axis for the parametral plane (HI). The parameters are therefore equal ; and may be taken to be unity, or any three

VM equal lengths on lines parallel to the axes such as V M, V M' and V, M" of Fig. 320. The formulae of computation and the relat t
t ,

and parametral planes established in preceding Articles hold for crystals of this class; and need not therefore be repeated.
tions between the several lines of the axial

The fundamental rhombohedron r{100},
following faces

Fig. 320, includes the

100 010 001 TOO OTO GOT...................... (d).



(other than the faces


face (hkl) inclined to the triad axis at a finite angle gives rise to a rhombohedron TT {hkl}, which includes

hkl Ihk klh hkl Ihk klh ........................ (e).

The only

limits to the relative
all equal,

that they cannot be


magnitudes of h, k, and (2) that h + k + l>0.





= l, the face belongs to the pinakoid {111}, which If 1. includes the faces (111) and (111), both perpendicular to the triad


When h + k + l = 0,

the face



to the triad axis

and the form

a hexagonal prism, adjacent faces of which are inclined to one another at angles of 60. The symbols of the faces of the prism TT {hkl} are given in table e, the difference
{hkl} consists of

between the symbols of the general form and of a prism arising from the particular relation between the indices; thus, {101}, {2ll}, ir {321}, 7r{43l} are hexagonal prisms, ir{421}, ir{421) are rhombohedra.

The rhombohedron {100} is not a special form: it only differs from other rhombohedra inasmuch as the axes of reference have




been taken parallel to its three co-polar edges. Similarly, the particular cases of the hexagonal prisms {Oil}, {2lT} differ in no essential respect from the hexagonal prism IT {hkl} they include six faces

which are geometrically identical with those of the corresponding pairs of complementary prisms of the last class, and in the case of the two former with the six faces given in tables f and g of class III. Crystallographers have not always agreed as to the rhombohedron
to be selected to give the axes, i.e. as {100}. By comparing the or c, given at the beginning of the description of the crystals, it is easy to see whether the same fundamental rhombohe-

values of


dron has been selected or not.

Dana's {Til}.


Thus, in dioptase, faces are those
does not indeed



Si0 4 Miller's

labelled s in Fig. 321.


adopt a set of axes such as that described in Art. 3, but employs four axes which will be But in transexplained in the next chapter.

forming from Dana's representation to Miller's, the fundamental rhombohedron is not the same.
Miller took s, the rhombohedron most conspicuously developed on the crystals, to be {100}; Dana selected as axial rhombohedron that which

parallel to the cleavages

and truncates the

Hence Miller's which then becomes {Til}. = Z> = (111A100) = 5039'; whilst Dana's Z>=(0001 AOTll) 3140', and this latter angle is Miller's (111 A Oil). The two angles do not




quite accord


for, if

Dana's value


accepted as correct, then Miller's

angle should be 50 58'.

The Greek prefix IT is omitted before the brackets in the symbol whenever two of the indices are equal or the forms are one or other of the hexagonal prisms {Oil} and {2ll}; for in these
of the form,

cases the forms are geometrically identical with the corresponding forms of the next class, which was by Miller regarded as the

holohedral class of the rhombohedral system.


shall find that

one or other of these forms belongs also to other

of the

23. Crystals of dioptase, CuH 2 SiO 4 and phenakite, Be 2 SiO 4 belong to this class. Fig. 321 represents a crystal of dioptase in which the faces s are

{111}, z





= 7r {221} and

a{OTl}; the above symbols being

obtained from Dana's fundamental rhombohedron.




of one of the zones [aoca,,*'] suffices to determine the symbols of all the faces by means of the A. R. of four tautozonal faces ; for the

symbols of s'(lll), a (110) and (111) are easily determined from the assumption of the fundamental rhombohedron. The angles are


an x = 28


a z = 39

31', a,,s

= a,/ - 47


Two crystals of phenaMte from Colorado, described by Prof. Penfield, are represented in Figs. 322 and 323. The poles indicated by the same

FIG. 322.

FIG. 323.
in Fig.

-are represented


The forms are:


(on the right of


FigL 323) = -{201}, p' (being




on the

left of d)


= 7r{20l}, a =

It should be noticed that r and z p and and that the indices of the faces of the pairs p and p', x and #,, are in reverse


are dirhombohedral forms

cyclical orders.


faces of the latter

pairs of forms are associated together in class III and the members of each


may therefore be

regarded as com-

plementary forms. The symbols of the forms can be determined by observation

and measurement of the

angles in, a few of the more important zones for in most of them the indices

of three or



such as



r is 2, are immediately found when selected for the fundamental rhom-

and [wr"]

lies in [r'm']

and [ar], and is (111) ; also z' is (2l2), and x is in [ar] therefore (2ll). Similarly, o, p and d are in pairs of zones, the symbols of which are readily determined, and therefore the indices of the
Thus, /'

it is




can determine the element D, and the symbols of p', p and s from measurement of the zone [a,,rdps]. For, adopting as measured angles, a"s 28 21', a"r' = 58 18', a"p = 18 22', a"d = 90, a"p'= 101 38' ; then, from the right-angled
triangle present, the pole


Udr (G being the central pole is not shown)

(111): as the pinakoid is not actually

sin dr = sin 60 sin


(see Art. 5).


dr = 90-a // r = 3142';

D = 37


Again, d being the pole between p and p' in which the zones [a"r] and [r"mtl ] and since it is at 90 from a", the A. K. |a"/sd} gives intersect, then d is (110)

tan a"r'





+ h'


L tan (a'V = 58


= 10-20928
47723 = log 3.

Ltan(a" =28 21')= 9-73205


j^ = 3, k+h


h = I,


= 2;
A. B. (a"r'pd)

and the symbol

of s is (120).

Similarly, for p in the

same zone we have from the



by com P utatlon
is (120).


h=l and k-2; &ndp

Being given ax = 62 17' and ao = 70 42', we can, in a similar manner, find the symbols of x and o; for ar = 90, and af can be easily found from the right-angled spherical triangle mt af in which A am, and A ram,= Arm are both known. Or, conversely, knowing x to be (2ll), we can find the angle ax.

Thus, tan a/' = tan(m a = 30)-f-cos(raa/' = 7Mr) = tan30-7-siu 37 21 '3' by computation, af =43 34-6'. And, since ar=90, we have from the A. B. {af'xr}


tan ax tan (af = 43 34-6')


joli 111

by computation, ax= 62 16-75'. The stereogram, Fig. 324, is made as follows. The primitive being described with any convenient radius, arcs of 30 are measured off on it, and diametral zones through these points are then drawn. The alternate points at 60 from one another are the poles a {Oil}, the other alternate points are the poles



the radius through


an arc rm = 90-37

21-3' is



(Chap, vn, Prob. 1) and the homologous poles r', r" as well as the dirhombohedral poles z, z', z" are then found at the same distance from the centre.


zone-circles [ar], [a"r], [mz'\, [m"r] are then described,



the posi-

tions of all the poles.



Scalenohedral class;


class, the most important one of the system, may be derived from class II by the introduction of a dyad axis, or plane of symmetry. Suppose a dyad axis to be added to the elements





of class II



must be at right angles

to the triad

axis, or it will introduce other triad axes,

definition of the system, viz. axis the cases in which there are several triad axes have

thus contravening the that the crystals have only one triad



cussed in Chap. xv. But a dyad axis perpendicular to the triad axis must be associated with two other like and interchangeable dyad

them at 90 to the principal axis and at 120 to the dyad axis and to one another. Again, a centro-symmetrical crystal must have a plane of symmetry, 2, perpendicular to each
axes, both of

dyad axis. There must therefore be three like and interchangeable planes of symmetry intersecting in the triad axis at angles of 60. The crystals of this class have therefore the following elements of symmetry p, 38, C, 32. The arrangement of the planes and axes of

symmetry is shown in The triad axis is a

Fig. 325. possible zone-axis, for it


the line of inter-

section of three planes 2, which, by Chap, ix, It is Prop. 1, are parallel to possible faces.
also perpendicular to a possible face parallel to the three




The central

plane parallel to this face will, in this and the hexagonal systems, be called the equatorial plane it is not a plane of symmetry

in crystals of this class.

25. The rhombohedron, {100}. Since a FIG. 325. dyad axis is a possible zone-axis, a form is possible having a face parallel to this axis, and perpendicular therefore to the plane of symmetry of which the dyad axis is the normal.

When the face, as, for instance, V^ p.p. of Fig. 326, is inclined to the triad axis at a finite angle, other than 90, there will be three such faces meeting at an apex in the triad axis, each parallel to one
t ti

of the

dyad axes and perpendicular

to the corresponding plane of

symmetry. Again, since the crystal is centro-symmetrical, there will be three like faces meeting the triad axis at an opposite apex, each of them being parallel to a dyad axis and perpendicular to a plane 2. But a face parallel to a dyad axis is, by a rotation

of 180

about this axis,


Thus the

parallel faces F/A, /*/*, F^'/Z/A" are parallel to

brought into the position of the parallel OS and

interchangeable by a semi-revolution about
F/x //'/Z


through 180

it. Again, the faces change places when the crystal is turned about the axis OS bisecting the edge p.^" at right

The faces meeting at opposite apices are therefore symangles. metrical with respect to the dyad axes ; and no new faces are introduced by them. Similarly, no new faces are introduced by the
planes of symmetry, each of them being perpendicular to a pair of parallel faces, and bisecting the angles between the pairs of other
faces meeting at an apex. The figure is geometrically similar to that described in Art. 20, and is a rhombohedron.

In Fig. 326 the dyad axes are the lines OS, OS', OS" they pass each through the middle points of opposite median edges, e.g. ft,//' and /A'/*,,, kc., and are perpendicular to the edges which they bisect.

pair of parallel polar edges, and also through the polar diagonals of the pair of faces to which they

The planes 2 pass each through a

Thus 2 passes through the polar are respectively perpendicular. edges F/Z, F,/A, and through the polar diagonals F/x and V^L.


before, the axes of





are taken parallel to

the three co-polar edges of any possible rhombohedron, which is then its faces are denoted by called the fundamental rhombohedron The axes lie each in one of the planes of symmetry, r, r', &c.

and we

shall consider XX, of Fig. 309 to liejn 2, in 2": they are parallel, respectively, to VM,



in 2'








of Fig. 326 are projected in the manner The points S and described in Chap, vi, Art. 19 08' being placed in the prolongation





of Fig. 51

to OS'



the rhombohedral axis IT which is perpendicular consequently in the plane CyA', and this plane coincides The positive direction of the rhombohedral axis


projects to the front inclined to D'Cy at

direction of




and right in a vertical plane through Cy an angle of 30. Similarly, the negative lies to the front and left in a vertical plane through D'Cy at an angle of 30. This arrangement is

also adopted in Chap, xvn in the representation of hexagonal crystals by rhombohedral axes.

Or we may,



the case in most of the drawings of calcite,

place 08 ti in the back-and-fore axis CA' of the cube projected in lies in the plane Fig. 51, when the axis t D'Cy which now


coincides with 2".

The rhombohedral axes






at angles of 60 on opposite sides The vertical planes containing the axes of reference are now of it. in azimuths inclined at 30 to those of the first position.
vertical planes inclined to




the linear element

the unit of length on the triad axis, and OV=cxCy; c being connected with by equation (6). method of finding the rhombohedral axes from Naumann's


projection of the cubic axes is the same as that described for the case where Mohs' axes serve as basis.

The parametral plane (111) is taken to be the face perpendicular the triad axis and parallel therefore to the dyad axes 08, The parameters may therefore be taken to be any three 08', 08". equal lengths which may be convenient; and in theoretical exto
pressions, such as, for instance, the equations of a normal, may be taken to be unity. The expressions established in Arts. 5, 6,

The angular element the inclination to the equatorial plane of each face of the fundamental rhombohedron, and is the angle Cr = 111 A 100. It is
16, hold therefore for crystals of this class.



connected with the angle between the faces r, r' by equation (I), with c by equation (6), and with the inclination of the axes of
reference to the principal axis by equation (3).


Other special forms are the pinakoid, and hexagonal and

dihexagonal prisms.

The pinakoid, {111}, consists of the faces (111) and (111), 1. both perpendicular to the triad axis. The hexagonal prism, {HO}. When a face is parallel to one of 2.
the planes of symmetry 2 (say), it is parallel to the axis of reference in this plane the corresponding index is therefore zero.











rotation of 180



about 08 interchanges equal positive and negative and changes a positive length on OX with a negative A face (hkl) is therefore by this one on OY, and vice versa. This rotation brought into a position given by the symbol (khl). face is parallel to one of the six faces already obtained. The form
lengths on



having the faces given in (h) is therefore complete. The angles between pairs of adjacent faces are constant, and
those over two adjacent edges are in all cases unequal, whilst the For the angle over an angles between alternate faces are 60. edge lying in 2, such as hkl A hlk, is double the angle either

makes with


Similarly, the angle, such as hkl


Ikh over

the adjacent edge meeting 08' is double the angle which (/tkl) makes with OS', the extremity of which coincides with the pole a' in Fig. 331. But 2 and the adjacent dyad axis 08' are at 30 to one

Hence the angles hkl A hlk and hkl A Ikh are together equal to 60. Further, if the two angles were equal, the zone would be divided isogonally by poles of possible faces into arcs of 15 and

45"; and it was shown in Chap, ix, Art. 12, that angles of 45 cannot occur in a zone containing angles of 30 or 60 repeated in succession between possible faces.

The distribution of the poles of the prism shown in Fig. 331 from it we


on the primitive


by the

A.R. of four tautozonal







A hlk, or the angles a'N and hkl A Ikh, and prove that they are constant and independent of the crystalwhich varies with the



The angles can indeed be calculated for any particular values of the indices, and apply to all cryssubstance.

the system in which faces having the same symbols occur.
tals of

FIG. 331.

Let, in Fig. 331,


the plane 2,, be (10T), ma' 30 and af = 90.

the pole of be (hkl),


m (211)







Then, from the


we have

tan a,'N+ tan a'm = -





: {hkl} tsMa'N '- a' A hkl 6-4' hkl /\ Ikh hkl f\ hlk {312} 19 38 13' 21 47' {413} f ^ 13 54 27 48 21 32 12 38 13 13 10-4. Hence OV MM' = M'M" = M"M=3a of Art. 326. OY and OZ of Fig. &c.M'. MM'M" XYZ of Fig. : . as is required by the way in which the poles have been taken in the A. V.DIHEXAGONAL PRISMS. OY and OZ. on edges parallel to the axes OX. and the lengths of the is equal and The triangle for the three rhombohedral faces through Fig. below 0. cides with the equatorial plane perpendicular to the triad axis . OM'. 309. 309 to the axial planes through 0. V M". of . V /A" of the funt t t damental rhombohedron. t . 242 . may be taken to be the Millerian parameters they are equal and parallel to OX. traces OM. A'A and A"A it are the dyad t axes. 309.'. OM" are the the metry M. <' 10 53-6 23 24-8 47 {523} 46 49-6 28. meet the equatorial plane. Fig. A A. and Op. f f : We shall OA. Fig. first determine the relations between the lengths lines in the triangle OM. M" are the points in which the lower polar edges V p. We have the following angles for the prisms given in the first column y N . similarly placed to XYZ of F are parallel 6. V p.. For drawing the dihexagonal prism and other forms of the rhombohedral system. the pole is taken to lie somewhere between a' and m hence k is negative and 2h must be numerically greater than k the expression on the right of (20) is therefore positive. 371 In the figure. planes of symM'.. The apex V is at a distance c t The lengths V M.. 332 In it the paper coinis useful. and also in the A.R.R. The angle a'N can therefore be computed when the indices h and k are given and all the angles of any prism can then be found.

it follows that OH=OM+h. The dihexagon H8'H. we shall denote lengths = OB meatl . AOA to AA ti . we OM^2. M"M and parallel each to MM'. OM being the projection on the equatorial plane of V M. = JI 309. In Art.M' + k. OM' and OK=OM' + ka. r . have 0^OB = the centre of gravity of the triangle MM'M". is the trace on the equatorial plane of the prism {hkl} polar edges at . /t /. OA = 2BM" - 3 = M 'M" -=- 3 = a. 25 the faces of the rhombohedron {100} are shown to be one of the dyad axes. V M' + k. for its sides are parallel those of and and OB is bisects the angle perpendicular Hence OB = OA cos 30. to t AOA is ti an equi- lateral triangle. t f But in projections by means of parallel rays. a measured on OA' by a and on OA" by a and similarly. OA : EM" = OM BM = 2 : : 3. CLASS III.372 RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. the positions of which are therefore OA. 332 by the prism-face (hkl). parallel respectively to M' M". and OM" and OL = OM" -r I are the projections of V M" and t . one method having already been given in Art. Hence. OA".re the projections of V. lengths on any line are projected in lengths having to one another the same ratios. Similarly. The length a = JTFn-3 is therefore an arbitrary length measured on the dyad axis. OM. . We shall. and Since to YZ.M+h.M' and V. and show how to derive the symbols of the We now other prism-faces. respectively. b t and Again. Also /. and Off that of V. and OM = OM' = OM" = 20B = 2b = 2a cos 30 shall (21). t MM'M". the face (hkl) meeting the axes and the parallel distances V t M+ h. sured on b. 27. denote length t . V M"^-l. OB = OB = OB = b = a cos t ti 30 . OM' and OM" by b it . is I ZX and XY of Pig. with which the linear element c is connected by equation (5).. OA'. whenever a it is necessary. find the lengths cut off on the lines of Fig.

of the prism-face (hkl) given by l. S. The angle OH = OH = OM" . 369). and is measured on the the corresponding index h is positive and numeriThe points and L are measured away from cally the greatest. and A OLH= A OKH. t . But A HOL = A HOKt = 60. OM' + k. The torial plane of lengths V new face is. OK' = OK. (a) that all the signs of is the indices are changed. and the corresponding indices k and I are negative. 373 is V M" + The trace HKL OM+h. OL = OM" -=rk\ and these lengths are the projections on the equa+ h. for OG=OL = OM+l. where A 08'#. Hence the face (hkl) is repeated HL where by 2 in a face which meets the paper in the trace the angle OHK = A OHL. therefore. The symbol of the face The trace GUH K' is OM" ^h. 2. .. given by OM+l.= A 08' H. tl . directions on a line perpendicular to the dyad axis the signs of opposite sides of : the indices are therefore changed. -f- t same is the shortest length. OM'. M' and M". ti and the GH K' are V M+l. whilst the index referring to the perpendicular axis changes sign only the symbols are therefore in reverse cyclical orders. OH side as M : K In no case can the indices be all positive. and OK = OL = OM' + l. OM" + t l. V M' -r V M" on the axes. t angles HOL Again.. The planes 2. tl Similarly. : .h since OH is 8'OH = A 8'OH = 30 measured on the side of away from M". t -=- I I t t M t 1. = OK= OM" k.DIHEXA.GONAL PRISMS. it . The rule connecting a pair of prism-faces interchanged by a semirevolution about a dyad axis is. as before (p. the and HOK are therefore equal. Hence the trace K HL is given by OH=OM+h. they have common angle KOL = \2Q. and A OLK= A OKL Also the The remaining sides are therefore equal. side OL = the side OK and OL. (Jdk). OK = OM' + l. OM' ^k. Vf M" + h. By a semi-revolution about the dyad axis A A' the trace K1IL is brought to GB'H^K'. The tri- K t t . and are perpendicular to the paper. Hence OK' = - OK = OM' t -H k. for t i I I . intercepts made by the prism-face through VM' + k. the triangles OKL and OK L are equal. '. whilst L and M" are on the sign of the index I has therefore to be Again. pass respectively through OM. In the figure. and (/3) that the indices referring to the two axes inclined to the axis of rotation change places. for h+k+1= t 0. the two being measured in opposite changed. side of G is on the same : as M. therefore (Ikh). OM".

For.1 must be from \ FIG. since tan 60 = (21).) tl being the point in which HKL < cuts H0d /it dn OK and HOK. taken as the length OL. and in the above expression OM ^3 4. 333. 08'=~ /t (22). h is positive whilst I is negative . the next through H' is (khl) and that through H'8" all is (Ihk). In a similar manner Od (d can be found from the triangles 0-4. Thus for the face taken. attention must be paid OM to the signs of the latter. 8'. OL sin 30 = OH. Jft/ &c. OH 08' sin 30 .OL sin 60. meets the three dyad axes. we have tan 60 08' In this expression J_ OH*~OL' OH and OL are treated as positive lengths. the dihexagonal prism. the projected points corresponding to ff. and. since the triangles H08' and 8'OL make up lt the triangle HOL. We can now determine the lengths 08'. 08' . in the plane of the horizontal cubic axes of The vertical lines through Chap. we have . Fig.-. needed is that is to describe. 08' h-l OM OM X/3 . 333.374 RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. + . but they will be shown to hold generally whatever be the position of the face (hkV). Hence. are the edges of . a figure similar to Fig.. and by sin 30 Dividing by OH OL ~ 1 08' = cos 60. vi. H KH tl is (klh). when they are in terms of replaced by their equivalents and the indices. To make an orthographic or clinographic drawing. Hence. 23 >- M-=i . I OM=aJZ. The above rules connecting the symbols of consecutive faces symmetrical with respect to a plane 2 and to a dyad axis have been established for the dihexagonal prism only . 332. Od and OE in which the trace HKL of the prism-face (hkl). 29. The symbols of the remaining faces of the prism are readily Thus the face through obtained by repeating the above operations. CLASS III.

:. ti But sin 120 = sin 60 dividing therefore by -^. we can give an independent proof holding between the indices of a For the triangle KOL contains the two triangles the aid of Fig. 334 represent a section through the plane of Fig. OV = . We must therefore write OK. 309 coincides with the apex V. is known. or the angle r'r of rhornbohedron {100}. OL sin 60. OL sin I 20 = OH OK sin 60 + OH OK. 1 1 1 OH OL in which + OK OM+k for axes of Y all positive. is parallel XV^ZVK. OE = 3a (24). h = -k-l. 333.V . 8'0dit being both 60.THE FUNDAMENTAL RHOMBOHEDRON. OX is parallel OM= VX = 2a cos 30. OE Od . OH OL sin 60.'. and OM-^-l for OL since the face taken meets the and Z on the negative side of the origin. 30. we can find the distance apex V from the origin. the fundamental c of its 31. KOH and HOL. face-diagonal of lies in 2 and meets p V at therefore /> The inclination of the face to the equatorial plane is = A VBO=I\OEX=I\ VOr. so that the point p of Fig. 08' (Fig.M. EOX 309 and V. Dividing by OK. 60. Thus . . When the angle D. E08'. 8'0d and E0d the angles lt it . Since to V. Let Fig. we have = 1 55-=- + 1 . and The Rhombohedron. V. and to Now OX to fj. Od . :. we have . The length 375 AA) is OE (E being the point in which 11 KL meets the axis obtained from the triangles EOS.OM of Fig. and from (21). 335. of By the relation. OE [the polar (100)] and the normal Or r. tf sin 120 = : OE 1 08' sin 60 + 08' . the lengths are . it sin . prism-face. .M. . OE 08' Od sin 60. 335) being the unit of length a on the dyad axis. Hence. V. h+k+l= Q.

. 334.. Hence. the lower polar edges join 7. vi. of Fig. t We Again. CLASS III. : JT07= 707=^07= 63 The hexagon 8.88. OV=OV.. Fig. = OA" cos 30 also tan 44 36-6' = OA" x -8543 44 -75'. M" . Taking 08 to be the unit of length CD' of Fig. then the apex V is found by marking off on Cy or OA" of the same figures lengths equal respectively to Cy cos 30 tan D.. Art. being projected in the horizontal plane by the method described in Chap. for the cleavage-rhombohedron r of calcite. r'r = 74 55' by computation from (1). O8= VE= 7X-2 = 0J/-2=:acos30 c= 0V = OB tan (25). 60. tan 02: tan/) = 2 Fig. M t .. 57. 336 represents a section of Fig. 335 07 has been taken to be OA" x M. VV M" can now draw the rhombohedron {100}. D = a cos 30 '-=- tan D c (5*). to and the upper polar edges join V to the the points M. and on the same scale as. or OA" cos 30 tan D: in Fig. M. Z> = 4436'6'. M'.M = OM C OV = t WB + = 2 cot D. (3*). 51. or 07. 335 in the plane exactly similar to.376 Also RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. and. and the points M' '. and tan VOX = tan OV. . 19. Therefore sphere aud X being the point at which the triad axis meets the being the axial point. of Fig. &c. Therefore .

. . p-^p.. trisecting by proportional compasses: the nearest to the equatorial plane being joined in pairs parallel to the polar edges give the median edges. ti and also from the lower coigns p. are then drawn through the points 8y/ to the polar edges 8. nearest to the equatorial plane. FJ/. and Vt are the orthogonal projections of the polar edges on FF/} and must be the same whichever of the polar edges is taken. hence Vp. 334 of p. a point of trisection true of all VM.. .. Hence tt =Vt=V t and the points t and t are the points of Vt t The lengths t .p. M'. gonal projections on the same line of equal and parallel lines are themselves equal and p. which trisect at on and t the length fi.". (fee.. p. = F /* cos t V M = t t V.. t r Vtp. VM is and is similarly. M M t ." to meet the pair tjl the triad axis at right angles at the points t and t and t p. ti a point of trip. The polar edges are therefore found by the joining the apices to alternate projected points J/. parallel respectively VM ti . of Fig. . however.p. t &c. . <fec. The same other median coigns.. fec.p. : t t Then Vt = F. being interchangeable. are therefore those points of trisection of V M. and another pair in Fig. 336. p.DRAWING THE RHOMBOHEDRON. : &c. tt is the orthogonal projection of the median edge But the ortho/*/*. t/ l trisection of W is it l t . the right-angled triangles similar. are shown in Fig. t t lie OM t . 334. cos VOX. The median coigns /*. t . Again. opposite points 377 .. t . ti . are equal to one another . most easily found by means of the following proposition straight lines parallel to OM. p. VM.. M. 336 are VM = it Vt : VO - 2 : 3. and t of p. ti : VOM it of Fig. p. Hence.. fec. for t is the projection of /u. &c.. &c. For the polar edges meeting at V. it The median edges . p. fj. 335 is equal and parallel to F/t. p!. t p. and so also are those meeting at Vr Suppose lines to be drawn from the upper coigns /Z." The median edges are. and the lines so obtained points of trisection &c. F V intercepted on the principal axis between the apices. t . P-P-. Therefore section of in Fig. p.. t it .

The method of drawing the rhombohedron {100} applies to all rhombohedra for any rhombohedron possible on the crystal may . 57 and 335 OS. the face-diagonal in 2". CLASS The geometrical III. 336. Fig. fec.378 32. RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. of Fig.. 332. relations of the rhoinbohedron are so im- portant that we give another method of determining them. from Fig. . 0V Ot= VB" : : B"p."p. being the same lineas VB"n"oi Fig.3a - 2 VB". / are bisected by the dyad axes meeting them at A t and A. -5- since OAA f . 33. 336. be selected to give the directions of the axes relations equivalent to those given in Arts. 337 (the same . since the dia- Again.AA t t to OY. >" = //'. Now meet the principal axis the median edges //*". F/t". 336. in Fig. for interchanged with Zi/i. (26). and OB" = a cos 30. Therefore (Euclid vi.2 gonals of a rhombus bisect one another. and the Hence AA of Fig. also =OA=a. OB" . The face is parallel to OS and may be supposed to be drawn through the line A4 t tl . and Vp . y F/Z is parallel to fjis OX. 2). coincident 8. and t which trisect the length f OM FF t . 335 is points Ze and p. M M of Fig. 57 to at V.. is an equilateral Hence But tan \XO Y = tan s F/A. the edge F/Z of Fig. line as SS." change places. 31 and 32 for {100} hold between the several : . p. The direct and inverse rhombohedra.". triangle.VB" cos J). Hence the median drawn through the Again. 337 represent one of the equal faces of {100} . with and 8 in Figs. 335) is parallel to the horizontal face-diagonal t by a semi-revolution about Vtfj. = ps Vs . = F//'-4 . mR and mR. coigns points lie t on the lines parallel to OM." = 3 : 1. Let Fig.

: . 3. Cr" of Fig. coigns and angles of every rhombohedron. 332 meet the triad axis at apices V m or and m is a commensurable number. R and mR showing the lower r and the upper polar face-diagonals /t /i< AT. The lines and A parallel to OM Hence. Miller's {100}. called the inverse r/wmbohedron. V mM t . faces belonging to different forms of the same crystal will. edges by in Art. . Hence three faces of all rhombohedra belonging to the same substance can be axis. if drawn through the same point on any zone- meet other zone-axes at distances measured from the origin. 57 or Fig.t i OM= Vn \: Vm M = 2 ^20M 3 -(from (21)) : : 3. are drawn through the median coigns p. Vm M. and is the same as . circles Cr. is obtained by joining the points M. The figure is the manner described of by finding the points Fig. and the lower polar &c. M"M of . This rhombohedron is called by Nau- mann poles denoted g the direct rhombohedron. M'. 7 J . it . which are to one another in commensurable ratios. When m = 1 the rhombohedron is R. M'M". of the polar edges nearest to the equatorial plane. . and since Or = t Vm HXT. The second rhombohedron. to Vm i. Or'. Fig. the points in . 335. ii.OVm = mc. Vm where OV m .e. by the lines. 338 is a vertical section of polar edges V t M and and V m \.'. or (ii) to the upper apex V i. Fig. M" 57 are joined (i) to the lower apex V m in the manner . M M t . 338. and on the same side of C as r. 2a^ ^3 (27). law of rational indices. and denoted by mR. In the first case the upper polar edges are given by V m M. and is Its by the symbol mR. according as the points M. Vm M ti . M'. 31 Vm Af. XT = fJ. m adopted in constructing Fig. 379 Further.. of Fig. completed in trisection A. and meet the triad axis at t and T. r' and r". drawn through the to lines MM'. M" to V m and the opposite points M. 342.DIRECT AND INVERSE RHOMBOHEDRA. 382. lie in the diametral zonep. t ^ OM = J> : : VM = 2 : 3. Two rhombohedra can be obtained for each value of m.

if V lies than V.e. m m for the hexagonal prism {21 1} described in parallel to VM and VM respectively. 335. the faces of which will be denoted by the letter z: corresponds exactly (except that the scale has been reduced in the ratio it of 3 : 4) with the direct rhombohedron FlG of - R. 15. [CV]. Fig. frequently observed in crystals of this class 2R. A face through M M / To find the Millerian symbols ti of Fig. shown in Fig. Hence ccR is Naumann's symbol &c. for OF and OZ a. . distances from C. when faces are those of the prism drawn through the lines MM'. and an apex V m meets the axes of Y and Z at the same distance from the origin and on the same side of it. [CV"] at equal = 0. Hence OR is Naumann's symbol coincides with the origin 0. -R. which m has the same value. 339 represents the inverse rhombohedron .R. [CV]. The faces of the direct and inverse rhombohedra. face is less steeply inclined to the equatorial plane than the correm sponding face of the fundamental rhombohedron. or {1 22}. The mode of construction is the same as that given for {100} and mJR. = oo the vertex is infinitely distant. (hll) where h and have the same. R. 335 t tl . Vm is further I away from than V. The following are a few instances rhombohedra which are : . if the 35.3R. But the axis OX will be met at a different distance.R. i. and on the same side of the origin as OF and OZ. where For the apex coinciding with the equatorial plane. is. . 3R. in %R. are connected by the relation of dirhombohedral faces given in Art. The special case. The face therefore. for the faces of mR. all parallel to the triad axis. for the pinakoid {HI}. or opposite signs . MM'M". The axis of X will be met on the opposite nearer to if side of the origin. Hence the second and third indices of the face are equal. or {100}. 27.380 RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. CLASS III. 2R. gives a single plane 34. and the Similarly. M'M". and this is indicated by making m negative. the equatorial plane are joined to the apices in the reverse order to that adopted in the first case.. for the parameters are equal. and their poles above the primitive lie in the diametral zones.

Adding (28) we have ~ h= V. we have (29). in B and V Adopting F then OL= V M+-h. ' The Millerian symbol (hll) is therefore given by the ratios: I h I 2m +1 and. according as the pole of the face is 381 nearer to C. = 0Fw -r-3. posi- V. the Naumannian symbol mR found from . 31) OL M _ BM = ~ OB 1 OB=BM. the Millerian symbol known. and (29). OM in L as parameter. t M t V. The face through to V m\ meet of Fig. V M. than ? (100).V~ ~ ~ m OV mc + me c '' ' t . V. since OVm >OV must be prolonged of Y at K on the nega- tive side of the origin.L. t _ FP 0V -=- = m (31). 341. 340 meets the adjacent plane 2' in the polar edge F m\ which.(33).OK. since R mR VM Vm M V are similar t t is parallel to 07.. since (Art.MILLERIAN SYMBOL FOR mR.. The coign X T.M' = OK VM _\-m ~ m OK t Fio. or more remote from it..(30). and But. from the similar triangles V m and OLV m we have VmM. Also. In (31) the lengths are all regarded as but I is VM' . L. is if 1 is m *-' 1 m'" (32). Fig. Hence. OM through t M . .M = OL m + 1 = 2m +1 m y . 341 represents part a section of in 2'. 340 represent part of a section of the rhombohedra mR and to R in the plane t 2 containing X and the polar edges is on the line drawn parallel where 0r.L t . F mX is the polar face-diagonal and meets OX in L. OL From the m+\ m similar triangles OLB and MBL _V. Let Fig. the : we triangles V therefore have m KO and VM OK tive . But.

{Cgrm} of the four poles given above. 34 are immediately deduced from the above equations .Cg. 342. Fig. If m = oo. inclination to the pinakoid of the m OBV face of mR through V m\. Dividing the former tangent by the latter.Cr.tan Cr = mr m 100 m_ 2TT 100 h-l mg = 90 . if m = 0. the h-l Hence. we have tan Cg -r tan But. The same equations are found when than V. is then h +21 = 0.R. and mr = 90 .382 RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. {21 T}. h = I. The angles on the left sides of (34) and terms on the right must be equal. The special forms given in Art. from the have A. CLASS III. has here been used to represent the pole (2ll) to avoid A different type it confusing with the Naumannian index m. in Fig. of OV m is taken to be less Equations (32) and (33) can also be obtained from the the four poles [Cgrm}\ C. . and 2m +1 1 m These are the results given in (32) and (33). for. Again. and the face is (III) or (111).R. and the face is (21 1) or (211). 36. and the form 1 the hexagonal prism {2 II}. D = A Cr = A OB V and tanZ> = tan0F=c^6. D=m (34). and Hence is therefore the angle Cg. is the pole where (1 1 1 (hll). since (35) being the same. 338. tan Cg = tan OBV m = OV m + OB . m is the For. r (100) and ). A. we 111 sin sin 2TT Cg Cr sin nig sin = tan Cg H.

(40). 344 represents a section of the M t the negative side of the origin. 2m . OF _ ~ VVm _ mc + c OV~~~~ me Hence. 343 and meets OY at F on Fig. From the similar triangles Vm FO. GM _ BM = 1 ~OG~~OB (37). -OF. or OF. from the similar triangles we have OBG and MBG t . is : Let Fig. t t . Vm MV. t '' '" ' ~OG ~6T~ me ~~mT '' Again. same rhombohedron in the where Vm is the polar edge of the face through Vm y of Fig. the intercepts on the axes are OG.(37).. from those for mR given . The Millerian symbol for the inverse rhombohedron -mR found from equations (32) by changing the sign of m it can also be obtained from the geometry of the figure as follows. :. 37.. is and the makes on the axes are in the ratios: VM VM Hence.1 If ' l+m' l+m ' now denoted by (hi intercepts it the upper face parallel to that taken then the face through Vm y is 1). adding (36) and VM OG plane 2'. we . and let the polar faceVm y meet OX in G and the lower polar edge Then from the similar triangles r M of R in G Vm OG and Vm VG we have V G. = VVm mc-c =: m-l . have VM_. rhornbohedra diagonal 343 be part of a section in the plane 2 of the R and mR.(39). m-l i 2m -I m m (38). .MILLERIAN SYMBOL FOR mR. Also It is clear that these expressions differ f l-2m~ l+m .

345. are marked off. such forms can be quickly drawn in the following simple manner. when the indices of {011} are introduced in (33). II. The symbols of the faces of the . . provided care is taken to give the correct sign to m. which may be either a direct or inverse rhombohedron. right angles to one another. Hence. The eye is supposed to be situated in the equatorial plane. the Millerian symbol of which is given. Since the median edges of rhombohedra and scalenohedra (Art. is to find m m m m from equation (33). Fig. These rhombohedra are geometrically common to classes and IV. expressions (32) (33) only in the sign of m. are first drawn at FIG. 31. given in table d of class II those of : rhombohedron {100} are {Ml}. {111} = . The apices V m and Vm at distances me from the origin can then be marked off on the vertical axis . Expression (33) serves also as a ready test for determining whether a rhombohedron {hll} is a direct or an inverse one. are Ml IM llh III IM Uh (j). 40) are inclined to the equatorial plane and cross it in zigzag fashion. and the drawing can be made 38. Lengths T and V t . 346. and {31 T} gives = 4. III 39. we have for the value \\ similarly. and FOF t .384 in (32) RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM.2 . On FOF any t six equal lengths OS=ST= TF^ OS=ST = TF t . and (33) may be taken to apply to both cases. : any horizontal plane then reduced to a straight Two straight lines VOV. is and the triad axis to be in the paper line. in the manner described in Art. CLASS and III. gives It follows therefore that the simplest way of drawing any rhombohedron. Thus.

and the parallel vertical plane The dyad axes through the eye and centre may be represented by EE. F. etc. &c. T F T t t The rhombohedron All that is mR is obtained in a similar manner. The length OV = c for any pardistance from ticular substance is therefore OA cos 30 tan D. and Vp tl V^. \ t/ . and (of which 08 is alone shown) now lie in the paper.. now needed to draw any scalenohedron mRn (Art. &c. bisect pairs of opposite median edges.ji=e. . have to be shown.&+& From the right-angled triangle SOp. T.DRAWINGS OF RHOMBOHEDRAL FORMS.. . Let E0. we take OV m = OVm =mc. we obtain t .. in which the horizontal lines through r and T meet the verticals through. To draw the rhombo- hedron mR.?<). If OV-c. we have . are drawn as in the figure. The inverse rhombohedron -JR={122\ is given by joining V to the points of intersection of the horizontal line tp.. &c. p. OF= Ofi sin (60 + 6). To find the unit of length OA" corresponding to the arbitrary length OS.ff = {100}.O. the fundamental rhombohedron . OS = Op' sin 0... verticals through . F. and fy. c. 345 to be turned through 90 about the line FOFn and to be projected on the paper: it will then be given by Fig. : f t the point A where the circle cuts the vertical yiT^A is at unit and OA" 0&. and the length intercepted between the apices is then trisected in the points t and t r Through the points of trisection lines are drawn parallel to FOF to intersect the verticals through T. the median coigns being taken in the same order as that adopted for Vm Vm T. Since the horizontal plane is reduced to a line the method is not adapted to represent crystals in which lines parallel to the equatorial plane. ti with the and /y and Vt to the median coigns on the verticals through S. . and join them to the median coigns A of mR. t trisect V m Vm in r and and join the apices to the coigns X. 25 . During the rotation the coigns remain in the vertical planes through the points S. F: the figure is then easily completed. 345.. T.. a circle is described with centre at S and radius = SS . OT= Op sin (60 . 346. lt L. in the coigns /*. n Vn on the triad axis at distances nine from the 40) is to take V origin. iit <fec.. but inclined to one another. R. then E0f* = 60-d. and to prove that 0A is the unit length on Suppose the rhombohedron represented iu Fig. F. We proceed to indicate the positions of the planes of symmetry in such V. S . and from the triangle FOp.6} from the triangle TOp. 385 equal to the distances of the rhombohedral apices from the origin are determined on the vertical line. &c. a projection as Fig.

. + = 49 6'4'.. . sin (60 + ff) . is inclined to the paper at an angle of 49 6-4' to the right front the planes 2. or cos 30 tan D. a circle is described with centre at S and radius = 20S: the point A. But Also.sin 6} TF= OF. 345... terms of (42) are equal for any value of 6. ST= OT.= 2 cos (30 + 0)...sin (60 . 345... .386 But and Also . and radius = SS.. or the second and third.. (42). But sin (60 + ff) and 30 + sin 6 = sin (30 + 6 + 30) + sin (30 + 6.. . 2 sin (30 + cos 30 = 2 cos (30 + 6) cot (30 + 0) = cos 30 .sin (60 . in Fig..6)}. since The value of d. OA" is then cut off equal to OA and V is found by multiplying this length by c.OS= Of* {sin (60 -ff).. Hence 8 lies obtain OA" t t . (42).6} = 2 cos 60 sin 6= sin 6 2 cos 60 = 1.OT= OIL {sin (60 + 6). 345 its length is that denoted by a. the plane 2. Therefore. TF=ST=OS. for sin (60 + 6). (43). containing OY and OZ respec.. Hence..... CLASS III.ff) . and 2.. and 0=19 6-4'.. .sin (60 -6) = sin (60 ../A and the parallel axis OX. RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. tively. has therefore to be found by combining the first and first The and last second terms. We length have now to determine the OA" on the vertical axis W unit t of which corresponds to the arbitrary length OS taken on the horizontal In Fig. in which the circle cuts the vertical through T is at distance a from 0...30) = 2 sin (30 + 0) cos 30. ff) ... . . .sin 6 = sin 6 . Fig. 346 08 is a dyad axis. corresponding to the orientation of the rhomboheclron in the two figures.. .'. 60 -5 = 90 -(30 + 6). are inclined to the left front at angles of 70 53'6' and 10 53'6' respectively. = ZOS. and line. containing F. tf^ = To on a circle described with centre at S.. Taking the ff) first pair of sides in we have sin (60 + ff) since + sin Q = 2 sin (60 . by computation. in Fig.

The form is therefore called the scalenohedron of the rhombohedral system. similar to that 252 . it faces arranged in pairs follows that the form. derived from the cube. 2. which is quired to give R OVm in- OV therefore mnc. X &c. The scalenohedron. its symbol be {hkl}. The number n following redicates the multiple of n . and as its faces will be shown to meet the Millerian axes of reference at unequal distances.THE SCALENOHEDRON. and the angles over the three edges are unequal. of which have to be joined to F n and FB 7 . The above method is of derivation of the general form of the class of the by which the tetrakis-hexahedron {MO} cubic system was. Fig.. crystal of this class can be drawn through a median edge of any to meet the triad axis at points Vn V n . In this symbol the number m preceding R indicates will the auxiliary rhombohedron. xiv.. Further. \hkl\. 18. Art. .. It affords a ready means of drawing the form when the Naumannian indices m and n have been determined. similar n mR . OV =OV . faces belonging to a crystal can be drawn through an edge of any of its forms to meet any nonparallel zone-axis at distances which are commensurable multiples of the intercept made on this axis by one of the faces. distant from the centre of the rhombohedron and opposite median edges are parallel. has twelve which are parallel. 347.. each face is its a scalene triangle having polar edges in two of the planes of symmetry 2. The form through the edge of which the new faces have to be drawn will be Thus a pair of possible faces of a called the auxiliary form. in Chap. The symbol mRn was used by Naumann to denote the form. pairs of faces must be drawn through each of the remaining median Since the points Vn and F n on the triad axis are equally edges. 40. 2. the median coigns X.. where rhombohedron n = nO Vm But by the character of the symmetry. 387 By the law of rational indices.

lie l OF T and T and the horizontal line OM in t . and their discussion will be postponed to the next chapter. The form then becomes the hexagonal prism.\ = T. dyad axes : this prism 42. l hedra join the apices to the points (Art. A'. 2W.A" = &c. CLASS the method of construction it III. . A".a constant 3. Incidentally. Hence the median coigns of all scalenohedra lie in the vertical edges of the prism {Oil}. still Rhombohedral crystals are frequently referred to a set of four axes .388 RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. the horizontal line OM H and H'. 348 F n AA two lie be the face (hlk).. V n\.. but such axes are better suited to represent the forms of hexagonal crystals. Let Fig. faces and the axes OX In and OY are alone shown. distance independent of the values of and n. proceed to find the intercepts made by the faces on the axes of reference . From follows that the median coigns of the scalenohedron lie in the horizontal planes trisecting at T and t the length V m Vm intercepted between the apices of the Since the polar edges of all rhomboauxiliary rhombohedron mR. The 2. expressions will be obtained which will enable us to transform the above symbols to those involving four axes of reference. = M in the equatorial plane. &c. 27 to be {Oil}. The limits of the series of scalenohedra having the same median edges as the auxiliary rhombohedron mR are given by making: (i) n=l. being the unit of length a on the dyad axis in Fig. 332. the faces of which truncate the median edges of the rhombohedron. its faces are drawn through the points A.3 = 4a cos 30 . and hence to determine the connection between the Millerian symbol {hkl} We and the Naumannian symbol mRn. therefore perpendicular each to one of the was shown in Art. and are . Vn \ the axis OX in it The polar edges in the plane 2 and meet in the points S and S'. when the scalenohedron becomes identical with mR itself (ii) n = oo when all the faces become parallel to the triad axis. then. F nA. T. and in the points similar polar edges Vn \t and meet in the points . m when OA 41. 33).

me 3.OH'.GEOMETRICAL DELATIONS OF THE SCALENOHEDRON... To find h.. X = 20M 3. &ndA \ = A \ By a semi-revolution about OA the edges V n\. S and Let Fig. are given by h = V / M + OS. t The median edge . k. m and n. t t t . < 46 >- the similar triangles OH'Vn 1 . places. OL sin 60 OM OM qi/_3n+l 3n-l " *'' OL~OII oK~~toT' ~%ar~n f sin 120 t . The Millerian indices k. since OK t . / OT on OY is equal to OS' measured on OX. and OX parallel to the edge V tal rhombohedron. and likewise OT OS. and T. n Hence... OJf UH From = 3n+l ^r -=-3 . The points and the intercepts OS and OT are then easily found. the equatorial plane. . t M -=- -=- t From the similar i^XF we have 71 . terms of I. it suffices to determine the points in which the edges FBX. K OK OL ." is t made up of K OH and 60. trace of the face in the equatorial plane may be taken to LI of Fig. since the same rotation interchanges OM and OM we have OK= OH. FTO X. 1 . 43. and OK = OH'.OKr OH sin 60 + Off. Furthermore... t t/ t . and Fn X changing ll tt t tl the two faces change places. Hence. The distance I HK OL t on OM.. 349 represent a section of the rhombohedron mR by the plane -=- the scalenohedron and which contains the polar n of the fundamen edges F X. F _ mwc + mc-f-3_3w+l OH~OV"~ mnc ~3^T~ T. have T X T Vn mnc me mnc 3n OM The coincide with the line 3n-l .. 332.. also F"X and FW X . t . to find the line HA K in which the face F XX meets Hence. meets the dyad axis at A ltt where OA = a. triangles OHV n and n _ T.. 389 K and K lt . f H and / //' S'. XX. Now Or = Vm 3 ..X . Fn X meet OM. then given by the fact that the triangle OLf is t and HOLt of which the angles at are 120 .. 372.(47). p. I in A. of 2. 349. r\VH we . FIG.

OX intercept OTt measured in the negative direction along is equal to OS' OY t measured on OX. and/' Vn \. we can. if. W n mnc mn (53). . as before.RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM.Vn _ mnc-c _ mn-l ~ ~ ~' OS' . adding (52) and (53). and OS. OS 7m OH~ ( e from ( 45 \\ )) . we have V M and t M and \JJCL / FIG. CLASS III.M"+OU. t OT k= VM OU By a semi-revolution about is OA /f the polar edge Vn \T^ Fig. From the similar OHS. 349. H'OS'. brought to the meets in S'. V M+OS / t OS'. 1= Vt M' + is the parait V. Again. OT and attention being paid to the directions in which they are measured. V OV n we find mn + mn Adding (49) and (50). and therefore the indices be the point Let. VM OS n+\ 2n mn + mn 1 3mn + m + 2mn 2 (51). 1 . are the intercepts on the axes. And from the similar triangles OSV n . from the similar triangles H'f'M. we have fM = H'M = OM-OH' OH' -08' -OWand from the similar triangles 3n - 1 n-l 2n S'O Vn . we have VM n-l mn mn 1 Liz 2mn (54) . Hence Since OX '-f- is parallel to by pairs and V h and I f M of similar triangles. in Fig.. VJ' _ V. j 3n+l V fV t n+ n .(49). V. MHf. we have . 348. of intersection of that of V t triangles V n \. due meter.. f V Vn t '' .-. find V M.(50). fM HM OM-OH = \JJJO. position Vn \H' which The .f = ~OS n V. 349.

measured in the negative direction. > Hence from (51). 0-L OU n The above equation + l-=!i -2mn mn OU is gives the numerical value of the ratio V. (55).. Again.O triangles Fl - 35 - VV r^+l (56) Subtracting (56) from (55). Since. and of the ratios.... if it 350.. suffice for finding if both m and n when h. (58). we have V. = h-l h + l-2k i . . = (from (48)) i + And from the similar V n OU.. is the trace of (hlk) the 2... x. (57).... 44.... (54) and (58).. and meets OZ and V M" produced from the in U and G. V*L. For. we add also the denominators. k ...<.. in Fig. we have . M"G _ M"Li _ ~ ~ OM" OL t OU OL + 1 ^. then similar triangles UOLjt GM"L... k and to I Equations (59) are given. taking the and second terms. V n V G... have by addition Thus. the index k = -M"V +OU=2(l-m) + 2mn .... t .RELATIONS BETWEEN EQUIVALENT SYMBOLS. ' Again. we obtain a ratio equal first any one of them. we - 9\ = -9/i \ = (doubling the terms of the latter and sub- tracting from the former) = h + l-2k (by addition) (60) .M" + OU. however. we have h-l e^ = 2(r^)^fromabove>-T-' .'.-- _ . subtracting the numerator and denominator of the second member of (59) from those of the first.h+k+l - n= h-l i 1 h+k+ i lm . of any or subtract the numerators. plane t 391 in if..

The OZ. (hlk) and (Ihk). k. (HO) and Again. S' respectively. To find the symbols of all the faces of {hkl}. and vice to .392 EHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. 351 change places after a semi-revolution about 08t/ This axis. 351. is (Ihk). being perpendicular . 45. the face F A\ being (hlk). 40.. interchanges positive with equal negative lengths on it and positive lengths on OX with equal negative ones on OY. we can find m and n and can then draw the form by the method . therefore. V n \\ and Fn XA lowing symbols hlk hkl khl : have the fol- Ihk Ikh klh\ Ihk Ikh klh hlk hkl khl) (k). hence the faces of the scalenohedrou {hkl}. The symbols of the latter faces are. pairs of faces in the columns \ are interchangeable by semi-revo- The lutions about the 8f dyad axes 8 //} and 8. given in Art. It is respectively. Knowing then the indices h. 348. OX where . The four faces are necessarily tautozonal with the four rhombohedral faces meeting in the same median edges. the face Vn XX. faces are brought into the positions of faces. CLASS III. taken in order from . by rotations of 120 about the triad axis the above four two other sets of four similar We have already seen that the triads of interchangeable faces have their symbols in the same cyclical order. and with the two prism-faces (110) truncating these edges. Fig. Thus the pairs of faces meeting in the edges in S and Vn \ meet V n X. also obvious from the discussion in the two last article's and Fig. The above two faces are associated with two parallel faces drawn through the median edge parallel to AA. pair of faces passing through X\ of Fig. versl This is n Hence. I of one face of the scalenohedron. easy to see that the above faces are symmetrically placed with respect to the planes of symmetry.

in the method of derivation employed in has been Art. 40 and in all the succeeding Articles. The number n can now be found from equations 47. . was shown that. k}. by Weiss's zone -law. in Art. lies between a ti and g. 36. + Ik - t (h + l) f = 0. and also to pairs of faces which do not meet in edges. mR. hk This equation inscribed k. and this face would. Similar proofs can be applied to t . and the intercepts on these axes are reciprocal reflexions. Introducing into this expression has therefore the symbols {h f just found. f the 46. Although. &c. All that all negative in equations (59) and in is necessary is to equations into which make m m enters. . The rhombohedron mR it t But. 2 bisects ' for OY the symbol of of the symbol /x n pairs which meet in polar edges V \. = (ht {hlt lt \. (59). faces The two of each form which meet in the edge XX/ must be in a zone with 0^(110). 43).POLES OF THE AUXILIARY RHOMBOHEDRON. P of the scalenohedron (hkl\ = inRn and of g those of the inscribed are auxiliary rhombohedron shown in Fig. the process is perfectly general . If P' is (hlk) and g in [a. 393 I is a But the negative number (Art.M+l. the number supposed to be positive. The face V n \\ being (hlk). The relations of the poles rnJR. h k+ 1. then the values of h t and m -=- I) l t k + 1. that the two faces of the scalenohedron make a smaller angle with (HO) than the two Hence the pole P' faces of the rhombohedron g. 352./"] is l (hi 1) . It is clear. t plane OS = V. then. the angle between and OZ. if developed. and all the relations hold true if is negative and the inscribed rhombohedron m m is the inverse form. the prism-face perpendicular to the dyad axis 08f/ . truncate the edge. however. is satisfied by making h and l t = k. we have ' _0-3k __*-*_+_*-* _h-2k + l ~ ~ '~h^k + T^2k h + k + l the same result as is given in (60). if mR is identical with (h + 2l ). such as F B \A" (klh) and K*A'Aw (kid). V n \\ is (hid) and the face 7n \\ being (Ihk) Fn AA is (Ikh).

. ratios.. it is 2 (h 3h 2 (h +k+ 3k (65) easy to show that 2 (p + q + r) . when position with respect to the axes of reference. and the poles of which are shown in Fig. CLASS it is III. we have. h I k _h+k+l 3mn~2l-m~ 6 Changing the sign of m.3mn) ~~ 3 (2 -m+ I 3mn) U X T (64). Such a scalenohedron may.(63). for the opposite face (2^q) . of m same numerical values and n. 43 and 44 we have seen that for the face (hlk).. 15 to connect the symbols of two dirhombohedral faces. As in that Article.. therefore that. If m + 2 + 3mn 2(l + m) m + 2 3mn from double the numerator and denominator of the last term of equations (62) we subtract three times the numerator and denominator of each of the preceding terms in turn. 353. we have two tauto- morphous scalenohedra. . '/ft/ I in the last three terms of (64) are in the same ratio as the denominators of equation (63) hence the numerators : The denominators must be in the same . be called an inverse desired to indicate its precise scalenohedron. It is required to find the relation between the Millerian of {hkl} indices the direct scaleno- hedron = mRn and the cor- relative inverse scalenohedron {pqr} = In Arts. P +k+ 1) ? _r_ 1) 2(h + k + l) 3l These are the same relations as were found in Art. the positions of which in space are determined by the sign of m.m . we have l)-3h 3 (2 .3p . It is clear for the mRn.394 EHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM.

FORMULA OF COMPUTATION... f. Hence. (69)... cos = cos a'P = cos a' NCOS NP Adding the first and second equations. 15 the indices P(hkl).. are e. 354..< and 2. a it PN Hence. a'PN.0. As a general rule the forms will fall into zones in which the angles can be measured..... however. 351 be denoted . the third can be calculated.P...\ =2 sin $ (90 - ij + + Q ) sin | (90 sin | (90 -? ). = a'P.. respectively... and in which the symbols of several faces are known or can be easily found. the symbols cannot be thus obtained... . - 2 sin (90 - ) j 49.. 31-0.. cos = 2 sin |(| + 77) cos ( r.. V*\ and A\ of by 2. we have . When. since sin + sin = 1... (68). and in N ..[ ..).*. 395 48.. in Fig. (67). = cos 17 . we can use the elegant relations between the angles of the scalenohedron and the face-indices which we proceed to determine in this and the two next articles.. Then. and =a> ll P' ^ Fm. Let the angles PF. 2rj Fig... Zk-0. P'P".. we have sin + sin >/ = cos NP (cos dN + cos a N) ti = cos NP {cos (60 + a'N) + cos (60 a'N}} = 2 cos NP cos 60 cos a'N = cos NP cos a'N 2 cos 60 ... = w7y =90 -a'P' = 90 -a. the anharmonic ratio of four tautozonal faces will usually give the Millerian symbols of the unknown faces.. This equation can be readily thrown into a form suitable for logarithmic computation so that. shown to be 3/t expressed in terms of g of . 354.. ttt . when two of the angles have been found.. those of In Art. Thus sin sin r. from the right-angled spherical triangles dPN.. P'P over the dissimilar edges FWX..

cos YP = cos <7Fcos CP (1 + tan C Y tan CP cos m'N) = since cos CX cos CP(\ tan CX tan CP sin a'N) CY= CX. 3 tan a'N'. To connect the angles involved in (74) with the angular element of the crystal we shall employ equations (12) of Art.-Z) h-k h^l~ ^2{(A-A:) + (74).. 27 an expression (20) for tan indices of h.a'N) a'N cos a'N h-k 2(h-l) And. Hence. 50. introducing the values of into equation (20). in (67) sin h-lthe last equation since A (7P = 90 - we have from CP cos a'N cos = V( 1 + tan2 oUV) = (by transformation from \/2 {(A (70)) - 2 k) (A + (k.^3 tan a'N). Art. we have a'N was found in terms of the e and f in terms of But from sin (67). . Hence. . CLASS N. introducing the value of we have sin_|_ k(71). sin t\ _ ~ cos a cos t N _ cos (60 ~ cos . 14.396 RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM.A) 2 . cos~ Similarly.sin 60 tan a'N = (1 . _ sin __ cos _ ^3 2 sin <7P 2 When + (l-h)*} therefore the indices and one of the above angles are known. k and I.(73).. III.O 2 + 1) (I . Thus. V3 Hence from sin (71) t) (73). cos cos dN a'N cos(QO+a'N) cos cos a N = cos 60 . (A. and m'N = 90 + a'N. equations (74) enable us to compute each of the remaining angles.

3wm + m + 3mn + m 2 = 2h (1 . e-3k we have - . CP from Another easy way of finding CP is first to calculate Cp.tan But from (3). Hence. 351. deduced from (76).a'N). and the known (mN = 30 . and then to substitute the value in equations (74). tan CX tan CP sin CX = 2 cot D. for tan CP pCP. a'N = -^ v .FORMULAE OF COMPUTATION. we have . value 51.3 (Kk + kl + ^) sin D is not however in a form suitable " ' for log- arithmic computation it is better therefore to compute (76). 48 50 enable us to determine the indices. 354 is the angle V HO /. n of Fig. is introduced into equations (74). it can be shown that smaN = Introducing into equation (75). the equations given in crystal of which the element Arts. CP is easily deduced from (78) by the aid of the right-angled spherical triangle = tan Cp + cos of a'N . of Fig. And from (70). p being the pole of the face truncating the obtuse edge F"A. 3A-0 2h ~k-l . If the scalenohedron P {hkl} is the only form present in a is known. when two of the D . the latter can be given in the following form: If sin now _ sing _ last cos k~^l ~h-k~ h^l _ ~ sin 60 sin D The term of (77) : 2 J(h + k + I? . 349 . X and OV n OH since _ ~ OV n OM _ mnc OM* OH~ 2acos30 c -=- 3n+l _ 3mn ~~2rT 4 + m a cos 30 = tan D. the value of sin CP.m) -=- k = 6h 4- . Introducing this value of COR 1 39- YP into equations (13). the arc Cp of Fig. But from (62).-f***--^-***Expression (76) for tan **i> (78). (76). tan Cp = tan V nHO = OV + OH.

The solution of these two -=equations gives the ratios h 1. But it is clear that If it be desired to indices equations (74) will not be satisfied if any three numbers are assumed for an arbitrary choice can only be made of two of them. 354. the third is found from equa- then be computed by the formula for finding the angle of a triangle of which three sides are known thus in the triangle a Pa.398 angles RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. 355. or assuming the indices to be any numbers consistent with (74). the sides are: aP=90-. A knowledge of . or from the geometrical relations given in preceding Articles. and : The angle PaN can equation (78) gives a simple equation between the indices. (80). The face is therefore (20l) we have 5fc=0.-. the symbols of which can be readily obtained by the aid of the stereogram. sin 5 aP=90. 2rj and 2 have been measured . and the symbol of the face. and the third is : then deduced from (74). 2. Gp = 90 . 2 = h . triangle a' Pa are: a'P=2331'. = 90 . Each scalenohedron {hkl} = mSn has five associated rhom- bohedra. it is necessary to assume definite indices. second simple equation is given by (74). determine the element from the measured angles. Thus two tions (69). k + l. tania'aP-tanim and. 52. by equation (78) 4-8'. and Weiss's zone-law. III. by computation. k=0: and therefore h + 2l=Q. (201) say. a'P= and a'a=60. A Example. 56-5' and The sides of the f= 23 30-5'. aa'=60. and for the scalenohedron v. of the angles being measured. and the form {201}.PaN is known.= 7212'. . CLASS . we have cot D = 5 tan 22 4-8' -^-2. to find the angular element D which corresponds to the measured angles and the assumed indices. / 39 5 sip 17 51 5 ' ' ' ' a'P=mi> = 22 Hence. common on Derbyshire crystals he gives 2=35 36'. Fig. Fig. Then after computation of mp.^~^~* =cot224-8'cot 44 36-6' (by computation) 5 -=-2. Hence. f= 2 sin 27 Hence. Fig. from 44-5' cos 9 (69) . cos 2^=75 22'. 2 K (n IO ' 85 ' + + 1) Again. for the face P. by equations (74) 1=0 Subtracting (80) from (79). Miller gives the element of calcite as 4436'6'.

[aP] (h + k-l. 309 these rhorabohedra frequently simplifies the drawing of a combination such as that in Fig. and (v) q have for polar edges the acute and obtuse polar edges of the Their apices are at double the disscalenohedron. found by drawing through Hence. 21. i. The rhombohedron p with faces truncating the obtuse polar edges V n \. p y q [cr] [cr] [cr'] [aP] [a. table (23). 349. .THE FIVE ASSOCIATED RHOMBOHEDRA. by Chap. k + l-h. OB figure is I k and iii. having the same median edges as the scalenohedron. 408. = [k + l. respectively. ii. X. M From the stereogram the symbols of obtained by Weiss's zone-law. h + k). 351. [altP].1). The two remaining rhombohedra (iv) y. They are : inscribed rhombohedron g = mR. iv. k+ l). then readily drawn. h)./* ] are readily found table 10. 349 (OB = OM-r 2) a line parallel to Vn \. the faces of which truncate the acute i. [cr] [cr'] g the intersection of u' ii. and have their polar diagonals parallel the apex Vu is formed by drawing through in to these edges Hence Fig. (h + k. k) .. v. 374. being found by drawing lines through n parallel to the edges Vn \ and V \ of Fig. k+ l. For the zone-circle [cr] is [Oil]. They are: 7 by Chap. tance of those of u and p. t : B OVU The h. and 1 the poles are readily [a.P] (2h. [aP]. The polar edges F. h]. 349.. The apex Vp is parallel to V n\ of Fig. v. Hence. zone-circles [a'P ]. v. k. h. and its symbol in terms of can be found from the relations already established. B a line iv and v. [a'P ] 1 iii. [a'P'] [aP] = [7. (h. Fig. h + k. &c. and [a"P] is(h-k + l. p. and is The symbols of the [cr'] [10T]. 1. I]. The rhombohedron u.

For the latter. By the aid of equations (32) Vp has the value already given.... (81)... (v) = (iii) {811} : : (ii) {101} -iJZ. (iv) {3lT} = 47?. relation (81) between the face-indices of a bipyramid can also sapphire.. not unfrequent is shown in Fig.e.400 The for the RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. and (59) the student can prove that Thus from (32) 2h-k-l = [from 3m + 3mn (59)] ~12 C= 3n + 1 ^T" ... a known positive number. Fig. The hexagonal bipyramid.... 357....... I are unequal and their sum differs from 53. (iii) {4TT} = f#. Vq can be obtained in a similar manner. The particular instance of a bipyramid on crystals of {3 IT}. the rhombohedra are (i) {311}=%R.. k. When the median edges of this rhombohedron . The three upper when with ['(?]. (ii) {lTl} = -2#. the five rhombohedra are (\){\W} = R. sum poles having the above symbols are on the upper hemisphere. coalesce in [a'P] coincides C (HI). For the former. CLASS III. of the indices is in all cases either 6 or 20. The distances from the origin of the apices Vu Vy . When the pole P of zero. although the indices h. (iv) {100} = *. a face (hkl) lies in the zone [CaJ\ = [121]. The form a bipyramid having {hkl} is then its median edges all horizontal and its polar edges all equal.. By Weiss's zone-law we then have h-2k + l = Q .. The be obtained from (60). 354... As illustrations of the above we may take the scalenohedra {20T} and {410} of calcite.. But the zone contains the pole g of the auxiliary rhombohedron poles g must. which gives the value of m Fi for the inscribed rhombohedron mR. one of the indices [a'P~\ is the arithmetic mean of the other two. and the angles 2 and 2r) over these latter edges are therefore also equal. the form {hkl} undergoes an important modification. = (v) {232} -5R. = TVtf... mR. i.. and the rhombohedron be- comes the pinakoid 07?.

43). MVn OSV n we have VM VV* c+c = n+l . n which is the arithmetic mean When L. and h . M". I. mine n and/. It clear that the distance of the apex cannot be obtained in the manner employed in the case of a scalenohedron. c. of n M . Let Fig. is inversely as that index of the other two. from the similar triangles OS'Vn t V f MVn . and from (81). the plane + k does not necessarily pass given by Vf M+h. of the face through OS' but measured in the negative direction. Vn where OV n . for the face (201) of the pyramid {210} we have 26 .. M are . however. be con- Lines are drawn from the six points M. Vf M+l. symmetry 2 containing the polar edges V M. meet the triad axis at apices V*. we have V M = V\Vn = nc-c = n-l As was the case with the scalenohedral face F n XX having the symbol (hlk) (Art. Vt An arbitrary it may be only parallel to the line. k and I of one of the faces. Vn M are hkl and hlk those meeting in Then. and Vt FIG.2k + I = 0. Since the indices h. the symbol (hlk) is given. The form may. 358 be part of a section of the bipyramid by the plane structed as follows. 358. Vn M. Ihk. to t . through M M MM : t factor/ is therefore introduced I. Ikh.THE HEXAGONAL BIPYRAMID. are whole numbers given cept to OT t MM t in is a definite their lowest terms. M . the inter/ is equal on OF. We proceed to determine the relation between the pyramidindex n and the indices A. when the ratios in (82) and (83) are expressed in terms of h and Hence. Hence. become horizontal 401 is m = 0. length selected arbitrarily as parameter. the axis OX and the parallel edge V of the fundamental rhombohedron and The faces meeting in let the polar edges meet OX in S and S'. from the similar triangles Vt Vn . k.OVn = nc. &c. equations (84) suffice to deterThus.

for {3Tl}. CLASS n= 1 . (5). from . and that of these median edge to the pyramid-index n and the indices h.cos 60 = 208" = 20M cos 30 = 3a.402 RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. then 08' F" is point in which the edge MM /t one-half the face-angle over = tan Hence. dyad axes each at distance a from the origin. c tan CP= 2n cos 30 tan = a cos 30 tan D D 3 = n tan D -f- . we have from the third equation nf= I . h. Similarly.. n+l nr :: ~ l-n = 1 * = (byaddltlon) = 2 ro (by subtraction) fl 6 (85). on the 54. Fig. 357.k. Hence. indicating that the apex is at distance nc from the origin. A'.. -5- ^/3 AzltanZ). 0. It also meets the adjacent OA dyad axes 08 and 08' at distances = OA' = 08 . and that each median edge meets the dyad axes inclined to it at 30 at Naumann to double the distance at which the edge meets the axis perpendicular His value for n is however two-thirds that adopted in this it.. We can now find the relation of the angle 2 over a to 2 over a polar edge VnM. and from the first we then have 3 = n + 1. &c. giving the length nc on the principal axis. 51. III. is therefore known in terms of the Millerian indices and the pyramid n n Vn = nc) to the is drawn by joining the apices V and Vn (0 V = &c. cot = tan MM MM tl CP = arc CP. also 1 : this result is also consistent Equations (84) can be put in the following form. from the third and fourth terms. For.l.'. .(87). OXV*=OV*+ 08' = 2nc 4. from the second equation is and then from the first equation / with the third equation. for he drew the faces through the points A. /7 therefore denoted the form by the symbol nP2 . 60. . n = 2.2k + 1 = given in (81). work. 8' being the meets the dyad axis. n points M. and from the third and fifth terms... The index n. it But. . the result n= k~l k (86).'. if P is the pole (hkl). projected in the horizontal plane D'CA' of Fig. M or YOX t of Fig.3a. The edge 08 MM /x is t bisected at right angles by 08 at a distance ti (say) = OM cos 30 = 2a cos2 30 = 3a + 2.

.. since measured is PP' = 2 = r).. (88).... and jt? 2k-h = l... 48. : Substance.. is therefore (Ikh). face (pqr) {hkl}.. then.CP.. The opposite of the 56.. Hence = 20-3h = (89).. It is.. which is one of the faces pyramid Crystals of the following substances are placed in this class Composition. = 90 ... .. simpler to compute and afterwards to introduce the value of CP in (87).EXAMPLES.. we have from equation Since (68) cos =2 sin . and the indices.. 55... &c. if 2k. a relation can from (87) and (88) be found between from (88). If the angle 403 of Art.. however.. direct The hexagonal bipyramid is the special form in which the scalenohedron coalesces with the inverse form. For.. = then 6 = 3k.

361 in Fig. CLASS III. like sometimes found. r. &c.. 362. of Sci. [iv]. Ruby consists of the red crystals: in them the basal pinakoid c{lll} is largely developed .#=67 2'5'. 357. Figs. FIG. Fig. 363 shows a combination n. Simple pyramids. iv. The rhombohedron x shown e. Pratt (Am. Jour. with a computed angle and 362 are plans of the base showing the natural corrosion-figures of the face c: these are symmetrical to a triad and three planes of symmetry intersecting in it. the predominant forms. 360 is {811}. In the blue and the colourless crystals of sapphire. Fig. z {715}. 364. FIG. but more commonly several pyramids occur together in association with the rhombohedron {100}. Fig. {101}. 3}. axis . z and o>. 417. FIG. are FIG. 11. pyramids n {3lT}. lucent dull-coloured variety of alumina more especially known as corundum.404 RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. Bar. the basal a> {15. 359. 1897): the habit closely resembles that of hematite crystals from Elba. described by Dr. 360. Montana. SGI. pinakoid and sometimes the prism of c. 359 62. are FIG. 364 represents a crystal of sapphire from Emerald FIG. and the common habit is shown in Figs. p. 363.

and Ar=366'. 366. the points M. 328 : m it is m The clinographic figures have been drawn as follows. &c. The above-mentioned M t . 22). 31) are then cut off on the vertical axis. substance. of Fig. crystals. The prism a{10T} and dihexagonal prisms are in.. in the axis (see Art. FIG. = OA" and OF and then marked. and it is fairly common in combinations it is con. in obtuse rhombohedra. Fig. 405 from Elba. for apices e scribed in Art.. the angle ?i' = 372'. frequent. cubic axes having been projected with the numbers n = s = 3 (Chap. Thus we have e{110}= -\R. rhodochrosite. 31. and with e and m{211}. Lengths -8543 x Art. 371 and 372. 365. 367 and 368. 60. or as twinned. 19. OF. a {101} and m{2ll}. &c. Pio. are shown in Figs. The faces u are generally much rounded. : spicuous by the perfect cleavage parallel to its faces.EXAMPLES Hematite. &c. The crystals from St Gotthard are often in rosettes consisting of plates in nearly parallel positions : Fig. geometrically the same whatever may be the combination of and e is shown in Figs. 370. using distances OF-7-2. The rhombohedra points at and the median coigns /t are found by trisecting and / can be drawn in a similar manner. The prism m{2n} and pinakoid enter fairly frequently into combinations. and an almost endless number of combinations in which a greater or less number of forms of different types enter.A/. vi. the points of bisection trisection of OX OF=OF. respectively. vi. Art. 366. are determined in the way described in Chap. Calcite affords numerous instances of simple forms of different kinds. /{Tll}= -2fl. is A combination of shown in Fig. (CALCITE). Fig. The fundamental rhombohedron r{lOO}=R is rare as a separate form. The scalenohedron v{2lO} = R3 is abundant in Derbyshire either as It is one of the commonest forms in simple. and 20 F. and also the points at distances 2OF and 3OF are The fundamental rhombohedron is drawn in the manner deF. Pyramids are rare as simple forms and they are far from common in combinations. . M". 57. in acute rhombohedra. A and c frequently found in the Harz Mts. 365 represents the habit of crystals the forms being c{lll}. and accurate measurements of the angles between them and other faces are seldom possible: for u {211}. combinations: instances of its association with e{110}.. but is common in the allied minerals siderite. placing 05.

'. they give the edges en. 40. From the same points c and c. : jj. CLASS is III. &c. n points a and n are then joined and the figure is completed.. The faces of {211} shown in Fig. in the points a".. c. The adjacent t . : meet the obtuse polar edges of the scalenohedron in n. &c. . 368 can be inserted on the median coigns of the preceding figure as follows. are taken on the triad axis equally distant from the origin. edges are now drawn parallel to the lines joining the points of bisection of OF and OF.406 EHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. of {100} they These meet the acute polar edges FV'> V 3 &c. M'. 368. and lines (not shown in the figure) are now drawn by joining the apices F 3 and F3 at n in the way already described in Art. points c and c. FIG. joining the points at distances of bisection of the median edges of {201} are bisected in points a vertical line is drawn to Oi/-f-2 from the origin. The scalenohedron {201} distances 30V to the coigns introduce the faces of {110} in Fig.. 371. &c. The lines 55. Vp'. 5 t/ d'. for each face e truncates an edge of the rhombohedron r. 369. (101). To drawn through them parallel to the polar edges F/i".. &c. respectively... &c. lines of construction are parallel to the diagonals of the faces (110). FIG.. to the points M.n. Through each point m B B meet the polar edges in the same plane 2 at points ft and y. The FIG. which &c. a' &c. 367.

and the dyad axes of calcite coincide with 05"'. Fig. and each of the points so obtained is joined to the apex opposite to that through which the respective lengthened line passes. Ac. Hence each polar edge of {111} is one-half the corresponding polar face-diagonal of { 100 } It is simpler however to remove the lo wer apex of { II 1 } to F2 doubling the size of the rhombohedron The face-diagonals F/*.EXAMPLES (CALCITE). t . and the lines gS'. FV. &c.. or by the following method. 368._ give the upper polar edges of {111} . 372 was taken to coincide in direction with the cube-diagonal Op of Fig. that If then 05'" taken as the unit Fl - 372 - on Op is Op^/2-^-^/3. and this length must be multiplied by cos 30 tan D. Thus in Fig. Fig. The edge [me] is horizontal and parallel to &'d. Having obtained the directions of the edges [mv]. lines joining ?n /9 407 which the faces and y to the adjacent points 5 give the edges in and v intersect. . or has its polar edges truncated. A length = Op x 8543-j.. when one of the series is known. 372 gives the same combination of m and e as Fig.. 371. the points of trisection of FF. 366 can be drawn. Three grooves (represented by the short. the faces described for obtaining the points /3 and y in Fig.N/6 has therefore been taken to give the apex of e {110} at distance c-r-2 from the origin. . Thus the diagonals so on. 31. and often they much larger. can be drawn in a manner similar to that described for e and /. The polar edges of U={100} are all prolonged to double their length. 226 are to one is another as ^/3 length. in Fig. and the coigns of the two forms on the same face-diagonal lie on the horizontal lines which pass through t and t. 371 the point g is on the vertical line bisecting the line S'5. M'. 371. in the way described in Art. and is by Fig. F^ of {100} illustrated . with the polar face-diagonals of the former. to that employed for drawing Fig. the figure is then easily completed. 226. meeting at the points are crystals are not often developed with the edges [mu] Sometimes the faces in are much smaller. but the triad axis has been displaced from the vertical to show the upper faces e more distinctly the figure representing one of the crystals on a specimen in the Cambridge Museum. The triad axis in Fig. gS lt are m the edges [me"]. 370. But the lines : Op and OS'" >/2. and are then introduced in the way In Fig. Fig. The 5. . 371. That this construction is correct follows from the fact that each face of {110} truncates the edge of the fundamental rhombohedron the polar edges of the latter must therefore coincide in direction . Each face of {100} truncates a polar edge of {111}. there is no difficulty in either diminishing or increasing the relative size of the faces m. A similar relation connects the rhombohedron /{111} and {100}. 370. black lines) filled with a dark earthy matter lie in the face-diagonals of {110} of each crystal. [me']. All rhombohedra connected together by the relation that the one truncates the polar edges of the other. . The figure is now completed in a manner similar . e {110} is first drawn. of Fig. The points 5'". are the polar edges of {311}. F\".. 371. &c. to give c for calcite.. Fyu. . by joining apices at the distance OF-r-2 to the points H. of {111}. or -8543.. OS 4 and 05 5 of that figure. 54 5 5 are then the same points as those marked 5.

i. 373. We therefore first construct {100}. The combination shown in Fig. IV.'. F. 31 and 33) O = c-=-3. 373. From the stereogram. The forms are: r {100}. it was shown in Art. The rhombic faeces of {100} are now introduced.Or. and that {100} is the auxiliary rhombohedron of {20l}..e. 201] in the point r). the apex of {311} is at distance 2c-^5. the apex of {410} is at a. Vfi". CLASS IV. are indicated by crosses. By (60) and (61).. a {hkl}. X is plane. v {201}. but the opposite ends of each dyad axis are no longer similar . to meet the obtuse polar edge [210. /x" to i\ are the edges [401. and Vt = c-j-3-2c-:-15 = c-7-5. These . being found by cutting off equal lengths on the polar edges F??. it is seen that {311} is the auxiliary rhombohedron of {410}.ij. and we may draw the faces of the latter through the edges V^. { in the vertical through /u at a distance c-=-5 nearer to the equatorial For. &c. w {410}. 410]. But (Arts. 52 that {100} is the rhombohedron iy associated /j. 100} at distance c: also . by (33). and the polar edges of this latter form are to V s and V3 at distances 30V from the origin. the coigns nearest to the apices V and V. 210]. for the crystals of this class cannot be centro-symmetrical without introducing a plane of symmetry perpendicular to each dyad axis. whilst that of is \w = rt = Ot . Fig.408 KHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. got by joining the coigns Again. where Oa=40F-=-5. The class the triad axis above axes resemble those associated together in the preceding class. parallel to a\. The remaining edges of the two forms are obtained in a similar manner. and there is no other element of symmetry. 374 is common in crystals from Iceland. We therefore draw through V an edge [401.. The lines joining /*. 58. [410. and the coign . Or = 2c-f-15. the positions of which and of its homologue ??. with {410} the polar edges of {100} are parallel to the acute polar edges of {410}. its FIG. Op is associated with three like and interchangeable dyad axes making 90 with it and 120 with one another. In this Trapezohedral class. median edges are also those of {201}. &c. 201].

other than 90. The complementary prism a {Oil} has its faces parallel to those of a {Oil}. and is A trigonal prism a {Oil}. 9 and consists of the faces: a (Oil). If. for the dyad axes are possible zone-axes. Hence we obtain a second special form a pinakoid similar geometrically to that of the two preceding classes. 375. Again. 1. 375. each face of which perpendicular to one of the dyad axes. The linear element c and the angular element Z) = 111A100 are determined from the rhombohedron selected to give the axes of reference. and parallel therefore to one of the axes of reference. 31 their geometrical relations are given in those Articles. The method of construction has been fully given in Arts. the plane containing the three dyad axes is parallel to a pair of possible faces. 377 . whilst the parametral plane retains the same direction after each rotation. The form must therefore be a rhombohedron similar geometrically to those described in the two preceding classes. 59. The pinakoid {111}. the face is parallel to one of the dyad axes. geometrically identical with those discussed in Arts. 60. . a' (10T). Fig.AXES OF REFERENCE AND PARAMETERS. a parallel face must also be present. for a semi-revolution about a dyad axis brings the face into a position parallel to its The same must be true of each face of the triad original one. and for parametral plane (111) a face of the pinakoid. Fio. 3. meeting at an apex on the principal axis. having the faces 111. axes are therefore uniterminal opposite ends are in Figs. Crystals of this class have the following special forms : 2. . Hence all the analytical relations established in the preceding sections hold also for crystals of this class. Art. Any face inclined to the triad axis at a finite angle. must be repeated in two other similar faces which meet at an apex on the axis. ITT. and . 409 : and they are pyro-electric axes letters 8 the 380 indicated by and d. The parameters are therefore equal . It is geometrically the same as r{OTl} of class I. a" (TlO).mR = (hll^ : these are 39. moreover. 31 and 39. for the axes are three similar lines equally inclined to the triad axis and interchangeable by rotations of 120 about this axis. Rhombohedra mR = {Ml\. can now select as axes of reference lines parallel to the three We polar edges of any rhombohedron possible on the crystal.

where h + k + I = 0. each of which is an isosceles The faces of this form.. cally the trigonal bipyramid may be supposed to consist of the alternate pairs of faces of the hexagonal bipyramid (Arts. and can be computed from expression (20) of Art. The ditrigonal prism. a {hkl}. are the auxiliary points in the equatorial plane at distances 2a cos 30 from In the trigonal bipyramid we shall suppose three of the origin.2k + I = 0.-^^"-!?!^ double a'N of that equation. where : 08= Od+cos 60 = 3a. &c. and are at 1 20 to one another. hexagonal prism {211}. The faces of the latter form were lines Vn and horizontal MM drawn through /} &c. The complementary ditrigonal prism p IG gyg a {hlk} has its faces parallel to those of a {hkl} .2k.. these same horizontal edges to be retained hence each of them is bisected by a dyad axis at a point d. 5. and the two are geometrically tautomorphous. CLASS IV. for the faces of the former can be brought into the position of those of the latter by a rotation of 180 about the triad axis dissimilar ends of the : dyad axes are however interchanged by such a rotation.410 RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. which it is indebe taken to be hkl A Ikh : pendent of the crystal-element. Jf. distance nc of the apex l)^. consists of six equal and interchangeable faces. Ikh.. : The prism (m). where h . 27. hlk. M apices Vn f t . khl in the The alternate faces have their symbols order. the faces of which are parallel in pairs to one or other of the dyad axes it includes the faces given in (g) of Art. in is which 32T A 231 = 38 13'. a {hkl} consists of the faces hkl. where Od = OMcos 30 = 3a -=. 6. The face-symbols can be found in any of the : A ways given in Arts. n (h . Fig. 61) have the general symbols given in tables and n in the special forms the indices of each of the faces are m : Geometrisubject to the conditions given with the form-symbol. The trigonal bipyramid. for it SiL^-:^. Ihk. klh. where M. Vn is given by viz. 53 55) which are interchanged by rotations of 120 about the triad axis. of the ditrigonal prism and of the triangle. 11 and 27. and has its extremities on the adjacent dyad axes at points 8. There is same cyclical may therefore but one independent angle. a {hkl}. general form (Art. The equation (86) . 376 represents the particular instance a {321}.2 . 27.

owing to the triad axis. opposite and dissimilar ends of the dyad axes are interchanged. Geometrically the two forms are tautomorphous. 124. The face (hkt) meets the adjacent dyad axes at points 8' and dif unequally distant from the origin and lying on parts of these axes which are not interchangeable. 379 . When each of the faces meets the axes of reference at finite distances. 421. we have a six-faced form known as the trapezohedron a {hkl}. are represented by Figs.THE TRAPEZOHEDRON. 214. in which the median coigns are on the opposite side of the origin from those of the first. and all the dyad axes at unequal distances from the origin. a. is 3. 61. Fig. . but by a semi-revolution about the principal axis. {T22}. 241. 142. which do not form a parallelogram. Since OB' is YY f and is equally inclined to XX perpendicular to the axis of reference and ZZ^ a semi-revolution about . The figure is therefore constructed by joining apices V3 V3 at distances 3c to points 8 on the similar extremities of the dyad axes at distances 3a from the origin. The trapezofiedron. The first is a {4 12} and consists of the faces : 412. {hkl}. be accompanied by the faces (Ihk). 411 Particular instances. having the same symbols as trigonal bipyramids observed on crystals of quartz in association with a hexagonal prism and the rhombohedra {100}. for each face is bounded by four edges. The face (hkl) must. and all n meeting at an apex V on the triad axis. 377 and 378 the parameter c in these figures is not however that of quartz. (klh) having their symbols in cyclical order. By (86) the value of n . Fig. 378 represents the comple- mentary form a {421}.

and interchanges equal positive and negative lengths on it hence the face (khl) is brought into a But position given by (klh). : hkl.412 RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. : rule for the deduction of the symbols of the several faces that of any one of them is that the three faces meeting at site apex the cyclical order and changed. pezohedron a {hkl}. (hkl) into a position given by (khl). klh. Similarly. these two faces are two of those meeting at Vn Hence. whether it be positive or negative. The positions of {421} and a {412} are shown in Figs. the tra: . a. and exchanges a positive length on vice versa hence the face is brought into a position in which it meets the triad axis at Vn and has the symbol (Ikh). 379. No other faces are introduced by a semi-revolution about dS. hlk. pairs of faces being drawn through each of the But alternate median edges of the inscribed rhombohedron mR. khl (n). and a semi-revolution about Odit brings The third face at Vn is (hlk) . The from one of the apices have their indices in cyclical order the sign of each index. the three faces meeting at Vn being necessarily in cyclical_order. Od OX : tt is perpendicular to ZZt . consists of the six faces Ihk. Fig. since there are no planes of symmetry in crystals of this class. the similar faces through adjacent median edges do not occur together. CLASS IV. 384 The geometry of this also the signs of all the indices are the poles of particular trapezohedra and 385. form structing it from one-half of scribed in Art. easily understood by conthe faces of the scalenohedron deis most . remaining the same to whichever axis of reference it may be transferred at the oppo. Ikh. OB' interchanges positive with equal negative lengths on OF. for this axis is perpendicular to XX t . and with a negative one on OZ. and (Ikh) into that given by (Ihk). 40 .

set The polar edges can also be found by the rule for finding a zone-axis (Chap. Vn .y. h-k sin 17 ... Si0 2 . the rhombohedron mR. for the one is the reflexion of the other in any of the vertical planes containing an axis of reference. in which the faces (hkl) and (Tkh) of the scalenohedron meet. n = 3 and 8y = 28'X. 8" and 8 are retained these edges have now to be extended to meet new polar edges in which the alternate scalenohedral faces at each apex meet. 2 is the angle over the obtuse polar edge and 2rj that over the acute polar edge of the scalenohedron {hkl}. Art. 379.. lhk] = [k*-lh.. the others give for the extension first The l-r. 381. is the intersection of a line through . v. xix) for expression for the factor of S'X is similar to that given in (61) indices k and I have changed places . P-hk. Fig. where >n = (h-2k + l) + (h+k + l) (Art. In these expressions the indices h. and y. those of the scalenohedron The median edges of this rhombohedron are also To obtain a {AH}. be first constructed. the apices Vn and {hkl}.. We Fig. Fig. The coign y is found by taking (see Chap. 2^8'X = 2^d'A. Thus for a {712}. bipyramids. can therefore obtain two complementary trapezohedra a and a {hlk}.. 4). 44) should . . Thus the edge AX. is extended to meet the and (khl) at the points y and y. but forms of the kind are common on crystals of quartz in combination with The method of the rhombohedra {100}. and the two extremities are interchanged by a semifaces (Ihk) in the lt . drawing the form has therefore no great interest but when it is needed.. which may Occasionally the crystals appear as fairly regular be represented by Fig. each of them is joined to the nearest apex V or n which Fn of and the adjacent pairs of coigns y are joined to form the second median edges intersecting the dyad axes at the points d.. Quartz. 379 corresponds. but the " Y" Xy = X. m The points y having been marked by proportional compasses on the alternate median edges. The two complementary forms are enantiomorphous.(91). revolution about the axis. No crystal showing only a general form has yet been observed. consisting of the . The extensions two directions are clearly equal for the edge is perpendicular to the dyad axis 08'. to = l-r-2. 413 {hkl}.. = 1 . parallel to this zone-axis. : Vn and the median edges through 8'. Thus V*yu is parallel to [hkl. 380. k and I are taken in descending order of magnitude. respectively. with the median edge XX 62.DRAWING THE TRAPEZOHEDRON. {122} and the prism {211}. h*-kl\. from the same scalenohedron.

often very unequally developed and it is the symmetry. Very rarely the faces r predominate to such an extent that those of z appear only as slight modifications on six coigns of the rhombohedron. such a crystal looks much like a cube. two forms r{100j and 2 {122}. Since ?r" = 8546'./) by equation (1) to be 51 47'. 15 and belong to dirhombohedral forms. occasionally hard to make out however. 12 21 . The faces (100) and (122) are connected by the relations given in Art. and of the prism are.414 RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. the rhombohedron r are generally more The faces of the two rhombohedra largely developed than those of z. Knowing the angle rr" we find. when c = 1-0999. Faces of a trigonal bi. CLASS IV. More commonly the crystals are hexagonal prisms {2TI} terminated by the dirhombohedral forms r{lQO} and z {122} the faces of the prism are : usually striated in a direction perpendicular to the triad axis and those of .

B. {r'z"xm} gives sin r ! ~ sin mx mz" h + 2k~l-k' sin r'z" sin according as the first and second columns are combined. = 46 16' and r's (241) = 28 54'. The angles in the corresponding : zone [m:r *. is (421). lie each in two zones. Knowing the symbols of m. s. 383 and receiving the light. and rotate the plane of polarization of light transmitted along the triad axis to the left . x and * can be found by the Thus.z'] of Fig. the rotation is counter-clockwise. the tautozonal faces /. : m being vertical. the face s (412) lies in the zones [w. h= -4k. xvni). a {4 12}: the faces are sometimes striated parallel to the edge [*r].R. and m. i. those of A.e. the homologous coigns are rarely all similarly modified. i. In a = [012] laevogyral crystal the faces s.e. and the form is a {421}. follow one another in this order along the spiral of a left-handed screw such crystals will be called laevogyral or left-handed. and a face r of the direct rhombohedron {100} facing the observer. . xs = 2557'. to an observer receiving the light. L sin (r'z = 101 7') = 9-99177 L sin (rV = 46 L sin (u"= 66 52') = 9-96360 L sin (mx = 12 19-95537 =9 85888 l')=9-31847 19-17735 19-17735 77802= log 3ft . taking 1 . or the second and 16') third.-.x to be (hkl). 382 and the corresponding stereogram Fig. By the examination of a considerable number of crystals. .. to an observer : In Figs. such as [rro / ] and [Ym] = [120]: the face s. Hence. 5-998.EXAMPLES (QUARTZ). then the faces s and x in the zone [z"sxm\ are to the right of the observer in a dextrogyral crystal and the faces are to the left in a laevogyral crystal. Measurement of the angles in the zone \mxsz"] gives mx = 12 1'. and in a dextrogyral crystal lie each in two slanting zones for instance. the A. and rotate the plane of polarization to the right . The faces are occasionally striated parallel to [rsy]. In the one.same. but. represented by Fig. * x. * x. of four poles. 385 a similar combination of forms is represented. the rotation is clockwise. often occur as small modifications of the coigns of crystals of the bipyramidal habit . tz" = 28 54'. in the similar zone The faces s of the trigonal bipyramid are parallelograms. 382 are the. pyramid s= a {4 12} or #. *. it has been established that they are of two kinds. in which the faces follow one another along the spiral of a right-handed screw these crystals are dextrogyral or right-handed. x. owing to the remarkable tendency to twinning = a{421} and of a trapezohedron #=a{412} or shown by quartz-crystals (see Chap. and l=2k. and their poles. 415 = a{421}. 384. h + 2/c = I 3/ k =6. The rule can also be given as follows. z" and r'. The prism z". and the form is . z"r' .r] = [021] and [z"m] = [102].

. cxxii. are pyro-electric axes such as those represented in Figs. and in axes. 631.. and $ is taken to be positive or . The amount of rotation of the plane of polarization is depends on the thickness of the plate and on the colour of the light. Ann. When a single plate cut perpendicularly to the optic axis is inserted in convergent white light between crossed Nicols the coloured rings characteristic of uniaxal crystals are seen. blue a Isevogyral plate gives the colours in the same order when to the right . the direction of rotation can be readily determined by observing the order in which the colours succeed one another on turning the analyser round. plates of all quartz crystals. <p. These rings are intersected in calcite. .X 2 where t is the thickness of the plate.or Isevo-gyral. green. being uniterminal. This expression for is the first term of a series in which higher powers of 1 ~\ z enter. 1864). cut perpendicularly to the principal axis. <f> = + kt 4. poles are on the alternate prism-edges where the faces s and x appear. and the form is a {412}. by the arms of a dark rectangular cross similar to those observed corundum. Thus. CLASS IV. Biot found that the angle of rotation (f> is given by the approximate expression. the antilogous poles on those prism-edges where no such faces occur. The direction of rotation can also be deter- mined by Air^s spirals described below. Fraunhofer's line. < For plates 1 mm. negative according as the plate is dextro. yellow. . thick the principal rotations are given in the following table (Stephan. RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. The centre is uniformly coloured . &c.656 589 527 D E F G 21-67 27-46 32-69 42-37 50-98 . p. the analogous . B C 0-000687 mm. Optical characters. With a few exceptions mentioned in Chap. a plate of a dextrogyral crystal gives in succession as the analysing Nicol is turned red.486 431 H 397 By interposing a plate of quartz of no great thickness in a beam of plane-polarised white light. X. 382 and 383. rotate the plane of polarization of a beam of plane-polarised light transmitted along the axis. 15-55 17-22 . the Nicol is turned to the left.416 The face x is The symbols in the diagrams. Pogg. therefore (4l2). of the faces and poles to the front of the paper are inscribed The dyad crystals. X the wave-length of the light. xvm. but the arms do not for plates of appreciable thickness penetrate within the first circular ring in which the difference of the colour depends on phase is X. and the same for light of one colour in plates of equal thickness but opposite directions of rotation.

386 is laevogyral. the plate is placed on the mirror and a lens of short focus is put over the plate so that its focus is approximately in the plate. 417 when the plate is Airy's spirals.OPTICAL CHARACTERS OF QUARTZ. after reflexion from the mirror. and trapartially polarised by reflexion verses the plate away from the observer: it is then reflected by the mirror and re-traverses the plate towards the observer. away from and towards the A piece of silvered glass is placed on the table. 27 . The phenomena were first described and explained by Airy (Camb. The in the direction opposite to the character of the plate . 386. Trans. The faces of quartz to connect the position of trapezohedral and the direction of rotation holds also for Fio. c. crystals rotate the plane of polarization . 79 to the clock according as the dextrogyral or laevogyral plate by the light . four dark spirals start from the centre and bend round with. But the connection cinnabar. and if Itevogyral. Fig. is rendered convergent by the lens. this class. for the planes of polarization of the at right angles. twice. and. and transmitted through. The spirals can also be seen by causing the light to traverse a single plate observer. the light traverses the plate and analyser in exactly similar conditions to those under which. #i{110}. L. i{Tll} and F=a{62l}. if equally thick plates of opposite rotations are superposed in the polariscope. or against. the crystal in Fig. Phil. and its rays are rendered ap- proximately parallel by the lens. between the trapezohedral faces and the direction of rotation has not yet been fully established. the spirals bend towards the left . for. Superposition of two plates of like rotation only causes a contraction of the rings and a change in the central colour. traversed opposite the rotation of the plate nearest to the observer. and the spirals are known as Airy's spirals. in the ordinary light reflected by. But. if the rule which has been shown in crystals i{211}. The observer looking down on the lens and crystal through the glass-plates sees Airy's spirals . iv. they bend towards the right. Thus. Light from a window or lamp is reflected down on the lens by means of two or three The light pieces of ordinary window-glass held parallel to one another. r{100}. The crystals are usually combinations which also belongs to of several : rhombohedra associated with the pinakoid bipyramids and trapezohedra are rare. the thickness of the plate and is the same as that given observed in parallel light between crossed Nicols. 1833) . it traverses the upper plate and Nicol after passing through a plate of opposite rotation. and the direction of the curvature is is that first and 199. pp. viz. For success in this observation the plate must be accurately cut. the glass-plates serving the double function of polariser and analyser. HgS. them are is curvature of the spirals polariscope. The forms shown in the figure are: c{lll}. 386 represents a crystal of cinnabar. if the plate is dextrogyral.

and is a pyro-electric and piezo-electric With the exception of the prisms. Pedions . 1. is uniterminal. the plane perpendicular to the triad axis is a possible for it is parallel to the three normals of the planes of This face of is symmetry. be taken to be any three or V. and the class may : gonal class be called the acleistous ditrigonal. but have no other element of symmetry. the forms can most readily be derived from the corresponding forms of class III by regarding them as consisting geometrically of those faces which meet the principal axis at one of the apices. face perpendicular to one of the planes of symmetry inclined to the horizon at a finite angle. such that their poles lie in the zone-circles in which the planes of symmetry meet the sphere. or the polar ditrithey were regarded as hemihedral with inclined faces. But about the triad axis.418 RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. The forms are all open forms. The equal lengths. but here the faces of every trigonal pyramid are limited to zones. possible taken as the parametral plane (111).M of Figs. The axes of reference are taken parallel and to the three polar edges of one of the possible trigonal pyramids. The special forms are /A : {111} and /i{lll}. 63. The crystals of this class have a triad axis associated with three like planes of symmetry intersecting one another in the axis at angles of 60. edges of a trigonal pyramid. for they are parallel to the interchangeable polar The parameters are therefore equal. which consist of the single face given by the indices in the symbol. whilst the axes of reference are interchanged. as in the preceding sections. 1. {hkl}. and may. D 64. ix. CLASS V. Again. The triad axis axis. will be repeated in A and two others equally inclined to the horizon and each perpendicular to one of the two other planes of symmetry. lie each in one of the planes 2. by rotations 120 is are. by Chap. V. p. and these normals zone-axes. The three faces form a trigonal pyramid similar to that characteristic of class I . 309 and 335. face. Acleistous ditrigonal class . Prop. hold also for crystals of this class. OX element the angles of the forms and axes with one another and with the or c. the direction of the parametral plane unchanged. such as equations established in preceding sections between the face-symbols.

387. H'. but. for /* {321}. according negative. M'. The prism Fig. 332 in the horizontal planes of Figs. lying on the lines OM. p. tical hexagonal prism {Oil}.TRIGONAL AND DITRIGONAL PRISMS. same general appearance as a : {hkl} of the preceding when the indices are transferred from one face to its homologues. khl. 27. 11. the traces of which in Fig. 27. and there is only one A hlk = 2mlf= 60 . positive or as that of class I . This prism p. 332 4- The ditrigonal prism. hlk. The point Vm is then joined to M. M". The pyramid is geometrically the same but now the poles all lie in the zone-circles [CV]. may be intersect in the points H. The complementary prism p. 121. 13' = 21 47'. T2T. 1 12. they do not change sign they are the same triad taken in the two possible cyclical orders. 387. 51 or 60. Thus. for any given values of the be calculated by (20). klh. is m 272 . FIQ. {211} consists of the faces 211. <fec. The faces are parallel in pairs to one of the The form planes of symmetry in which the axes of reference lie. {2TT}. {M}. idengeometrically with the similar prism A of classes II and III. Fig. {hkl}. as M lt lt of Fig. 335. h + k + 1 = 0.38 5. 368. and can be drawn in the same manner. parallel to those of 3. : 120. or to M. [CV'J. It has the class. 331) indices. OM' and the prism can easily be drawn by the aid of a projection of Fig. Ihk. [Or"]. may be regarded The as consisting of the three faces of which meet at Vm can therefore be obtained by finding from equation polar edges acleistous The mR .. 419 /i{211}.2a'N (see the angle can therefore. The symbols of the faces are given in (f). has the three faces 211. 32T A 3T2 = 60 . trigonal pyramid p. can be drawn in the manner given in Art. L. Trigonal prisms /n{211} and /A {211}. The form consists of the faces and OM" : : hkl. each of which is perpendicular to one of the planes of symmetry : it is geometrically similar to that described in Art. m (33). M and taking OV m = me. 2. where regarded as consisting of those alternate pairs of faces of the dihexagonal prism of Art. Alternate faces are inclined to one another at angles of But hkl independent angle hkl A hlk. Ikh (o). 112 //.

(86). but it is generally associated with the hexagonal . of greenockite. 216.Li 2 . 5! NaLiS0 4 . consists of the six faces Ihk. Messrs. of equally inclined to two adjacent planes of symmetry. Ges. however. ~ 3n + l When m = *> . m = 0. from equations (45) and (47). p.H 2 . Mg.. be derived from 11206281402!. hkl. where h 2k + 1=0. Ag3 SbS3 and of tourmaline belong to this class. I where. . pyramids. h+ k+ = 0. The two equations are satisfied by making in (60) and the expression already obtained for the hexagonal (Ql)h-2k + l66. Ca. [iv]. BO(Si0 4 ) 2 or R 9 B0 2 (Si0 4 ) 2 R including the elements given in the first formula. .420 6. of spangolite. vn. polar edges are identical with those of the scalenohedron of class III The which meet. (AlCl)S0 4 . the apex V n is infinitely distant p. &c. at V n is . produced. CLASS The acleistous hexagonal pyramid. malines may formula H 9 A1 3 (B. and have proposed as a special OH) 2 Si 4 19 in which the nine hydrogen-atoms are . replaced by Fe. 53 .{hkl\. The crystals often manifest the development of forms of this class in a striking manner. When then OH=OK t . Ch. hlk (p).. The : ditrigonal pyramid. Ag3 AsS3 of pyrargyrite. of Set.6Cu(OH) 2 + 3H 0. klh. 1899) have shown that all tourI . t . 97. Jannasch and Calb (Ber. becomes the ditrigonal prism {hkl}. = oo: if.Fe. Penfield and Foote (Am. and the pyramid by equation (60). and the form finding the easily indices from equations (60) and the points H. Tourmaline. OV n is to remain finite. fj.. . 388. Crystals of sodium lithium sulphate. xxn. p. K drawn by m and n and (61) &c. {hkl}. 1889) . 1 gave the formula (Mg. Ikh. face if is V. khl. the number n giving the distance nc of the apex from the origin is found from Fig. //. RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. Jour. Each and.) 3 A10. The pyramid can be constructed in the manner given in Art. The trigonal prism /*{2ll} is sometimes the predominant form. Li. CdS of proustite. meets the equatorial plane and the third plane in parallel straight lines : symmetry it is therefore tautozonal with the pedion and one of the faces of {Oil}. 65.

and those of e=^{IIO} are very narrow this end is the analogous pole. the trigonal prism m=n{%ll} largely developed. a {Oil} being predominant and the two complementary prisms p {211} and : : /i{21l} being unequal. the appearance two ends is different. brown crystal Figs. =^{T22} (a rare form). 389 (a) and (b) represent the opposite ends from Ceylon in the Cambridge Museum. * = /x{Tll}. or else a /i{2ll} are large or small. (b) end the trigonal pyramids r=/i{100}. the faces of the comthis end is the antilogous pole. although the thickness in the former direction is much the . At one end the pyramid p {100} is shown and . Occasionally m one end shows a pedion. at the other end the complementary pyramid But though these forms. plementary pyramid r=/i{100} are very large. similar to that of classes II of the curred alone.. bination will either be a triangle having its angles bevelled. at equal angles and the edges are not horizontal. The crystal is markedly dichroic being more translucent across the crystal from a. 389 (a) and (6) both the complementary prisms /i{2ll) and ^{211} represented by the letters are present. one face of e = /x{110} and a single face of a ditrigonal pyramid u (302) not shown in the figure At the other end. if they oc/*{TOO}. 390 represents a crystal of is common its habit . and edges are bevelled by the hexagonal prism a {Oil}. A hexagon having alternate angles truncated. Fig. . At one (a) FIGS. and the same is true of the two each other pairs of faces r and at the other end and m" face. K=/*{322} are associated with the pedion c= /*{lll}. The crystals are usually terminated by acleistous trigonal pyramids. meets two faces : m m FIG. would compose a rhombohedron IV. according as the faces of Occasionally as shown in Figs. At the upper end the faces r(100) and m(2ll) meet in a horizontal edge.EXAMPLES (TOURMALINE). The prisms are very short. which may or may not be complementary. of a small. 421 section perpendicular to the triad axis of such a comprism {Oil}. greater. to a' than from one end to the opposite . such as r. 389. 390.

7i=3. and is (111). l-h=2(2l + h) K is (322). and 1= -2. : mr=52 30'. the (211) and m(2ll) to be any pole (hll) in [cm].K. . the principal axis would become II. {cPzm} (111). Prop. l-h=5(2l+h). and sometimes even in its successive layers.-. ])qr}. fj. In the zone [TCZSK] of Fig. but. may be said to stand on the prism-face m may be said to stand on the prism-edge [mm"]. and the form is For K. cm =89 6'. Adopting r as (100) and c as dirhombohedral face to (100). we have from the A. and3i + 2/t = 0. 377 and 378 .-. tan cP -r. Dark coloured absorbing the ordinary beam to a far greater extent than the extraordinary. . save when the faces are parallel or perpendicular to the triad axis. :. 67. and would then be a hexad axis No crystal has yet been discovered showing (Chap. l + h=0.tan cz = ^-. CLASS VI. for sodium-light vary with the colour of the crystal. 4). provided the crystal has no centre of symmetry. In the former case the face r in the latter the face r. the symmetry of the trigonal bipyramidal class. . Taking P r and z. thickness are often employed for producing beams of plane: polarised light. ix. for s. The triad axis may be associated with a plane of symmetry. 02=27 35'. cs=46 389 the following angles c/c=68 45'. Hence we have. The general form is a trigonal bipyramid similar geometrically to those represented in Figs. the principal indices of refraction varieties are strongly pleochroic. were measured 58J. re = 27 30'. Were a centre of symmetry present. {e'rua'}. one of even degree of symmetry. Again u was found to lie in [r"ra'] and the angle ru to be 41 58' hence by the A. and u is (302). stand on the edges of the trigonal The crystals are optically negative . the antilogous pole is at : that end where the faces of p {100} prism. The rule connecting the electrification may generally be given thus the analogous pole is at that end at which the faces r of /n{100} stand on the faces of the trigonal prism. . Trigonal bipyramidal class . in this class every form is a bipyramid. perpendicular to it.K. whereas in class IV such forms have their faces limited to zones each containing the pinakoid and one of the faces of the trigonal prism a {Oil}.422 RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. T {hkl. . . t : VI. we have h-l=5(h + l). then m is is (122). Hence the ordinary beam is practically extinguished by a thin plate of a dark coloured crystal cut parallel to the optic axis and such plates of one or two mm. {322}.

for the three faces are geometrically similar to the triad forming the trigonal pyramid of class I. = 31 . the parameters are equal. 423 symmetry will form a pinakoid IV and the triad axis. is a possible zone-axis (Chap. form by the symbol T {hkl. by a prism-face. c D apply therefore to crystals of this class. We may take as axes of reference three lines parallel to the co-polar edges of any bipyramid. and a face of the pinakoid as parametral plane (111). The homo- Hence the by (hkl). and as linear a length on the triad axis connected with unit length in the equatorial plane by the equation c = cos 30 tan (see The analytical expressions given in preceding sections Art. so face P above the plane of symmetry being denoted the homologous face below II is parallel to that which in Art. The co-polar triad in of faces represented by symbols which the meeting at an apex are same indices are taken in cyclical order. . p+q+ r = . ix. in which the symbols of the two faces are connected by equations It is immaterial which of the symbols is derived from the (92). Prop.TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL CLASS. The faces parallel to the plane of similar to that found in classes II the normal to a plane of symmetry.3 (h + k + I) -- 36. J being h + k + 1. The pair of faces situated on opposite sides of the plane of symmetry generally need for their representation symbols having different indices but a simple relation between their symbols can be found from the fact that the angle between them is bisected by the plane of symmetry : parallel to (111). 68. 69. where $ r = S*-20. . being . pq?}. for by addition. therefore take as angular element D the inclination of the We face of the axial element pyramid to the plane of symmetry. Since the axes of reference are inter- changeable by rotations of 120 about the triad axis. 1). logous face has therefore the symbol (pqr). 15 was called the dirhombohedral face Q (pqr). 6). and their edge is truncated that the four faces form a harmonic ratio.20 (92). whilst the parametral face retains the same direction. shall therefore denote the We other.

.subscript are the symbols of trigonal pyramids of class I. Ihk. CLASS 9A = 3p + 60 = 3p ... 70. such as T {321}. T {421. (q). Ditrigonal bipyramidal class.. 2. {hkl}. 71. pqr}. (h + l) + 2.. for these The a. 8). but they are not special forms.. No crystal has however been discovered showing the symmetry of this class. the faces of which have simple relations to the particular edges selected to give the axes but by a change of the bipyramid selected to give the axial planes general symbols. klh. rpq. n. The elements symmetry p. The faces are tautozonal. pqr} consists of the six faces : hkl.424 Hence.2 (p + q + VII.. of K{hkl. r{421}. pqr. RHOMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. are therefore : Prop. 3A. 1} having their faces in the same vertical zones. to either. The prisms r{011} and r{211} are : geometrically identical with those of particular instances. r).. TV {421}.. 214}. however. may be assigned The bipyramids represented by Figs. 32. The dyad axes are uniterminal. and should be pyro-electric axes. The form T {hkl. or the forms can be given by the general symbol T {412... 1. each with the pinakoid and a face of the prisms 7-{10l} and r{lTO}.. qrp . The lines of intersection of II ix. Trigonal prisms T class I. The only other arrangement consistent with a single triad axis is are associated with a plane of symmetry II symmetry of class perpendicular to the triad axis and to each of the like planes of elements of symmetry one in which the elements of V symmetry 2. =3q-2(p + q + r). They cannot. 377 and 378 need only one and may be represented by TV {41 2}. be represented by the symbols r{412}... with each of the 2 of planes are dyad axes (Chap. 24T}.. . set of indices may be used to indicate that the faces are symmetrical to the equatorial plane . The same is true of any other bipyramids Tff {h.. VII. The special forms are : Thepinakoid {111}..

prf}. Hence the general form faces : n{hkl. of class 425 The forms class from those of V in is possible in this class can be readily derived a manner similar to that by which forms I. Fig. \ ' ' . VI can be obtained from class all For to obtain any form of class VII. In this class the trigonal bipyramids are limited to the zones in which the faces are perpen- A dicular to one or other of the like planes 2. p. 4- This prism is common geometrically the same as 0. But retaining the axial arrangement adopted for crystals of class V. qfp. fqp. pqr]. that form of class V to unite with the corresponding a similar one. This is geometrically similar to the corresponding form of class III. the pair of homologous faces symmetrical with respect to n are connected by the relations (92) given in Art. V and VII. about for p. 391. The particular bipyramid K {100. trigonal prism K {2TT} geometrically the same as that of A class 3. III. pairs having its faces parallel in to the three like planes of sym- metry 2. of class 5. geometrically the same as the corresponding bipyramid of class VI.2k + 1 = 0. } The two apices are interchangeable by rotations of 180 one or other of the dyad axes. khl. hlk. : The special forms are Thepinakoid{lll}. to classes II. A ditrigonal prism K {hkl}. V. qpf. klh. 2. prq. A hexagonal prism {Oil}. 122} has its upper polar edges parallel to the axes of reference. and in which h + k 4- {hkl} 1 - A hexagonal bipyramid {hkl}. {hkl}. 6. whilst in class VI every form having faces inclined to the axis and equatorial plane at finite angles is a trigonal bipyramid. The drawing can be made in the manner described 73. rpq. trigonal bipyramid K {hll. 53. where h . 69. pqr. Ihk. 1. and can be constructed in the way described in Art.DITRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL CLASS. V. Ikh. 72. such that the two are reciprocal is needed reflections in the plane of symmetry II. consists of the Ml. .

The system comprises five classes. arranged alternately so that the S planes bisect. pyramidal-hemihedral) class. Owing axis. IV. in which the hexad axis is the only element of It : symmetry. II. EC. ix. ix. have a plane of symmetry. III.CHAPTER XVII. The acleistous hexagonal (hexagonal-pyramidal. that no crystal can have an axis of symmetry of degree higher than six. Art. consequently. that no crystal can have more than one such axis. hexaclass. in which the hexad axis is associated with a centre of symmetry and a plane of symmetry. planes of symmetry. I. The acleistous dihexagonal (dihexagonal-pyramidal. 1. in which the elements of symmetry of class III are associated with a centre of symmetry. i. The crystals. in gonal-hemimorphic) six planes of which the hexad axis is associated with symmetry intersecting to the hexad in it at angles of 30. The diplohedral hexagonal (hexagonal-bipyramidal. THIS system is characterised by having a single hexad axis. The diplohedral dihexagonal (dihexagonal-bipyramidal. the angles between the 2 planes . 11. and dyad axes The five classes are perpendicular to it are alone admissible. Art. which differ in the elements of symmetry associated with the hexad axis. holohedral-hexagonaV) class. 21. and six dyad axes . these planes consist of two triads of like and interchangeable planes S and 2. hemimorphichemihedral) class. respectively. was shown in Chap. and vice versa. it follows that a centre of symmetry. THE HEXAGONAL SYSTEM. Since there can be only one hexad axis. II. and in Chap. parallel and perpendicular to the axis. perpendicular to it.

and to a pinakoid in the other classes . and the possible face perpendicular to the 3. axes of reference may be selected in two which we may denote as (i) rhombohedral (or Millerian) axes. 427 perpendicular to the hexad axis. 60. The trapezohedral (Itexagonal-trapezohedral. When the faces of a form are inclined to the hexad axis at finite angles. C. and (ii) hexagonal axes. intersect. if produced. in classes III and IV the number is six only when the faces are perpendicular each to one of the six tautozonal planes of symmetry S and 5. The axes are taken hexad axis selected to is give taken as parametral plane (111). which belongs to a pedion in classes I and III. and 2. For purposes of analysis. Rhombohedral axes. ix. different ways. 38. n. are either acleistous or diplohedral hexagonal pyramids. axis is perpendicular to a possible face (Chap. 3A. are three like dyad axes A. but an axis of one kind is not interchangeable with one of the other . The elements may be given by : H. The by rotations of 60 about the principal axis and so are the A axes . 32. 3S. and the lines of intersection of the planes 2 and II dyad axes 8 are interchangeable . II and the number of co-polar faces and co-polar. Adjacent 8 and A axes are inclined to one another at angles of 30. When treating of the several classes we shall see that certain of these forms. V. The dyad axes consist of a triad of like of and interchangeable axes 8 inclined to one another at angles of three like and interchangeable axes A also inclined to one another at angles of 60. Prop. the plane through the origin parallel to this face will be called the equatorial plane. and will be said to be In classes I. in which the hexad axis is associated only with six dyad axes perpendicular to it. trapezohedralhemihedral) class. the directions of the axes we The pyramid shall call the . nor is a 2 plane interchangeable with an S plane. V edges is in all cases six . other than 90. parallel to the three possible edges in which alternate co-polar faces of a hexagonal pyramid would. 392 and 393. the homologous faces and edges meeting at the same apex will be six or twelve in number. The hexad 3). or all of them. i. The lines of intersection of the planes $ and II are three like dyad axes 8 .CLASSES OF THE HEXAGONAL SYSTEM. similar in shape to those represented in Figs.

392 and 393. VM VM t . The parameter the only crystal-element which in the hexagonal system varies with the substance. But A VBO is equal to the angle between the principal axis and the normal to the face r (100) : this angle we hexagonal crystal. We faces have therefore the symbols: r (100).428 HEXAGONAL SYSTEM. /} 2 x OB from the origin and are interchanged by rotations of 120 about the hexad axis. in which r" and r intersect. shall take for unit length the equal semi-diagonals OA. D of a = cos30tan V0 = cos 30tanZ> (1). OB OB" at distances points M. and tan VBO = V OB = V + OA' cos 30. VM VM by the letters r. FIG. r (010). -=- But from Figs. shall. in Figs. and OZ to VM the line of intersection of r and it r'. 392. 393. r" and we shall take OX to be parallel to VM in which r and r" intersect. when OA' = 1. represent the three co-polar faces tl . hexagon formed by the fundamental pyramid in the and OV= c for the linear parameter of the crystal. such as VM. fundamental pyramid. OA" of the equatorial plane. the axes of X. FIG. OY to VM. 392 and 393 it is clear that OB = OA' cos 30. ti . whilst the para- metral plane retains the same direction. r'. c shall denote as the angular element Hence. From the fact that the three axes of reference are interchanged c is by rotations of 120 = 2 x 60 about the hexad axis. Thus. Y and Z are parallel to the lines joining the apex V to the which lie on the lines OB. for the sake of easy comparison with the relations of meeting in rhombohedral t . it follows that the parameters on the Millerian axes are all equal. OA'. M M ti t . . and may be taken to be any three equal lengths parallel to the axes. We VM. The three r' (001). crystals.

Rotations of 120. Art. Hence. klh. xvi. Z indicated by crosses. 394.3h = 20 . Further. The face of this (pqr). The P axes meet the spheje at the points X. (a). . pqr. The face connected with (hkl) by a rotation of 180 is that denoted by (pqr) in Chap. the And. Ihk. it is clear that any face (hkl) must be associated with two others (Ihk) and (klh) which meet the n these faces having their symbols in principal axis at an apex V . cyclical order. But the faces homologous to (hkl) obtained by rotations of 60 or 180 about the hexad axis cannot be representto one or other of classes I V ed by the same indices. the above triads must be associated with like triads having the same indices taken in the reverse For purposes of analysis a selection of one half of the faces of a hexagonal form may be made. Y. in which the poles of one triad and those of are denoted by letters the homologous co-polar triad by Q. Art. 395. 15). V : hkl. again.RHOMBOHEDRAL 4. the second half of the faces of a hexagonal form may be regarded as consisting of the faces of the dirhombohedral form. viz.. (hkl). if the crystal is centre-symmetrical.3h. of the rhombohedral system.. 429 To find the Millerian symbols of the faces of a hexagonal pyramid. qrp. being always possible. AXES. \ FIG. (klh). rpq . p=2 (h +k+ I) . the form opposite to (hkl) being symbols are connected by the equations (see Chap. 15. xvi. Fig. double the least rotation characteristic of a hexad axis. which can all be represented in exactly the same manner as if the crystals belonged cyclical order. (Ihk). if planes of symmetry pass through the principal axis and each of the axes of reference. parallel faces will also be present. 395. The poles of six homologous faces may also be represented by the stereogram. at six co-polar faces meeting 394 which are connected by rotations of 60 about the hexad axis are Hence the in Fig. Fio.

Many crystallographers adopt a set of four axes of reference. In the particular instance of the fundamental pyramid. and the symbols are 100. Hexagonal axes. OA'. In the case of a dihexagonal pyramid the three first indices must be taken in the two possible cyclical orders. OA and OF of Figs. which axes. 5. which enable them to it represent all the faces of a hexagonal form by a symbol {hkil}. from the Millerian symbols assigned to the faces of the fundamental pyramid. 22T. We proceed to give the relation between the hexagonal and Millerian axes. OY is taken along . OX is therefore. and OA (=a or 1) to be the parameter on it. We It follows from what precedes that the analytical formulae given in Chap. 001. 010. and A to be on the positive side of the origin. always occupies the last place. and has the same sign for the co-polar faces of a form. positions of the several co-polar faces of a hexagonal pyramid are given by taking the three first indices (referring to the like axes The all in the equatorial plane) in a single cyclical order. and the equivalent symbols for the faces of the fundamental pyramid. and also changing The index 1. which will be denoted by OZ. and we shall use them and the corresponding symbols from the Millerian axes and symbols. Such a set of axes we shall call hexagonal and the three horizontal ones equatorial axes. ZP ~~T~ cos 3 cos CX cos CP being the pole (111) at the centre of the primitive. perpendicular to Miller's axis OX. 2l2. the signs of all four indices are changed. the co-polar triads are represented by letters r and z. xvi hold for crystals of this system. shall take OX to coincide in direction with OA of Figs. different type to distinguish correspond to the positions of these axes adopted in this book. T22. To obtain the symbols of parallel faces. the equations of the pole (hkl) are P cos XP cos YP ~hT ~T~ C ii. referring to the hexad axis their signs together. Such symbols have been already employed to represent the forms in classes VI and VII of the rhombohedral system. and their signs must also be changed together.430 HEXAGONAL SYSTEM. 392 and 393. 392 We and 393. : shall therefore adopt for the forms of hexagonal crystals symbols in which triads hkl and pqr are both included. Similarly. OA. Thus.

the face VAA tl Miller's : (2T2) -4: meets -f: the axes at a n T c . direction : Since by rotations of 120 directions of OX. The three first indices will be written in the order in which they refer to the axes OX. -=: : 7/ . 392 and 393 to be the parameter on OZ. There are cases however in which Miller has not adopted the same fundamental pyramid as other crystal lographers and OX. OZ may accordingly coincide with OA. OA" or with OB. and passing through A'A (0111). the positive OY and OU interchanged. Hence. In the former case. OA'.HEXAGONAL AXES. it is convenient to take equal parameters on the three equatorial axes .I ) ( '' . . and the axis is perpendicular to Miller's OY. and depend on the change in D only. unless the contrary is stated. OA /t and we shall take OA jt = OA to be the parameter on measured on the negative side of the origin this axis is perpendicular to Miller's OZ. we have the following equivalent symbols distances given . We shall however assume that the same fundamental pyramid is adopted in both notations. : . (010) is (T011). Miller's (100) becomes (Ohhl) and the two values of c given by equation (1) are in the ratio of h 1.. at unit distance from the origin . and has the by the ratios a a. OY and OU. &c. OlTl T101 T011 OT11 1T01 10T1. it . larly. about the hexad are axis. Simi- Again. . h. is (OlTl ). 1) and the two values of c are not commensurable when the faces of the fundamental pyramid pass through points on OB. Miller's (100) becomes (2h.a cos 30. In the second case. tl by the ratios a -f- : a. when the face (100) of the fundamental pyramid becomes is parallel to OX. The student will discover whether this is the case in any particular substance by comparing the symbols and the corresponding angles given by the authors consulted. and the positive direction is taken to the right the parameter OA' is equal to OA. 100 22T 010 T22 001 2T2. h.OA'. and also equal positive lengths or equal negative lengths on them. a T c and its symbol and (001) is (1T01). respectively. shall denote by Oil the third equatorial axis having the . c We can now take OF of Figs. : 431 We it OA'. for OB . and by a when ti measured on OU. OB' and OB". and we shall denote by at a length a when measured on OY. symbol (lOTl). The face therefore meets the axes at distances given ti . for the same value of D or c. OY. for VA' A OA = . The two remaining co-polar faces of the pyramids have the equivalent symbols (T22) = (OTll) and (221) = (Tl01).

"v :F i 1 .432 HEXAGONAL SYSTEM.

attention must be paid to the But in the particular case represented by the h and i are both negative. (4). the whole ELK OE Now triangle EOd it is made up . = a + \i. (hkil) To find the rotations of 60 Let. Oda by a H.RELATION BETWEEN THREE INDICES OF A FACE. be noticed that in the face actually taken the positive the greatest. the intercept on be the trace of (hkil) Let. 398.k. and in the by (1231) and (2351).J_ + J_ ~ 08' Od OE' Fl - 398. we have . 399. in the equatorial plane. ones. o'0dit and 08' sin 60 + 08' Od sin 60 = sin 60. Hence k a i a h a . Consequently OE must be replaced by a H. terms of the indices are introduced. and the corresponding intercept OS' is the also that 08' divides the larger triangle into the two smaller Thus the face may be (T321) or (2531). O8'. . For a face like that through the trace lies EdL^ on OUr The signs is the shortest intercept of the three first indices is now must all negative and be changed. their values in signs of the latter. in Fig. k and i have to be A changed algebraic to correspond with the intercepts on the t/ie axis. figure. may is index least . tl .C. Dividing by OE. Odit = alt -=. and the symbol particular cases 8. symbols of the six co-polar faces connected by about the hexad axis. however. Hence the is sum of the three indices referring to equatorial axes always It zero. for the trace meets OX and OU on the negative sides of the origin. when the order or signs of h. sin 120 /t L-. In obtaining this equation all the sides of the triangles have been treated as positive lengths. given in the general case by (hikl).i. in Fig. Then 08' = a. When. similar relation can be readily established for any other position of the face.k. KdH H$E (E on OX not being shown) and the intercepts 28 .0d sin 60. -=.i and 08' by a H. of the two tri- angles ^08'.h. = OE . a face meet the equatorial plane in let the trace L. 433 known lines in the equatorial plane can be found the third axis can therefore be determined.

The triad of faces : H But a semiopposite to the first triad are (hkil. and Od a H. t OZ (perpendicular to the paper) brings OX and OY to OX and also the trace KHV into the The intercept OE is now measured on OU and . (kihl). If the first face has the Millerian symbol (hkl). The first three indices are therefore changed in cyclical order. OS' has become 08 on OX and must be and must be written is measured on OY written -=-k. the face through which has the symbol (ihkl).) (kihl). must be written a^n-h. and the three faces have the symbols (hkil). (ihkl). tl '. (rpq). revolution about the hexad axis interchanges the Millerian triad (hkl). OE=a + \\. (ihkl). the face (kihl) through H"^Kt is brought into a position in which symbol of the opposite face is it passes through K" the ti therefore (kihl).434 on the axes be to HEXAGONAL SYSTEM. when taken in order counter-clockwise. H"^K . Hence the six faces connected by the hexad axis are. (Ihk) with the dirhombohedral triad (pqr). When opposite the three correspond to (hkl). Thus. (Mh). (Ihk) respectively. t I changes the same axes and brings the trace to ff'o". A rotation clockwise of 120 about OU. however the crystal is turned about OZ through 180 a rotation interchanging homologous faces which may be said to be equal positive and negative lengths are interchanged on each equatorial axis. (qrp). position OU to OY.i. The face through the trace H"8K has therefore the symbol A second rotation of 120 in the same direction again (kihl). O8' =a t ^-k. given by the following equivalent symbols: hkl hkil qrp klhi Ihk ihkl pqr hkii klh kihi rpq ihki . (Mh). Od = a + i/ /t i.

through the trace HS'L is repeated in a similar face through KHL^ The intercepts on OX are equal but opposite in sign. there must be six.*. 399 and 400 . each of 60. OB" The planes forming each triad are like planes of symmetry. If planes of symmetry parallel to the hexad axis are present. OZ lie in the planes 2 and it . OX. de: noted by letters 2. brought into five other positions. and must be changed the intercept is measured along OY. 435 The traces of these faces in the equatorial plane are shown in Figs. was shown in Chap. whilst those on OK and OU and is /( . the adjacent face meeting the first in the polar edge V n \ has the symbol (Idk) and a similar relation holds for each . OU t -^-i when three first . . denoted by letters S. OT. in the former some of the symbols have been omitted for the sake of greater clearness. order and the symbol of the face through the trace is This face is by successive rotations. To find the symbols of the six co-polar faces symmetrical to those in table e. Thus But each of the planes 2 passing through bisects the angle (hkil) BOM of Fig. when planes of symmetry intersecting in the hexad axis are present. The signs of the indices are therefore all changed. pass through opposite co-polar edges of the fundamental pyramid and meet the equatorial plane in the three equatorial axes the three others. 9. 399 is perpendicular to OX and Hence the face between the axes OY and Oil . scalenohedron {pqr}. for they are interchangeable Now the Millerian axes by rotations of 60 about the hexad axis. . Art. pair faces symmetrically placed with respect to each of the Similar relations hold for pairs of faces of the inverse planes 2. Three of the planes. in which the cyclical order of the first three t KHL (hikl). OK to is positive. and also for ditrigonal pyramids p. indices remains the same. '' hikl ikhl khilj'"^ 282 . OS'. + when measured therefore changed to along . 45. that (hkl) being one face of the scalenohedron. {hkl} and of fi {pqr} of class V of the rhombohedral system.SYMBOLS OF HOMOLOGOUS CO-POLAR FACES. and also the cyclical Again. The khl khil six faces have therefore the following Ikh ikhl equivalent symbols hlk rqp : prq hikl qp r \ . xvi. But e^n-k measured on are interchanged. H-i on OU is negative. 2 is perpendicular to one of the equatorial axes of reference and bisects the angle between the other two. are perpendicular each to a pair of opposite faces of the pyramid and meet the equatorial plane in the lines OB.

when the crystals are centro-symmetrical or (e) may be associated with the set of faces parallel to (f) in the trapezohedral of six . ratio 08 '+OA' = (3 (say). in which the intercepts and OL given by the above equations have to be multiplied by ft. t . the planes of symmetry S and 2j.436 The two HEXAGONAL SYSTEM. . to determine the relation between the We now proceed symbols (hkl) and (hkil) representing the same face of a dihex- agonal pyramid or scalenohedron. 42. or vice versa. In Chap. The sets of faces parallel to those given in (e) all and ( f ) are found by changing the signs of 10. or has not. let. class. on the axis OZ are changed in the in Vp where OVp = (3. are given by equations (45) and (47) of that Article viz. the trace of (hkl) on the equatorial plane be given by ELS'Hd^. the face (hkl) is drawn through A' to meet OM" at L. They may be also associated with similar sets alone. shifting the face parallel to itself until it passes through 8' in Pigs. 348. sets of six faces given in (e) and (f) occur together or according as the crystal has. 401. Art. Fig. Then. where OL = OK.1 3n ^ . Fig. the ratios of the and intercepts on OM. Let the new apex be at OV H . . the indices together. xvi. H and K. (08' . . Similarly. the scalenohedral face (hlk) through a point 8/t or A tt at distance a on the axis the points is OU drawn and .0V n and . = ^^ O?i 1 t . since the triangles B'OL and LOE make up the whole triangle 8'OE. 399 and 400. and OK = t ' 2n 3n - By 1 2naJ3 OM= ^ . 1 1 tan603rc-l 1 n-\ (5) ' Fl0 40L ' . OH _ OL + OL OE) sin 30= 08' O^sin 60. in which it meets OM and OM . 44. . where n has the value given in (61) of Art.

= 1 tan 60 Od~ *0>8' /f 1 ~OBT 1 = 3n + Znafi 3w + n+ 1 ( '' Hence fth = l-n _ l+n "~2n . but measured in the negative OX.. k. OC O^ and Od 1 00 2 it for the particular face taken they are are both treated as positive lengths in (5) and (6). if we take the face (hlk). i_k~ If h-r k-h are interchanged. 44. i are changed. 1_ /*. Similarly. i. the values m by equations and n in terms of the Millerian (60) and (61).EQUIVALENT SYMBOLS FOR A FACE. it is clear from (9) that the signs of h. OH+ OH. the triangle 8'0d lt is 437 divided into two by Oil. and we have (08' . OdJ sin 30 " 1 1 = OX Od . /t sin 60 .e. viz. of These equations give the hexagonal symbols corresponding to a In Chap. Art. We therefore have directions and OU : hence the introduction of the h \-n~2n __ ll_ i -(l+)~2^m indices J_ " face of the scalenohedron inRn. on the axes minus signs in (7). I are given h+k+ l m and Hence. and also their k and I . xvi. k.(7).

and that therefore {hkil} is the equivalent of {hkl. Hence. k. and 08. but not in their cyclical order. It is therefore immaterial is which of the faces of {hkl} or of {pqr} {hkil} employed to determine the equivalent hexagonal symbol. = (31. h. 1 For each term of 3h (9) is equal to + k-i _l + k-i_l + i-h_l + h-k 3k 31 Hence. Od' = -0d tl . as in (7). is Thus the denomifirst nator of the last term the second h k. respectively. (hikl) is the equivaproportional to 1.. Equations (9) and (10) can.. that of the I becomes k ... 1.. equations (9) give the equivalent symbol for the opposite face (pqr).OA +OE' = (n-l) + ft. : r= 1+h-k i i r . and similarly. : =- OS'. This can also be seen from the geometry lent symbol of (hlk). unchanged...OA"+0*a = -l OC + OV* = \ + nvn =ftk.. For the trace of (hlk) is given by E'S^d'. pqr}. is r q -p q p r the equivalent symbol for (pqr) . Equations (9) enable us therefore to find the hexagonal symbols of all the faces of {hkl}. p. and the third h. But these four numbers are Hence. It is also easy to show that by a change in the signs of h. where OE'=-OE... but not their numerical values. i.438 cyclical order ... for includes both {hkl} and {pqr}. of Fig.. r-q = 26-3l -(26-3k) = p-r = 20-3h-(26-3l) = q-p = 20-3k-(26-3h) = = p +q + r Hence from (9). For /. i. Therefore (hkil) (hikl) for (prq). be transformed so as to give (hkl) and (pqr) when either of the equivalent symbols (hkil) or (hkil) is known. OA' -r Od' = (1 2n = + n) + 2n = /3h.1. HEXAGONAL SYSTEM. the hexagonal indices are given by P.. (!!) .. 11. k. = = -^. 401. by addition and subtraction of the numerators and denominators.

OY. OZ (say) which may be regarded as a set of axes of an oblique crystal in which XOY=12Q. the indices of In computations such as the determination of zone-indices. four tautozonal faces. equations (11) and (12) can be given in the following form (hid) : _*-_ =_^_ l(k-i) l(i-h) * l(h-k)- (13). q and r Hence the opposite face (pqr) is given by respectively. Taking OA to be unity. 12. 15. to '. both and (pqr) are included in every hexagonal pyramid. As. When the indices referring to the three axes We have been obtained from the general relations is mentioned. and they can be derived from (11) by k. . or the of anharmonic ratio equatorial axes. changing the signs of h.EQUIVALENT SYMBOLS OF DIUHOMBOHEDRAL FACES. and it is immaterial which face of a form is taken in order to obtain the equivalent symbol. Art. are 13. and ZOX = /OK = 90. the index referring to the fourth axis Oil from the relation h + k + i = 0. iv. they are : OP cosXP = cosYP cos UP ccosZP 1 p h+k+ (14). Again. manner from equations These latter equations accord with the values derived in a similar (10) . however. obtained in a manner similar to that given in Chap. obtained The equations of the normal OP. or of the pole P. we omit one of the then have three axes OX. In obtaining the above equations the face (hkl) was supposed make the least intercept on OA' (OY) but the equations are perfectly general. a face which is common to two zones. where the plus signs give the symbol of one face and the minus signs that of the dirhombohedral or opposite face. each term of (9) is 439 equal to 1-k+i h+k+l-h+l+k-h _ ~ 1-k+i ^h + lk^l)^3h 1-h + k = 1-i+h 2(JTnfeTJp 3k But the denominators of these equations are p. i.

p./*) _h _i_ l^/StanCP Hence. Arts. If in (16)..sin 77 = . YP = cos and IP = CP.If + (l. viz. J3 sin CP Dividing each term of these equations by the corresponding one of (14). Using the notation of Chap. we have k " + (h . a term is obtained equal to each of the ratios . We P we have : UP = a"P = 90 Hence. we have Again. i~ ~ YN - a'N= -= . [wiw'J. . xvi. N being tan we have from the pole in which the zone [CP] intersects the zone (70) of Chap. hence. and also the denominator. xvi the values of |. 48 50.sin 77. l^k~ ~h^t~ k-h~ c^2{(k. 454). 412 and 413. the value of h : 1 -tan given in (9) is introduced. I A o z. But introducing into equations (74) of Chap. the numerator of the last term of (14) is zero. 402 (see also Figs.440 HEXAGONAL SYSTEM. the result already given in (4).-~= (fro . + XP = sin cos UP . we have cosXP = cosKP^cosf//J = 77. xvi. and then extracting the square root of the ratio. may take to be the pole (hkl) of a rhombohedral scalenohedron. But by equation Chapter cos (68) sin of that . .hf] By adding the squares of the numerators of the first three terms of (16) and those of the denominators. cos cos . 77. Fig.

20.. Thus it frequently happens that. [010] . In the transformation from hexagonal to Millerian we should first find the symbol (h'k'l ) corresponding to from equations (11) .. k'.. (010) and (001). lent the Millerian symbol (hkl) to its equivasame notation when three co-polar faces of a form {efg} interchangeable by rotations of 120 about the principal axis become (100). Miller's (210) is Dana's (OlTl). and the parametral plane (111) remaining (111). but as pointed out in Art. (h'k'l") We first transform in the represented by (OlTl) in hexagonal notation. (hkil) Assume (fge) (efg) to (001). p. and give the equivalent symbol (hkil). we have YP= cos PN cos YN= sin IP cos YN. the transformation may be carried out steps. it is assumed that the face (100) is pyramid the same as (OlTl) . then (gef) becomes (010). 413.. 5.. and we should then transform from one set of Millerian axes to another. the parametral plane But (efg) being known to be the face remaining unaltered. two in a single step.f*.. Therefore from the second and fourth terms of (14).. [001]. V are now introduced into equations (9).f- e* - fg] = . cos YN = cos YP + sin IP = = (from y c cot ZP= ^ cos 30 tan D cot ZP (9))- cos 30 tan Z> cot CT . *-fg.. = \f'-ge. the same is not always selected by different crystallographers to give the crystal element D.] = ef. etc.. If it is desired to find the equivalent symbols of the forms corresponding to the different (i) pyramid adopted. or c. f*-ge. or (ii) in i. (19). 454. Fig.. become (100). as in the case of apatite.. The equations given above together with the relations holding between tautozonal poles suffice for the solutions of most of the problems which the student is likely to meet with. vin. are: [*-/& [w^MVl = [f [u3 Y3 w3] ef. and also in the discussion of the forms characteristic of classes I to V.. From the right-angled triangle cos 441 YPN. 1 symbols. the values of h'.TRANSFORMATION OF SYMBOLS. In the preceding Articles. g'-ef] = new [100]. Art. respectively. Then of Chap.

Hence = g= \ (21). (31) of Chap.442 HEXAGONAL SYSTEM. obtained from equations (20) are now used and the equivalent symbol (hkil) Dana's determined. The equivalent symbols for the faces given in the first and fourth columns of the following table are now determined and are those occupying the third and sixth columns. . I. (20). The values is of h'. f=I. k'. Hence by equations vm. taking the case of apatite in which Miller's (210) is (0111). we first change the Millerian axes. 6 0. in equations (20). (210) becoming (100). k. and we have: 2. Thus. I' in equations (9) instead of h.

The second and third terms of (9) and the last term is are. with the exception of the When the faces pedions.T {hkil}. In this class the acleistous hexagonal pyramid. As stated in the preceding . . I corre/*'. they form a hexagonal and when they are inclined to the axis. and afterwards introducing the particular values of h. Acleiatous hexagonal class . though cumbrous. in which e = we have 2. from the symmetry. I. f= 1 and g - 0. Taking now the h first term in (9). time k'. h-'2k + l~ h + k 2l~ -2h + k + l~ h + k + I Equations (23) serve generally to transform from Miller's symbols to Dana's when Miller's (210) is the latter's (OlTl). 443 is saved by introducing the values of given by such equations as (20) and (21) into equations (9). has six like and interchangeable faces. 2x1 The final equations are therefore h l (e . they form an prism 15. of the form are parallel to the hexad axis. hexad axis is the only element of symmetry present.f)-h(e-f) + k(f-g) + l(g- e) In the particular instance of apatite. 392. I' occur in the first degree in each denominator of (9). ii. The general formula). Fig. since h' k'. In practice. we have clearly similar. and every form. the denominators of the values given y in (20) may be cancelled.TRANSFORMATION OF SYMBOLS. pqr] . I' sponding to each form. are very symmetrical. Thus. T {hkl. k.

(2T2). its is r{100. The pyramid and is has therefore the equivalent symbols T {Ml. CLASS I. (010). however the pyramid makes equal intercepts on two of we have two cases. The pedions are (0001) and (OOOT) The hexagonal prisms have the symbols: {2TI} = {OlTO} = {1120} (table d) and r {hkl} = r {hkiO}. Articles the alternate faces of one of the possible pyramids are selected to give the Millerian axes. The When faces the equatorial axes. in which h + k + I = 0. T22}. The equivalent symbols respectively. however.. T{M}=-r{hkiO} has the following faces: hkl klh Ihk hkl hkiO klh Ilk } ' hkiO kihO ihkO kihO ihkOJ There is. In hexagonal notation the fundamental pyramid has the symbol and the face (OlTl) meets the axis OY at distance a from the origin. face perpendicular to the hexad axis. and the axis OZ at distance c . having opposite side. {110} . for the symbols depend on the pyramid selected as the fundamental one. prr} includes the faces : = T {Ohhl} | j . pqr} = r{hkil} has six faces. for they are common to all classes of the system. ( >' ohhi iiohi hhoi . the three remaining faces being (T22). (18). and the faces have the symbols (100). OX. according as one of the itself so as to ti A' supposed to be shifted parallel to meets (i) the adjacent axis OU at A or (ii) OX pass through at A. (table C). and the (Ohhl). and hll rrp iihoi Ihl prr ohhi llh rpr hoiii . acleistous hexagonal pyramid T {hkl. i. where c a cos 30 tan D. The ratios of the indices of the prisrn given by (g) can be determined by equation 17. is (111) or (111). (001) . In this case the trace in the equatorial plane is parallel to first index is zero the corresponding face is therefore : tautozonal with pairs of opposite faces of the fundamental pyramid . The prism 16.. T22}. no essential difference between the three prisms. or on the (22T): the symbol of the fundamental pyramid The pedion. and its Millerian symbol is (hll). the symbols of which are given in table e. rjOlTl} . of the six faces of the pyramid in both notations are given in table b. according as it meets the hexad axis on the same side of the origin as the apex V of the pyramid r{100. In the first two prisms the Greek prefix is omitted.444 HEXAGONAL SYSTEM.

ii.e.2h.l kM r {hkl. For the sake of uniformity.l) were inclined to the pedion (0001) at the same angle as a face (OhjU.h.h. But OB = OA' cos 30.) would after rotation meet OB of Fig. I are taken in the two cyclical orders. the face has the symbol (hlk). and OB OA is incommensurable. Here (Ihk) is the opposite face (prq) of the general case and if the indices h.h. 392 at a distance equal to OA.h.l series 2h.l} The pyramids indices is two r{0hhl} and T are not in this class special forms. k. for instance. 1).h.2k . for the general rule of the class does not admit of opposite cyclical orders. the angles of a pyramid of one series can never be equal to those of a pyramid of any other of the possible series. it would be the same as if the latter face were turned through 30 about the hexad axis. the face (h. and OB H.0. The two -=- faces cannot therefore have the same inclination to the equatorial plane or pedion. 445 to OU (h. 2h. 2h.h. 1} has the faces klh : Ikh hlk 2h. we shall however denote the form by r {hkl. Ikh} . similar proof can be given in the case of a face (hkil).h. Further. A 18.h. The crystals may also be regarded as enantiomorphous. The hexad axis is one of uni terminal symmetry and should be a pyro-electric axis. correlative forms are possible in which the faces are inclined to one another at the same angles and the two crystals may be placed in positions in which they are reciprocal reflexions in a mirror .). the face (OhJ^l. the angles over the polar edges of a pyramid of one series must be different from those of any pyramid of the other series.2 {h.ACLEISTOUS HEXAGONAL PYRAMIDS. only in this case the angle of supposed rotation would be a'N of Fig.h.l h.l h. h.OA would. This being the .l of the h. the form may be represented by a symbol containing only the in. h.2h. If. i. where h + 1 . be commensurable. parallel to the common direction of the hexad axis. and is tautozonal with (1 1 20) and (0001). dices of a single face. 402. The pyramid hkl h.2h.h. Assuming the two faces to pass through a common apex and A'. Since the inclinations to the pedion are different. Since (1 120) : is (1TO) and (0001) is (111). lkh\ Ihk = T {h. In the second case the equatorial trace is perpendicular and bisects OA it the corresponding face has the symbol 2h. the exceptional relation between the due to their horizontal traces being respectively parallel and perpendicular to the edges which have been selected arbitrarily to give the directions of the equatorial axes. 2h. by the law of rational indices.

The amount of rotation for a plate 1 mm. but those on adjacent faces are congruent when the crystals are turned through 60 about the principal axis. but this may be too low. CLASS may be expected I. for the above sulphates rotate the plane of polarization.and lead. of strontium. LiKS0 4 are placed in this class.-. = -8442. : H O=T {100. Such crystals are twins joined along the face (TIT). The crystals Lithium potassium sulphate. occasionally of a simple character. I. But the crystals are twins. The measured angle . . Jahrb. after show any rotation of the plane of A crystal Strontium-antimonyl dextro-tartrate. Fig. . Traube. is thick is given by Traube as 3-44. The latter moreover rotate the spirals and occasionally Airy's plane of polarization in opposite directions have been seen in a plate cut from such a crystal. crystals of lithium of LiRbS04 and of potassium . showing opposite electrifications at the two ends. the following equations : tan c =tan (0^ = 62 51')-j-2. we have. for the corantimonyl dextro-tartrates are also placed in this class rosion-figures on the prism-faces are unsymmetrical trapezia. 1894. it The crystals of nepheline. the crystals HEXAGONAL SYSTEM. Other ap. from the isosceles spherical triangle Cx'x" and the A. which is at the analogous pole of the two components. vm. {Coxfm}. but frequently of great complexity (Dr H. hexad of sulphate. R. 511} = {022T}. The opposite ends falling of the crystals are often positively electrified with^ temperature. 270) is shown in = 44 16-5'. c= 1-6743. The forms shown are m {2ll } = {OlTO}. whilst a broad central zone is negatively electrified. Sr2 (SbO) 2 (C4 4 O 6 ) 2 Traube (N. . p. = cos 30 tan (Z> = 44 1 6'5') Z> = 4416'5'. . Na 8 Al 8 Si 9 O 34 . c= -8442.446 case. 171). 1892. f. and the seleniate shows on the pyramid-faces the same kind of unsymmetrical corrosion- The Li(NH 4 )S0 4 . are easily obtained by the evaporation of a solution containing the two sulphates. Bd. p. If we denote by x' the pole 5TT. 122} = T {OlTl}. n.o7=lTT A 151 = 52 50' was used to determine the element. N. parently simple crystals. Min. x = r {111. 58. p. 1893. have been shown to be complex twins. 403. for possible that no plate has been obtained free from twin-lamellae of opposite rotations.0 = 62 39'. f. 405. LiKSeO 4 figures as the sulphates. The tartrates are also pyro-electric but neither . by x" the pole (111) and by C the pole (111) = (0001). Jahrb. Min. their crystals nor those of nepheline polarization. and occur as apparently simple hexagonal prisms terminated by both pedions and by similarly developed hexagonal pyramids at both The habit of the crystals is therefore similar to that of the crystals ends. to rotate the plane of polarization axis. of apatite and mimetite shown in Fig. of light transmitted along the 19. Beil.

FIG. A (loc. 18. 2om. They parallel to the edges are four-sided pits. The obtusely terminated end at which o is developed is the which x appears is the analogous pole.R. are D similar to those of crystals of the isomorphous strontium salt. Art. -84064. {Comx} we know the angles Cm = 90 and ox and the transformation needed to find om or Co falls under case (e) of that Chapter.EXAMPLES (DEXTRO-TARTRATES). vin. (4) J 1) 111 A 151 100 A 212 *5247' 52 60-4' 40 46' 100 A 211 4049 4541 27 10 ( 4052 4542-7 27 8 -3 4551 27 15 44 9 2llAlIl 111 A 100 = Z>) 44 17'3 The computation by equation value of c corresponding to of column (4) is -8448. 404.-. Fio. we may find the angles in column (4) by equation (21) of Chap.K. 403. sin (2om . . aud also the corrosion-figures.72 51' =18 34-4'. that at 447 antilogous in Fig. 403. For in the A.ox) . The corrosion-figures on two of the adjacent prism-faces are shown pole. but otherwise unsymmetrical . T22} = r{OlTl}. and gives results in close accordance with the measured angles. . Assuming ox= 100 Mil = 72 51' the sum of the last two measured angles of column (2) to be as trustworthy as xx. {Comx} = 3. The method of (21) of Chap. cit. 511}=r{0221}.-2om) = (m .1) cos (90 - ox) + cos (90 + ox). #=r{l!T. 9'. and computes the element and the angles in column (3) from the measured angle xx = 111 A 151 = 52 47'. mcos(90 + oa. and om = 45 (2) (3) 42-7'. Also l-Hm = A. c Traube D=U = The forms are : o=r{100. and those on adjacent faces are congruent when the crystals are turned through 60. vin can also be applied to the strontium salt. No evidence of twinning similar to that in lithium potassium sulphate was observed in the pyroelectric characters or in the arrangement of the corrosion- figures on the prism-faces. Hence equation (21) of p. The pyro-electric and optical characters. 404. having two sides [mo]. 102 becomes .} is crystal of lead-antimonyl dextro-tartrate after shown in Fig. Traube gives as measured angles those in column (2) of the following table of angles. m = {2TO} = {0110}. = sin 72 51'-=-3.

The symbols being obtained by changing the signs of all the indices of each face in these tables. affords a good In the crystal illustration of forms of this class. 393. 1}. are not special forms. to the : axis it The pinakoid {111} = {0001} has its faces perpendicular and parallel to the plane of symmetry consists of the two faces. The element is obtained from this pyramid in the manner already given. need not be given here. two series of hexagonal bipyramids {Ohhl} and which can be derived by the addition of parallel faces h and j. 21. for the pyramids to those given in tables of the new faces. and Fig_. ix. shown in m{0ll0} The 122}. Ca (Cl. the habit being sometimes prismatic x {Olll} = {2ll}. T22} = {OlTl}. pqr} = TT (hkil} to a face of the first pyramid. Diplohedral hexagonal class. . Similarly. the {h. FIG.448 II. which may be represented by Fig. associated with a centre of symmetry. ir{hkl. F) 2 . pqr} If the = 7r{hkil}. The Greek prefix is omitted in these cases. 4). pqr hkil klh kihl rpq ihkl hkl hkil qrp kihl Ihk Ihkl In the above table the two faces in each column are symmetrically placed with respect to the equatorial plane II .{k}. 2h. 3Ca3 P2 8 . Apatite. h. having each of its faces parallel The bipyramid TT \hkl. that there The hexagonal prisms of the last class belong also to this. are geometrically identical with similar pyramids of class IV. so is no geometrical distinction between tr {hkiO} and r {hkiO}. HEXAGONAL SYSTEM. relative magnitudes of the faces of the several forms vary greatly. Prop. there will also be a plane of symmetry II perpendicular to the axis 20. 0001 and OOOl. consists therefore of the following faces : hid hkil qrp kihl Ihk ihkl pqr hkil klh kihl rpq ihkl . all The particular case {100.._405 the forms are: c {0001} = {111}. and the parallel faces are derived the one from the other by changing the signs of the indices. hexad axis is The hexagonal pyramid of the last class will (Chap. The particular values of the indices in the two notations result from the arbitrary selection of this pyramid for the fundamental one. CLASS II. then be associated with a like one. = {100. 405. differs in no essential respect from TT {hkil}. 22.

Ohhl 0001 OlIO Ohhl 0110 0111 r. {411. Again.then.}.. where ma' = 30. to be (Olll). [crxym].] to be (1100) = (112).-. {cxpm}. 1 The face r is (01 12). Fio. the its right to be (Il01) = (22l). Hence.EXAMPLES owing (APATITE). From Weiss's law we find the symbol of <r to be (412). 27. cot 71 8' . when p coincides with y. we have from the triangle ama'. in [ex. 406 8. and a. to face x.R. Since.-. In the remaining measured zone we know m to be (Oll0) = (2ll). and m. / But A <rma'= A x. by (1) of Art. 3. therefore to the form {0221} = (from (11)) {511. Take = (100) be (2ll) = (0ll0). The arcs joining the poles m. as was shown in Chap. .011}. . Even if a had not coincided with s (1211).]: 30 30 0' |~cr ex 22 40 59' 18-3 mn mu mar. c. then. and <r coincides with (412). = cos 30 tan 40 18-3' = -7346. = 2. and cot . The angles in the zone [ma] are fixed. the labour of the computation would not have been entirely wasted for it gives the angle which a third known We shall use it to find the symbols of n pole in the zone makes with m and x and u from the A.101] and [nur ] = [2ll.. form a rightiii.] = [11 1. when p coincides with . the zone [ca. 449 to the predominance of the prism-faces. by Napier's mnemonic. r* i.22l] intersect. cos ar. cosffma' = tan30cotnw. cp = cy = 5$ 29'. t L. where P is any pole (hkil) in [wur.]. Let us now determine the arc-distance from m of the pole a in which the zones [ca.. belong therefore to the hexagonal bipyramid {412.: tan 30 cot ma . Art. {mPsx. 406. Ml 59 90 29 22 30 44 71 41' 20 17 8 xvi..tan 60 cot 71 8'. The faces *.h = l. . and h 1 . It can be completely determined by the observation of zones and by measurement of the following angles in the three zones [m"am t ]. A crystal having several additional forms is represented by Figs. Fig. x. . m lt of these faces. from A. and the form is {0112} equivalent. Similarly.111}.214} = {1211}. 29 . Olll Hence. moreover. = tan 60 cot 71 8'. let p be any 0001 face (Ohhl) in the zone [carm]. on .] meets [?nro. y belongs from (11)] = [lll] at a'. and h-=-l = 2. 407. ma = tan 2 60 s ma- = 44 17'. and sometimes tabular through the predominance of the pinakoid.roi. the parameter m to c ii. [mnusx. angled triangle.

the computation is (521). 406 which lie above the equatorial plane and the symbols in Millerian and hexagonal notations of many of them. 212}. . Hence n is (1431) . v. The two equations are satisfied by making 1 = 1. . . and the 2k + 3i is = 0. Hence by Weiss's zone-law. /.: to coincide with u.B. would be simpler. FIG. give the positions of the poles of all the faces in Fig. 425}. |mPs. x. i Hence u iv. and i must therefore be negative. from which the symbols of n and u can be determined and. 3 ' 3k + 4i = 0.r / } II. &c.~ i sin 44 17' sin P = 48 51 _ 1 ~ o: / 27'. 407 and 408.R. the symbol of v The and the form is {1212} {521. 21 + = 0. when P is made . TT = l-i-2. i= -3 and k=4. Now 1 is clearly positive. since /\mv = 90. and the form {1321} = (from (11)) TT {201. The stereograms. and as these are the lowest whole numbers. they may be taken as the indices. and the form has the symbol TT {1431} = (from (11)) T {8l4. when the middle pair) -Vs (taking the last pair) 4827 . = The m .125}. The poles of the faces . 7nP=2241' and 41' sin 26 k+i -i _ J_ _ sin 22 ~ . 408. face v (2112) might be used with and x' to give an A. and faces v truncate the edges [xx t ] of adjacent faces of the bipyramid they lie in zones [caj. is (1321). P coincides with n. from equation (4) to be 1.450 HEXAGONAL SYSTEM.R. The value of h is then found by computation. CLASS 0110 A. Y m. and 31 + i = 0. Figs.} mP = 3020'. below the equatorial plane would be given by circlets surrounding each dot. Similarly. 1101 1 = sin mP hkil hkil HOI 1211 1211 = (taking Hence. A. {musx.

{111} = ^{0001} and /* {111} =/ {OOOT}. We shall suppose the Millerian axes to lie in the planes 2. The . 60 4'. and the . x and y are determined by the construction of Chap. crystals therefore resemble Figs. the The r.. in Prop. and the positions of all the The Millerian symbols given in this Article are not those given in Brooke and Miller's Mineralogy. In crystals of this class the hexad axis associated with six planes of symmetry intersecting in the axis at angles of 30. . . xvui). 292 . : equatorial axes to be the intersections of the S planes with the equatorial plane. The transformation from the symbols of Miller to those used in this Article has already been given in Art. . . and that the angles between them are bisected by three other like and interchangeable planes S. 3Pb3 P2 O 8 PbCl 2 and vanadinite. {hid. The special forms are : Pedions having the symbols p. iv. and the points diameters through these points give the zones [cxm]. if a plane of symmetry is parallel to a hexad axis. vn. is uniterminal. p. Hence . Pyromorpfiite. in the Cambridge Museum. Acleistous dihexagonal class . and 1-5'. 9. 122} measurement of these crystals gave : for 2UA121 values varying from 59 55' to 100 A 212 = 37 30'. 3Pbs V2 8 PbCLj. 3Pb3 As2O 8 PbCl 2 was long regarded . 328 and 405. 1. that. Prob.0=111 A 100 = 40 III. show only the prism {211} and the hexagonal bipyramid x {100. there must be six planes of symmetry all and further. [cvsj. Cornwall. poles found. 328 and 405 but some of the crystals from Wheal Alfred. Cor. The hexad axis axis. also at 60 to one In Prop. 8.ACLEISTOUS DIHEXAGONAL CLASS. Prop. for Miller adopted a as the fundamental pyramid { 100. It was shown in Chap. the least angle possible between any planes of symmetry hence there can be no other planes of symmetry parallel to the axis. ix. The figures are constructed 451 by marking off arcs of 30 on the primitive. They are optically uniaxal and negative. Ac. 122}. 23. Ac. Mimetite. 1. T22}. and generally occur in hexagonal prisms {2IT} terminated either by {111} alone or by {111} and #{100. On [cm]. are both isomorphous with apatite. can then be quickly introduced. and appears The crystals have the habits to be a mimetic twin (see Chap. 100 A 122 = 80 3'. and x is then {201}. and should be a pyro-electric 24. 14. but it . it was seen parallel to the axis that three planes 2 intersecting at angles of 60 are like and interchangeable. shown in Figs. zones \rnns]. 5 of the same Chapter it was proved that 30 is another. pqr} is ~ p- {hkil}. class of crystals as belonging to this has been found to be optically biaxal.

409 . h. The faces may be supposed to pass through the lines AA &c. xvi. One of the faces of a pyramid of this second series may be drawn through the points A. of the possible pyramids of this series is selected as /A fundamental {01 11}. These faces are perpendicular to all the planes of symmetry. faces may be supposed to pass through the edges hexagonal base in Fig. where h + k + I = 0. 1). h. The symbols table h. Hexagonal prisms: = {OlTO}. of the faces are given in One pyramid ii. AA it . &c. {Ohhl} = yu. 27 . Art. 409. A' to meet The trace A A' bisects the principal axis at V. 409. the faces of which are perpendicular each {2TT} The planes S pass through pairs of opposite to one of the planes 2. The faces of p. {hll. Hexagonal pyramids. xvi. and the pyramid has the symbol I*. and the angles are for any specified values of the indices found by equation (20) of that Article.. 2h. one of which (i) has its faces perpendicular to the 2 planes and may be represented by Fig. truncate the edges of the other. and are parallel each to a pair of the faces. OA t/ at right angles. of the = {T2TO}. and the symbol of the face is (h. l/t prr}.. where OV \\c^-\. of Fig. 2h. 3. 35. i.452 HEXAGONAL SYSTEM. Art. Chap. {10T} The faces of the one prism perpendicular each to an S plane. {h. . having its faces parallel to the 2 planes. and ii. 1} are given in table j. The vertical edges. This prism is geometrically identical with that described in Chap. CLASS III. according as the base meets the hexad axis on the positive or negative side of the origin. Pairs of the traces in the equatorial plane are parallel to one i. and to meet the principal axis at OFm = hc-^l=mc of V m where . A dihexagonal prism {hkiO} = {hkl}. The symbols of the faces are: hkl Ikh klh khl Ihk hlk \ hkiO hkl ikhO Ikh kinO klh khiO khl ihkO Ihk hikol hlk [ ^ hkiO IkhO kihO khiO IhkO hlkoj 4. the other (ii) has its faces perpendicular to the S planes. or other of the equatorial axes. 2.

Fig.3h. {hkil} consists of the following faces: l*.{hkl. 25. and the inclinations of the symmetry.p. 9. q = 20 . The general form consists of an acleistous dihexagonal pyramid. where p = 26 . pqr} hkl hkil rqp ikhl qrp kihl kid khil Ihk ihkl prq hlk \ hikll (n). where they were however only particular cases of the general form: in this class they are special forms. Hence the form . . j pqr hkil Ikh ikhl klh kihl qpr khil rpq ifikl nikl] . faces to the pedion are also different. but the angles over the polar edges of a pyramid of one series are not equal to those of a pyramid of the other series. : the symbols of a pair of faces symmetrical with respect to a plane through the hexad axis was given in Art. 453 The two series of hexagonal pyramids are geometrically the same as those described in Art. pqr}.3J. which meet either at V or at Vt \ it is geometrically similar to the figure produced by a combination of the two dirhombohedral pyramids /* (hJd\ and //. 17. The equivalent hexagonal symbol ft {hkil} is found by equations (9) or can be deduced independently from the geometry of the pyramid the relation between system. p. 416. {pqr} of class of the rhombohedral V -Wife- Hence. r = 20 . 456. the Millerian symbol of the form is p.{hkl. the faces of which all meet the hexad axis at the same The form may be supposed to consist of the twelve faces of point.ACLKISTOUS DIHEXAGONAL PYRAMIDS.3k. and their faces are perpendicular each to one of the planes of They have the same general aspect.

and therefore equal parameters might be taken on both OM and OA. The arrangement of the faces and poles is indicated in Figs. were they to become equal. edges. . and even for this the data are inadequate for no . FIG. 413. for. 414. and OH is a commensurable submultiple of OB. is the only substance which has been 26.454 HEXAGONAL SYSTEM. 1010 low FIG. In the former pair the traces in the equatorial plane of most of the faces are labelled. 415. FIG. and in the latter the symbols of the The angles over adjacent polar poles are given in both notations. are always different. Silver iodide (iodyrite). But OB = OA cos 30. lying respectively in a 2 and S plane. CLASS III. 410-413. OH would be equal. the lengths 08'. Agl. placed in this class. and 08' of OA the assumption therefore contravenes the law : of rational indices.

414 and 415 show two iv. Min. 7r=/*{133. 9. The forms are: a {OlT}=={T2TO}. It is clear that the 32. IV. 20. Similarly.c= M {lll}_=^{p()01]. for they are interchangeable by rotations of 60 about the hexad axis each of them is also the intersection of the plane II dyad axes : with one of the S planes.DIPLOHEDRAL DIHEXAGONAL CLASS. 5). 119. p. 28. 20}. I. u. and no corrosion-figures obtained. and the class will be denoted as the diploJtedrul dihexagonal class. The crystals have the greatest symmetry possible in the hexagonal system. Fig. ?}=/* {9. {hkl. The general form is a dihexagonal bipyramid. and bisects the angle between pairs of the S planes and of the S axes. & = n{7. 1}=^ {0445}. of the rhombohedral system. and therefore . The crystals of this class have : therefore the following elements of symmetry C. 8 perpendicular each to a 2 plane must be like. 455 general forms have been observed. 18. and the dihexagonal prism The pedion becomes a pinakoid = {0001}. or we should have more than one hexad axis. 416. H. given in the above table zonal planes of for we cannot have more than six tauto- symmetry (Chap. 20. c='8196. Zeitsch. . f. 1879). crystals (after von Zepharovich. ix. and are the lines of intersection of 2 planes: further. 47 47. the A axes are like and inter- with each of the changeable. 3A. Kryst. Diplohedral dihexagonal class . and have therefore been described as holohedral. CdS. faces are The special forms of common and also to this the last class which have parallel they are the hexagonal prisms : {01T} {kkl} = {I2TO} = {hkiO}. 13. and the axes of symmetry must be dyad axes all perpendicular to H.?t= M {3n. The crystals may belong to class I of this system or may possibly have to be . which was also at one time regarded as belonging to this class. V Figs. a centre of symmetry is associated with the planes of symmetry of the last class. 38. and a plane of symmetry 27. Prop. j^qr\ = {hkil}. n No other element of symmetry can be added to the assemblage . {111} All the hexagonal pyramids become diplohedral. each of them is perpendicular to a plane S. there must be a dyad axis perpendicular to each of the planes 2 and S. {2TT} = {OlTO}. When IT perpendicular to the hexad axis. n.755}= /i{04^1}. The element Z)=43 25'3'. 3S. as has been done in the case placed in class of greenockite.

and also as the The faces are similarly placed pyramid of class II of this system. that of long hexagonal prisms c {111} m {2TT} = {OlTO}. terminated by the pinakoid such crystals are represented by Fig. xvi. symmetry 2. The of figure is constructed by joining each to of the points //.450 HEXAGONAL SYSTEM. which are equal arid similar scalene triangles. for the thermal expansion along the principal axis is different from that along a line at right angles to it. V on t the hexad axis at distance 30. Be3 Al 2 (Si0 3 ) 6 forms crystals belonging to this class. . prr} {Ohhl} that of class II: the faces are now perpendicular to the planes of and II. 2h. and occasionally the coigns. 405. Fig. the top of the crystal resembles that of apatite shown = {l2TO}. c = -4988. the bipyramid have the following symbols hkl hkil : rqp ikhl qrp kihl khl khil Ihk ihkl prq hikl pqr hkil Ikh Ikhl klh kihl qpr khil rpq ihkl Ihkl hikl (p). Figs.2k + I = is geometrically the same as {hkl} of Chap. The edges [cm] are often modified by one or two narrow faces. a hexagonal bipyramid similar geometrically to {hll. and the edges lie in 2 and II. But even in such an exceptional case a change of tempera- coefficient of ture would disturb the equality. and the edges lie in the planes hexagonal bipyramid {h. 53. When the edges [cm] are modified by faces of a : = {0001} single form {0111}. pqr hkil Ikh ikhl klh kihl qpr khil rpq ihkl hlk hikl hkl hkil rqp Ikhl qrp kihl khl khil Ihk Ihkl prq hikl 8'. 417. perpendicular to the planes S. CLASS = is IV. The faces of FIG. pqr} has twenty-four faces. combination of the two prisms and {10T} having the horizontal edges modified by p and s is shown in Fig. may over the median edge possibly occur in which the angle is for some par- ticular temperature equal to that over one of the polar edges. The dihexagonal bipyramid {hkl. the where h . &c. 08' being OA -r-k. in Fig. A m . 41G. 410 and 411 c-5-1. Art. points V. 328.. h. D = 29 The habit is 56-5'. Since the edges of each face lie in dissimilar planes of symmetry. Beryl. 41(3. Again. the angles over the three edges are unequal. 29. 1} = {hkl}. although a case = {hkil}.

410. V. one or other of the dyad axes. by be taken to occupy the positions OM. but and anomalous bands of colour in the polariscope which indicate that the crystals are in a state of strain: the rectangular cross also breaks into two brushes on turning the plate round in Flo its own plane. inclined to one another at angles of 60. are like and interchangeable. the form may be derived from the dihexagonal bi pyramid of the last class by selecting six co-polar faces at one end which are interchangeable by rotations of 60 about the hexad axis. six non-parallel faces which Thus the co-polar faces V and the alternate traces may be taken 7/8'. will be denoted by 8. OM' OM" of Fig. G ll t tl to be those passing through ". Trapezohedral class. having the directions OA. A and may . 410 and 411. Miller's (210) is therefore Dana's (OlTl). JJ'B". but no other element of symmetry. For each face s is common to two slanting zones has the symbol {421} = {1 121} Hence [psm].TltAPEZOHEDKAL CLASS. of Figs. the other three are also like and interchangeable and bisect the angles between pairs of the first triad : the first set will be denoted . The crystals of this class have six dyad axes associated with the hexad axis. when their symbols are: hkl hkil qrp kiiil Ihk pqr iikil klh kihl rpq ihkl' ihkl . pqr} = a{hkil}. and three of them. Geometrically. and also enables us to determine the symbol of s. OA /t OA'. and the meet at the other apex. and equations (23) for the transformation from Millerian to : hexagonal symbols hold also for the forms observed in beryl. 122} = {01 11} 457 The pyramid p being selected as {100. the second set. a [hkl. gives the element D. The general form consists of six co-polar faces meeting at an apex V associated with six similar faces meeting at the opposite apex V which are so arranged that a face of the one set is interchangeable with any one of the second by a semi-revolution about t . 32. to this form Miller assigns the symbol {100. 31. <fec. 122}. The give very irregular crystals are optically negative. The dyad axes are all at right angles to the hexad axis .

the faces of which are parallel each to a face of the The new form may be repretrapezohedron of the last Article. a semi-revolution about and the traces 8H". pqr}. 418. we The sented by the symbol a (hkl. interchanging the two faces. symbols of the faces to the front of Fig. OS'. Fig. must interchange the two ends of the edge of intersection. to (prq): the face HK VHK I t therefore (prq} = (hikl). and the form is a hexagonal trapezohedron. each bisected by a dis- dyad axis. and bisected by. Ac. is at right angles to The edge in which (hkl) and (prq) OH and is bisected at // where it crosses the equatorial plane. and the traces H8' with is Since HK is parallel to &"K". But VH : lt is parallel to tl parallel to (Ikh) it is therefore (Ikh). Fig. f khil) The angles over the polar and median edges are all different. for a semi-revolution about OM. and the new face through F. Similarly. But the dyad axis OM of these figures interchanges opposite apices. .e. But all the faces are and equal. or by a {Ikh. to which we may assign the symbol a {hkl. 33. 13. It consists of the twelve faces similar similar : hkl hkil qrp kihl Ihk ihkl pqr hkil klh kihl rpq \ ihkl( " prq hikl Ikh ikhl qpr khil hlk hikl rqp ikhl khl (q). and simple spherical triangles. and 8'H is 08' interchanges the apices S'#..458 HEXAGONAL SYSTEM. CLASS V. m'. pqr} a {hkil}.. H K" with S. 419 are inscribed on the diagram and there is no need to give them in further detail. the face through V. This face meets (hkl) in an edge which crosses the equatorial plane and is at right angles to. meet. rqp} = a {ikhl}. with #"8. 419. and can be determined from the equations given in Art. together. and by two dissimilar skew median edges. If the faces of table p which do not occur in q are taken obtain the complementary hexagonal trapezohedron. and HK t . i. ti H HT t t parallel to that is through V and &"K".. The face (hkl) is consequently a trapezium bounded by two like and interchangeable co-polar edges.

Art.G and the co-polar edges are similarly found by taking the homologous pairs of traces. found in a similar manner thus the direction of same as that of the line joining V to the point of intersection of the traces 8"K" (prq) and H'L (khl). the direction of the edge [rpq. In the complementary trapezohedron a{hlk. edges may be found in a manner similar to that employed for the edges H . 8. The special forms are all geometrically identical with those of the preceding class. 418. rpq] . and the method would be inconvenient in practice. 418 joins Fto the point of intersection of the traces KH8' and H. the horizontal plane HCA' of Fig.. 419.. the polar edges through the points ... 51 in the manner described in Chap. and so on for all the homologous edges: the edges are drawn through the points in which 8'. 411. through versd. of Fig. prq}. khl\ is the : direction VK is of the traces KH and //". The polar edge [hkl. is found by marking off on OM" a length equal to joining the point to V. prq] and its direction is : V are parallel to those of the first drawn through F. the point of intersection Similarly. FIG. vi. 410. 35. The student can easily pick 459 p. OK The remaining median edges pass through the points A of Fig. perpendicular to an axis Ikh The 34.THE HEXAGONAL TllAPEZOHEDHON. Thus the edge [hkl. them out from table The com- plementary forms are enantiomorphous. when one trapezohedron is drawn. Fig. The median edge [hkl. 418. [hkl.nearest polar edges of the two faces meeting in the edge required. and its inferior co-polar edges are [prq. prq] is parallel to the line found by joining V to the point of intersection of the trace Hb' (hkl) and 8"K" (prq) this point may be very distant. of Fig. Projecting. Ikh] through 8' is parallel to [hkl. Ikh]. V. for their faces are parallel to one or other of . 410 are projected. opposite median edges are interchanged . 419 is parallel to that through 8' in Fig. Hence. and vice Similarly. &c.. that of the line joining V to K. of Fig. or Fig. 8. The being given by CT=<?ycos30 tanZ)-j-l. in of the planes of symmetry. the complementary one is quickly formed.. for they can be placed so that the one is the reflexion of the other in any one crystals may therefore be expected to rotate the plane of polarization. 19. the trapezohedra can be drawn the apices Fand . prq] and through 8. 410 have been projected and join each the points in which the median edges through the adjacent points 8 meet the Or the . in which the points of Fig. thus the edge through 8.

KN0 3 111} . . the axes of symmetry. xviu) and the characteristic figure of a biaxal crystal can occasionally be seen in . f. Again.400 HEXAGONAL SYSTEM. where h . 2h. {Ml. c Ba(SbO) 2 (C4 H 4 6) 2 . the brushes characteristic of a biaxal crystal may be seen. The physical characters of the two salts are much the same. Jahrb. the pinakoid {111} = {0001} the hexagonal prisms . The forms r usually present are m{2TT} = {OlIl}. = {100. light is used. c {111} = {0001}. T22} = {OlTl}. prr} forms of this class. plates cut from near the surface sometimes give a central portion which is uniaxal. crystals therefore The Pb(SbO) 2 (C 4 H4 6) 2 . The and even of the system.4. 322} = {0551}. any face. the dihexagonal prism {hkl} = {hkiO} the hexagonal bipyramids . planes. The show no pyro-electric poles. p. is therefore doubtful. D = 742. = {OlTO} . face parallel to one of all of even degree. But the segmentation is irregular. they show segments similar to those characteristic of triplets of biaxal crystals such as witherite. &c. (see Chap. parallel structure.KN0 3 . 1} = {hkl}. v = {13. and by narrow faces r{100.4. when convergent light is used. when convergent places. = {Ohhl} and {h. CLASS Since these axes are V. 122} The = edges [cm]. . 245): Barium-antimonyl dextro-tartrate + potassium nitrate. I. Lead-antimonyl dextro-tartrate + potassium nitrate. d={5U. provisionally placed in this class by Dr H.2k + 1= are all The crystals of the following isomorphous double salts have been 36. Traube (N. {01T} = {T2TO}. c = 3'5936. and the internal structure manifested is very complex.5'. them must be associated with a parallel Hence. = = {OlTl} terminated by the pinakoid crystals are hexagonal prisms {2TT} {OlTl} modifying the {111} {0001}. = 3-0285. 1894. Plates parallel to the prism-faces examined between crossed Nicols are also seen to have a lamellar structure and occasionally. Mm. nor do they rotate the plane of The determination of the class rests solely on the character polarization. h. When plates parallel to the pinakoid are observed in parallel light between crossed Nicols. have somewhat the habit of those crystals of sapphire on which steep pyramids are developed. crystals of the corrosion-figures observed on the faces of the pinakoid and prism. Z> = 7627'. {2TT} . The structure is sometimes that of plates bounded by and sometimes such as is found in bodies having a fibrous determination of the class. = {0221}.

and the half on one side of the plane is then turned through 180 about its normal. bounded by the forms observable on the divided along a central plane which is parallel to a possible face . and he introduced the word made to denote the kind of composite crystal which we now call a twin. TWIN-CRYSTALS AND OTHER COMPOSITE CRYSTALS. Rome de 1'Isle was the first to attempt an explanation of the composite character of the crystals of spinel and cassiterite . and supplies no the twin. But it was observed at a very early date that crystals of certain minerals. the crystals usually grow in groups. When the crystallization of a substance held in solution is hurried together by rapid evaporation of the solvent. for he perceived that the orientation of the two portions of every well-defined twin known to him is given by the following law. This law gives in very many cases the relative orientathe two portions united together in a twin-crystal . in particular those of cassiterite and spinel. and later on Haiiy introduced the word hemitrope (from 17/11. in which the several portions have different orientations governed by regular and definite laws. A is complete crystal.CHAPTER XVIII. will it from . 1. General Introduction.= half. when it is necessary to distinguish a composite crystal or a twinned form. in which the arrangement of the several members is purely accidental. the two halves remaining in contact to form twin. Such regularly formed composite crystals will be the subject of this Chapter. Werner employed the word zunlling (= twin) at present used by German crystallographers . COMPOSITE crystals often occur. are joined together in a regular and constant manner to form a well-defined individual. tions of explanation of the growth of the twin. and TpoVos = a turn) . crystal or form of normal character and uniform orientation A be said to be simple. it offers no suggestion as to the cause of twinning.

these latter being then called symmetric twins. 2. This arrange- . (ii) it may be parallel to tropes. or the twin-axis. the coigns will lie at equal distances on straight lines perpendicular to this plane.462 TWIN-CRYSTALS. Instances of equably and symmetrically developed twins are shown in the drawings of spinel. or (iii) a line lying in a crystal face perpendicular to The twin-axis has a zone-axis (this last is very doubtful). Juxtaposed twins. when we require to distinguish them from those rare composite crystals in which the orientation of the portions can only be given by regarding the one as the reflexion of the other in a definite plane . in This group of twins includes those called by Haiiy hemiwhich the twin-orientation is fully expressed by the single statement that the twin-face is that particular face parallel to which the portions are united after the one has been turned through 180 about the face-normal. i. and lie on opposite sides of it. we can divide them into two main classes according to the manner in which the 1. Taking the hemitropic twins. For example. The plane surface along which the two portions of a juxtaposed twin are united will be called the comIt may be (i) parallel to a possible face which bination-plane. Such twins we may clearly the same relation to both portions. : the normal to a possible face. the directions of both must be expressly specified. Provided the two portions belong to a centro-symmetrical crystal. if they are also equal. and. 2. cassiterite and calcite. in which the portions are intimately com: mingled without any regular surface of separation between their matter. (ii) a zone-axis. ii. is perpendicular to the twin-axis. When the combination-plane is parallel to the twin-axis. Juxtaposed twins. in which the orientation of the portions can be connected by an axis of rotation. 1. Interpenetrant twins. in spinel the twins have a face of the octahedron for twin-face. which however are important. in which the portions portions are united are united along a plane surface. they are situated symmetrically to the combination-plane . twins consist of portions. With very few exceptions. the relative orientations of which are such that a semi-revolution of one portion about a line having a definite direction brings the rotated part into the same orientation The line of rotation we shall call the twin-axis as the fixed part. its direction may be that of (i) designate hemitropic twins.

cases be referred to a twin-axis parallel to the combination-plane. ment is 463 is common when the twin-axis is a zone-axis which not perpendicular to a possible face . and several of the twins of anorthite and the other plagioclastic felspars. but the statement of the twin-orientation is more precise when they are referred to a twin-face. 2. the so-called Carlsbad twin of orthoclase.g. Thus. interpenetrant twins may seem to be. They are generally called intercrossing The surface at which the individuals seem to cross is often twins. form a complete crystal. In drawings it is often taken to be a plane fairly well-defined. e. In these twins the two portions do not. it has been found by examining the cleavages and other physical characters. They ai-e two like halves of two separate crystals placed in parallel orientation. in we many In many cases the twins of classes i and ii cross one another in the middle. sodium periodate and quartz will be distinguished as symmetric twins. as The hemitropes placed under (i) may. Just at the boundary of the individuals the optical phenomena are often indistinct in consequence of the interlocking and overlapping Fluor gives a good instance of of the matter of different portions. interpenetrating twins. the portions on opposite sides of the combination-plane are reciprocal reflexions in this plane. after a semi-revolution of one of them about the twin-axis. A very large number of the hemitropic twins under the preceding subdivisions are symmetrical to certain definite planes. that the matter of the different portions remains distinct and separate. and more especially by examining in plane-polarised light plates cut across the twins. in most of the juxtaposed twins of subclass (i). However intimate the intergrowth of Interpenetrant twins. those at the same end are in twin-orientation. But a few composite crystals are known in which the physical structure of the two portions can only be connected by regarding the one as the reflexion of the other in certain definite planes.INTERPENETRANT AND SYMMETRIC TWINS. perpendicular to the combination-plane. The composite crystals known as complementary and mimetic twins fall under one or other of the preceding divisions. so that portions at the opposite ends and on opposite sides of the combination-plane are in like orientation. By complementary twin is meant one composed of two individuals which belong to a class of inferior symmetry in the system . falling Symmetric twins. shall show. the two . Such composite crystals. of which instances occur in sodium chlorate.

calcite. p. as a rule. 431. and so on for five. The lamellae and twins are said physical characters of homologous faces and edges being the same. These prismatic crystals are again twinned so as to approximate in external appearance to a These complex twins and tetragonal. and with respect to all the homologous lines of which the twin-axis is one. e. two portions. the twinning is sometimes repeated several times parallel to the same twin-face. Similarly. in which the faces taken together would compose a tetrakis-hexahedron of class II of the cubic system. but they are. 527. Fig. 499. one consisting of portions of three crystals a triplet . In certain substances. Many twins are distinguished by the . labradorite. the juxtaposed twin of pyrargyrite. six and eight. complementary twin. number of The statement which is defines the twin-orientation in a given case is : called the twin-law for instance. to be polysynthetic. Such multiple twins occur among the crystals of some substances. when we wish 3. Tests of twinning. is another simple prismatic crystal consists of intercrossing twinned individuals the oblique or anorthic system. twinning may occur at the same time with respect to each of the homologous faces of a form to which a The twin-face belongs. or even to a cubic. other similar twins. A twin of two individuals we shall call a to emphasize the fact that it consists of only two portions . are composed of a portions of crystals of inferior symmetry. Thus the two interpenetrating pentagonal dodecahedra of pyrites. and the crystal consists of a series of thin plates twinned according to the same law. rutile and cassiterite . one of four different portions a quartet. These complementary twins serve as an introduction to the complex twins of harmotome and phillipsite.. fec. p. having the external form characteristic of a class with complex symmetry. crystal. that of spinel twin-face a face of the octahedron. 476. which we shall discuss further on. far less common than the twins which are composed of only doublet. give an insight into those curious cases known as mimetic twins in which apparently simple crystals.g.464 TWIN-CRYSTALS. in which an apparently of Fig. make a complementary twin. Multiple twins. individuals being combined in such a way that the homologous faces of the two individuals taken together produce a form identical with that of greatest symmetry in the same system.

whilst at the other end of the same face. a twinned structure has been revealed in mimetite which had not been previously suspected. etched crystals of succin-iodimide have been observed crystal there is Strice and . and also in twins of the rhombohedral system which have the triad axis for twin-axis. meeting in a line on a face of an apparently It is also sometimes revealed by a difference of . The difference of orientation is sometimes renElectrical test. The presence of twinning is sometimes corrosion. the apices are all turned the other way. It is therefore necessary to determine whether the portions forming the re-entrant angle have a parallel or a twin. Art. the angle 111 A (111) = 38 56'. Re-entrant angles may. When the crystals are translucent. 215. this method fails. 269. in the case of isotropic (cubic) crystals. By its means. thus. simple hexagonal crystals of lithium potassium sulphate (Chap.simple crystal. 466.TESTS OF TWINNING. difference of orientation of the several parts can in most cases be decided by examination in plane-polarised light . by at which faces meet in re-entrant angles will be indicated without interrupted strokes. p. the identity or Optical test. xvn. however. 19) often reveal a twinned structure by the fact that. showing at one end of a prism-face triangular pits orientated as shown in Fig. 1 The edges of lines . 465 presence of re-entrant angles'. and in a few cases in other systems. the opposite ends of the twinned crystals of succin-iodimide just mentioned are both analogous poles. in Fig. thus. or from Dana's Mineralogy. occur on untwinned crystals. however. as the temperature falls. except when the figure is taken modification from a memoir on the particular twin. p. the two similarly developed ends become positively is electrified whilst a central zone negatively electrified. and are The apparently negatively electrified with falling temperature. dered manifest by the electrification resulting from change of temperature. which may be made by like or unlike faces. The angles between the faces meeting in such edges will be indicated by affixing a minus sign . shown by barbed striae. Inspection generally suffices to show whether all the like faces in the neighbourhood of the re-entrant angle are parallel or not. and be due either to an irregularity in the deposition of the matter or to the presence of some obstacle. for instance. The optical investigation in polarised light is the most delicate test that can be applied. 420. when composite. orientation of the corrosion -figures observed on the same face of a thus.orientation. and of which no external evidence.

some of which are given in Art. Repeated twinning also occurs in the same crystal parallel to two or more for twin face. A. can be accepted as a twin.e. 421. Spinel. form the main subject of sub-section A.466 4. The above twins Complementary twins. Possibly a single case of a well-formed twin of simple law may be accepted. Before a group. 11. diamond. Fio. the normal to a face of the octahedron or tetrahedron . i. TWINS OF THE CUBIC SYSTEM. juxtaposed twins are generally combined along a plane perpenSuch twins are hemitropes having a dicular to the twin-axis. and the 5. i. have been described in which combination takes place along one of those faces of the form {211} which are parallel to the twin-axis. the association must be definite and regular. which does not fall under A and B. and occur with sufficient frequency to prove that it is not merely accidental. faces of the form. for instance. 6. In this system the twin-axis is usually one of the triad axes. having for twin-axis the normal to a dodecahedral face and an angle of rotation of 180 about the axis. will be discussed in sub-section B. provided the law itself is not un- common in the system to which the crystal belongs. subdivisions The only instance of a hemitropic twin. TWINS OF THE CUBIC SYSTEM. is a twin of galena having a face of {441} This law gives rise to a lamellar structure clue to repetition of the twinning parallel to the same face. Twin-axis a triad axis. 420. face of {111} for twin-face. Some twins of crystals of class V require a normal will (211) for twin-axis. A few instances. . Let us suppose an octahedron of spinel or magnetite to be divided into two equal parts by a plane parallel to the face Fio. composed of differently orientated portions.

In these figures.2 x 70 32' = 38 56' . the face-symbols of the other portions are enclosed in brackets. such as 101 and (101). : edges are the intersections of portions of opposite faces which are parallel in the simple crystal. we enclose in parentheses the symbols of the faces on the portion which is supposed to have been rotated. The different portions are also sometimes indicated by capital Roman numbers. To determine the twin-law of the spinel and diamond doublets. is easy. it was shown that six faces of the dodecahedron are parallel to each triad axis. &c. 421 represents a similar twin of galena in the Cambridge Museum. Oil. (TOI). When the twin is a triplet. marked tabular habit by the disproportionate development of the Twins of this habit also Galena. such as those represented by Figs. occur in crystals of gold and diamond. This is well seen in the specimen. In Chap. is con- The edges in the plane of section form a regular hexagon. ^11 1). 7. the pairs of parallel faces 101. the two portions being then joined together along this plane. When letters are used to indicate the faces. the twinned crystal. &c. d{101} and a {100}. and the angles over opposite edges are equal salient and re-entrant angles.. the re-entrant angle over the opposite edge is equal to that over dd' and is .TWINS OF SPINEL AND GALENA. and in those of other twins. The twin often acquires a more or less strongly faces parallel to the combination-plane. for two octahedral faces on different portions of the twin are parallel. 420 and 421. Fig. 407 and the front half to be turned through 180 about the normal to the plane of section. The determination of the twin-law in simple cases. (Oil) are co-planar after a semirevolution of one portion about the twin-axis. (110). and is indicated in the drawing by the omission of a one another. as can be proved by 302 . and the additional portions of multiple twins are indicated either by different type or by affixing to the letter an index-number. opposite pairs of these faces being parallel. 17. Art. xv. 420. in which the forms are: o{lll}. those of the rotated portion are usually underlined. Thus the salient angle over the edge dtl d' is 111 A (III) = 180 . HO. the sides of which are parallel to the dyad axes of the crystal these structed. quartet. dividing line between the co-planar portions of faces of the two individuals. Fig. braces.38 56'. and adjacent faces making angles of 60 with Hence the twin-axis being [111].

Fig. Fig. dd" and d'd also bring the rotated half into the position of the fixed one. the student can convince himself that a semi-revolution of one half about the triad therefore be either parallel or trial with a cardboard model of axis perpendicular to the plane of section transforms the simple octahedron into the twinned form. magnetite.468 measurement TWINS OF THE CUBIC SYSTEM. or 211. which are The two parallel to the triad axis [111]. is best interpreted which lies in the combination-plane an opposite acute This line is the normal to one of coign. Selecting for We . 121. begin with a drawing of the cube. vi. the faces 112. 422. also the physical relations and there is nothing to discriminate between . in which the The two portions are symmetrical to a combination-plane parallel to (111). as having for twin-axis the line and joins an obtuse to portions are similar portions of separate semi-revolution of the front crystals. The twin of diamond. Diamond. t it These positions of the twin-axis satisfy the geometry of the twin. mologous lines in the plane d dd' bisecting. and galena.. The latter is adopted for the sake of greater simplicity in the expression of the twin law. an octahedron bisected by a plane parallel to (111). 8. To draw the spinel-doublet. The twin-axis must By perpendicular to these faces. of the cubic faces. of but opposite faces in a crystal of class the cubic system are dissimilar. and we inscribe the octahedron by joining the middle points A. also be described as a symmetric twin. of the angles in the zone of which dd' is the direction of the zone-axis. A semi-revolution about the line lying in the plane of section and bisecting at right angles the edge dd' in Fig. them and the triad axis as the twin-axis. respectively. A half about the triad axis [111] brings similar faces on the two portions into parallelism . and in the particular instances of spinel. By such a rotation the twin is represented as consisting of two like halves of Semi-revolutions about each of the two hoseparate crystals. such as was described in Chap. 420 brings the rotated portion into the position of the fixed half. 423. is V A FlG> 422 - simple crystal twin may therefore not produced by such a rotation. in which faces 111 alone occur. The same interpretation should be applied to the spinel-like twins of diamond. &c. A'.

DRAWING THE SPINEL-DOUBLET. of Fig. and fio/' are also equal. Op a. can then be drawn. O A' equal and parallel to OA'. forming the t . AA A t A llt &c. rotated axis of A' and the parametral length a measured in the negative direction. where p . 469 twin-axis the diagonal p"p. 420 is quickly completed. 424.fill. tiA'a. if the original axes are shifted without rotation so as to pass through O. A_'. flA lt in 423 to points at the same parametral distance from li. therefore the direction of the rotated axis Hence a semi-revolution about is of Y . tl and and the dodecahedral axis 0S4 d be the point in which A'R meets 084 where a. The edges dd\ &c. f The and . hexagonal section in the combination-plane.> we determine the position of the cubic axes of the rotated half. let Produce A'R to t f . To determine the position of the cubic axes of the rotated portion we proceed it as follows. ( The angles OA 'a/} angles A'QR. which are to A. OA' and Qa. SlA in direction and magnitude .. for. and QA'. A^ of the rotated portion of the doublet are t now found by producing through it li the axes O A.A is the FIG. IA'. coigns A. . are bisected at right angles at R. FIG. toA'.. R = RA' and join Oa. at R.. The point O is the origin of the cubic axes. 423. t .4 'a four-sided figure. 420. . Similarly. tt 424 be part of a section of the cube and octahedron by the plane containing OA'. which is Oft interchanges toA' with no. . OA'to^ is a rhombus. this : To prove let Fig. On to the axis cut off a length Rto equal OR. toa. these being the reflexions of the origirotated tl nal axes in the plane AA'A . but it is the negative direction. it can be shown that Q. and so are the a. The point A is joined to d and d'. for the diagonals Oto Hence QA' = fia = OA'. so that Fig. and the points of bisection of the edges A A".. the length a measured on it in the positive direction.. and similarly for the other edges. are measured in opposite directions. The plane AA'A meets the twin-axis OR= Op tl +3. and that toA tt axis of is the rotated Z and The Fig.

using the rotated axes. needs no separate description. and other physical characters of opposite faces. in which the comple/A {111} and //. dodecahedron. normal to the plane of section then a twin is constructed such as shown in Fig. 7 to be possible in the twins of spinel and galena. the directions of any rotated edges being found by Weiss's rule. can be drawn in a similar manner . Suppose a rhombic dodecahedron to be bisected by a plane parallel acquire to (111).'. 425. mentary tetrahedra lustre. for the faces which meet in edges in this plane are portions of opposite faces the difference in physical character on opposite sides of the : combination. &c. Such a symmetric twin is possible in blende. the doublets with a triad axis for twin-axis a very different aspect. A'.470 The coigns TWINS OF THE CUBIC SYSTEM. As already explained in describing the twin of galena. lines parallel is easily found by drawing through A". they are distinguished from true octahedra by the difference in markings. the determination of and equal the rotated axes unnecessary. Fig. so that. For a semi-revolution of one of two similar halves of separate crystals would give a twin which is physically and geometrically symmetrical to the combination-plane. Twin-crystals of this habit. When such crystals are twinned in the same way as those of spinel and galena. . if the spinel-twin is in length to alone needed. When the prominent faces on the crystal are those rhombic dodecahedron. can however be most &c.plane is well seen in the specimens. but in which a certain number of subordinate forms are introduced. of the turned through is and the front half to be 180 about the . The twin-orientation does not in this case permit of a double interpretation in the manner shown in Art.{111} are nearly of equal size: 9. six faces of the rhombic FIG. 420 any variation depending on the presence of modifying But the twin is faces. the twin has geometrically the appearance given in Fig. Crystals of blende occur. such as those of the cube. t A . . 421. 425. Blende. no longer physically symmetrical to the combination-plane. The drawing of the twin of galena.. A 0O . J.

are tautozonal and have the twin axis Op tl for zone-axis. . Further. The twin therefore resembles a hexagonal prism. the twinning is not. This is due to the fact that the faces present are those of the tetrakis-hexahedron {210}. the twinning not. in which of the angles between adjacent pairs faces are all equal (p. The faces at opposite ends are no longer parallel. 110 and (110). the twin has six tautozonal dodecahedral faces. 426.. inclined to one another at angles of 60. are co-planar.TWINS OK BLENDE AND COPPER. limited to the production of a doublet. limited to one twin-face but repeated parallel to different tetrahedral faces. as a rule. but are usually combinations of this form with /u. Fig. {100}. This is clearly seen on breaking some of the crystals. 231 FIG. When the several portions are twinned parallel to the same face of the tetrahedron. 10. &c. When the faces of the cube and tetrahedron are largely developed. but are symmetrically placed with respect to the com bination-plane. which is terminated at each end of the twin-axis by three faces of the dodecahedron belonging to separate portions. as supposed in the ideal twin just described. Similarly. Hence a of semi-revolution about Op tl the six faces meeting at the ditrigonal coign p lt in Fig. 290). and the lamellae are numerous and thin. the faces of these forms intersect at salient and re-entrant angles in a manner which renders it often difficult to discriminate between portions of a cubic and a tetrais hedral face. 471 dodecahedron. when interruptions in the cleavages due to twin-lamellae having different orientations is will be perceived. Copper. 101 and (TOT). A semi-revolution of the front half brings the face (Oil) into the same plane as Oil.{lll}. but is repeated several times. The crystals of blende are never simple rhombic dodecahedra. 426 represents a rare twin of copper which resembles a doubly terminated hexagonal pyramid of the rhombohedral or hexagonal systems. &c. Further. the portions of which belonging to the different individuals are co-planar and show no trace of twinning save at the edges in which they meet faces not belonging to their zone.

meet in the central plane perpendicular to p"p sets of faces meet in a hexagon dyad axes which points of the sides of The bi-pyramid so formed are at right angles to the triad axis. (Zeitsch. 617. Sadebeck and xxvi. combination-plane is one of those faces of the form {211} which are parallel to the twin. that of the rhombohedral system discussed in is similar to semi-revolution of the six faces Chap. as shown in Fig. d. but leaves the geometrical aspect of the bipyramid unaltered. 1874) has shown that twins of galena and fahlerz sometimes occur in which the twin-axis is a triad axis. and the direction of a dyad axis. which are parallel to the twin-axis would. geol Ges. But. It is clearly immaterial which half of the twin is the rotated portion : in this plane the hexagon lie in the . meeting at either apex brings the matter into twin orientation. p. 1872. those edges of the simple form which diverge from the opposite ditrigonal coigns p" and p will. The ideal twin is now obtained by bisecting both crystals by a plane . two and would in each crystal compose a hexagonal prism. and an octa- Those faces of {21 1} hedral face. brings them into a position congruent with their original position. Fig.axis. each of them being the intersection of a cubic p IG 427.472 TWINS OF THE CUBIC SYSTEM. 53 55. Arts. and the 11. The two and the middle . the edges of the tetrakis-hexahedron are shown by lines of short posite character strokes. The side by side in similar orientations. Deutsch. xvi. 427 is a copy of Sadebeck's diagram to illustrate the position of the two portions in the twin of galena it is a plan of two cubo-octahedra placed in the : twin-orientation and projected on a plane perpendicular to the twinIn each crystal the edges axis. by the presence of grooves modifying the edges and In the figure several of coigns which lie in the combination-plane. Galena. if proti duced. replace these edges. if developed. 426. lt A the symbols inscribed on the faces correspond with a semi-revolution The twins often reveal their comof the six faces meeting at p". xxiv. p. crystals having been placed : that to the right has been turned through 180 about the twin-axis the two crystals touch in a common face of the hexagonal prisms. 427. at 60 to parallel to the paper are one another.

and on the other and two octahedral faces. the individual with barred letters is transferred to the right hand of that having unbarred letters. and the two other pairs form equal salient angles. in the previous case. the /-(. 427. above the paper in Fig. encloses a portion of one individual interpolated at one side of Occasionally the furrow completely encloses a definite portion in the midst of the plate. one pair. In the second modification the positions of the two individuals in Fig. the boundaries of which on one side.TWINS OF GALENA AND FAHLEHZ. as in Fig. parallel to the 473 common face. the twin-orientation is revealed by the different positions of the cubic cleavages on its two sides. They are united along a face 112 truncating the short parallel dodecahedral edges which. modifies a like edge of both crystals. are to the extreme right and left.2 x 70 32' = . in which a triad axis [111] the twin-axis. In one. 428 are interchanged. . In the latter case it the other. Fahlerz. TlT A (HI) = HI A (TlT) = 56 15'. consist of four octahedral side of four cubic and two cubic faces. 428. pai>er. 428 (after Sadebeck). viz. is An ideal twin of fahlerz. and uniting the more remote halves in the plane of section.e. form a re-entrant angle of . and a face (112) parallel to it is the combinationplane. hedral faces Til and (111) are co-planar: they are perpendicular to the twin-axis and are represented by the clotted lines. it either traverses the plate to an opposite edge. i. 428. two modifications of the twin are like found. is shown in Fig. The other tetrahedral faces meet in pairs in the combination-plane . FIG. their faces retaining the same relative directions. and transferring the copy to the right of the unbarred individual. If the twin is broken across a furrow. or it bends round and returns to the same. the furrow forming a closed curve. Owing to the tetraliedral habit of fahlerz. having the symbols 111 and (111). By copying the individual on tlie left on tracing i.{111} two tetrahedra are united in a which. or to a neighbouring edge. edge of the plate.141 4'.e. The twin has two parallel octahedral faces . The twin growth is usually manifested by deep furrows running irregularly across a largely developed octahedral face on thin tabular If the furrow starts from an crystals. Two of the tetra- plane (112).

like portion of the other. .70 32'. two kinds angle 001 . one cube. P' FIG. by joining two deltas at their apices.474 TWINS OF THE CUBIC SYSTEM. 12. which do not meet on p"p tt bisect one another at the points S'. crystals are not intergrown as regularly as is represented in Usually a small portion of a second individual protrudes . all that is needed is to complete the parallelograms which represent the faces at p" The of the rotated cube. 8 The edges of the rotated cube meeting fee. Fluor. The the figure. and the The individuals are p^So"... of Figs. so related that a wedgeprotrudes from a cubic face of The re-entrant angles at which the faces intersect are of the angle 100 A (GOT) = 010 A (OOT) . Fig. 429. 423. directions arid length of these edges being known. 423 and 429. The two pairs of tetrahedral faces. meet in salient angles now meet in equal re-entrant angles of 56 15' the remaining pair of faces o do not meet. which in the first modification.48 11'. Those cubic edges. the short edges : Interpenetrani twins. of and p/t are equal and parallel to the rotated axes in Fig. 429 represents an ideal interpeuetrant twin cubes of fluor having p"p tl for twin-axis. the student can easily make a diagram which gives fairly well the relations of the twin. such as A (OOT) = . t . The co-planar faces 111 and (111) are united in and the common face resembles the figure produced [ofo].

AR AR t/ . individuals. remarkable interpenetrant twin of sodalite. The terminal edges of is set of edges. arranged cross-wise so that opposite segments belong to one individual and are in like and two to orientation. . the six faces of both individuals parallel to the twin-axis coalesce to form a case. In the specimens at Cambridge the prism edges. which.TWINS OF FLUOR AND SODALITE. . hedra twinned about one of the triad 13. These edges also lie in pairs. But however numerous and independent these several portions may individual about the seem to be. each of these faces is divided into four parts. Al 2 Si 3 O 12 shown in Fig. and there is no repetition of the twinning about the other homologous axes. they are all twinned to the large same triad axis. . like dary-lines those of the FIG. is formed by faces of different The other set of edges. which are like parallel to the face A'A^A'A. 475 in twin-orientation from a face of the cube. and only one end of the twins can be seen. for want of precise knowledge as to the boundaries of may consider to be equal join points t the individuals. over them are re-entrant. In this however. like sets of six like edges. Two portions of this face belong to 101 (TOT). such as A'A lt are much elongated as compared with the terminal edges.. The one shown by continuous lines: they are the the rhombic dodecahedra. Na4 (AlCl) axes. each being In the diagram the dimensions are such that an equably developed rhombic dodecahedron can be formed by prolonging each edge of either individual whilst the cubic coigns remain unchanged. 430 marked xx and nn on one composite faces. 430. in planes parallel respectively to two faces of the hexagonal prism as. and the angles 38 57'. . the pair lt . As in the twin of blende. we the boun. and the angle over each of them faces meet in two is AR ti . for instance. Sodalite. A . ARlt <tc. and similar but apparently unconnected portions of different magnitudes often protrude from other faces. interchangeable by a semirevolution about the twin-axis. hexagonal prism. R t x. 60. is sometimes observed in This twin consists of two rhombic dodecacrystals from Vesuvius.

Pyrites. Each of the triangular faces of this latter form is a portion of one of . The re-entrant angle over each of these edges TT {hkO} and 52'. the dyad axis in which two cubic edges intersect . Twins dodecahedral faces are dyad axes. is 36 being twice the angle the twin-axis makes with the adjacent normal The second set of edges join each a triad coign to a point on (102). For all other forms the orientation will be geometrically as well as physically different. which is geometrically identical with the tetrakis-hexahedron {210} of Chap. for the construction of the complementary dodecahedra T {hkO} and T (MO). 15. and after a semi-revolution about any one of them the orientation is the same as at first. two kinds. Hence a semi-revolution of a crystal of these classes orientation which about the normal to a dodecahedral face brings it into a new is always physically different from the first. 18. auxiliary cube employed in Chap. 431. xv. the only axes of symmetry associated with the four triad axes are three dyad axes parallel to the edges of the cube. IV. the diagram. The rethe angles over which are salient. The two dodecahedra interpenetrate one another more or less regularly. consists of the edges FIG. TT We take of first dodecahedra {210} pyrites the twinned dihedral pentagonal shown in Fig. TWINS OF THE CUBIC SYSTEM. Twin-axis the normal to a face of {110}. Arts. we should obtain a twenty-four-faced figure. 37 and 38. and the angle over each of them If is also 36 52'. Art. 14. and V. protruding each beyond a face of the other dodecahedron. xv. we removed bounded by the faint lines of the diagram. to which of the [ee] belongs. and is only geometrically alike in the cases of those special forms which are common to the class of the crystal and to classes I and II. entrant edges in which faces of different individuals meet are and are of shown by faint lines. of this kind cannot occur in crystals of classes I and II of the cubic system for in these crystals the normals to the . representing the individuals of equal size. But in crystals of classes III. which are geometrically the same as TT {MO}. 431.476 B. One set. so In that pairs of the cubic edges cross one another at right angles. those portions of the dodecahedra which form irregular three-faced pyramids. each pentagonal face can be traced by the more strongly marked edges.

the portions being separated by the lines through the centre of the face and each coign. co-planar. of the cube {100}. If developed to such an extent as to present. make up the holohedral form. or of the octahedron {111}. 432 (after vom Rath) represents two interpenetrating triakis-tetrahedra fj. The twins have therefore been called supplementary. for they would be interchanged by rotations of 1 From what possible. obliterate the other faces. or complementary terms which serve to indicate the geometrical relations of the faces to one another. These axes are dyad axes. consist of six triangular portions. we should obtain a mimetic twinned cube. these cubic faces were developed to such an extent as to pass through the faint cubic edges of Fig. 16. The same orientation of the two individuals is also obtained by a rotation of 90 cibout any one of the cubic axes. further. Eulytine. and a quarterrevolution about one of them was shown in Chap. Each face of this octahedron would. 20 about the triad axis perpendicular to the composite face. and would be co-planar. to bring a dodecahedron T {MO} into the position of r {MO}. 477 the pentagonal faces which serves as base for the protruding portion in the twin and the twenty-four faces of the twinned dodecahedra . precedes it follows that mimetic twins of pyrites are which may have the external form of the tetrakis-hexa- hedron {210}. they would form an octahedron. If. The dyad and triad axes Hence the cubic of the two individuals have the same if faces truncating the intersecting cubic edges of the twin would be parallel. the individuals were. 38. directions. 431. equably developed. that different faces of the individuals are brought after rotation into similar positions. as in the figure. . The only difference between the two modes of stating the twin-orientation is {110}. Fig. however. Art. the octahedral faces modifying each trigonal coign are.TWINS OF PYRITES. and can be . which could not be distinguished from a simple cube except by the fact that different portions of each cubic face would be Each cubic striated in directions at right angles to one another. of its faces labelled n is in the position of /x{2ll}. xv. { 2 1 1 } of euly tine twinned acThe individual having one cording to the same law as pyrites. Alternate triangles would belong to the same individual. The twin-axis may be the normal to any one of the faces of and the angle of rotation 180. face would consist of four isosceles triangles the centre of the face to the trigonal coigns. the equal sides joining when Similarly.

de Min. lie the obtuse ditrigonal coign of the one would. (i) brought into the same orientation as the other by revolution about the normal to any face of rotation of 90 about one of the dyad axes a semi(ii) {110}. we may represent the mimetic Each intetrahedron by Fig. or by a which pass through the points section of pairs of of inter- edges of the two the equably developed inter-crossing individuals are represented as meeting in the three axial planes. iv. . when united in pairs p. consisting of four crystal. 433. between the centre and the acute ditrigonal coign of the other : we may express this by the statement that the acute ditrigonal coign of the one is superimposed on the obtuse ditrigonal coign of the other. 433 is made by the portion of Fig.478 TWINS OF THE CUBIC SYSTEM. tl . dividual of the quartet consists of the pyramid formed by joining the to three coigns p. if developed. 433. these coigns. Treated as a mimetic isotropic. cut parallel to a face (111) close to the surface of apparently simple crystals. pyramid exactly equal to Op'p^p" of Fig. 1881) found that plates of eulytine. along exactly If their pyramid-faces and meeting at the space enclosed by their four bases. terprets the apparently simple crystal of eulytine as a mimetic quartet. opposite tetrahedral forms. and the pyramid-faces are Op'p'". pyramids of a rhombohedral Neglecting any small modifying faces. 434. These faces are parallel to three and a faces of the rhombic dodecahedron centre for base the equilateral triangle t. 61. trigonal and having made by FIG. In the figure The triad axes of the two individuals are in the same lines. Soc. 434 which is intercepted by the plane DD'D" and Four such pyramids as has its apex at p. Op'p in Op p". FIG. but F IG - 432. such a crystal will be a tetrahedron of the cubic system. Such a pyramid Op'p'"p resembles the pyramid OXYZ of Fig. on which the tetrahedron ^{111} is largely developed. Bertrand (Bull. give in convergent light between crossed Nicols the black cross and a series of circular rings characteristic He therefore inof a uniaxal crystal. 309: Or is its triad axis. p. M. pDD'D" fill will. fran$.

111] 131} clear that. 211 truncates [110. as phenomena (described as anomalous) in crystals of leucite. This interpretation has been supported by finding that some of the substances become when the temperature is raised. it follows that the twin of eulytine represented in Fig. 265. 101] 110 [100. the external give. &c. true of the corresponding cubic faces. Bertrand's interpretation be admitted. 432 consists of twenty-four all Assuming that they (or possibly of forty-eight) different portions. If M. Bertrand states that in certain crystals. ill]. each of the rhombohedral pyramids constituting the mimetic tetrahedron is itself made up of three separate Professor portions which have their optic axes substantially parallel. in Chap. 47P quartet of four pyramids of the rhombohedral system. 001 [Til. in which the cubic symbols of the poles in the table are inscribed in black ink. three (or six) meet at each acute There are not enough data to settle to which 1 The student will do well to make a stereogram. it is : a section from near the surface. shape of which he does not Further. also the similar garnet. boracite. p. and the three faces of the complementary tetrahedron /*{111} equally inclined to the face Dfyjy become three faces of the rhombohedrou{311}. 312.TWINS OF EULYTINE. but in which probably the faces of ^{211} are largely developed. 010]. cubic. isotropic similar . 100 [111. in a section near the centre of the tetrahedron.. According to this view the faces of the cube become those of the /u{211} adjoining the . M. causing an indistinctness in the optic phenomena hence the necessity of From what precedes. the inclination of a tetrahedral face to an adjoining face of the rhombic dodecahedron. Oil truncates [001. Attention was. are the result of a strained structure. Art. succession in the following table 1 the same is They are given in : Cubic crystal. entrant edges to the centre. and by the production of phenomena in isotropic substances by mechanical strains the phenomena in the latter being found to vary with the external shape. xvi. meet regularly in the planes joining the tetrahedral and re- ditrigonal coign. 111 [113. and the corrpspondinp rhombohedral symbols of the same poles in red ink. 59. rhombohedron {111} the three faces of the cubic base (111) become faces of the rhombohedron {110} . . portions of different rhombohedral pyramids will overlap. called to the way in which these rhombohedra form a series such that the faces of one truncate the edges of a following one . 010] Rhombohedral crystal. Klein and other crystallographers maintain that the crystals are truly and that the optic phenomena in these crystals. analcime. like Fig. the angular element may be taken to be 35 16'.

in which the dyad axes of the two forms are given by the lines joining pairs of opposite points A. is connected with the arrangement of the the arrangement in the one being particles in the two correlated bodies . at any given instant. to that in the other as an object is to its reflexion in a mirror. The twinned tetrahedra are repre187G). 216. nor a centre of symmetry.g. or tetrahedra r{lll} twinned in a manner geometrically the same as the twins of eulytine (Groth.the other laevoFIG. But by handed reflexion in a plane a right-handed helix is reproduced in a lefthelix. CLVIII. Sodium chlorate. crystal shows that the individuals rotate the plane of polarization in opposite directions. which in enantiomorphous crystals limits the motion of the ether to circular oscillations. right-handed beam is the faster. Ann. if is beam . and vice versa . in loevogyral crystals the left-handed. or r{332} with TJlll}. 435.480 class TWINS OF THE CUBIC SYSTEM. 435. so that the particles of ether of which the motion constitutes a ray of light are. This helix is right-handed and resembles a : corkscrew. p. they are frequently aqueous solution at temperatures below deltoid dodecahedra T {332}. light is propagated in such crystals by circular oscillations. of but the class the rhombohedral system the individual should belong is probably one in which there are neither dyad axes . but Further. It is highly probable that the sodium chlorate are constraint. sented in Fig. 17. gyral. According to Fresnel's theory. the one being dextro. A'A Examination of plates cut from the twinned t . It follows therefore that the optically as well as crystallographically reciprocal reflexions in the planes containing the dyad axes of the twinned individuals. When the crystals are deposited from C. placed parallel to certain faces of both crystals. resolved into two circularly polarised beams of equal intensity. it is polarised beam. in dextrogyral crystals the opposite directions of rotation. arranged in a helix described on a cylinder of circular section which has its axis in the line of propagation of the light the intensity of the light is measured by the square of the radius of the circular section. whilst by a semi-revolution about a line a helix is reproduced in one of the two individuals in the twin of same kind.. The optical relations of the individuals united in the twin of line parallel to sodium chlorate show that a semi-revolution about a . e. Pogg. and the light consists of a right-handed circularly polarised a left-handed screw in the case of a left-handed circularly When plane-polarised light falls on the crystal.

2. Such an octahedron includes portions of both individuals. 437. In this twin.TWINS OF DIAMOND AND HAUYNE. and is a mimetic twin similar to that described as possible in pyrites. &c. partly because a few crystals having the form of V hexakis-tetrahedra of this class have been observed. which are symmetrical to the dodecahedral plane of symmetry perpen- their close affinity dicular to the corroded face. . cutting off these pyramids. the portion in each octant which l>elongs to one individual L. c. o /( . they intersect in re-entrant edges AA' &c. Geometrically and two individuals are reciprocally symmetrical to each the planes A 'AA t . Octahedra of these substances are found. in which the edges are replaced by grooves as shown in The crystals of diamond are placed in class of the Fig.. be obtained. 436. of hydrogen chloride. or a quarter-revolution about one of the dyad axes does not bring the matter of one into a state of similar orientation with that of the other. : 18. 435. faces of which are labelled o. When etched by a solution containing 12 per cent. but involves the absence of the cubic planes of symmetry. cubic system. 31 . and the trigonal t pyramids projecting beyond these edges belong to separate indiIf now planes are drawn through the re-entrant edges viduals. 436. 437. the FIG. This fact is consistent with the presence of the dodecahedral planes of symmetry. for the latter reason and from : to crystals of sodalite. partly to account for the grooves those of hauyne. each face of the rhombic dodecahedron of sodalite shows triangular pits. however. Diamond and hauyne. an octahedron like that in Fig. 481 one of the tetrahedral edges. FIG.. o'". If two tetrahedra are twinned like those shown in Fig. will o. and such a twin cannot be optically the of explained by means of a twin-axis of rotation. which contain two dyad axes of both individuals they form a symmetric twin denned in Art.

to A. symmetrical with respect to the combination-plane. ^^^ x > ~"~^ ** revolution about it gives first. speak of it as a hemitrope with Oil for twin-face. The twin is also We shall. Each ditrigonal coign is then modified by a tetrahedral face (111). which cuts off the greater portion of the ii. and the twin is represented as if formed by upper union of two like halves of separate crystals. which would somewhat resemble the twin of eulytine. combination-plane. 111]. 438. the faces on the lower half of Fig. and. semi-revolution about the line in the combination-plane parallel to = [100. 438. This can be derived from twinned hexakis-tetrahedra Fig. TWINS OF THE TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. 432. identical with the is an orientation The twin-axis the face. a face a of the twin-axis {100} of both individuals is co-planar: is therefore parallel or These twins have a face of the In the But the perpendicular to this face. In both minerals the faces a and m are usually well developed. like Fig. therefore parallel to since the crystal is symmetrical to the face and to a centre. The same explanation may be given of the crystal of diamond. protruding pyramid. is produced the sides of the grooves are faces of the tetrahedron which is complementary to that to : which the octahedral face belongs. By drawing the truncating planes further away from the centre. the space included between the axial planes. however. a mimetic octahedron having grooved edges. the lower half is brought into congruence with [as] the the half. the twin-axis may be either perpendicular or parallel to the FIG. normal to a is a dyad axis and a semi.482 fills TWINS OF THE TETRAGONAL SYSTEM. Twin-axis the normal Cassiterite a face of {/iQl} or {hhl}. Fig. so that only a portion of each of the projecting pyramids is cut off. 294. 438 are By a brought into parallelism with those on the upper half. Fig. . 19. 436. pyramid {101} for