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CASE STUDY: USAGE OF INTERNET IN ADVERTISING AND SALES PROMOTION
VAISHALI NITIN SANGARE DPGD/JA10/0929 SPECIALIZATION: GENERAL MANAGEMNT
WELINGKAR INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT & RESEARCH YEAR OF ADMISSION : JANUARY 2010
CERTIFICATE FROM GUIDE
This is to certify that work titled “ case study – Usage of internet in Advertisement and Sales Promotion is a bonafied work carried out by Mrs Vaishali N Sangare (Roll no DPGD/JA10/0929), a candidate for the Post Graduate Diploma Examination of Welingkar Institute of Management Development & Research Institute under my guidance and direction .
Signature of Guide : Name : Vijay Balkrishna Konduskar.
Designation : Chief Technology Head Address : Shop No5, Ground Floor, 41-57, Rangari Badak Chawl, Kalachowki , Mumbai 400033 Date :
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter - 1 Introduction to the industry …………….………………..……………………….6 Chapter - 2 Introduction to the Organization ……….…………….……………………12 Chapter – 3 Research Methodology.……………………………….……………………21 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 . Chapter – 4 Facts & Findings …….………………………………………..……………90 Chapter – 5 Analysis and Interpretation …….…………………………………..………92 Chapter – 6 SWOT …….……………….…………………………….…………….……97 Chapter – 7 Conclusions …….…………………………………..………………………98 Chapter – 8 Recommendation and Suggestions …….………….………………………100
Title of the Study …….………………….………………………22 Planning of Human Resource….……………………...…………24 Growth and Development at Bhaskar.…….……………….….…30 Recruitment …….……………………….….……………………33 Objective of the Study …….……………….……………………37 Type of Research …….………………………..…………...……80 Sample size and method of selecting sample ………….…...……82 Scope of Study …….…………………………….………………86 Limitations of Study …….………………….………....…...……88
……..…………………106 5 ..….………… ……………………….Chapter – 9 Appendices ….…….…………103 Chapter – 10 Bibliography ……….………………………..……….
USAGE OF INTERNET IN ADVERTISEMENT. SALES PROMOTION ………………………………Real Money making Machine 6 .
1 INTRODUCTION The Internet began as an experiment by the U. advertising was the dominant element in marketing communication. by AMA. wholesalers. These efforts can attempt to stimulate product interest. Examples of devices used in sales promotion include coupons. samples. Def. 7 . The objective was to help scientists and researchers from widely dispersed areas. through the creation of a set of connected networks that would act as a coordinated whole. and sweepstakes. trial. A relatively short time ago. contests. point-of-purchase (POP) displays. work together by sharing scarce and expensive computers and their files. premiums. INTERNET ADVERTISING Internet Advertising is also known as online advertising or web advertising may be one of the most effective advertising methods used. as it provides the ability to target specific markets while they are surfing the Internet. This situation has changed dramatically in the last 25 years with sales promotion now accounting for 75 percent of total promotional expenditures. Since then the Internet hit meteoric growth and is now universally accepted as the world's most sophisticated. interconnected database.S. Sales promotion was regarded as distinct from advertising and useful as a means of reaching niche customers to attain short-term sales bursts.‖ In a specific snese. such as displays. demonstrations and other non-recurrent selling efforts not in the ordinary route. Sales promotion includes several communications activities that attempt to provide added value or incentives to consumers. retailers. shows and expositions. rebates. Department of Defense in the 1960's. or purchase. SALES PROMOTION Sales Promotion refers to many kind of incentive and technique directed towards consumer and traders with intention to produce primarily immediate or short-term sales effects. or other organizational customers to stimulate immediate sales. sales promotion includes those sales activities that supplement both personal selling and advertising and coordinate them & help them to make effective.
an 8. a fellow PhD student at Stanford.4 percent increase from a year ago with 931 million unique visitors. Eventually. The domain name for Google was registered on September 15. and the company was incorporated on September 4.GOOGLE Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in California. 1997. unique visitors of Google surpassed 1 billion mark for the first time. It was based in a friend's Susan Wojcicki garage in Menlo Park. California. Growth 8 . the number one followed by one hundred zeros.stanford.edu. which was picked to signify that the search engine wants to provide large quantities of information for people Originally. Craig Silverstein. Google ran under the Stanford University website. with the domain google. they changed the name to Google. was hired as the first employee. originating from a misspelling of the word "googol". In May 2011. 1998.
plus one in Finland and another in Belgium. denoted as "to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet Google Data Centers Google Inc. the name "Google" had found its way into everyday language. after outgrowing two other locations. the number one followed by a googol zeroes. The Googleplex interiors were designed by Clive Wilkinson Architects. California. During this time. Hong Kong and Taiwan) which the land has been owned by Google Inc.The complex has since come to be known as the Googleplex.In March 1999.This model of selling keyword advertising was first pioneered by Goto. advertisements were solely text-based. against Page and Brin's initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine. currently owns and operates 6 data centers across the U. 9 . In order to maintain an uncluttered page design and increase speed. home to several other noted Silicon Valley technology startups. Since then. Keywords were sold based on a combination of price bids and click-throughs. a play on the word googolplex. the company moved its offices to Palo Alto. with bidding starting at five cents per click. Google was granted a patent describing its PageRank mechanism. an Idealab spin-off created by Bill Gross.. In 2003. it sued Google over alleged infringements of the company's pay-per-click and bidding patents.S. 2011 the company has announced to build 3 data centers worth more than $200 million in Asia (Singapore.com.By that time. Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords.The patent was officially assigned to Stanford University and lists Lawrence Page as the inventor. California. with Google agreeing to issue shares of common stock to Yahoo! in exchange for a perpetual license. On September 28. Three years later. causing the verb "google" to be added to the Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary. The case was then settled out of court. the company leased its current office complex from Silicon Graphics at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View. It will be operated between one to two years ahead Management team Jump to: Executive Officers Board of Directors Co-founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin brought Google to life in September 1998. When the company changed names to Overture Services. Overture Services would later be bought by Yahoo! and renamed Yahoo! Search Marketing. The next year. Google would buy the property from SGI for $319 million.
Move. Hennessy. John has also been a member of the board of directors of Amyris. Inc. Intuit. John Doerr. Senior Vice President and Chief Business Officer David C. John held various positions at Stanford. Intel Corporation K. since August 1980. John L. Co-Founder Nikesh Arora. and Sun Microsystems.. Schmidt. Inc. Sergey Brin.com. and serves on its Nominating and Governance Committee.. John Doerr has served as a member of our board of directors since May 1999. Inc. Corporate Development and Chief Legal Officer Patrick Pichette. including Dean of the Stanford University School of Engineering and.000 employees worldwide. Chair of the 10 . L. since May 2006.the company has grown to more than 20. Stanford University Ann Mather Paul S. a synthetic biology company. with a management team that represents some of the most experienced technology professionals in the industry. a supplier of networking computing solutions. Board of Directors Larry Page. Schmidt. Executive Chairman Sergey Brin.. Drummond. Inc. Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers John L.. CEO Eric E. Ram Shriram. John has served as the President of Stanford University since September 2000. Senior Vice President. John holds a Master of Business Administration degree from Harvard Business School. and as Lead Independent Director since April 2007. John has been a General Partner of Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers. a provider of real estate media and technology solutions. Google Inc. a provider of business and financial management software. Hennessy has served as a member of our board of directors since April 2004. Sherpalo Ventures Shirley M.. Otellini. and a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering from Rice University. Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer Board of Directors L. Eric E. an Internet retail company. Princeton University Executive Officers Larry Page. John was previously a director of Amazon. Google Inc. Tilghman. a venture capital firm. Inc. Google Inc. and a Master of Science degree in electrical engineering and computer science. From 1994 to August 2000.
He also served as Intel’s Chief Operating Officer from 2002 to May 2005. Otellini » K. Ram Shriram has served as a member of our board of directors since September 1998.. in 2009.com. Ram 11 . Ram has been a managing partner of Sherpalo Ventures. and serves as chair of its Audit Committee. a semiconductor manufacturing company. Inc. Otellini has served as a member of our board of directors since April 2004. Paul holds a Master’s degree from the University of California at Berkeley. a motion picture and television production and distribution company. Inc. Zappos. and Netflix. and a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering from Villanova University. Inc. Paul held various positions at Intel. since December 2010. since July 2010. From 1999 to 2004. an Internet retail company... since September 2005. since May 2010. Sales and Marketing Group. an Internet retail company. and serves on its Nominating and Governance Committee and Acquisition Committee. and a Bachelor’s degree in economics from the University of San Francisco. John holds a Doctoral degree and a Master of Science degree in computer science from the State University of New York.. Paul has been a member of the board of directors of Intel since 2002. John has also been a member of the board of directors of Cisco Systems.com. Inc. a global payment services company. Hennessy » Ann Mather has served as a member of our board of directors since November 2005. Prior to her service at Pixar. Ram served as Vice President of Business Development at Amazon. and Executive Vice President and General Manager. including Executive Vice President and General Manager. an angel venture investment company. until it was acquired by eBay Inc. More about Paul S. Ann was Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer at Village Roadshow Pictures. a developer and operator of national commercial television channels and stations in Central and Eastern Europe. More about John L. until it was acquired by Amazon.. a computer animation studio. Ram served as President at Junglee Corporation. Paul S. Ann has also been a member of the board of directors of: Glu Mobile Inc. Ann was previously a director of Central European Media Enterprises Group.com.. and serves on its Audit Committee. Intel Architecture Group. LLC. an e-commerce company. John was previously the chairman of the board of directors of Atheros Communications. a wireless semiconductor company. a price comparison web site. which was acquired by Amazon. Ram is also on the board of trustees of Stanford University.com. From 1974 to 2002.com in 1998.. MGM Holdings Inc. an Internet subscription service for movies and television shows. since May 2005. Stony Brook. since January 2000. Prior to that. Ram was an early member of the executive team at Netscape Communications Corporation. a networking equipment company. Inc.. Inc. a provider of database technology. a privately held. MoneyGram International. the film production division of Village Roadshow Limited. in 2005. Inc. a publisher of mobile games. Paul has served as the Chief Executive Officer and President of Intel Corporation. since January 2002.. Ann holds a Master of Arts degree from Cambridge University and is a chartered accountant.Stanford University Department of Computer Science.. and serves on its Compensation Committee. Ann was Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Pixar. online retailer. and Shopping . From August 1998 to September 1999.
advertising agencies “How to Generate or make money with the help of revenue sharing / referral /images/video /click/streaming video online advertisement. India. she took the role as founding director of Princeton’s multi-disciplinary Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics. and earn money every time ads are clicked 12 . More about K.holds a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Madras. Therefore the goal of "Internet Marketing Advertising" is to basically make products or services known and create an exchange between individuals and organizations. and a Bachelor of Science degree with honors in chemistry from Queen’s University Businesses need advertising agencies to help them generate awareness. non-personal announcement of a persuasive message by an identified sponsor. the non-personal presentation or promotion by a firm of its products to its existing and potential customers There are several types of internet marketing advertising that can use to promote online business such as: Google AdWords : Google's AdWords allows advertisers to display their advertisements in the Google content network. Shirley has served as the President of Princeton University since June 2001. goods. and from August 1988 to June 2001. From August 1986 to June 2001. through either a cost-per-click or cost-per-view scheme Adsense Google Adsense. In 1998. Shirley holds a Doctoral degree in biochemistry from Temple University. interest in their offerings. Tilghman has served as a member of our board of directors since October 2005. This is one of the best resources out there for finding those who can best utilize the advertising media. and more importantly. or services. Ram Shriram » Shirley M.” “with the help of Online/Offline advertisement buyer as well as seller both can earn money or share revenue ” discussions are as follow: Internet Advertising is the presentation and promotion of ideas. she served as a Professor at Princeton University. as an Investigator at Howard Hughes Medical Institute. The paid. allows website owners to display these advertisements on their website. public.
Learn more about the cost of advertising with Google AdWords. Cost: There's no minimum monthly charge with AdWords. It is intended to attract traffic to a website by linking to the website of the advertiser. That way. Banner ads A web banner or banner ad is a form of advertising on the World Wide Web delivered by an ad server. or you can let contextual targeting match your keywords to content. Ads appear under 'Sponsored links' in the side column of a search page. you'll be advertising to an audience that's already interested in your business. You can also choose to display your ads on Display Network sites in the growing Google Network. sound. such as a newspaper article or an opinion piece.e. or tall and narrow) hence the reference to banners. And. you can choose the exact Display Network placements where you'd like your ad to appear. or video to maximize presence. the 13 . including text. Flash. and video ads. These images are usually placed on web pages that have interesting content. and may also appear in additional positions above the free search results. often employing animation. This form of online advertising entails embedding an advertisement into a web page. For every unique user click on the ad. Images are usually in a high-aspect ratio shape (i. either wide and short. Affiliates earn money usually on a CPC (cost per click) basis. The advertisement is constructed from an image (GIF.AdWords ads are displayed along with search results when someone searches Google using one of your keywords. and easily track your ad performance using the reports available in your account. image. You can choose from a variety of ad formats.
the viewer is directed to the website advertised in the banner. Behavior is often tracked through the use of a click tag. Usually though. Without attracting attention it would provide no revenue for the advertiser or for the content provider. although web banners differ in that the results for advertisement campaigns may be monitored real-time and may be targeted to the viewer's interests. This event is known as an "impression". In many cases. Web browsers may also have extensions available which block banners. resulting in a revshare system and higher quality ad placement. This event is known as a "click through". for example Adblock Plus for Mozilla Firefox. or AdThwart for Google Chrome and ie7pro for Internet Explorer. Pop ups Pop-up ads or pop-ups are a form of online advertising on the World Wide Web intended to attract web traffic or capture email addresses. When the viewer clicks on the banner. advertisers use ad networks to serve their advertisements. Pop-ups are generally new web browser windows to display advertisements. such as Privoxy. Another way of avoiding banners is to use a proxy server that blocks them. Many web surfers regard these advertisements as highly annoying because they distract from a web page's actual content or waste bandwidth.affiliate earns money. This payback system is often how the content provider is able to pay for the Internet access to supply the content in the first place. When the advertiser scans their logfiles and detects that a web user has visited the advertiser's site from the content site by clicking on the banner ad.) Newer web browsers often include options to disable pop-ups or block images from selected websites. The pop-up window containing an advertisement is usually generated 14 . banners are delivered by a central ad server. Web banners function the same way as traditional advertisements are intended to function: notifying consumers of the product or service and presenting reasons why the consumer should choose the product in question. the advertiser sends the content provider some small amount of money (usually around five to ten US cents). Typical web banner The web banner is displayed when a web page that references the banner is loaded into a web browser.
the term is usually used to refer to: Sending email messages with the purpose of enhancing the relationship of a merchant with its current or previous customers. SEO tactics may be incorporated 16 . Sending email messages with the purpose of acquiring new customers or convincing current customers to purchase something immediately. or inbound links. academic search. including image search. the earlier (or higher ranked on the search results page). However. Because effective SEO may require changes to the HTML source code of a site and site content. and Sending email messages over the Internet. Search engine optimizers may offer SEO as a stand-alone service or as a part of a broader marketing campaign. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks. is another SEO tactic. what people search for. In its broadest sense. The acronym "SEOs" can refer to "search engine optimizers. In general. Email marketing Email marketing is a form of direct marketing which uses electronic mail as a means of communicating commercial or fund-raising messages to an audience. SEO may target different kinds of search. SEO considers how search engines work.Classified advertisements are much cheaper than larger display advertisements used by businesses. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content and HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. As an Internet marketing strategy. Adding advertisements to email messages sent by other companies to their customers. the actual search terms typed into search engines and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. and more frequently a site appears in the search results list. news search and industry-specific vertical search engines." a term adopted by an industry of consultants who carry out optimization projects on behalf of clients. the more visitors it will receive from the search engine's users. and by employees who perform SEO services in-house. as email did and does exist outside the Internet (e. to encourage customer loyalty and repeat business. network email and FIDO Search engine optimization Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a website or a web page in search engines via the "natural" or un-paid ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results. and are mostly placed by private individuals with single items they wish to sell or buy. every email sent to a potential or current customer could be considered email marketing. video search.g. local search..
content management systems. although Google and others have implemented automated system to guard against abusive clicks by competitors or corrupt web developers Google Product: Advertising 17 . and all three operate under a bid-based model. and appear adjacent to or above organic results on search engine results pages. that provides purchase opportunities wherever people may be surfing. Content sites commonly charge a fixed price per click rather than use a bidding system. and Microsoft adCenter are the three largest network operators. The term "search engine friendly" may be used to describe website designs. PPC "display" advertisements are shown on web sites with related content that have agreed to show ads. Such advertisements are called sponsored links or sponsored ads. menus. and revenue sharing programs. which seeks to drive a high volume of traffic to one site. it represents no cost to the merchant. Variations include banner exchange. Yahoo! Search Marketing. Among PPC providers. PPC implements the so-called affiliate model. images. shopping carts. or when a content site displays relevant content. Google AdWords. pay-per-click. This approach differs from the "pay per impression" methods used in television and newspaper advertising. videos.into website development and design. and other elements that have been optimized for the purpose of search engine exposure Pay per click advertising Pay per click (PPC) (also called Cost per click) is an Internet advertising model used to direct traffic to websites. Websites that utilize PPC ads will display an advertisement when a keyword query matches an advertiser's keyword list. With search engines. It is a pay-for-performance model: If an affiliate does not generate sales. In contrast to the generalized portal. It does this by offering financial incentives (in the form of a percentage of revenue) to affiliated partner sites. or anywhere a web developer chooses on a content site. The affiliates provide purchase-point click-through to the merchant. The PPC advertising model is open to abuse through click fraud. advertisers typically bid on keyword phrases relevant to their target market. where advertisers pay the publisher (typically a website owner) when the ad is clicked.
Google : Click Fraud One of the disadvantages and criticisms of this program is Google's inability to combat click fraud. a non-profit organization protesting a major cruise ship's sewage treatment practices. advertisements from competing and rival companies often showed up along with those results. or organizations. there has been controversy over Google's "search within a search". groups. Google advertisements can be placed on third-party websites in a two-part program. Google cited its editorial policy at the time. which causes that advertiser to pay money to Google unduly. Google can determine user interests and target advertisements so they are relevant to their context and the user that is viewing them. For the 2006 fiscal year. Google Analytics allows website owners to track where and how people use their website. the company reported $10. Google has implemented various innovations in the online advertising market that helped make it one of the biggest brokers in the market.Ninety-nine percent of Google's revenue is derived from its advertising programs. where a secondary search box enables the user to find what they are looking for within a particular website. For example. through either a cost-per-click or cost-per-view scheme. Furthermore. when a person or automated script "clicks" on advertisements without being interested in the product. for example by examining click rates for all the links on a page. Google reached an advertising 18 . Google stopped showing the advertisements of Oceana. Another complaint against Google's advertising is its censorship of advertisers. though many cases concern compliance with the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.492 billion in total advertising revenues and only $112 million in licensing and other revenues. Industry reports in 2006 claim that approximately 14 to 20 percent of clicks were in fact fraudulent or invalid. Google AdSense. and earn money every time ads are clicked." The policy was later changed. in February 2003. allows website owners to display these advertisements on their website. It was soon reported that when performing a search within a search for a specific company. The sister service. In June 2008. drawing users away from the site they were originally searching. Using technology from the company DoubleClick. Google's AdWords allows advertisers to display their advertisements in the Google content network. stating "Google does not accept advertising if the ad or site advocates against other individuals.
Interest Test Simple image and text-based ads and use what works. Google pulled out of the deal in November 2008. which would have allowed Yahoo! to feature Google advertisements on its web pages. Age.S. Choose audience by Location . two teams compete at putting Google's technology into new contexts. The alliance between the two companies was never completely realized due to antitrust concerns by the U.agreement with Yahoo!. Search Engine Journal said Demo Slam is "A place where creative and tech-savvy people can create videos to help the rest of the world understand all the newest and greatest technology out there. but If it were a country it would be the third largest in the world behind China and India only. In an attempt to advertise its own products." Face book Advertisement: First Social networking NGO allows people to Display Buy/Sell product online with the help of Social Networking Connect more than 800 million potential customers. Department of Justice. but the trick is to find them. 19 . As a result. Each week. . Google launched a website called Demo Slam. You’ve probably heard this line by now. developed to demonstrate technology demos of Google Products. There’s a pretty good bet that some members of your ideal target customer reside in and visit Facebook land. Currently Facebook boasts somewhere in excess of 400 million users and growing.
The tool allows you to place small display type ads in the right sidebar of Facebook pages and profiles. the real trick is expanding your keywords to the point where you have a large enough audience to get the job done. at least for now.) Demographics are pretty straightforward. gender. (Bookmark the Facebook Ad Help Center and return to get answers to the Facebook Ads process) Target One of the best things about Facebook advertising is the ability select who sees your ad using a number of variables. You can target by geography.Facebook’s advertising platform is a vehicle worth exploring. but it’s not really the same kind of vehicle and you won’t find AdWords in Facebook. education. Facebook used to have a tool that let you search for the hottest topics being discussed but they shelved it as they build a more 20 . Like many things Facebook. age. (I know someone who wanted to send a birthday message to his wife and targeted so narrowly that she was the only who would see the ad. Below is a description of five steps to consider as you explore Facebook advertising. setting up and running successful campaigns isn’t as straightforward as it could be. At this point it’s not as effective in pure response as well targeted Google AdWords campaigns. workplace and keywords. including keywords. relationship status.
(Here’s a nice Glossary of Facebook Ads terminology in case this is starting sound buzz wordy. Initially you are just testing so you’ll want to set 21 . You’ll get another 135 characters to describe and entice in the body of the ad.) Some users find Facebook ads a good tool to promote events or get new fans to the pages. From an engagement standpoint think in terms of using the ads to promote content and value and not so much to sell something.) To start your campaign you must determine a bid per click and daily budget. Most research suggests that the CPC model is slightly more effective in terms of ROI. If you are already the administrator of your Facebook Page. and advertising that event. You also have the option to upload an image. Event. like a webinar. Check out all of your targeting options here:- Attract and Engage The first thing you must do is decide whether you want people to be directed to your own web page or something on Facebook like a Page. (One quirk of note – when you promote an event created with the Facebook event app the title of the ad will automatically default to the title of the event.robust analytics package. Think about putting white papers on your Fan Pages and promoting that content or creating a free event. or Application. but don’t expect much. (All their followers automatically see that action. You can set both of these numbers very low. Group or Event. Group. In both of these cases you’ll have the opportunity to sell a bit once you’ve proven you know your stuff. You can choose between a cost per click (CPC) model where you pay only for clicks or a cost per thousand (CPM) model where you pay per 1000 ad views. The most successful use of ads on social networks is to create deeper engagement so you have the ability to sell once trust is built. so name your event wisely ) You don’t get much space in these ads so use it wisely. People don’t even have to visit your page to take action. Budget Facebook advertising works a bit like AdWords in that you bid for keywords and compete to get your ads shown. Application. How effective you are at this depends upon the competitiveness of your keywords. The thing that’s nice about using ads to promote your pages and events is that Facebook puts a ―Become a fan‖ or ―RSVP to this event‖ button right in the ad. you can select it from the drop down option. Your headline (25 characters) should grab attention immediately with a benefit. There are some pros to sending them to a link on your web site (better tracking options) but by sending them to assets on Facebook you have the ability to multiply their actions through the natural social wall activity that occurs when someone RSVPs to an event.
So. No matter where or what you should always test your advertising. not targeted demographics and interests of the people clicking on your ads and keywords that drew that interest. if you are running an ad for an event or Facebook page you can use the Facebook Insights tool to monitor interaction. Once you create an ad you will have the ability to create similar ads and run those as well. You can and should create multiple ad versions.your click bid somewhere around the Facebook suggested amount and a daily budget you can live with. You can always adjust these. If you click on See All you will get full reporting. Online applications like this make it pretty darn simple. 22 . Page admins can access Insights by logging in and viewing the box titled Insights in the left sidebar. More information on Insights here and from the very useful blog Inside Facebook. Facebook Insights is a nice reporting tool as it can give you information about the actual. Facebook does need to approve your ads so make sure you are familiar with their guidelines. Facebook has a tool that gives you some information on actions taken inside the Facebook platform. This will help you narrow or broaden your targeting. something like $50 or more to start. Here are some suggestions from Facebook on improving your ads. This is only visible to Page admins. Analyze Once you create and launch your campaigns you need to start tracking and tweaking. You’ll be able to easily view which ad is performing the best based on clicks.
Facebook does allow you to run ads that point people links outside of Facebook and in order to track these ads you simply and monitor them using your own analytics tool such as Google Analytics. Microsoft Bing :AdCenter Working Same As Google Advertisement The Microsoft Bing ad is the first in what's believed to be a $100 million campaign about to pound the world via television. If you are using Google Analytics simply use the URL builder tool in Analytics to create a link to your page that contains tracking parameters and place that in your Facebook Ad as the destination link. and the Web. radio. While the commercials aren't ever expected to mention Google by name. they clearly target the search giant and try to convince users it isn't everything it's cut out to be. print. 23 .
banners attached to or sides of airplanes ("logojets"). and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. shopping cart handles (grabertising). stickers on apples in supermarkets. musical stage shows. Commercial advertising media can include wall paintings. skywriting. virtual billboards may be inserted into the background where none exist in real-life. web popups. newspapers. elastic bands on disposable diapers. human billboards. mobile telephone screens. This technique is especially used in televised sporting events Virtual product placement is also possible. as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. Television advertising / Music in advertising The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format. bus stop benches. subway platforms and trains. in-flight advertisements on seatback tray tables or overhead storage bins. town criers. The majority of television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product. 24 . Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising.JustDial : Earn through reseller program Allow Online Business listing as well as Recruiting Direct Sales Agent(DSA) Types of Advertising : Virtually any medium can be used for advertising. shopping carts. street furniture components. cinema and television adverts. posters. sides of buses. printed flyers and rack cards. the opening section of streaming audio and video. More controversially. The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this game has reached US$3 million (as of 2009). web banners. radio. magazines. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrop or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience. billboards. roof mounts and passenger screens. Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through computer graphics.doors of bathroom stalls. taxicab doors.
An infomercial is a long-format television commercial, typically five minutes or longer. The word "infomercial" combining the words "information" & "commercial". The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase, so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website. Infomercials describe, display, and often demonstrate products and their features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals.
Radio advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio. Radio advertisements are broadcast as radio waves to the air from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. Airtime is purchased from a station or network in exchange for airing the commercials. While radio has the limitation of being restricted to sound, proponents of radio advertising often cite this as an advantage. Radio is an expanding medium that can be found not only on air, but also online. According to Arbitron, radio has approximately 241.6 million weekly listeners, or more than 93 percent of the U.S. population.
Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. Online ads are delivered by an ad server. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages, banner ads, in text ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam.
Covert advertising, also known as guerrilla advertising, is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. For example, in a film, the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand, as in the movie Minority Report, where Tom Cruise's character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with the Bulgari logo. Another example of advertising in film is in I, Robot, where main character played by Will Smith mentions his Converse shoes several times, calling them "classics," because the film is set far in the future. I, Robot and Spaceballs also showcase futuristic cars with the Audi and Mercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. Cadillac chose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded, which as a result contained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. Similarly, product placement for Omega Watches, Ford, VAIO, BMW and Aston Martin cars are featured in recent James Bond films, most notably Casino Royale. In "Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer", the main transport vehicle shows a large Dodge logo on the front. Blade Runner includes some of the most obvious product placement; the whole film stops to show a Coca-Cola billboard.
Press advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper, magazine, or trade journal. This encompasses everything from media with a very broad readership base, such as a major national newspaper or magazine, to more narrowly targeted media such as local newspapers and trade journals on very specialized topics. A form of press advertising is classified advertising, which allows private individuals or companies to purchase a small, narrowly targeted ad for a low fee advertising a product or service. Another form of press advertising is the Display Ad, which is a larger ad (can include art) that typically run in an article section of a newspaper.
Billboards are large structures located in public places which display advertisements to
passing pedestrians and motorists. Most often, they are located on main roads with a large amount of passing motor and pedestrian traffic; however, they can be placed in any location with large amounts of viewers, such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations, in shopping malls or office buildings, and in stadiums.
Mobile billboard advertising
Mobile billboards are generally vehicle mounted billboards or digital screens. These can be on dedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements along routes preselected by clients, they can also be specially equipped cargo trucks or, in some cases, large banners strewn from planes. The billboards are often lighted; some being backlit, and others employing spotlights. Some billboard displays are static, while others change; for example, continuously or periodically rotating among a set of advertisements. Mobile displays are used for various situations in metropolitan areas throughout the world, including: Target advertising, One-day, and long-term campaigns, Conventions, Sporting events, Store openings and similar promotional events, and Big advertisements from smaller companies.
In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store. It includes placement of a product in visible locations in a store, such as at eye level, at the ends of aisles and near checkout counters (aka POP—Point Of Purchase display), eye-catching displays promoting a specific product, and advertisements in such places as shopping carts and instore video displays.
Coffee cup advertising
Coffee cup advertising is any advertisement placed upon a coffee cup that is distributed out of an office, café, or drive-through coffee shop. This form of advertising was first popularized in Australia, and has begun growing in popularity in the United States, India, and parts of the Middle East.
This type of advertising first came to prominence in the UK by Street Advertising Services to create outdoor advertising on street furniture and pavements. Working with products such as Reverse Graffiti, air dancer's and 3D pavement advertising, the media became an affordable and effective tool for getting brand messages out into public spaces.
This type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power, fame, money, popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote specific stores or products. Advertisers often advertise their products, for example, when celebrities share their favorite products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers. Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns such as television or print adverts to advertise specific or general products. The use of celebrities to endorse a brand can have its downsides, however. One mistake by a celebrity can be detrimental to the public relations of a brand. For example, following his performance of eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China, swimmer Michael Phelps' contract with Kellogg's was terminated, as Kellogg's did not want to associate with him after he was photographed smoking marijuana.
Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages, banner ads, in text ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam.
Advertising Media Planning:
Media planning helps you determine which media to use--be it television programs. Media planning supports message dissemination. banner ads on the Web. Word of mouth is an unplanned brand contact -. Instead of focusing solely on what medium is used for message dissemination.1. From the consumer's perspective. unplanned forms of brand contact may be more influential because they are less suspicious compared to advertising. consumer Internet. or a flyer on Facebook. The brand contact perspective shows how the role of media planners has expanded. are made separately from the content and are inserted into it. Introduction The two basic tasks of marketing communications are message creation and message dissemination.is playing an increasingly significant role. The ads are distinct from the articles or TV programs. Simply put. Television commercials. media planners have moved from focusing only on traditional media to integrating traditional media and new media. movie screen advertising and videogame advertising -. bus-stop posters. Brand contact is any planned and unplanned form of exposure to and interaction with a product or service. media planners also pay attention to how to create and manage brand contact. when you see an ad for Volkswagen on TV. reaching $68.9 percent from 2005-2009. It also tells you when and where to use media in order to reach your desired audience. radio ads. media planners are involved in the negotiation and placement. media planners are making more use of product placements now. you are having a brand contact. 29 . satellite radio. like print ads or television commercials. Spending on new advertising media is forecast to grow at a compound annual rate of 16. however.advertisers normally do not plan for word of mouth. First. newspapers.5 million per thirty-second spot. while traditional media advertising is expected to rise only 4.62 billion by 2009.cable and satellite television. business-to-business e-media. Second. for example. When advertisers run commercials during the Super Bowl game at more than $2. For example. are told by a friend that her iPod is the greatest invention. Media planners often see their role from a brand contact perspective. hear a Mazda's "zoom zoom" slogan on the radio.2 percent on a compound annual basis during the same period to $192.28 billion. New media -. in-store displays. or sample a a new flavor of Piranha energy drink at the grocery store. Advertising insertions. in lieu of advertising insertions. media planning refers to the process of selecting media time and space to disseminate advertising messages in order to accomplish marketing objectives. and product sampling are planned forms of brand contact.
is one form of unplanned message. the site had generated 426 million hits from 15 million unique visitors averaging six minutes per session.subservientchicken. for Burger King to illustrate its slogan "Have It Your Way. Word of mouth. catapulting the new product to mainstream status. As a result. in the movie E. Whereas planned messages are what advertisers initiate -. video game or other form of entertainment. product placement puts the brand message into the entertainment content..like an ad.T. both online and offline. dance or lay an egg. In contrast. Whether content is a television program. the extraterrestrial eats Reese's Pieces candy. Finally. The candy was authentically integrated into the movie ?and sales of Reese's Pieces soared 80% after the movie. the ads seem intrusive.not a part of them.073 of its "agents" to get the word out These new approaches have altered how media planning works in the advertising process. they can facilitate such a flow. the role of media planners has expanded as media planners have moved beyond planned messages to take advantage of unplanned messages as well. Many visitors learned about the site through word of mouth.On the other hand. advertising agency Crispin Porter + Bogusky (CP+B) created a viral marketing mascot. Although advertisers have little direct control over the flow of unplanned messages. Now it's reversed. In the first two weeks after the site's launch. reported a 76% jump in 2003 revenues after hired gun Bzz-Agent launched a 13-week word of mouth campaign employing 1." Visitors to the www. For example. specialized agencies have started to hire word of mouth agents to work for advertisers on a fee basis. both online and offline." said 30 . inappropriate or excessive product placements may do more harm than good to the brand. movie. For example.com site can ask the chicken to make a move. Within months. including five separate segments in television shows unplanned success. press release or sales promotion -. "Seven years ago media was the last five minutes of the presentation. the Subservient Chicken story appeared on 63 broadcast segments. the Subservient Chicken. product placement (also called brand placement or branded entertainment) blends product information with the content itself. Rock Bottom brew pub chain. such as jump. Initial research suggests that many consumers react positively to this kind of word of mouth communication For example. More recently.unplanned messages are often initiated by people and organizations other than advertisers themselves.
and gaming ads. The objectives represent the most important goals of brand message dissemination. For example. Media Objectives How is a media plan developed? Media planning is a four-step process which consists of 1) Setting media objectives in light of marketing and advertising objectives. Now. You'll learn about sources of data to use to identify your target audience.Rishad Tobaccowala of Publics Group Media. The communications goals component of the media objectives defines how many of the audience the campaign intends to reach and how many times it will reach them.) provide details on target audience and communication goals. Media objectives usually consist of two key components: target audience and communication goals. The next two sections (2. starts with setting media objectives. 3) Designing media tactics for realizing media strategy. and 2. and they are the concrete steps to accomplish marketing objectives. You'll also learn 31 . Media planning.2.1. P&G's target audience objective for its Fusion shaving system was men 18-40 years old. media objectives are a series of statements that specify what exactly the media plan intends to accomplish. such as planning the marketing communications for the launch of the Fusion new shaving system. 2. mobile. let's take a deeper look into the media planning process. whose fast-growing Starcom division helps clients buy and measure interactive. Media planners are playing an increasingly important role in today's advertising industry because of the continuing proliferation of new media options and the increased complexity of media and audience research. 2) Developing a media strategy for implementing media objectives. The target audience component of the media objectives defines who the intended target of the campaign. and 4) Proposing procedures for evaluating the effectiveness of the media plan. In short.
32 .S. 2. such as greater convenience. For example.1. encouraging them to switch brands. Target Audience The first objective of a media plan is to select the target audience: the people whom the media plan attempts to influence through various forms of brand contact. or additional plan features. lower cost. which is why the media objective is needed.1 Demographics and Psychographics The target audience is often defined in terms of demographics and psychographics. The point is that each campaign could increase sales via a different target audience. If the advertiser chooses to attract competitors' customers -. For example. The definition may or may not be exactly the same. Syndicated research services such as Simmons Market Research Bureau (SMRB or Simmons) and Mediamark Research Inc. Or. Consider Kellogg's Corn Flakes and all the different strategies the advertiser could use to increase sales among different target audiences. Marketers analyze the market situation to identify the potential avenues for boosting sales increase and consider how advertising might achieve those aims. Because media objectives are subordinate to marketing and advertising objectives.1. one target audience might be current customers -. Or.encouraging people who eat one bowl a day to also "munch" the cereal as a snack.how to quantify communication plans. the advertiser might target young adults who are shifting from high sugar "kids cereals" to more adult breakfast fare. But this marketing objective does not specify a target audience. Finally. it is essential to understand how the target audience is defined in the marketing and advertising objectives.like what Sprint does to attract users of other wireless services -the media plan will need to define the target audience to be brand switchers and will then identify reasons to give those potential switchers to switch. the advertiser could target a broader lower-income demographic. in 2006 Sprint Nextel ran an ad campaign urging consumers to switch to Sprint because "no one has a more powerful network‖ 2. (MRI) provide national data on a number of demographics of U. A common marketing objective is to increase sales by a specific amount. the advertiser might target competitors' customers. depending on the marketing and advertising objectives and strategies.
000 or more" or "all households with children age 3 years or younger." Some advertisers believe that demographic definitions of a target audience are too ambiguous. and other products. for example. One psychographic system which media planners often use is called VALS (short for Values And Lifestyles). environment. beliefs and attitudes about social issues (opinions about abortion. age. Achievers. Mazda. they may like different brands of toothpaste. but by psychographic principles. Thinkers. because individual consumers that fit such definitions can be quite different in terms of their brand preference and purchase behavior. sports. Believers. income or gender. household income. convenience shoppers). Innovators are 33 . Innovators are "successful. Makers and Survivors. clothing. the target audience of a media plan could be "individuals who are 26-to-45 years old with yearly household income of $50. conservative). take-charge people with high self-esteem. For example. Even though some of them are the same age and gender. shampoo. type of residence.S.consumers. Mazda targets people who have a need for self-expression. Because they have such abundant resources. Experiencers. cereal. VALS places U. Therefore. price-sensitive shoppers. which was developed by SRI in the 1980s. marital status. funny. media planners use psychographics to refine the definition of the target audience. Each segment has a unique set of psychological characteristics. education. adult consumers into one of eight segments based on their responses to the VALS questionnaire. and shopping orientations (recreational shoppers. The eight segments are: Innovators. think about the students in a media planning class. and number of children in the household. They are change leaders and are the most receptive to new ideas and technologies. For example. movie going). doesn't define its target audience by age. employment status. they exhibit all three primary motivations in varying degrees. personal interests (music. globalization). Using demographic variables. Psychographics is a generic term for consumers' personality traits (serious. including gender. are young at heart. Strivers. and love to drive. for example. sophisticated.
Product usage includes both brand usage (the use of a specific brand such as Special K cereal or Dove soap) and category usage (the use of a product category such as facial tissue or chewing gum).3.2.very active consumers. They have the leisure time to invent new ways of using electronic gadgets. Because the members of a particular generational cohort are likely to have had similar experiences during their formative years.S. Originating from the world for "high school. music. 34 . If a psychographic group of consumers likes playing golf. they are likely to read golf-related magazines and visit golf-related Web sites. Each of the cohorts possesses distinct characteristics in their lifestyles and often serves as a reference group from which finer segments of the target audiences can be selected for specific advertising campaigns." kogals are a unique segment of young women in urban Japan who conspicuously display their disposable incomes through unique tastes in fashion. Generational cohorts in the U. attitudes. and Generation Y (about 60 million people born between 1979 and 1994). 2. Manufacturers observe kogals and listen to what they say is unsatisfactory about the products.1. they started changing mobile phones' ring tones from boring beeps to various popular songs and changing screen savers from dull defaults to cute pictures. Product and Brand Usage Target audiences can also be more precisely defined by their consumption behavior. Generation X (about 17 million people born in 1965-1978). niche products and services. and their purchases reflect cultivated tastes for upscale. In some cases. generational cohort is another useful concept for selecting the target audience. they maintain analogous social views. Generational Cohorts In addition to demographics and psychographics. and values. and social activity. manufacturers simply imitate the new usages that kogals spontaneously invented and incorporate these usages part of their own new commercial services. For example.1. are the Baby Boomers (about 70 million people born 1945-1964). An interesting example of a generational cohort is "kogals" in Japan. for example." Defining a target audience by psychographic variables helps not only creative directors with the development of advertising appeals but also media planners with the selection of effective media channels. thereby increasing sales 2.
buying and consuming a product or service to target the right groups of consumers effectively. brand usage has several categories. The levels of use depend on the type of product. children's requests often initiate a purchase process. Simmons defines heavy domestic beer users as those who consume five or more cans in the past 30 days. For example. and light users as those who consume one can in 30 days. Primary users use a brand most of the time but occasionally also use other brands in the same category. if the target audience of a campaign is defined as working women 26-to-44 years old who are interested in receiving daily news updates on their mobile phones. Primary and Secondary Target Audience The target audience in a media plan can be either primary or secondary. 2.5.Product use commonly has four levels: heavy users. while a secondary target audience plays a less decisive role. parents often respect their children's brand selection. Thus. In the case of video game players. media planners should 35 ." This highlights the importance of heavy users for a brand's performance. Knowing the actual size helps advertisers to estimate the potential buying power of the target audience.1. and 1 trip per year are light travel users. A primary target audience is one that plays a major role in purchase decisions. For example. Simmons and MRI offer brand usage data for many national brands. Examples of defining a target audience by product usage can be "individuals who dine out at least four times in a month" or "individuals who made domestic trips twice or more last year. medium beer users as those who consumer two to four cans. Media planners need to examine and identify the role of consumers in shopping. 2 foreign trips per year are medium travel users. light users and non-users. it is reasonable to consider children as the primary target audience and their parents as the secondary target audience. media planners often examine and specify the actual size of a target audience -.how many people or households fit the definition.4." Similarly.1. The Size of Target Audiences In the process of defining a target audience. for example. Brand switchers are those who have no brand preference for a given product category but choose a brand on the basis of situational factors. Brand loyals are those who use the same brand all the time. medium users. For travel. it will be easier for children to convince them of the purchase. If the parents are aware of the advertised brand. An analysis of the brand usage pattern is helpful for the identification of the appropriate target audience. 2. Simmons' definitions are: three foreign trips per year indicate heavy travel users. they are secondary users for these competing brands. There is a popular saying in the industry: "the twenty percent who are heavy users account for eighty percent of the sales of a product.
Census provides demographic data. one communication goal can be that 75 percent of the target audience will see the brand in television commercials at least once during a period of three months. vehicle exposure. Census Bureau provides the most authoritative data about demographics of the U.S.are particularly relevant for media planning. to quantify the sales potential. For example. As another example. as shown in Figure 1. the monthly sales would be 4.S.estimate the number of these women in the U. and each household purchases the brand two times a month. advertising persuasion. if the target audience consists of 2.000. For example. or the number of households that can tune in to a given television channel.S. The first three levels of goals from the bottom -. The U.000 households in the U. they set communication goals: to what degree the target audience must be exposed to (and interact with) brand messages in order to achieve advertising and marketing objectives.vehicle distribution. Vehicle exposure represents only an opportunity to see an ad.000 units. The different communication goals can be better understood in a hierarchy of advertising objectives. such as Bill Harvey's expansion of an earlier model of Advertising Research Foundation (ARF). population by state. market research services such as Simmons and MRI provide demographic data that is linked to product data. This means that media planners can get information about consumers of hundreds of product types. not necessarily that the ad has actually been seen. Vehicle distribution refers to the coverage of a media vehicle. advertising exposure is rarely measured.2. It is important to note the difference between vehicle exposure and advertising exposure for many media with editorial content. The expanded ARF model has ten levels. Vehicle exposure refers to the number of individuals exposed to the media vehicle. 2.000. such as the number of copies that a magazine or newspaper issue has. and media planners use vehicle exposure as a proxy measure of advertising exposure. Another communication goal is that 25 percent of the target audience will form a preference for a new brand in the first month of the brand launch. Advertising exposure refers to the number of individuals exposed an ad or a commercial itself. and advertising exposure -. A study shows that only 68 percent of television audiences watch the commercials in television programs.S. such as the number of people who read a magazine or watched a television program. Another group of communication goals is advertising recall. In reality.S. Whereas the U. not all audience members of a television program will watch all the commercials interspersed in the program. Communication Goals After media planners define the target audience for a media plan. leads and 36 .
and frequency. Reach is one of the most important terms in media planning and has three characteristics. Media planners use reach because it represents that total number of people exposed to the marketing communication. Advertising recall represents the cognitive effect of the ad. Media planners use reach to set their objective for the total number of people exposed to the media plan. or that a campaign will generate 3000 leads. advertising persuasion represents the emotional effect of the ad. If an advertiser planned to run a commercial once during the Super Bowl. although the percentage sign is rarely used. gross rating points. reach may grow from 20 (20%) in the first week to 60 (60%) in the fourth week. As a rule of thumb.1. If the advertiser's media plan called for running the ad twice during the Super Bowl. The advertiser could also buy 6 spots on popular 37 . Frequency and Gross Rating Points Media planners often define the communication goals of a media plan using the three interrelated concepts of reach. Besides reach. then a reach of 50 means that 50% or 2. reach doesn't double-count people exposed multiple times if the media plan involves repeated ads in one media category or ads in multiple media categories. media planners use Gross Rating Points as a shorthand measure of the total amount of exposure they want to buy from media outlets such as TV networks. and leads and sales are the behavioral effects of the ad. the reach is equal to the rating of the program.5 million of the target audience will exposed to some of the media vehicles in the media plan. reach measures the accumulation of audience over time. a GRP of 42. Reach. reach is a percentage. For example. For example. If the commercial was run only once. For example. For example. 2. the GRP would be 2*42 = 84. a communication goal can specify that 50% of the target audience will recall the radio ad during the month of the campaign. Each can be specified in a media plan as a communication goal. if a media plan targets the roughly 5 million of women who are 18-25 years old. that ad would appear in 42% of households. When reach is stated. television households tuned in to the program. First.2. the 2006 Super Bowl game received a rating of 42. Second. the number of audience members exposed to the media vehicles in a media plan increases over time. Media planners often think in terms of gross rating points because ad prices often scale with this measure.sales. Third. The pattern of audience accumulation varies depending on the media vehicles in the media plan. Because reach is always defined for a certain period of time. A media plan that calls for a GRP of 84 doesn't necessarily mean that the advertiser must advertise twice on the Super Bowl.S. which means 42 percent of U. it costs about twice as much to obtain a GRP of 84 as to obtain a GRP of 42. media planners are aware of the size of the target audience.
Frequency is the ratio of GRP over reach.5). Notice the difference between GRP and reach: GRP counts total exposures while reach counts unique people exposed. the total reach for the game for the two-ad plan is 42+14 = 56. During the second half. Some media vehicles are best-suited to specific target audiences.C. 38 . the Nickelodeon TV channel controls 53% of kids GRPs. Thus. then the frequency would then be 1. Frequency connects the concept of reach with that of GRP. it's not the same 42% for both halves. As mentioned earlier. although 42% of households are tuned in to the game during each half. if the GRPs were 84 and the reach was 56. 1/3 of the game-watching households stop watching after the first half and 1/3 of game-watching households start watching during the second half. this example plan has a GRP of 84. let's consider what happens when an advertiser puts two spots on the Super Bowl -one during the first half of the game and another in the second half.S. But what is the reach? That depends on how many people watch both halves of the game. which should lead to more brand awareness. the reach of the first ad is 42. on average.5 would mean that. These rating services know that. These new watchers do count toward the reach during the second half because they didn't see the ad during the first half. customer loyalty. This 28% of households who are still watching when the second spot shows won't add to the reach when they see the second spot. when they watch.primetime shows that each have a rating of 14 (6*14 = 84) or buy a large number of spots (say 42 spots) on a range of niche-market cable TV programs. The media objectives of a media plan often call for some combination of reach and frequency.5 (84/56=1. A frequency of 1. sales. Frequency is a measure of repetition. for example. Thus. GRP does double-count people who see ads multiple times. but then one-third of these households (42%*1/3 = 14% of all households) tune out before the second ad during the second half. The formula of calculating frequency is: Frequency = Gross rating points / Reach Using the Super Bowl example again. Thus. This means that. and so on. Media planners want the highest reach possible because that means more people will be exposed to the campaign. This means that only 28% of all households watch both first and second halves of the game and see the ad twice. To see this relationship between GRP and reach. households tune in. For example. a different 14% of U. audience members of the Super Bowl game had one-and-a-half opportunities to watch the ad. and whether they watch the first half or the second half or both halves of the game. radio stations or magazines that have a rating of 2. Nielsen monitor who watches the game. Rating services such as A.
reach of 28 at the frequency of 1. launching a new brand or teaching consumers about the features of a product (like the features of a five-bladed shaving system) may take several impressions. Media planners choose an effective frequency based on the communication goals. This lets the planner estimate the effective reach of the plan at the effective frequency needed by the campaign ?the number of people who see the ads a sufficient number of times for the media plan to be effective. Let's extend this example by continuing this hypothetical campaign. This leaves 44% of households (100% . preference. Notice that the formula for frequency can be flipped to make a formula for GRPs. Thus. A total of 28% of households see the ad twice by watching the entirety of the game. Thus. GRPs are the product of reach multiplied by frequency. purchase. Effective frequency refers to the minimum number of media exposures for a communication goal to be achieved. and reach of 44 at the frequency of 0 (also called non-reach). that is. and budget issues may preclude such a high GRP. If a media plan calls for a broad reach and a high frequency.2. three times. On the Thursday after the Super Bowl. Communication goals vary across the continuum from awareness. 2. 14% of households see the ad once but then don't watch the second half. the reach at that effective frequency level will be the effective reach. reach indicates the media dispersion while frequency shows the media repetition. media planners may start with budget. however. then it calls for very high GRPs (lots of ad exposures to lots of people).2. If the effective frequency is set for a given communication goal. Effective Frequency and Effective Reach Media planners also consider frequency distribution in order to fully understand exactly how many exposures different people experience. Achieving a very high GRP is very expensive. attitude change to trial. the frequency distribution is: reach of 28 at the frequency of 2. For example.28% . In summary. while effective reach is the reach (% of households) at the effective frequency level. Frequency Distribution. 14+14 = 28% see the ad just once. etc.Media planners also seek high frequency if they feel that consumers will only take action (that is. then estimate the GRPs that they can afford and then either sacrifice reach to maintain frequency or let frequency drop to one in order to maximize reach. During the first half. and repurchase. how many people will see the ad once. Another 14% join the game in progress and see the ad once during the second half. the advertiser does one more media blitz ?showing an encore of their Super Bowl 39 . Thus. buy the product) after multiple exposures to the campaign. To change brand attitude requires more exposures (higher effective frequency) than does creating brand awareness. twice. Let's go back to the Super Bowl example.28%) who never see the ad.
ad on all major networks during the prime time slot of 8:00 to 8:30 PM. times. with the percentage of households who were watching during various combinations of the three time slots. collected from households across the country. Table 3 Frequency Distribution of the Plan 40 . Table 2 shows the viewer data. This practice of advertising on multiple channels at the same time ensures that most people will see the ad regardless of which channel they watch. 1. Table 2 Ratings of the Three Time Slots Viewers of the Ad's Time Slot Segment Super Bowl First Half 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Rating X 42 X X X X 42 X X X X 60 X X X Super Bowl Second Half Prime Time Blitz Data Frequency % of Households 30 3 2 14 5 11 12 23 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 Media planners can process this data to compute the frequency distribution (see Table 3) by tallying the total percentage of households that saw the ad 0. etc. 2.
say 50%. What. That is. The frequency distribution of the plan is in Table 9B. and c) when the brand faces severe competition. That is. making them unreachable. 23 percent of the households watched the time slot three times. new sales incentives. then.Frequency 0 1 2 3 Reach 30 19 28 23 If the advertiser believes that its ads are only effective if they are seen at least twice. In this example. and 30 percent did not watch at all. resulting in an average frequency of 2. When setting levels of frequency. new packaging or new service opportunitie.3. media planners have more rules of thumb to choose from when setting levels of reach. For example. 75% or 95%? Theoretically. GRPs of this media plan were 144 and reach was 70. how many of the target audience should be reached with the media plan. Setting Communication Goals Media planners can set communication goals based on the level of reach. media planners have often been setting a frequency of 3 41 . the effective reach is 51 because that is the sum of the reaches for frequencies 2 and 3 combined. 19 percent once. Media experts suggest high reach is appropriate when something new is associated with the brand. 28 percent twice. then the advertiser will want to know what percentage of households saw the ad two or more times. The newness requires a high level of awareness among the target audience. because 30% of households did not watch during any of the three times the ad was shown.2. but it is rarely a communication goal because some audience members may not use any of the media. A high reach is also often necessary in three other situations: a) advertising in support of sales promotion activities. such as new features. b) for reminder advertising for a mass market product. a reach of 100 is possible.1. would be the optimal level of reach for a given product category or a market situation? There is no quick answer to this question. 2. it all depends on the media planner's analysis of major factors facing the brand.
Joseph W. Therefore. advertising below the threshold level will be ineffective.2" frequency adjustment. In some cases. such as Wyoming's ads during the spring when many people are planning summer vacations.2 +. therefore. After assessing the factors.1 +. Table 4 The Ostrow Model of Effective Frequency Low Required Frequency Market Factors Established brand High brand share -. upon which the media planner makes judgments by circling an appropriate rating in that row of the chart. following Michael Naples' seminal study of effective frequency published in 1979.2 -. the media planner makes frequency adjustments based on a series of 20 factors in three categories.1 +. In the short-term. Ostrow created a decision model to help media planners determine the optimal frequency level through assessing marketing factors. the media planner sums the adjustments to calculate the recommended effective frequency. copy factors and media factors. and so the planner would circle the "+. For example.2 42 Frequency Adjustment High Required Frequency New brand Low brand share . Starting with a base effective frequency of 3. three exposures during a purchase cycle are necessary. Philip Jones found that one exposure generates the highest proportion of sales and that additional exposures add very little to the effect of the first Erwin Ephron further developed the concept of "recency planning" and suggested that one exposure within a purchase cycle should be set as close to the actual purchase moment as possible Recency planning starts with the idea that when is more important than how many." A totally new brand will require higher frequency than an established brand. As illustrated in Table 4.1 -. More recently. That is.Naples' study suggests that there is a threshold level of repetition. Media planners may modify the model by adding or removing statements to make the estimate more appropriate.during a purchase cycle. advertising will be most effective if it is timed to when a consumer is in the market to buy the product or service.2 -. Many media planners still use this rule in setting the effective frequency of a media plan. additional exposures are likely to be wasteful because audience members are not in the buying mode. advertisers know when consumers are in the market. the first factor asks the planner to rate whether the product is an "Established brand" or "New brand. each category includes several statements.1 +.
1 -.2 -.1 -.1 -.1 -.2 +.1 +.2 High clutter Neutral editorial setting Low audience attentiveness Pulse or flight scheduling More media vehicles 43 .1 -.2 +.1 -.2 +.2 -.2 -.1 +.2 -.2 +.2 High message complexity Low message uniqueness New campaign Image-focused message High message variety Low wearout Small advertising units -.1 +.2 +.1 +.1 +.1 +.1 +.2 -.1 +.1 +.2 -.2 -.1 +.2 +.1 -.1 +.2 -.1 -.2 +.2 +.1 -.High brand loyalty Long purchase cycle Less frequent usage Low share of voice Target other group Message Factors Low message complexity High message uniqueness Continuing campaign Product-focused message Low message variety High wearout Large advertising units Media Factors Low clutter Favorable editorial setting High audience attentiveness Continuous scheduling Few media vehicles -.2 -.1 -.1 -.2 +.2 +.1 -.2 +.1 +.2 -.2 +.1 +.2 +.1 +.1 -.1 -.2 -.2 -.2 -.1 +.2 Low brand loyalty Short purchase cycle Frequency usage High share of voice Target old people or children -.1 +.2 -.2 +.2 -.1 +.2 -.1 +.2 -.1 +.1 +.
By establishing communication goals. Moreover.1. and time. a media plan that intends to change the brand preference among consumers of competing brands would need a higher frequency of advertising exposures than a media plan that intends to introduce a new brand. and what media categories to use (media mix).High repeat exposure media -. In general. and then they select the combination of vehicles that best attain all of the objectives. to a few thousand dollars for local "mom-n-pop" stores. and then consider cost effectiveness. Media planners estimate and specify response rates for these activities. Media Mix Decisions Which media should the advertiser use? Media planners craft a media mix by considering a budget-conscious intersection between their media objectives and the properties of the various potential media vehicles. they make these decisions in the face of budget constraints. media planners set the stage for assessing the effectiveness of a media plan at the end. they consider how each media vehicle provides a cost-effective contribution to attaining the objectives. radio.1 +. For example. not just to traditional media vehicles such as TV. when to advertise (timing).2 Low repeat exposure media When setting frequency level goals. geographies. planners look to a whole spectrum of media. some media options are more cost effective than others. Regardless of the budget. brand awareness usually requires a lower level of frequency than advertising persuasion and lead generation. That is. In other words. The actual amount of money that an advertiser spends on marketing communications can vary widely. depending on the nature of their business. media planners may set goals for other forms of communication.allocating budget across media categories.2 -. When making media mix decisions. promotional activities may be used in a media plan. Let's look at each of these three decisions in turn. It is the job of media planners to formulate the best media strategies -. and print. For example. media planners consider all the 44 . 3. In addition to the reach and frequency goals. from billions of dollars for multinational giants such as Procter & Gamble. 3. media planners know that higher-level communication goals such as persuasion and lead generation (as shown in the expanded ARF model in Figure 9A) require higher frequency levels. such as sweepstakes. Media Strategies Media planners make three crucial decisions: where to advertise (geography).1 +. contests and coupons. companies spend as little as 1% to more than 20% of revenues on advertising. That is.
For example. Moreover. In contrast. Media planners will use dispersion if they know that no single media outlet will reach a sufficient percentage of the target audience. leading to confusion among consumers and failure of the media objectives. and podcasts. a concentrated approach using only ads on the Internet might reach only 30% of the target consumers because some consumers don't use the Internet. a concentrated approach using national news magazines might reach only 45 .1 Mix Strategy: Media Concentration vs. because only one set of creative materials will need to be prepared.1. A company can create a high share of voice with a concentrated media strategy. That is. For example. These opportunities can be nontraditional brand contact opportunities such as online advertising. Media planners will choose a concentration approach if they are worried that their brand's ads will share space with competing brands. product placement in a video game makes sense if the target audience plays video games. Sweepstakes make sense if many of the target audience find sweepstakes attractive. direct mail. sweepstakes. 3. The scale and situations of media use are especially important when evaluating suitable brand contact opportunities. radio. blogs. such as a combination of television. If the particular ad is not well received or the particular media category only reaches a fraction of the intended target audience. when Nestle launched its 99% fat-free cereal Fitnesse. a concentrated media strategy lets advertisers spend a higher percentage of their budget on frequency and reach.opportunities that consumers have for contact with the brand. the similarity of ads actually increased the sales of the competing Kellogg's Special K Cerea Media planners can calculate or measure share of voice to estimate the dominance of their message in each category of media they use. mobile phones. media planners choose a media dispersion approach when they use multiple media categories. the company can be the dominant advertiser in a product category in the chosen channel. sponsorships. product placements. For example. newspapers and the Internet. Similarly. This lets the media planner create higher frequency and repetition within that one media category. Media Dispersion A media planner's first media mix decision is to choose between a media concentration approach or a media dispersion approach. But a concentrated strategy is also an "all-eggs-in-one-basket" strategy. then it will perform poorly. The media concentration approach uses fewer media categories and greater spending per category. Share of voice is the percentage of spending by one brand in a given media category relative to the total spending by all brands that are advertising in that media category.
000 $0 $750.000 $0 $0 $200.000 $2.000 $900. Advertisers of Zipium took a media dispersion approach by allocating the budget relatively evenly across all four media categories.000 $400.consumers who see multiple ads in multiple media for a given brand may be more likely to buy. Table 5 Hypothetical Media Mix and Share of Voice Competing Brand Zipium OTC Pepzac Enerzid Total Spend by Category Television Magazine Direct Mail Internet Total Spend by Brand $1.000 $0 $600.000 out of the total of $1 million spent on television 46 .000 $0 $500. while advertisers of Pepzac and Enerzid took a media concentration approach by spending the budget in one or two media categories.000 $600. But a dispersed approach that advertises in print magazines as well as on Web sites might reach 50% of the target audience.600.000 $300. Media planners also like the dispersion approach for the reinforcement that it brings -.150. Table 5 illustrates the media concentration and media dispersion approaches to the media category allocations for three hypothetical brands of fatigue relief medication.000 $250.000 $200. Zipium gets a 40% share of voice in television because it spent $400.000 $250.000 $600.000 $850. because not every target customer reads these magazines.30% of the target audience.000 Brands' Voice in Each Category Zipium OTC Pepzac Enerzid Total % 40% 60% 0% 100% 50% 50% 0% 100% 100% 0% 0% 100% 33% 0% 67% 100% 44% 33% 23% 100% Notice the share of voice figures for the three brands in television.
then direct response media such as direct mail. online ads for car insurance such as link directly to the application process to capture the customers right at the time they are interested in the service. such as the one 47 . Media Category Selection Whether media planners select media concentration or media dispersion. GoDaddy.advertising by fatigue remedy medications. For example. The media concentration approach is often preferable for brands that have a small or moderate media budget but intend to make a great impact. The spot also earned GoDaddy a 51% share of voice. newspaper and magazine. If the media planner wants to create broad awareness or to remind the largest possible number of consumers about a brand. direct response media. For example. Although Zipium spends the greatest amount of money.000 out of the $1 million spent on TV. if media planners want to convert shoppers into buyers. coupons and price-off promotions. Fox Networks canceled the second run of the ad. Because of the controversial nature of the ad. If the media planner wants to build a relationship with a customer or encourage an immediate sales response. bought two spots in the Super Bowl in 2005.1. the Internet and mobile phone are good choices. 3. then they might use point-of-purchase media such as sampling. Thus. Looking across the other media categories. we see the effects of a concentrated versus dispersed media approach. each of these three categories of media serve a different role in moving the customer from brand awareness to brand interest to purchase intent to actual purchase and then to re-purchase. Enerzid receives a 0% share of voice in TV because it spent no money in that media category. Finally. A media planner's choice will depend on the media objectives. The controversy over the pulled ad resulted in more than $11 million of free publicity. For example. An integrated campaign. In short. Each of the other brands also dominates one category.com. Different media categories suit different media objectives. The single paid ad plus heavy media coverage of the incident greatly increased the awareness of GoDaddy. and point-of-purchase media. radio. it manages to dominate that one category through its concentrated media approach. Pepzac enjoys a dominant share of voice in television because it has the highest percentage of spending in that category. an Internet hosting service.2. a percentage which some say is the largest share of voice attributed to any Super Bowl advertiser ever. Enerzid concentrates all of its spending on the Internet. then he or she will pick mass media such as television. it only achieves dominant share of voice in one of the four media categories due to dispersal. although Enerzid has a small budget. they still must pick the media category(ies) for the media plan. Pepzac gets 60% because it spent $600. Most media options can be classified into three broad categories: mass media.
The costs of developing creative materials specific to each media category can also limit media planners' use of the media dispersion approach. the sales of leisure boats are much higher in markets such as Florida. a spot approach (advertise only in selected markets). media planners must allocate advertising by geography. Media planners need to consider which media categories provide the most impact for their particular brand. For example. California and Michigan while not advertising in other states like Iowa or Nebraska. a leisure boat manufacturer such as Sea Ray might use a spot approach to target Florida. or a combined national plus spot approach (advertise in all markets with additional spending in selected markets). television offers visual impact that interweaves sight and sound.combining national TV ads to introduce the product. a company that sells nationally can take one of three approaches to geographic spending allocation: a national approach (advertise in all markets). California and Michigan due to the large water areas in these markets. A national approach will reach a national customer base with a national advertising program. such as for Tide laundry detergent or Toyota automobiles. 3. often within a narrative storyline. A spot approach will target these states. Geographic Allocation Decisions In addition to allocating advertising by media category. Direct mail can carry free samples but can require compelling ad copy in the letter and back-end infrastructure for some form of consumer response by return mail.2. The first method is called the Brand Development Index (BDI) of a geographic region. 48 . Media planners perform geographic analyses by assessing the geographic concentration of sales in two ways. Internet media to provide one-to-one information. The creative requirements of a media category also affect media planners' decisions. The second method is called the Category Development Index (CDI) and measures the concentration of sales of the product category (across all brands) in that region. which makes a spot approach more efficient. Magazines offer high reproduction quality but must grab the consumer with a single static image. Rich media ads on the Internet can combine the best of TV-style ads with interactive response via a clickthrough to the brand's own Web site. BDI measures the concentration of sales of a company's brand in that region. For many other products. Each media category has unique characteristics. For example. and in-store displays to drive sales. however. In general. Media planners will choose a national approach if sales are relatively uniform across the country. a company's customers are concentrated in a limited subset of geographic areas. For example.described for P&G's Fusion shaving system. telephone or Internet. might use multiple categories -.
Population Consider the BDI for visitors to the state of Louisiana -. advertising in New York City will be far more expensive than advertising in Houston. BDI is calculated for each geographic area (Market X) using the following formula: Market X's Share of Total Brand Sales BDI = ----------------------------------------------. CDI. The BDI for Houston is 658 because Houston is 1. however. population. Media planners will tend to allocate more resources to high BDI markets (greater than 100) than to low BDI markets. the New York City area has a very low BDI of only 10 because even though New York City has 7. it has a much lower concentration of travelers to Louisiana. BDI doesn't reflect the concentration of potential sales as measured by sales of the entire product category. in addition to BDI when allocating resources for spot advertising. population. it means that many more Houstonians come to Louisiana than the average from other cities. advertising to New Yorkers will be less effective than advertising to Houstonians. Because such a low percentage of New Yorkers travel to Louisiana.8% of visitors to Louisiana (100 * (11. This disparity in BDI influences Louisiana's advertising strategy.8%/1. but Houstonians make up 11.Media planners use BDI to measure a brand's performance in a given market in comparison with its average performance in all markets where the brand is sold. media planners use another number. Mathematically. BDI is a ratio of a brand's sales in a given geographic market divided by the average of its sales in all markets. So. this city contributes only 0. because BDI only measures the concentration of current sales. In contrast.the geographic concentration of people who travel to Louisiana for business or pleasure. The CDI formula is: Market X's Share of Total Category Sales 49 .2% of the U.S. CDI is a measure of a product category's performance in a given geographic market in comparison to its average performance in all markets in the country.S.8% of the U. The sales of a product category include the sales of all the brands (the company's and competitors' brands) or at least all major brands that fall in the category.X 100 Market X's Share of U. Because Houston's BDI is higher than 100.S. The point is that even though New York City has a much larger population.8%) = 658). Given that the cost of advertising is often proportional to the population it reaches. BDI doesn't tell the whole story.7% of visitors to Louisiana.
That means a poorer-than-average consumption of the product category. On the other hand.CDI = ---------------------------------------------------.S. as shown in Table 6. if the sales of the product category in Market X account for 2 percent of its total sales in the U. there will be four possible combinations. which means that Market X may be less promising for spot market advertising. Yet the maker of a line of small boats that aren't suitable for the ocean may have very high BDI in Michigan but a very low BDI in California and Florida. in a market with both a low CDI and a low BDI. Population Notice the similarities and differences of the CDI formula compared to the BDI formula. Returning to the example of leisure boats. in a market with both a high CDI and a high BDI (both above 100). which is 33 percent below the average of 100. and the population in that market is 3 percent of the U. The four combinations represent two extreme cases and two mixed cases.S. we find that states such as California.S. media planners may eschew spending their advertising dollars there due to the low concentration of potential consumption -. In general. Because a BDI or a CDI for a given market can each be either above or below the average. media planners use both numbers to guide allocation decisions. media planners will seek to maintain high market share (implied by high BDI) and might even consider more advertising to gain market share because of the good category potential (implied by high CDI) of the market. then the CDI for that market will be 67. The denominator of the CDI formula is the same as that of the BDI formula. Because BDI and CDI can vary independently.X 100 Market X's Share of U. At the other extreme. markets with a high CDI (higher than 100) may be a better market for that product category. BDI reflects the concentration of existing sales while CDI reflects the concentration of potential sales in a geographic region. For example. 50 . At the one extreme. population. Florida. but the numerator for CDI is the share of the product category in a given market.the small boat maker may ignore New Mexico. and Michigan have high CDIs.
spending money in each geography in proportion to a combined BDI plus CDI score. On the one 51 . A market with a high CDI and a low BDI deserves serious consideration because it suggests a large opportunity for increased sales. A market with low CDI and a high BDI requires continued advertising support to maintain the superior brand performance. then more advertising should be worthwhile. the company will want to understand why it has such poor sales of its brand (low BDI) in an area with high category sales. media planners need to first assign a weight to the BDI and to the CDI. One approach to resource allocation uses a weighted sum of BDI and CDI -. If the causes of the poor brand performance can be identified and solved (such as by changing the product or finding better distribution). These two weights represent the relative importance of the BDI and CDI. and the sum of two weights should equal 1.Table 6 Four Scenarios of BDI and CDI CDI High High High CDI High BDI High CDI Low BDI Low Low CDI High BDI Low CDI Low BDI BDI Low The mixed cases represent situations in which the percentage of brand sales in a region differs significantly from the percentage of category sales. Before devoting advertising dollars. A low CDI and high BDI represents the enviable position of selling well in a market that does not otherwise buy products in that category. For example. the maker of small boats may learn that Californians don't buy the brand's boats because the boats are unsuitable for the ocean. With this approach.
and so on. GPI is simply the ratio of the CDI over the BDI and is one way of quantifying the discrepancy between category sales (the potential sales for the market) and brand sales (current sales) to measure of the growth potential of a brand in a market. That is. Then. Consider a hypothetical example in which a media planner thinks the BDI is three times more important than the CDI in allocating spending. All the percentages added together will equal 100 percent. as show in Table 7. she can use the percentage as a base for spending allocation in each market. the category is very diverse.growth potential index (GPI) -.75 with the BDI values and . Market B will receive 22 percent. Market A will receive 16 percent of the media spending.25 with the CDI values of each geography to calculate a weighted sum and a percentage for each of the markets. Table 7 Hypothetical Spending Allocation in Markets with 75% BDI and 25% CDI Geographic BDI Market North East Central South West 74 111 93 139 83 CDI 75% Weighted BDI 56 83 69 104 63 25% Weighted CDI 22 25 32 27 19 Weighted Sum 78 108 102 131 81 Spending Percentage 16% 22% 20% 26% 16% 89 99 129 109 74 Media planners can use another index -. The formula of the GPI is as follows: Market X's CDI 52 . or the company wants to grow sales among current customers. they might place a high weight on BDI if their brand is unique. media planners might choose a high weight on CDI if they feel their brand is representative of the broader category and they expect their brand to attain a geographic pattern of sales that matches that of the category. He or she would use a weight of .hand. On the other hand.to assess growth opportunities in geographic markets.
an airline like United Airlines might use a low level of continuous advertising to maintain brand awareness among business travelers. When a brand sells in many markets. with the same budget of $1.000 per month during each of six months -. a different brand could spend $200. continuity scheduling would allocate exactly $100.000 in January. For example.200.200.GPI = ---------------------. it may not be practical for small advertisers. It also takes advantage of volume discounts in media buying. For example. with an annual budget of $1. September and December to attract 53 .X 100 Market X's BDI For example. May. with heavy advertising in certain months and no advertising at all in other months. The flight scheduling approach alternates advertising across months. March.January. 3. Pulse scheduling combines the first two scheduling methods.000 in each of the twelve months to maintain the brand awareness and spend an additional $10. flight. Of course.000 a year. September and December -. media planners need to consider when to advertise.and spend nothing during the other months. a board game maker like Parker Brothers might concentrate its advertising in the fall when it knows that many people buy board games as gifts for the holidays. Continuity scheduling spreads media spending evenly across months. United Airlines might also have seasonal pulses to entice winter-weary consumers to fly to sunny climes. if Market X has a CDI of 120 and a BDI of 80. the GPI can facilitate the selection of markets for additional spot advertising spending. This high value of GPI suggests a growth potential of 50% in this market -. media planners should examine the specific conditions of a high GPI market before allocating resources to assess the true possibilities for growth. and pulse. for example. In budget allocation terms. March. This method ensures steady brand exposure over each purchase cycle for individual consumers. so that the brand maintains a low level of advertising across all months but spends more in selected months. However. July. because continuity scheduling usually requires a large budget. a consumer goods brand may spend $5. Or.that if the brand sold as well in that market as it does nationwide. in hopes that the impact of advertising in the previous month can last into the following month. should all months receive equal amounts of money or should some months receive more of the budget while other months receive less or nothing? Media planners can choose among three methods of scheduling: continuity. sales would grow 50%. Media Schedule Decisions Having decided how to advertise (the media mix) and where to advertise (allocation across geography).3. then the GPI will be 150.000 per month. For example.000. Given a fixed annual budget. July. May.
brand switchers from competing brands. The pulse scheduling method takes advantage of both the continuity and flight scheduling methods and mitigates their weaknesses. and most important. and ornaments around Christmas. However. As mentioned earlier. however. Companies don't advertise fur coats in summer and suntan lotions in winter. In contrast. Destination advertising has to be in sync with the time of decision making. such as flowers on Mother's Day. and pulse scheduling approaches? The timing of advertising depends on three factors: seasonality. which can serve as a guide for the allocation. Likewise. Media planners can use a breakdown of sales by month to identify if their brand has seasonal fluctuations. P&G launched its Gillette six-bladed Fusion shaving system with advertising on Super Bowl XL. soft drinks and toilet paper probably require continuous weekly advertising in a competitive market to constantly reinforce brand awareness and influence frequently-made purchase decisions. such as everyday products like milk and toothpaste. flight. instead of the actual consumption time. Companies with seasonal products are more likely to choose flight scheduling to concentrate their advertising for the peak sales season. as we saw in the Wyoming example. The launch period may last from a few months to a year. lessfrequently purchased products such as carpet cleaner or floor polisher may only need advertising a few times a year. factor is sales seasonality. That is. they make purchase decision in advance. this does not mean it is good for all products and services. A third factor that affects media scheduling is the time interval between when the purchase decision is made and when a product or service is actually bought and consumed. How do media planners select among continuity. some products sell faster around specific holidays. The second factor that affects when advertising is scheduled is the product purchase cycle: the interval between two purchases. consumers' product purchase cycle. travel industry advertisers will schedule their ads months before the summer. They can allocate more money to high-sales months and less to low-sales months. The first. Other goods. For example. and consumers' interval between decision-making and consumption. candy on Halloween. Everyday goods may be better served by a continuity approach. the 54 . New product launches usually require initial heavy advertising to create brand awareness and interest. Thus. may lack a seasonal pattern. many families who take summer vacations may plan their trips months before the actual trips. Which method is the most appropriate for a given campaign depends on several important factors. Fast-moving consumer goods such as bread.
For example. Therefore. That is. When audience data are not available for cross-vehicle comparisons. Media buyers select media vehicles to implement established media strategies. media buyers sometimes use roadblocking. Among the major factors that affect media vehicle selection are reach and frequency considerations. which often play an important role in new product launches.most expensive form of advertising in the world. 4. most people who are interested in news may read one of the three major news weeklies: Newsweek. few people read all three of them. and U. because there is usually less duplication among the competing media vehicles. News and World Report. If consumers like the product.few readers of one magazine also read other the magazines. Media planners should take advance of these "unplanned" messages in a new product launch campaign. which means the placement of commercials in all major television networks in the same period of time. Designing Media Tactics Establishing media objectives and developing media strategies are the primary tasks of media planners. In television. Reach Considerations As a major component of media objectives. with little cross-title duplication -. No matter which 55 . These magazines can be used to implement high levels of reach in the media plan.S.1. 4. if there are three magazines that each reach a portion of the target audience but that have few readers who read more than one magazine. For example. For example. Personal influence and market force are "unplanned" messages. the planned level of reach affects not only media mix decisions but also what media vehicles are used in each media category. Time. advertising in these three magazines would reach the widest target audience possible because of the low overlap of the readers of the these magazines. running a print ad in all the three news magazines can reach a wide audience. Designing media tactics is largely carried out by media buyers. High levels of reach will require a different set of media vehicles than low levels of reach. crosstabulations of Simmons data can be conducted to identify several magazines that reach the target audience of women aged 35 to 55. you can select competing media vehicles in the same media category. What are some ways to maximize the levels of reach? One way is to analyze the audience composition of media vehicles by using syndicated media research. high levels of reach can be better served with a mix that includes multiple media vehicles with different audiences so that cross-media duplication of audience is minimal. then personal influence in the form of word-of-mouth or market force (brand visibility in life and media coverage) will play a role in accelerating the adoption of a new brand.
media planners can roadblock Yahoo. and costs.2. A commercial that runs three times during a 30-minute television program will result in higher message repetition than the same commercial that runs once in three different programs. There are two basic calculations of media vehicle cost. Quantitative characteristics are those that can be measured and estimated numerically. astronomical amount of reach. a media planner can buy all the advertising on a Web site for a 24-hour period. and AOL all on the same day. When two media vehicles are similar in major aspects. 56 . such as Coke did for its launch of C2 and Ford did for its launch the F-150. where it has been very effective. media buyers choose the less expensive media vehicle. The first one. media buyers pay attention to the costs of each media vehicle. The term has been extended to the online world. media buyers will compare media vehicles in terms of both quantitative and qualitative characteristics. high levels of frequency can be effectively achieved through advertising in a smaller number of media vehicles to elevate audience duplications within these media vehicles. which refers to the percentage of audience members who tune out during a program. one of the biggest services for buying ad space. Broadcast media usually enjoy a "vertical" audience. Broadcast media are often used when high levels of frequency are desired in a relatively short period of time.3. The roadblocking approach has become more expensive and less effective recently because of increasing fragmentation of television audience. they have the opportunity to watch the commercial. Media buyers will choose vehicles with high ratings and less cross-vehicle audience duplication when they need high levels of reach. such as vehicle ratings. Frequency Considerations In contrast to high levels of reach.television channel an audience member tunes in at that time. Each company bought all the ad space on the front page of Yahoo for a 24-hour period. geographic coverage. 4. Alternatively. The Yahoo front page draws 25 million visitors a day. Media buyers also evaluate the geographic coverage of media vehicles when implementing spot advertising such as heavy advertising in certain geographic regions. as Coke and Pepsi have both done. MSN. cost per rating point (CPP). who tune in to a channel for more than one program over hours. Another phenomenon in broadcast media is audience turnover. Finally. audience duplication with other vehicles. To roadblock in the online world. however. The results can produce "an astonishing. 4. Media Vehicle Characteristics With reach and frequency considerations in mind. Programs with low audience turnover are more effective for high levels of frequency." said Mohan Renganathan of MediaVest Worldwide.
including online media.000. divide the cost of a 30-second commercial by the ratings of the vehicle in which the advertisement is placed. media vehicles vary in reputation.000 * 10 / 100 = 500. For example.is used primarily for broadcast media vehicles. one difference between CPP and CPM is that CPM also contains the size of a vehicle audience. Another media cost term is cost per thousand impressions (CPM).7.000.000 adults in the market. CPM is calculated using the cost and gross impressions. such as vehicle reputation. First. then CPM for the buy will be as follows: Gross Impressions = 5.000 and the rating of the program is 9. then CPP for this buy will be $25. the rating of a television program is 10 and the cost for a 30-second commercial is $25.000 / 500.] The formula for calculating CPP is as follows: Cost Per Rating Point = Cost of the Ad / Rating of the Vehicle For example. an informal consensus of online media buyers agreed that a $10 CPM asking price seemed about average to pay for advertising on social-networking like Friendster. CPM can be calculated for different media. reproduction quality. if the cost for a 30-second commercial ABC's "Grey's Anatomy" television program is $440. Yahoo 360 and Britain's FaceParty In contrast to these quantitative characteristics. the gross impressions that an ad may get is calculated using the rating of the program and the size of the market population. CPM for this media buy is $50.[[SIDEBAR DEFINITION for CPM: Cost Per Thousand (M is the Latin abbreviation for 1000): the cost per 1000 impressions for an ad]] As you recall.360. which is the cost to have 1000 members of the target audience exposed to an ad. The two formulas are as follows: Gross Impressions = Audience size * Rating / 100 CPM = Cost / Gross Impressions * 1000 Using the previous example. To derive the CPP.000. the impressions are simply opportunities to see the ad. CPM is calculated in two steps. qualitative characteristics of media vehicles are those that are primarily judgmental. Second. newspapers such as The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal generally enjoy high 57 .000 CPM = $25.000 * 1000 = $50 Thus. and added values.[SIDEBAR DEFINITION: CPP: The cost of a broadcast ad per rating point (1% of the population) provided by the media vehicle that shows the ad. For example. editorial environment. If there are 5.
Then add all the numbers in each row. and they benefit advertisers without additional cost.3 5. The best media vehicles to choose are those with the highest index numbers.0 1. Because media spending usually accounts for 80 58 . Media buyers can work with the media to invent creative forms of added values for advertisers. Vehicle 2 and Vehicle 3 are the best ways to reach the target audience. Figure 8: Selection of Media Vehicle Based on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics Qn1 V1 V2 V3 V4 3 1 1 1 Qn2 2 2 3 1 Qn3 1 2 3 2 Ql1 3 2 1 1 Ql2 1 2 1 2 Ql3 1 3 3 1 Index 1. For example. select several quantitative and qualitative characteristics that are relevant to reach and frequency considerations. some magazines are better in reproduction quality than others. In Figure 8. Selection of Media Vehicles Media buyers can use tools. which enhance the impact of the ads. some media vehicles offer added values. make a table that lists the vehicle candidates in rows and the characteristics in columns. To use the selection tool shown in Figure 9I. Next. the editorial environment can be more or less favorable for advertisers.reputation. Now you can rate each of the characteristics of each vehicle on a scale of 1 to 3. dividing by the total number of characteristics (columns) to arrive at the rating for each vehicle. The impact of food ads. or a television channel may host a local event in association with a car dealership.4. Finally. as more advertisers expect to see returns on their investments in advertising. Furthermore.0 2. Then. Evaluating Media Plan Effectiveness Accountability is increasingly important in media planning.8 2. Added values take various forms. to make the process of selecting a media vehicle easier. 4. a newspaper may publish a special page whose editorial context fits an advertiser's products. Likewise. such as quantitative characteristics like CPM or GRP. can be enhanced when they appear around articles about health or nutrition. develop a list of the potential vehicle candidates you are considering. like the one shown below. and qualitative characteristics like reputation and added value. for instance.
the effectiveness of media planning should be measured with multiple indictors. but here is an introduction to measurement that is specific to media plans.for verification purposes. the effectiveness of media plans is of particular importance.how many of the target audience are aware of the advertised brand? Comprehension -. media planners often make measures of the effectiveness of a media plan an integral part of the media plan.how many of the target audience have purchased the advertised brand as a result of the media campaign? The measured results of brand awareness. media buyers examine the ratings of the programs in which commercials were inserted to make sure the programs delivered the promised ratings. such as price. distribution and competition. The most direct measure of the effectiveness of media planning is the media vehicle exposure.percent or more of the budget for typical advertising campaigns. The first measure is the actual execution of scheduled media placements.does the target audience understand the advertised brand? Is there any miscomprehension? Conviction -. comprehension. Even effective media planning may not 59 . Media planners ask: How many of the target audience were exposed to the media vehicles and to ads in those vehicles during a given period of time? This question is related to the communication goals in the media objectives. Several additional measures can be made of the target audience. therefore. We will examine the topic of measurement in more detail in chapters 21 and 22. 5. Although sales results are the ultimate measure of the effectiveness of an advertising campaign. such as: Brand awareness -. the sales result is affected by many factors. conviction and action are often a function of both advertising creative and media planning. What to Measure Because of the hierarchical nature of the media effects. If the actual program ratings are significantly lower than what the advertiser paid for. Did the ads appear in the media vehicles in agreed-upon terms? Media buyers look at "tear-sheets" -. the media usually "make good" for the difference in ratings by running additional commercials without charge.1. As a result.copies of the ads as they have appeared in print media -. then the media plan is considered to be effective.is the target audience convinced by ads? How do they like the advertised brands? Action -. If the measured level of exposure is near to or exceeds the planned reach and frequency. to identify what measures are most relevant to the effectiveness of media planning and buying. For electronic media. which are often out of the scope of the advertising campaign It is important.
Thus. Advertisers often use a different code in direct response ads to identify different media vehicles. media buyers can assess the response rate of each media vehicle. such as in the beginning. brand attitudes and actual purchase. 5. such as whether the coupon came from the 2006 Bolder Boulder promotional calendar or from the Organic and Natural Experience (ONE) 2006 Tour book of coupons. using methods such as surveys. the reply card for subscribing to the magazine had a code of JS6D1. one advantage of surveys over feedback devices is that surveys reach people who have taken no action on the product.2. Feedback devices such as reply cards. ineffective media planning may be disguised when the ads are highly creative and brilliant. Radiowatch surveys 1000 adults age 16-64 and asks them which radio commercials they remember hearing. when the Garden of Eatin' gives coupons for its tortilla chips. advertising recall. and observation. the most-recalled ad was for TMobile. 60 . conducts monthly surveys on advertising recall of radio commercials in England. surveys can be conducted among a sampling of the target audience in the different periods of a media campaign. in the April 3 2006 issue of BusinessWeek. For example. In short. toll-free numbers. affective and conative responses if the ads are poorly created and not appealing to the target audience. tracking. whereas the reply card bound into the May 29. Besides surveys. coupons and Web addresses can be provided in ads so that tallies of the responses or redemptions can be made to estimate the impact of advertising media. On the other hand. whereas feedback devices help them evaluate the effectiveness of one media vehicle over another. As you can see from the Radio watch and Garden of Eatin' examples. Similarly. the UPC code on the coupon indicates which media vehicle the coupon was in. for instance.generate anticipated cognitive. In this way. How to Measure The measurement of the effectiveness of a media plan can be conducted by the advertising agency or by independent research services. Surveys can ask questions about the target audience's media behavior. while the ad for Peugeot received 18%. by reviewing the different codes recorded. click or call a toll-free number. these measures should be reviewed by both creative directors and media planners to make accurate assessments of the effectiveness of the media plan. feedback can be collected to measure the media and ad exposure of the target audience. Each method has its strengths and weaknesses. feedback. the middle and the end of the campaign. 2006 issue of the magazine had a code of JS6E2. with 46% of respondents recalling the ad. whereas feedback devices require the consumer to mail back. surveys can help media buyers evaluate the effectiveness of an ad in relation to other ads. For example. An ad for McDonald's had 36% recall. Radiowatch. In the April 2006 survey.
In the next four chapters. broadcast media. tracking and observation. evaluate the effectiveness of your media plan through surveys. flight and pulse scheduling. to estimate the effectiveness of each Web site. researchers can be stationed in grocery stores to observe how consumers react to in-store advertising or how they select an advertised brand in comparison of other brands. For example. out-of-home media and interactive media ?to help you understand the ad formats. When a user visits a Web site or clicks on a banner ad. The advantage of observation is that it provides rich. in the physical world. Finally. because the buyers can use them to estimate the actual interaction of audience members with the interactive media. The downside is that direct observation is more costly to conduct and tabulate. make sound budget decisions using tools like CPP and CPM. make prudent media mix decisions using tools like BDI and CDI and scheduling concepts like continuity. 61 . starting from establishing media objectives through to developing media strategies and tactics and finally evaluating the effectiveness of the media plan. media buyers can use observation to collect audience reaction information at the points of purchase or during marketing events. a banner ad may have a code for each Web site where the ad is placed.Tracking is measurement method that media buyers use to track the effectiveness of online ads. Media buyers can compare the click-through rates of the banner ad across all Web sites daily. This article described the media planning process. For example. we'll delve more deeply into the different types of media ?print media. frequency and GRPs. finally. detailed data on how consumers behave in real situations in response to the marketing communication. Web servers automatically log that action in real time. and. strengths/weakness and cost structures of each of these advertising media. The logs of these visits and actions are very useful for media buyers. You've learned how to identify your target audience. feedback devices. Media buyers are making more use of the tracking method given the increasing use of interactive media. evaluate different media vehicles on the basis of reach.
Real Money Making Machine 62 .
2010 9:00 am with a daily budget of $5 you may be charged up to $10 for this campaign. so you can do this without purchasing an ad). advertisers have complete control over their spend through the ability to set a daily or lifetime budget per campaign. When you run your ad you will only be charged for the number of clicks you receive (CPC) or the number of impressions of your ad that are displayed (CPM). so you can do this without purchasing an ad). Simply enter your targeting criteria and go through the ad creation process to the last step titled "Pricing" (you won't have to enter any payment information until the next step. Based on this. Beyond that. Facebook Ads are a paid service. 2. However. 63 .6. The amount that you are charged will never exceed your daily or lifetime budget. Proven Examples : Ads: Campaign Cost and Budgeting Ads and Business Solutions » Learn About Ads » Facebook Ads Do I have to pay for Facebook Ads? How much do they cost? Yes. which will show you the range of bids that are currently winning the auction among ads similar to yours. there is no set cost for Facebook Ads but you can get an estimate as you create an ad. Just enter your targeting criteria and go through to Step 3 of ad creation (you won't have to enter any payment information until the next step. For example if your campaign is set to run from Jan. Please note campaign charges accrue on a per calendar day basis and not on a 24 hour period. you can determine how much you wish to spend per click or per thousand impressions. When you run your ad you will only be charged for the number of clicks you receive (CPC) or the number of impressions of your ad that are displayed (CPM). Here you will find your "Suggested Bid". How much will my campaign cost? You can control your spend for each campaign by setting a daily or lifetime budget. You can multiply that number by the number of clicks/thousand impressions you wish to receive each day to determine your approximate daily budget. The amount that you are charged will never exceed your daily budget. The "Suggested Bid" represents the range of bids that are currently winning the auction among ads similar to yours. 2010 9:00 am to Jan. You can estimate the cost per click (CPC) or per one thousand impressions (CPM) as you create your ads. 1. There are no additional fees for running Facebook Ads.
Visit your Ads Manager 2. Does selecting CPC or CPM influence the placement of my ad or the amount of exposure it will receive? For any available ad inventory. keep in mind that it's unlikely that your ad(s) will show on the site if you are bidding beneath the suggested bid range(s). If you choose a CPC model. 1. If you choose a CPM model. Facebook selects the best ad to run based on the cost per click or per one thousand impressions and ad performance. select the campaign that contains the ad you wish to change the bid for 3. You are not able to choose on which pages your ad shows nor can you choose which position the ad is shown in on the page. In both cases. Most CPM (cost per thousand impressions) advertisers feel that it's more important where their ad shows up and what it ad looks like. Remember to check the bid prices for each of your campaigns to make sure that they are at or above the suggested range.01. The amount you are charged will never exceed your daily budget. Many CPC (cost per click) advertisers are more interested in having people click through to their website in order to drive conversions.02 USD for the Ad Space. Ads with bids below the suggested range are very unlikely to receive delivery. From there. Please follow the steps below to view and update your bid prices. Facebook will display your ad in the right-hand Ad Space. Cost Per Thousand Impressions (CPM) advertising allows you to specify how much you are willing to pay for 1000 impressions (views) of your ad. All Facebook Ads compete with each other to show for each impression. These advertisers are also more focused on spreading brand awareness than accruing conversions. you will bid on how much you are willing to pay for each click on your ad. Scroll over your current bid next to the desired ad and click on the pencil icon that appears 64 . Is there a minimum CPC or CPM bid? The current minimum CPC (cost per click) is $0. you will bid on how much you are willing to pay for every thousand impressions (views) of your ad. The current minimum CPM (cost per thousand impressions) is $0. However. regardless of their bid model. How do I update my bids? Bid prices fluctuate over time.What is the difference between CPC and CPM and which should I choose? Cost Per Click (CPC) advertising allows you to specify a certain amount that you are willing to pay each time a user clicks on your ad.
Your daily budget must be at least 2x the CPC or CPM you have specified. This will increase the likelihood that you do not miss out on clicks or impressions that you otherwise could have received. Enter your desired bid 5. we select the best ad to run based on the cost per click or cost per thousand impressions and ad performance. and the advertiser will only be billed that price. which will show you the range of bids that are currently winning the auction among ads similar to yours. You will never accrue charges for clicks or impressions in a Facebook billable day that exceed your daily or lifetime budget. We have a process in place that will automatically calculate the minimum price that the advertiser could pay and still have the highest CPC or CPM ad. we recommend that you enter your true maximum cost per click or CPM when creating an ad.4. Here you will find your "Suggested Bid". Simply enter your targeting criteria and go through the ad creation process to the last step titled "Pricing" (you won't have to enter any payment information until the next step. so you can do this without purchasing an ad). When you run your ad you will only be charged for the number of clicks you receive (CPC) or 65 . You can estimate the cost per click (CPC) or per one thousand impressions (CPM) as you create an ad. Because we lower the cost per click or CPM on your behalf. Why is my average cost per click or CPM less than my maximum cost per click or CPM? How does Facebook determine my cost per click or my CPM? For any given ad unit. Click ―Save‖ Is there an upper limit to my CPC or CPM bid? Your maximum cost per click or CPM must be less than your daily budget. This price may be below the advertiser’s maximum cost per click or CPM. Is there a way to estimate my max cost per click (CPC) or per one thousand impressions (CPM) should be? You can estimate the cost for your ads in the ad creation interface.
Our system will automatically stop showing your ad once your budget has been met for the day. "Click here"). it may be that the ad has not performed well on the site. which lets you choose a set amount to spend over the entire scheduled span of a campaign. you will never be billed more than your maximum cost per click (CPC) or the maximum cost per one thousand impressions (CPM) that you have specified. for a variety of reasons. What is the "Suggested Bid" range? The suggested bid range you see when creating your ads is based on the bids that are currently winning the ad auction for the users you've chosen to target.e. We do recommend that you enter your true maximum cost per click or CPM when creating an ad – this will increase the likelihood that you do not miss out on clicks or impressions that you otherwise could have received as the required bid range fluctuates. If you notice your ad's suggested bid range increasing. along with the ad quality. influences how often it is shown. The amount that you are charged will never exceed your daily or lifetime budget. and has an eye-catching image. Keep in mind that you can also set a lifetime budget. 66 . and you will never accrue charges in excess of your budget each day.the number of impressions of your ad that are displayed (CPM). uses informative ad text. The cost per click or CPM associated with an ad. There are no additional fees for running Facebook Ads. How do I change my daily budget after my ad is already running? You can change your daily budget at any time. This range will likely change over time. Make sure your ad is targeted to the most relevant audience. What does my "Daily Budget" control? The daily budget you are able to set per ad campaign you're running is the maximum amount you're willing to spend per day for that campaign. You will also never be billed more than your daily or lifetime budget. includes a call to action (i. Will I ever be billed more than my maximum cost per click or maximum CPM? No. Please allow up to 15 minutes for the system to implement your budget change. It depends on competing ads and the ad's past performance.
Keep in mind that small daily budgets limit the number of clicks or impressions in a day. What is the minimum daily budget? The minimum daily budget for CPC and CPM is $1. Can I set a lifetime or total budget for my ads? Yes. your ads will stop running until the following day. This makes it hard for our system to pace your ad. We'll never charge you more than your daily budget. our system will regulate the amount you spend each hour to prevent the ad from using up your budget too early in the day. please visit the Lifetime Budgeting for Facebook Ads section of the Help Center. In some cases. try scheduling your ad campaign for 1-2 weeks at a higher daily budget rather than for 30 days with a $1/day budget in order to maximize ad performance. In addition. which can hurt delivery. if you specify a $10 CPC. It will increase automatically as you successfully make payments at each previous limit. your budget must be at least 2x the CPC or CPM you have specified. We will never charge you more than the daily budget you've set. To find out more. For example. Based on your campaign's daily budget. Your daily spend limit is the maximum amount that we will allow you to spend in one day. For more information on your daily spend limit.00 USD. we encourage you to try advertising for a shorter period of time with a higher daily budget. you can now set a lifetime budget for your ads at the campaign level. we may be able to manually increase your daily spend limit. You will see this amount within the 'Billing' tab of your Ads Manager.You can edit your daily budget for a campaign by clicking on the pencil icon next to the budget amount of your desired campaign. For example. The daily budget that you are able to set for your campaigns cannot exceed the daily spend limit that is in place for your account 67 . then your daily budget must be at least $20.' The amount you've already spent that day will be include in your new budget. if you've already spent more than your new budget at the time you change it. If you have a limited advertising budget. What's a "Daily Spend Limit"? The daily spend limit is different than your daily budget. if your monthly budget is $30. Enter in your new budget amount and click 'Save.
We are experts in helping our customers accomplish these goals by providing website promotion and visitor conversion.Internet Marketing Methodology The typical goal of Internet marketing is to attract prospects on the Web to your website and then get those targeted prospects to enter into a relationship with you. partner or channel development. versatile marketing pros. we can share our many years of experience in these areas with you. What are you selling? Who are the buyers? What ―pain‖ are they experiencing that your product or service 68 . But there is a lot more the Internet can do for your business. increasing customer loyalty. Because we are experienced. target audiences and messaging per audience Measure existing Internet presence and programs Define / refine Internet marketing strategy Implement Measure results Internet Marketing Goals. to help you make wise choices and avoid pitfalls. Our methodology can be summarized as follows: Define business goals. and market analysis. your Internet strategy may include reducing operational costs. as well as. In addition to web-based lead generation. Target Markets and Strategy We begin our relationship with you by asking a lot of questions about your business.
addresses? How do they typically find out about products or services like yours? If buying decisions involve more than one person. what is our message to each audience. what are their roles? Who is your competition and what are their strengths and weaknesses? Who are your potential partners or affiliates you want to most attract? Define / Refine Internet Marketing Strategy Once we understand the fundamentals of our business. and what do you want each audience to do before leaving your site? Are you tracking visitors to your site and measuring the results of your online campaigns? 69 . we explore how we could leverage the Internet to enhance our sales and marketing efforts. Who are the audiences that should visit your website.
TV on the other hand is increasingly attractive to small local businesses. multi-services agencies are far less 70 . We draw on this experience to develop a plan and provide implementation support from assistance to full development if you need it. so new advertising and promotional methods need assessing and comparing with traditional available methods as to which is more or less cost-effective for your given purposes. We remain intensely focused on limiting your costs and maximizing your profits through our work. Internet advertising is arguably now more popular than radio advertising . government regulations and best practices. figure out ―what it means‖ and provide you with the resulting decisions and recommendations. Market Vantage can take care of the measurement. Given this fact. web developers and engineers as needed. to help you continuously improve your company’s Internet marketing performance. can often be seen in a matter of hours or days.many very large consumer brands switched significant advertising spending into direct mail. 'Viral marketing' (exploiting electronic communications and the 'word of mouth' instinct) is an example of a new method of advertising that simply never existed until about the mid-1990s. and split their operations to handle the creative.the importance of websites and internet listings are very significant now for small local businesses just as much as larger corporations. which seems to show no signs of abating . Available mix of advertising methods Advertising is a complex business and an ever-changing science. New ideas and media uses are being devised all the time. and as new technologies and lifestyle trends develop. Some of our clients want to handle a portion of the implementation themselves. Read about advertising methods and developments and trends. Loyalty schemes demonstrated significant success rates through the 1990s through to present times. Measurement One of the advantages of Internet marketing is the quick availability of results of initiatives and campaigns.learn what's available to you . marketers. We work as your partner and call on our team of copy writers. The results of even a minor tweak to your website. vendors. and as the advertising industry switches emphasis from media to media. making it easier to fine tune and incrementally improve your site and your campaigns. production and media-buying processes. it’s surprising how few companies actually have an effective process in place to measure the results of what they’re doing and feed that information back into the cycle. for example to increase conversion rate. For example through the 1980s and 1990s there was a huge trend towards direct mail (junk mail).learn what your competitors are doing. Nowadays however. graphic designers.Implementation Part of our value to you is our experience with Internet marketing technologies. and that’s fine with us. often switching away from TV. Advertising methods change with lifestyle and technology developments . Historically (1980s-90s) advertising agencies were commonly 'multi-services' agencies.
to build.all of these cost tens of millions of pounds. don't feel pressurised to change for the sake of it. They avoid guesswork. it should be monitored according to cost per response and also cost per conversion. list procurement and postal fulfillment). Brand loyalty and the names and identities associated with it takes years . production and the role of external agencies Your advertising material helps to form your image. targeting and response Any campaign can be broken down in terms of cost per thousand. and you can look at other advertisers that repeatedly using various media to gauge how effectively it's working for them. Organisations selling advertising are able to provide a lot of information about their readership/audience. When making any change consider your real purpose and implications. If so. Advertising cost per thousand includes cost of origination (design). and British Airways (multi-national aircraft tail-fin designs) . yet they all 71 . so make sure you are happy with the design. design. however modest the style and usage.generations in fact . choose methods according to cost. You may already have a perfectly satisfactory 'corporate identity'. Getting and building evidence of advertising effectiveness is a vital part of decision-making. so the cost per response can be lower than cheaper methods. Are they targeting the same audience as you? If so you it's an idea to call them and ask if the particular advertising method is one they's recommend or not. such as BT (trumpeting figure). Choose advertising and publicity methods that suit your targeting. and if you are seeking a direct response. Why guess if you can base decisions on experience and previous statistics and data? Sophisticated advertisers only commit to major programmes after accumulating response data from pilots and previous campaigns. which will save time and money in the long term. Generally you will pay a higher cost per thousand for better targeted methods. Don't throw away perfectly good branding just because some idiot from an agency persuades you that a change is necessary. Use typefaces and logos in a consistent way.common . Whether you work with an advertising agency or not. and managing your advertising and marketing mix. because there's so much to consider and to use.keep up with developments so you can make informed decisions about where to put your advertising emphasis. and if you can get the help of a good designer early this will set the tone and rules for usage later. and what 'mix' of methods to use. Any large scale activity must first be tested and the response measured for quantity and profile. the Post Office (calling itself Consignia). learn about the methods that are available to you . display advert. which will provide some clues as to how well it might work for you. and so should you. Consider and be warned by examples in recent times of large-scale corporate identity cock-ups. production (printing if relevant) and media (such as local radio. but in return you should expect a higher response rate.the range of advertising methods is so vast that advertising agencies are now most commonly specialised in one or a small number of advertising services (types of advertising).
In the case of list procurement (for mailings and telemarketing campaigns. You'll also find it easier to establish accountability if your agency is responsible for the whole job. Advertising is notoriously subjective.(according to most commentators) failed disastrously and resulted in expensive rebranding or reversion to the original identities. Don't allow the message to get over-complicated. as they can tend to mark-up bought-in services quite heavily. Maintain a balance between what you want to say and how they want to say it. eg. eg. The role of design and advertising agencies is however most commonly concerned with planning and implementing advertising or promotional 'campaigns' on a client's behalf. promotional merchandise. rather than just a part of it. See also the tips for working with product designers because many of the principles are transferable to working with advertising agencies. Agree written briefs for all work. creative agencies are often difficult to manage. Here are some general rules for working with advertising and design agencies: Try to appoint people who come recommended and who have experience in your sector. Agencies charge like wounded bulls for correcting copy (text) once they've started the final artwork. graphic design. photography. how much you will pay.. including how you will measure whether it is successful or not. If you are a small business try to use an agency with the services you need under one roof (apart from printing which is traditionally separate).. A written brief is critically important if you are using an outside agency. check whether the agency is adding a mark-up (it's likely). and certainly in the early phase of a relationship. and if so that you are happy with this mark-up. This advertising process starts with a 'brief' comprising: the purpose of the advertising. or leaflet distribution through inserts or 'Door-to-door' delivery. and what you expect to get. etc). exhibition space. Advertise to build awareness and to generate response 72 . display advertising. Ask the same question in the case of any other procured services or products. and check what mark-up the agency adds on. so try to get all the details correct and as you want them before going to the reprographic stage (that's when the designer or typesetter produces the artwork). etc. Until you are satisfied with the agency's print prices it's a good idea to ask for an alternative print quotation. so misunderstandings can easily creep in if your control is not tight enough.
people will just turn off. more socially responsible. Advertising must be costed and linked to measurable response 73 .Within the advertising purpose you should define whether you seek to create awareness or to generate a direct response. Different media and methods are better suited to one or the other. Do not fall into the trap of thinking that complicated language will help build an image of professionalism and intelligence . If you or the 'copy-writer' at your advertising agency cannot achieve this in your advertising and marketing communications then find someone who can. As a knowledgeable supplier there is always a tendency to write copy and present information from a technical and 'product/service' standpoint. using clear simple language. not what your propositions are in technical detail. meaningful. You should spell things out. What does it all mean to them? Give them something to relate to. You need to help them understand things in terms that really mean something to the reader . Remember that your customers are people without good technical or detailed understanding of your products and services. but on a limited budget you may be restricted to concentrating on one or the other. Posters. Direct Mail is very good at generating a direct response. and inserts. or you will be wasting a lot of your advertising effort and investment. more streamlined. The mark of truly effective advertising and marketing is the ability to convey complex issues to the audience in a manner that is interesting. as are magazine and newspaper adverts. Effective marketing generally demands that each is employed. How will it make their business more profitable. so think carefully about what will help most. Thomas Jefferson suggested that "The most valuable of all talents is that of never using two words when one will do" and this is a good maxim for writing good advertising material. more ethical and sustainable. Focus on what your propositions do for them.whatever you believe to be the strongest most relevant and meaningful customer outcomes. how it will make their employees lives' easier. radio and press editorial are all much better at creating awareness and building credibility.explain what your proposition means to your customers. and easy to digest very quickly. Use language that your customers understand In all of your advertising material take care to see things and hear things form your customers' viewpoint. less stressful . Translate your product/service offer into meaningful customer benefits Having decided through the processes described above to focus your message on a few key strengths of your business (your 'service offer' or 'proposition') you must now express these in terms of benefits to your customers. better. how your proposition will improve the quality of their service to their own customers. TV.as it relates to their needs and priorities and challenges. so that you explain more than simply what you do or provide . relevant.
These days there is every opportunity to properly record and measure enquiries and advertising responses: Computer-based CRM (Customer Relationship Management) systems nowadays offer relatively easy and cost-effective ways of managing customer and enquiries information. but measure everything in whatever way you can. Remember also that advertising forms a part of your business plan. cost per response. and if you've no previous statistics or reliable data then run 'pilot' or trial first. and yet it is so utterly important. Key indicators to be gauged are cost per thousand. Starting a business and a completely new advertising campaign inevitably involves a bit of calculated guesswork. A very basic method of measuring and recording advertising effectiveness and results is to ensure that every enquiry is greeted at some stage with the question. to the use of telemarketing. when. Types of advertising media and marketing methods Prior to considering methods of advertising and marketing it is important to ensure that you understand and adhere to local country laws relating to data protection and customer rights concerning privacy and opt-out of various marketing methods. and what resulted. for how much. Start measuring the effectiveness of your advertising from the very beginning. Make sure you use one. Then you won't need to guess as to what forms of advertising work best for you. fax-marketing. and email. however. (where follow-up sample surveys might be the only way to gauge effects). Generally private consumers enjoy more protection than business-tobusiness customers. Small local businesses who target their local community often overlook some very simple easy 74 . This especially relates to maintaining and using lists and people's personal details. As a minimum. if you start measuring and recording results from the beginning then you'll make your task much easier next time around. If your advertising does not produce a gross profit in excess of its cost you need to know why. "How did you hear about us?" or "How did you find us?" Even very large 'professional' organisations commonly fail to instill this basic principle within their customer service processes. particularly where no direct response is sought. Back to marketing index. to whom. which is aimed at being profitable. you certainly need to know whether it does or it doesn't. direct mail.Because advertising is such a complex science the only real way to be sure that something will work before you try it is to refer to previous indicators. See the notes about laws relating to direct marketing and advertising. Keep detailed records of what you did. Admittedly the results of certain advertising can be quite difficult to measure. and percentage response.
hotels.. forces and services sites (e. post offices. providing a continuous pipeline of new business: Posters in windows and on notice boards.for example with business education and preparing youngsters for the world of work (which gives you publicity and builds your reputation). in more detail: 75 . Reciprocal referral arrangements with other good local suppliers. Speaking at local networking/business events. Regularly giving news and interesting pictures about your work to your local newspaper (see PR below). but these ideas can be very effective (and very inexpensive) for small businesses and self-employed people targeting the local area with small advertising budgets. vets. tourist information office. hairdressers. a few can certainly be adapted and used effectively by big organizations with surprisingly good and cost-effective results. takeaways. A stall or leafleting presence at a local relevant gathering or event. newsagents. Here are more advertising methods. leisure centres. dentists. golf clubs clinics. Targeting special offers at local big employers. Door-to-door leaflet distribution through the postal service or other suitable service. Here is a quick list of these local advertising ideas. which with a little imagination and selective effort can be developed into a very effective local advertising campaign. cafes and bars. etc.and cost effective ways of advertising. launderettes. mini-cab offices. generally for larger corporations. These low-cost methods are not generally so suitable for big corporations with big budgets. ambulance. and in staff rooms of local businesses. through their PR and/or HR/social activities. Offering existing customers an incentive (gift of some sort. police. Using leaflets or business cards in dispensers where local people sit and wait or queue or gather. pubs and restaurants.typically monthly publications distributed to the local community. nurseries.g. outpatients departments. church rooms. etc). While most of these methods are for small companies and local campaigns. library. Speaking or facilitating at the local school or college . especially those who serve your target audience with different products and services (which enables you to be more helpful to your own customers when they ask you to recommend other services). Local trade directories . A promotional stall at a local car-boot market or county show. campaigns and target markets. for example: doctors. or money off your next supply) for introducing a friend as a new customer for you. or perhaps even writing a regular column relating to your specialism in the local free newspaper or parish magazine.
so the costs and time of set-up. DVD'S Online and electronic media are fast becoming the most flexible and dynamic advertising methods of all.WEBSITES. CD ROM's and DVD's share much of the same origination and set-up. and cost-effectiveness that conventional advertising media simply cannot match. to brochures and business cards) are becoming obsolete as customers look to the internet (via phones. As people's use of the internet increases.E-MAIL. origination. 76 . CD-ROM'S. and RSS (Really Simple Syndication) of educational or informative articles. internet directories advertising. affiliation and partnering arrangements. production and implementation will reduce to levels that will move customers . plus lots more besides. And as more agencies. pc's. PDA's and in the future TV too) for quick. newsgroups.in time almost completely away from traditional (printed and other non-digital) media to modern electronic media. inter-active digital format. the opportunity and necessity to make use of online and web-related marketing methods becomes increasingly irresistible. but unit costs tend to be low thereafter. forums. and many other new ideas which appear more quickly than most of us can absorb. precision of targeting. measurement and analysis. Electronic and online advertising media can be expensive and challenging to originate and implement initially. Internet listings. and 'pay-per-click' advertising offered by the major search engines. and online 'engagement' with suppliers of all sorts. INTERNET. and are all examples of this fundamental shift in marketing. and can be extremely cost-effective if sensibly researched and implemented. websites. Modern and emerging digital and web-related advertising marketing methods offer audience 'reach'. so it's now very feasible and sensible to produce all sales literature and brochures. level of fine-tuning and control. such as viral marketing. so does the internet's potency as a vehicle for advertising and marketing too. Aside from the more complex functionality of modern digital marketing methods. The internet and email provide unprecedented opportunity for radically new methods of promotion and advertising. at a basic level. services and suppliers of all sorts. laptops. Conventional printed sales and marketing materials of all types (from newspapers and magazines. technology companies and digital media organisations develop their offerings and technology. As the internet extends progressively to mobile phones and hand-held devices (PDA's . digital information. email newsletters and campaigns. in user-friendly.Personal Digital Assistants). are now viable and relevant for very small 'local' businesses. up-to-the-minute information about products.
If wellmanaged. This method works especially well in the business-to-business market. Good experienced telemarketing staff and managers understand what works and what doesn't forgiven markets.take time to look for it and learn . types of propositions and products 77 . and good telemarketing agencies will already be using such systems which hopefully will interface with your own systems. telemarketing can be an extremely good and cost-effective method for generating sales enquiries. and to that ensure your aims.and ensure that your business explores and implements the many very costeffective advertising methods available to you via internet media and the modern digital revolution. Most. which provides an extra incentive for prospective customers to attend. It is possible to have certain types of seminars accredited for CPD (Continuous Professional Development) by professional institutes. although more difficult to secure and control. A good CRM computer system to manage lists. Telemarketing Using telemarketing staff or a telemarketing agency is a proven method of marketing. Surveys and questionnaires provide perhaps the best opportunity for achieving valuable and effective publicity. are all clearly established and understood. Getting your editorial printed for free is easier than you may think. Considerable care needs to be taken when defining and agreeing the telemarketing 'brief' with the telemarketing staff. TV and radio news publicity works in much the same way. selling products and services and making appointments for sales staff. Why? Because it's free. for instance if marketing a new technology or service to architects and specifiers. and communications process for enquiry generation follow-up. and where educating customers is appropriate. Seminars Creating an informative seminar and inviting your target audience is an excellent way to educate the market and promote your company and proposition. department or agency. by the agency and your own staff. and moreover press editorial is perceived by the audience to be true. whereas advertising of all almost all other types is seen as 'oh no another advert' and therefore implies uncertainty or scepticism. outline script.Take time to learn about and understand which of the new digital methods will work for you and how. data. is normally essential for telemarketing is to be successful on any reasonable scale. if not all of the information you need is freely available on the internet . and guidelines for using PR follow in more detail below. It is important to identify a good telemarketing agency. See the guidelines about surveys and questionnaires below. follow-up and outcomes. Press and Public Relations (PR) The press release is the most under-rated form of advertising.
Direct Mail Consumers and businesses are protected by certain rights relating to direct marketing techniques such as telemarketing. which depend (in the UK) now on the size and shape as well as the weight of the item being mailed. Refer to the legal implications (Data Protection Act and Preference Services) in the direct mail section. Some of the principles and rules referenced here also apply to other types of direct marketing. Direct Mail is generally used to generate a direct response from the recipient and will commonly incorporate a reply or response section within the mailed item. and envelopes or packaging. Direct mail is the process of sending your material (by itself or in a shared mailing with other items) direct to the address of the potential customer by post.and services. Aside from the strength of your proposition. and you must ensure that your activities adhere to these rules. Listen to their advice. if applicable Resource or facility to 'stuff' and address or label the envelopes/packaging (assuming you are putting the item in an envelope or packaging. The last two stages are often called 'fulfillment'. nor for professional business-to-business campaigns. The elements which make up the direct mail process are basically: A mailing list of names and addresses (from your own data-base or names sourced elsewhere) The item(s) to be mailed. moreover customers generally find scripts. which quickly become robotic and characterless. and how you want to achieve it. very impersonal and insulting. A good telemarketing agency will work best by developing their own approach to meet the broad requirements of a project 'brief' and an outline of what you want to achieve. which of course is not always the case)and postal charges. response rates vary according primarily to the 78 . Generally telemarketing 'scripts' are not a good idea for high quality propositions. including 'door-to-door' distribution and telemarketing methods. Rigid scripts have the effect of limiting the natural style and capabilities of telemarketing staff.
assuming the campaign is designed to produce responses or enquiries and not sales directly. and then separately to assess the overall results of the campaign including conversion statistics and sales values. depending on volume. next reduce it by a factor of 10 (i. so a planning tip is to be pessimistic (prudent. 79 . When you first state your estimated response rate as part of the financial justification for the direct mail campaign. IT systems. from a few pounds up to several hundreds of pounds per 1. A direct mail campaign which produces more than a 2% response is normally considered very successful.e. Your own database of existing and past customers will typically produce a significantly higher response than that of a list sourced elsewhere. such as response handling. or on a disk in a common spreadsheet or database format. but for smaller initiatives it's rarely cost-effective to attempt detailed analysis other than to look for obvious indications of success or failure. Like the rest of advertising. Aside from the quality of the responses. See the direct mail story for example. and easy to import. something else? For large ongoing campaigns it is appropriate and cost-effective to conduct follow-up surveys of respondents and non-responders. then it's sensible to re-think the whole thing. as accountants say). the response mechanism. notably: the reliability of the list data (new clean lists obviously perform better than old out-ofdate lists) And how well 'targeted' the list is in terms of your offer (how relevant it is to the recipient). the mailing list. Lower than 1% response is more usual. If the figures still show a positive return on investment then your campaign might well be successful. List prices vary enormously. and even more things that are unknown and unimagined by the campaign manager. re-assess the campaign viability using on one-tenth of your initial response forecast). It is therefore important to judge a direct mail campaign first on percentage and quality of response. There are many things that can go wrong. Direct mail is not a precise science. the latter being most common now. which is determined by the campaign. the day and time of delivery. into a CRM (customer relationship management) system.quality of the list. etc. Inexperienced marketeers (and many experienced ones too) tend to over-estimate forecasted response rates for direct mail. You can also choose whether to have the list on labels. if appropriate. especially when calculating advertising viability and return on investment. sales follow-up. whether a direct mail campaign works well or poorly it's often very difficult to discover what elements need to be changed and how: the proposition.. conversion rates also vary according to factors outside of and after the direct mail activities themselves. You then need to take into account the conversion rate (the conversion of responses into sales). If not.000 names and addresses. the reliability of the fulfilment. and how selective your profiling criteria are. how specific the list is.
Many listings are not free. The acronym AIDA (attention interest desire action) should be the basis of its design. 130gsm is better for double. Some work well. If you work with a designer be sure to control any fanciful tendencies and keep the message and style to the point. Again some work well and others don't. and can be distributed in different ways. Heavier boards are usually measured in microns rather than gsm because density affects weight more at these gauges. The aim of a brochure is foremost to generate new business through providing information in a way that appeals to the reader. If the material is required as an insert is it acceptable to the publication? Is it to be available from a rack? Do you want people to retain the material? If so perhaps a business card or plastic credit-card-type attachment would help? There are thousands of different types of paper. Leaflets and Printed Material Brochures and leaflets can be used for a variety of purposes. which will add cost unnecessarily. so avoid falling into this trap. Include the town or area or other geographical descriptions in your search phrases . digital print processes now 81 . Some brochures and leaflets are pleasing pieces of art. and the easiest way to learn what works and what doesn't is to look at other people's material. A 100gsm paper is adequate for single sided mono or colour printing. When producing leaflets and brochures think about the way that they are to be distributed.in as mny different ways as you think your customers would. If it needs an envelope try to avoid using a non-standard envelope size. Brochures. A good printer can provide examples and costings. Ask other similar suppliers what works for them. but they don't achieve anything for the business. Too much spent on a brochure can give the impression that your business is extravagant. You need to be featured on the internet directories and listings websites which appear at the top of the Google results for the search terms that your customers will be using.Many listings are free. Coated matt and gloss 'art' papers are used for higher quality effects. but add to cost. To discover what website listings and directories you should appear on.sided. The print process is actually a number of separate stages: Design Reprographics (now a computerized process which produces camera-ready-artwork and the film from which the printing plates are made) Plate-making or electronic equivalent (for low quantities. Test the listings yourself to see how well they work and how commonly they feature in the main search engine listings such as Google. 250-300gsm is used for business cards. Letterheads are usually printed on to 90-100gsm (grams per square metre) cartridge. others don't. 200gsm is minimum weight for a post card format. search for your own products and services using Google. Various lamination processes add more quality and more cost. laid or bond.
folding.Attention Interest Desire Action (see the sales section). etc if relevant) Generally it is not possible to undo a stage and return to the previous one without reoriginating at least the previous stage. a poor design can make full colour printing look cheap and nasty. Digital printing methods are appropriate for low volumes. two colour printing can produce amazing results. This is due to the origination and set-up charges being already absorbed by the main run. yellow and blue. If you seek a response you must move then to create Desire. The biggest part of the advert must be your main benefit statement. Finally you must prompt an Action. so with good design even black and white printing can give a high quality effect. Re-prints are generally cheaper than the first run because the reprographic work and plates do not need to be produced again. red. There are various printing processes. If you want something classier than black and white. Conversely. which may be to call a telephone number or to complete and send of a reply coupon. Ensure that the process is appropriate for your application. As a rule. Interest builds information in an interesting way. If your instructions to an agency or printer are not correct you will end up paying for the time they spend re-originating and amending. When you ask for a print quote ask at the same time for a price per thousand 'run-on' . usually meaning that this must relate closely to the way that the reader thinks about the issues concerned. so think things through before you start the process. As a rule colour is more expensive than mono (black and white). so take care when signing off each stage. This is the part that entices 82 . without the cost of going to full colour. Mono printing is black on white and requires just one black plate. Do not be tempted to devote 50% of the space to a striking picture or a quote from Shakespeare. and requires a plate to be made for each colour. which are appropriate for different purposes and particularly volumes. Your main message must be the most prominent. Remember 'AIDA' . although digital printing is not so sensitive to colour/price differences. and fast becoming viable for higher volumes. which relates benefits to the reader so that they will want them. 'Full colour' printing uses the colours black. Advertising that does not prompt action is a wasted opportunity. The Attention part is the banner or headline that makes an impressive benefit promise. printing costs reduce dramatically with volume.you'll be surprised how low this cost is in proportion to the main quote. enable high quality printing direct from a computer) Printing Finishing (stapling. Each colour can be tinted (ie applied less than 100% solid) to varying degrees across the print area.
Describe the service as it affects them in a way that they will easily relate to it. light colours reversed out of dark. relevant benefit to the reader. People must believe there's something in it for them right from the start. an eminent consumer psychologist. Develop a proposition that is special or unique and emphasise this. so they couldn't deal with a lot of polished copy. Do not distract the reader from the text by overlaying images or using fancy fonts. And the trend is for ever quicker points: David Lewis. Avoid cluttering the advert with fancy images.8 seconds." Think about the vocabulary and language you use. you must keep it quick. For the same reason avoid italics. eleven or twelve point-size for the main text. they all reduce it. Use simple language. for maximum readability. None of these improve readability. Use simple traditional typestyles: serif fonts are quicker to read than sans serif. simple and to the point. Offer a single impressive benefit. Involve the reader in your writing style . "Copy is getting shorter. avoid complicated words. weird and wonderful colours. If they've heard or seen it all before it will be no surprise that they take no notice at all. or about fifteen words) and be clearly the most striking part of the advert. People respond better and are more easily attracted initially to a concept that is new or original. take no longer to read than is normal for the media (direct mail is about 4 . 'your' and 'yours' etc) in the description of what your business does for the customer to get them visualising their own personal involvement. They have been brought up on computer games. Use simple black (or dark coloured) text on a white (or light coloured) background. Look at newspapers and library books. Refer to the reader as 'you' and use the second person ('you'. even if they wanted to. and yours. clear fonts and clear language. your. Your message must be quick and easy to absorb. shadows. This 'promise' should ideally contain the business brand name. quickly and simply. colours and backgrounds. says. know your target audience: a simple test is to avoid any words or grammar that would not be found in the newspaper that the target group would read. Incorporate something new. which are almost always serif fonts of ten to twelve point size. Research proves that where responses are required. and keep enough space around the text to attract attention to it.use the 2nd person: you. and a major factor behind this is that people these days suffer from acute shortages of both time and attention. smaller or larger are actually more difficult to read and therefore less likely to be read. Use ten. the best adverts are those which offer an impressive. 83 . Make it easy to read. This point cannot be stressed enough. Use a clear layout.the reader to read on. Younger generations are extremely visually literate.
and ideally not for headlines either. as reading the back first throws out the AIDA order. Stuff envelopes so the material inside faces the back. Headline should be three-quarters up the page or advert space. and is rarely a precise science. The eye is naturally drawn to between two-thirds and three-quarters up the page or space. don't.Why should people be interested if your proposition is no different to your competition? You must try to emphasise what makes your service special. Advertising is often referred to as a 'Black Art' because it is mysterious. this can be reinforced with an outline of your policy on seeking customer feed-back and carrying out satisfaction surveys. The Advertising Standards Authority or equivalent would prevent you from making overly extravagant claims anyway. People open envelopes from the back. For example. which is where the main benefit statement needs to be. Remember this if you send anything in an envelope. if you claim particularly good customer service. Position your headline statement where it can be seen quickest. This is usually best accomplished by explaining 'why' and 'how' you are able to do the things you are offering. and wastes time before the reader sees the main benefit statement. Unless your code of practice prevents you from claiming superiority over your competitors. and plenty of things you think should work. Use lower case type . but you should still attempt to make your offer seem perfectly credible. The Direct Mail Campaign Story is a amusing example of the unpredictable nature of advertising ideas and methods. you can also increase credibility by showing references or testimonial quotes from satisfied customers. and either imply or state directly that you are the only company to offer these things. People read by recognising word-shapes not individual letters. Your proposition or offer must be credible and believable. as it takes longer to read and reduces impact. or instruct a mailing house. 84 . Again refer to the selling article about developing unique selling propositions. Things sometimes work which you imagine wouldn't. in support of your claims. Do not put headlines at the very top of the space. you should put as much emphasis as you can behind your USP (unique selling point).word-shapes are lost when capitals are used. do don't use upper case (capital letters) for text.
00.com/2008/01/18/news/companies/google.lst.cbsnews. "Online Ads Give Google Huge Gain in Profit".Conclusion Biblography: References 1. Inc. ^ "Google Corporate Information". 2006).com/fin_data. Retrieved January 22... http://www. ^ Barrett. http://money. Adam (January 29.htm. (October 21. Larry Page. http://www.com (CBS Interactive).1158956. Google. 2010.html. Brian (February 4. 2011.com/intl/en/about/corporate/company/. 11. ^ "Financial Tables". 6..9171.cnn. March 12. ^ Lashinsky.com/earnings/2011/Q3_google_earnings.com/time/magazine/article/0. 2.html. 2009. And Hubert Chang?!?". The Washington Post. ^ Vise.informationweek. ^ Ignatius. ^ See: List of Google products.com/corporate/.. CA: Time Inc.com (Time Warner). 2010). CBS News. "Google Founded By Sergey Brin. 2010. http://www. 7. 2005). http://investor. http://gizmodo.google.time. Retrieved March 27.html. "Google Wants to Add Store Interiors to Maps". http://www. 9. 5. Google. 8. Retrieved July 5. Inc. 2010. 2008). 2010.google. ^ "The Google Guys".com/5464532/google-wants-to-add-store-interiors-to-maps.fortune/index.1. 10. Retrieved March 27. "Meet the Google Guys".google.google. 3. Retrieved February 85 .). Retrieved 2011-09-30.com/news/internet/google/210603678. Fortune. Adi (February 12. 4. http://investor.. http://www. David A. Retrieved March 27.com/video/watch/?id=4835250n&tag=mncol. "Google wins again". Time Magazine (San Francisco. Gizmodo.
July 2. 2010.1327492.org. http://portal. 17.au/news/biztech/dont-be-evil/2008/04/15/1208025168177. 2010.html.google. Google.acm. Inc. ^ "Chromebook".com. ^ "Google Code of Conduct".smh. 18.com/archive/2007-07-16-n55. http://www. http://www.com/chromebook. Retrieved 2011-08-17.html. http://investor.12.blogs. 2007). 2010. April 8. 16. 14. Philip (July 16. Retrieved February 14. Google unveils top political searches of 2009". 2008-04-15. 2010.com/conduct. 13. 2009.. Retrieved February 14.. Retrieved August 16. AdSense and More".. 2010. Retrieved February 14. 15. The Sydney Morning Herald.com/2009/12/18/google-unveils-top-political-searches-of2009/. Google Blogoscoped. 14.com. "Paul Buchheit on Gmail. ^ "MapReduce". ^ Lenssen. ^ Kuhn. "CNN Politics – Political Ticker.cfm?doid=1327452. 2009. http://www.com/sew/481-gartner. 86 . CNN. ^ "Don't Be Evil or don't lose value?". 2007.org/citation.pandia.cnn.html?page=3. 2009).html. Portal. http://blogoscoped. ^ "Pandia Search Engine News – Google: one million servers and counting". Pandia Search Engine News.google.acm. http://politicalticker. Retrieved July 5. Google. Eric (December 18.
so the costs and time of set-up. but unit costs tend to be low thereafter. and cost-effectiveness that conventional advertising media simply cannot match. origination. pc's. DVD'S Online and electronic media are fast becoming the most flexible and dynamic advertising methods of all. production and implementation will reduce to levels that will move customers .E-MAIL.WEBSITES. And as more agencies. Electronic and online advertising media can be expensive and challenging to originate and implement initially. and can be extremely cost-effective if sensibly researched and implemented. websites. and many other new ideas which appear more quickly than most of us can absorb. . inter-active digital format. plus lots more besides. As the internet extends progressively to mobile phones and hand-held devices (PDA's . email newsletters and campaigns. so does the internet's potency as a vehicle for advertising and marketing too. CD-ROM'S. measurement and analysis.Personal Digital Assistants). technology companies and digital media organisations develop their offerings and technology. such as viral marketing. so it's now very feasible and sensible to produce all sales literature and brochures. digital information. laptops. up-to-the-minute information about products. newsgroups. and online 'engagement' with suppliers of all sorts. in user-friendly. at a basic level. services and suppliers of all sorts. Conventional printed sales and marketing materials of all types (from newspapers and magazines. INTERNET. Aside from the more complex functionality of modern digital marketing methods. and RSS (Really Simple Syndication) of educational or informative articles. affiliation and partnering arrangements. level of fine-tuning and control. the opportunity and necessity to make use of online and web-related marketing methods becomes increasingly irresistible. forums. Modern and emerging digital and web-related advertising marketing methods offer audience 'reach'. precision of targeting. The internet and email provide unprecedented opportunity for radically new methods of promotion and advertising. PDA's and in the future TV too) for quick. As people's use of the internet increases.in time almost completely away from traditional (printed and other non-digital) media to modern electronic media. CD ROM's and DVD's share much of the same origination and set-up. to brochures and business cards) are becoming obsolete as customers look to the internet (via phones.
and ensure that your business explores and implements the many very costeffective advertising methods available to you via internet media and the modern digital revolution. Press and Public Relations (PR) The press release is the most under-rated form of advertising. Surveys and questionnaires provide perhaps the best opportunity for achieving valuable and effective publicity.take time to look for it and learn . Why? Because it's free. if not all of the information you need is freely available on the internet . and guidelines for using PR follow in more detail below. This method works especially well in the business-to-business market. selling products and services and making appointments for sales staff. and are all examples of this fundamental shift in marketing. are all clearly established and . are now viable and relevant for very small 'local' businesses. TV and radio news publicity works in much the same way. Seminars Creating an informative seminar and inviting your target audience is an excellent way to educate the market and promote your company and proposition. internet directories advertising. outline script. Telemarketing Using telemarketing staff or a telemarketing agency is a proven method of marketing. If wellmanaged. for instance if marketing a new technology or service to architects and specifiers. It is important to identify a good telemarketing agency. It is possible to have certain types of seminars accredited for CPD (Continuous Professional Development) by professional institutes. See the guidelines about surveys and questionnaires below. telemarketing can be an extremely good and cost-effective method for generating sales enquiries. and moreover press editorial is perceived by the audience to be true. although more difficult to secure and control. Getting your editorial printed for free is easier than you may think.Internet listings. which provides an extra incentive for prospective customers to attend. and communications process for enquiry generation follow-up. and where educating customers is appropriate. Most. and 'pay-per-click' advertising offered by the major search engines. whereas advertising of all almost all other types is seen as 'oh no another advert' and therefore implies uncertainty or scepticism. Take time to learn about and understand which of the new digital methods will work for you and how. and to that ensure your aims.
Considerable care needs to be taken when defining and agreeing the telemarketing 'brief' with the telemarketing staff. and how you want to achieve it. is normally essential for telemarketing is to be successful on any reasonable scale. very impersonal and insulting. Generally telemarketing 'scripts' are not a good idea for high quality propositions. department or agency. Direct Mail Consumers and businesses are protected by certain rights relating to direct marketing techniques such as telemarketing. data. nor for professional business-to-business campaigns. Some of the principles and rules referenced here also apply to other types of direct marketing. Refer to the legal implications (Data Protection Act and Preference Services) in the direct mail section. moreover customers generally find scripts. and good telemarketing agencies will already be using such systems which hopefully will interface with your own systems. The elements which make up the direct mail process are basically: • A mailing list of names and addresses (from your own data-base or names sourced . Direct mail is the process of sending your material (by itself or in a shared mailing with other items) direct to the address of the potential customer by post. Good experienced telemarketing staff and managers understand what works and what doesn't forgiven markets. Rigid scripts have the effect of limiting the natural style and capabilities of telemarketing staff. by the agency and your own staff. A good telemarketing agency will work best by developing their own approach to meet the broad requirements of a project 'brief' and an outline of what you want to achieve. A good CRM computer system to manage lists. Listen to their advice. which quickly become robotic and characterless. including 'door-to-door' distribution and telemarketing methods.understood. and you must ensure that your activities adhere to these rules. types of propositions and products and services. follow-up and outcomes.
something else? For large ongoing campaigns it is appropriate and cost-effective to conduct follow-up surveys of respondents and non-responders. and envelopes or packaging. the day and time of delivery. which of course is not always the case)and postal charges. sales follow-up. and even more things that are unknown and unimagined by the campaign manager. such as response handling. Aside from the quality of the responses. There are many things that can go wrong. but for smaller initiatives it's rarely cost-effective to attempt detailed analysis other than to look for obvious indications of success or failure. conversion rates also vary according to factors outside of and after the direct mail activities themselves. the mailing list. See the direct mail story for example. which is determined by the campaign. the response mechanism. You then need to take into account the conversion rate (the conversion of responses into sales). Direct Mail is generally used to generate a direct response from the recipient and will commonly incorporate a reply or response section within the mailed item. It is therefore important to judge a direct mail campaign first on percentage and quality of response. if applicable Resource or facility to 'stuff' and address or label the envelopes/packaging (assuming you are putting the item in an envelope or packaging. The last two stages are often called 'fulfillment'. the reliability of the fulfilment. which depend (in the UK) now on the size and shape as well as the weight of the item being mailed. whether a direct mail campaign works well or poorly it's often very difficult to discover what elements need to be changed and how: the proposition. etc. response rates vary according primarily to the quality of the list. IT systems. and then separately to assess the overall results of the campaign including . Lower than 1% response is more usual. assuming the campaign is designed to produce responses or enquiries and not sales directly. Aside from the strength of your proposition. Direct mail is not a precise science.• • elsewhere) The item(s) to be mailed. Like the rest of advertising. notably: • • the reliability of the list data (new clean lists obviously perform better than old out-ofdate lists) And how well 'targeted' the list is in terms of your offer (how relevant it is to the recipient). A direct mail campaign which produces more than a 2% response is normally considered very successful.
search for your own products and services using Google. because so many customers now use these listings to find suppliers. Test the listings yourself to see how well they work and how commonly they feature in the main search engine listings such as Google. and the easiest way to learn what works and what doesn't is to look at other people's material. A business telephone line normally gives free Yellow Pages and Thomson's entries under a single classification in your local books. You need to be featured on the internet directories and listings websites which appear at the top of the Google results for the search terms that your customers will be using. Many listings are not free. Ask other similar suppliers what works for them.in as mny different ways as you think your customers would. Many listings are free. consumer and household products and services suppliers. Directories . Leaflets and Printed Material Brochures and leaflets can be used for a variety of purposes. but are not appropriate for all types of business-to-business sectors. Books are published annually. Yellow Pages. Directories .local directories. The increasing ease of publishing means that production of good quality small-scale local directories is now very easy for publishers and most towns now have at least one local directory or booklet listing local suppliers which is distributed to all households in the area. The . The aim of a brochure is foremost to generate new business through providing information in a way that appeals to the reader. To discover what website listings and directories you should appear on. Include the town or area or other geographical descriptions in your search phrases . Brochures. at different dates throughout the country. Thomsons. Some work well. and can be distributed in different ways. A good printer can provide examples and costings. Again some work well and others don't. etc These sorts of directories remain very useful for local domestic.increase response rates. These directories can often be very effective for generating enquiries for consumer businesses.internet Internet directories and specialist search engines are an increasingly effective way to advertise and market your services. others don't. Ask yourself where would my potential customers look for suppliers of my products and services? Consider and seek out local smaller directories and trades booklets also. Display adverts or more entries are charged at rates that vary according to each book (there are around 100 Yellow Pages directories books covering the UK).
If it needs an envelope try to avoid using a non-standard envelope size. A 100gsm paper is adequate for single sided mono or colour printing. so take care when signing off each stage. Coated matt and gloss 'art' papers are used for higher quality effects. laid or bond. 250-300gsm is used for business cards. If your instructions to an agency or printer are not correct you will end up paying for the time they spend re-originating and amending.acronym AIDA (attention interest desire action) should be the basis of its design. When producing leaflets and brochures think about the way that they are to be distributed. Letterheads are usually printed on to 90-100gsm (grams per square metre) cartridge. Various lamination processes add more quality and more cost. so avoid falling into this trap. If you work with a designer be sure to control any fanciful tendencies and keep the message and style to the point. but add to cost. digital print processes now enable high quality printing direct from a computer) Printing Finishing (stapling. but they don't achieve anything for the business. so think things through before you start the process. 200gsm is minimum weight for a post card format.sided. If the material is required as an insert is it acceptable to the publication? Is it to be available from a rack? Do you want people to retain the material? If so perhaps a business card or plastic credit-card-type attachment would help? There are thousands of different types of paper. The print process is actually a number of separate stages: • • • • • Design Reprographics (now a computerized process which produces camera-ready-artwork and the film from which the printing plates are made) Plate-making or electronic equivalent (for low quantities. folding. Heavier boards are usually measured in microns rather than gsm because density affects weight more at these gauges. etc if relevant) Generally it is not possible to undo a stage and return to the previous one without reoriginating at least the previous stage. which will add cost unnecessarily. . 130gsm is better for double. Too much spent on a brochure can give the impression that your business is extravagant. Some brochures and leaflets are pleasing pieces of art.
so with good design even black and white printing can give a high quality effect. which relates benefits to the reader so that they will want them. The Attention part is the banner or headline that makes an impressive benefit promise. Your main message must be the most prominent. If you seek a response you must move then to create Desire. This is the part that entices the reader to read on. without the cost of going to full colour. Mono printing is black on white and requires just one black plate. quickly and simply. usually meaning that this must relate closely to the way that the reader thinks about the issues concerned. Ensure that the process is appropriate for your application. printing costs reduce dramatically with volume. Conversely. Do not be tempted to devote 50% of the space to a striking picture or a quote from Shakespeare. yellow and blue. the best adverts are those which offer an . Interest builds information in an interesting way.you'll be surprised how low this cost is in proportion to the main quote. This is due to the origination and set-up charges being already absorbed by the main run. Research proves that where responses are required. two colour printing can produce amazing results. Advertising that does not prompt action is a wasted opportunity. which are appropriate for different purposes and particularly volumes. 'Full colour' printing uses the colours black. Each colour can be tinted (ie applied less than 100% solid) to varying degrees across the print area. Digital printing methods are appropriate for low volumes. and fast becoming viable for higher volumes. As a rule colour is more expensive than mono (black and white). Finally you must prompt an Action. red. although digital printing is not so sensitive to colour/price differences. If you want something classier than black and white. Offer a single impressive benefit. As a rule. When you ask for a print quote ask at the same time for a price per thousand 'run-on' .Re-prints are generally cheaper than the first run because the reprographic work and plates do not need to be produced again.Attention Interest Desire Action (see the sales section). and requires a plate to be made for each colour. There are various printing processes. The biggest part of the advert must be your main benefit statement. Remember 'AIDA' . a poor design can make full colour printing look cheap and nasty. which may be to call a telephone number or to complete and send of a reply coupon.
avoid complicated words. Look at newspapers and library books. smaller or larger are actually more difficult to read and therefore less likely to be read. for maximum readability. Use simple language. they all reduce it. "Copy is getting shorter. relevant benefit to the reader. even if they wanted to.impressive. or about fifteen words) and be clearly the most striking part of the advert. take no longer to read than is normal for the media (direct mail is about 4 .8 seconds. If they've heard or seen it all before it will be no surprise that they take no notice at all. eleven or twelve point-size for the main text. Describe the service as it affects them in a way that they will easily relate to it. Avoid cluttering the advert with fancy images. which are almost always serif fonts of ten to twelve point size. Refer to the reader as 'you' and use the second person ('you'. None of these improve readability." Think about the vocabulary and language you use. shadows. This point cannot be stressed enough. This 'promise' should ideally contain the business brand name. People respond better and are more easily attracted initially to a concept that is new or original. For the same reason avoid italics. weird and wonderful colours. Involve the reader in your writing style . Make it easy to read. Incorporate something new. says. your. clear fonts and clear language.use the 2nd person: you. colours and backgrounds. know your target audience: a simple test is to avoid any words or grammar that would not be found in the newspaper that the target group would read. They have been brought up on computer games. Your message must be quick and easy to absorb. Use simple black (or dark coloured) text on a white (or light coloured) background. so they couldn't deal with a lot of polished copy. light colours reversed out of dark. Use ten. 'your' and 'yours' etc) in the description of what your business does for the customer to get them visualising their own personal involvement. Younger generations are extremely visually literate. and a major factor behind this is that people these days suffer from acute shortages of both time and attention. simple and to the point. and yours. Do not distract the reader from the text by overlaying images or using fancy fonts. an eminent consumer psychologist. and keep enough space around the text to attract attention to it. you must keep it quick. Use simple traditional typestyles: serif fonts are quicker to read than sans serif. And the trend is for ever quicker points: David Lewis. People . Use a clear layout.
as reading the back first throws out the AIDA order. if you claim particularly good customer service. or instruct a mailing house. as it takes longer to read and reduces impact. Stuff envelopes so the material inside faces the back. Remember this if you send anything in an envelope. and ideally not for headlines either. For example. Why should people be interested if your proposition is no different to your competition? You must try to emphasise what makes your service special. and wastes time before the reader sees the main benefit statement. Do not put headlines at the very top of the space. Unless your code of practice prevents you from claiming superiority over your competitors. Again refer to the selling article about developing unique selling propositions. and is rarely a precise . Your proposition or offer must be credible and believable. but you should still attempt to make your offer seem perfectly credible. Use lower case type . Headline should be three-quarters up the page or advert space. this can be reinforced with an outline of your policy on seeking customer feed-back and carrying out satisfaction surveys. Position your headline statement where it can be seen quickest.must believe there's something in it for them right from the start. and either imply or state directly that you are the only company to offer these things. Advertising is often referred to as a 'Black Art' because it is mysterious. you can also increase credibility by showing references or testimonial quotes from satisfied customers. which is where the main benefit statement needs to be. Develop a proposition that is special or unique and emphasise this. People open envelopes from the back.word-shapes are lost when capitals are used. This is usually best accomplished by explaining 'why' and 'how' you are able to do the things you are offering. you should put as much emphasis as you can behind your USP (unique selling point). do don't use upper case (capital letters) for text. People read by recognising word-shapes not individual letters. in support of your claims. The eye is naturally drawn to between two-thirds and three-quarters up the page or space. The Advertising Standards Authority or equivalent would prevent you from making overly extravagant claims anyway.
Things sometimes work which you imagine wouldn't. Conclusion Biblography: .science. and plenty of things you think should work. don't. The Direct Mail Campaign Story is a amusing example of the unpredictable nature of advertising ideas and methods.
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