This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. See http://code.pediapress.com/ for more information. PDF generated at: Tue, 18 Aug 2009 14:48:43 UTC
Sailing Points of sail Sail Sail- plan Bermuda rig Mainsail Headsail Genoa (sail) Jib Spinnaker Glossary of nautical terms 1 15 19 26 39 42 43 43 45 46 53
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 84 86
Sailing is the art of controlling a boat with large (usually fabric) foils called sails. By changing the rigging, rudder, and dagger or centre board, a sailor manages the force of the wind on the → sails in order to change the direction and speed of a boat. Mastery of the skill requires experience in varying wind and sea conditions, as well as knowledge concerning sailboats. While there are still some places in Africa and Asia where sail-powered fishing or transport vessels are used these craft become rare as outboard and modified car engines become available even in the poorest and most remote areas. In most countries people enjoy sailing as a recreational activity. Recreational sailing or yachting can be divided into racing and cruising. Furthermore use of sailboats can be divided into long-distance sailing (also blue-water sailing or offshore sailing) and daysailing.
Wooden sailing boat
Throughout history sailing has been instrumental in the development of civilization. The earliest representation of a ship under sail appears on an Egyptian vase from about 3500 B.C. Advances in sailing technology from the Middle Ages onward enabled Arab, Chinese, Indian and European explorers to make longer voyages into regions with extreme weather and climatic conditions. Improvements were made in the design of → sails, masts and rigging, and navigational equipment became Close-hauled in 1873 more sophisticated. From the 15th century onwards, European ships went further north, stayed longer on the Grand Banks and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and eventually began to explore the Pacific Northwest and the Western Arctic.
A sailing vessel moves forward because of the reaction of moving air on its sails. Since the dawn of history this vital technology has afforded mankind greater mobility and capacity for fishing, trade and warfare. From moving the stones of the great pyramids from Aswan to Giza to allowing man to migrate throughout Polynesia to Nelson's defeat of the French and Spanish navies at the Battle of Trafalgar, mankind's history has been intertwined with this seemingly simple technology.
The energy that drives a sailboat is harnessed by manipulating the relative movement of wind and water speed: if there is no difference in movement, such as on a calm day or when the wind and water current are moving in the same direction at the same speed, there is no energy to be extracted and the sailboat will not be able to do anything but drift. Where there is a difference in motion, then there is energy to be extracted at the interface, and the sailboat does this by placing the sail(s) in the air and the hull(s) in the water. Sails are airfoils that work by using an airflow set up by the wind and the motion of the boat. The combination of the two is the apparent wind, which is the relative velocity of the wind relative to the boat's motion. The sails generate lift using the air that flows around them. The air flowing at the sail surface is not the true wind. Sailing into the wind causes the apparent wind to be greater than the true wind and the direction of the apparent wind will be forward of the true wind. Some extreme design boats are capable of traveling faster than the true windspeed on some points of sail (and can even sail downwind faster than the wind - although this is not intuitively obvious  ; iceboats can sail both upwind and downwind at speeds far greater than the wind). The sail alone is not sufficient to drive the boat in any desired direction, as a sail by itself would only push a boat in the same direction as the wind. Sailboats overcome this by having another physical object below the water line. This may include, a keel, centerboard, or some other form of underwater foil or even the hull itself (as in catamarans without centreboard or in a traditional proa). Thus, the physical portion of the boat which is below water can be regarded as functioning as a "second sail". Having two surfaces against the wind and water enables the sailor to travel in almost any direction and to generate an additional source of lift from the water. The flow of water over the underwater hull portions creates a hydrodynamic force. The combination of the aerodynamic force from the sails and the hydrodynamic force from the underwater hull section allows motion in almost any direction, except straight into the wind. This can be likened, in simple terms, to squeezing a wet bar of soap with two hands which causes it to shoot out in a direction perpendicular to both opposing forces. Depending on the efficiency of the rig, the angle of travel relative to the true wind can be as little as 35° to over 80°. This angle is called the tacking angle . With a 35° tacking angle on either side of the wind, it is possible for a sailboat to sail directly over 290° of the compass (360° − 2 × 35° = 290°).
Sail on a small ship as seen from below
Sailing Tacking is essential when sailing upwind. The sails, when correctly adjusted, will generate aerodynamic lift. When sailing downwind, the sails no longer generate aerodynamic lift and airflow is stalled, with the wind push on the sails giving drag only. As the boat is going downwind, the apparent wind is less than the true wind and this, allied to the fact that the  sails are not producing aerodynamic lift, serves to limit the downwind speed. Some non-traditional rigs purportedly capture energy from the wind in a different fashion and are capable of feats that traditional rigs are not, such as sailing directly into the wind. One such example is the wind turbine boat, also called the windmill boat, which uses a large windmill to extract energy from the wind, and a propeller to convert this energy to forward motion of the hull. A similar design, called the autogyro boat, uses a wind turbine without the propellor, and functions in a manner similar to a normal sail.
Effects of wind shear
Wind shear affects sailboats in motion by presenting a different wind speed and direction at different heights along the mast. Wind shear occurs because of the greater friction presented by water surface slowing the flow of air, a difference in true wind creates a different apparent wind at different heights. Sailmakers may introduce sail twist in the design of the sail, where the head of the sail is set at a different angle of attack from the foot of the sail in order to change the lift distribution with height. The effect of wind shear can be factored into the selection of twist in the sail design, but this can be difficult to predict since wind shear may vary widely in different weather conditions. Sailors may also adjust the trim of the sail to account for wind gradient, for example using a boom vang.
Points of sail
The → points of sail are the most important parts of sail theory to remember. The no-go zone is about 45° either side of the true wind for a racing hull and sail plan optimized for upwind work. On some cruising yachts, the best course achievable upwind is 50° to 55° to the true wind. No sailboat can sail directly into the wind; attempting to do so leads to the sails luffing. There are 5 main points of sail. In order from the edge of the no-go zone to directly downwind they are: • close haul (often about 45° to the apparent wind - the least angle that the boat and its rig can manage) • close reach (between close hauled and a beam reach) • beam reach (90° to the apparent wind) • broad reach (between a beam reach and running) • running (close to directly downwind) The sail trim (and, on smaller boats, centre board/dagger board position) on a boat is relative to the point of sail one is on: on a beam reach sails are mostly let out, on a run sails are all the way out, and close hauled sails are pulled in very tightly. Two main skills of sailing are trimming the sails correctly for the direction and strength of the wind, and maintaining a course relative to the wind that suits the sails once trimmed.
The points of sail. A. In Irons (into the wind) B. Close Hauled C. Beam Reach D. Broad Reach E. Running
Beating or "Working"
A boat can only get to an upwind destination by sailing close-hauled with the wind coming from one side, then tacking (turning the boat through the eye of the wind) and sailing with the wind coming from the other side. By this method of zig-zagging into the wind it is possible to reach any upwind destination. A yacht beating to a mark directly upwind one mile away will cover a distance through the water of at least 1.4 miles, if it can tack through an angle of 90 degrees with negligible leeway. An old adage describes beating as sailing for twice the distance at half the speed and three times the discomfort.
Using a series of close-hauled legs to beat a course upwind.
How closely a boat can sail into the wind depends on the boat's design, sail shape and trim, the sea state, and the wind speed. Typical angles to the true wind are as follows. Actual course over the water will be worse due to leeway. • about 35° for modern racing yachts which have been optimized for upwind performance (like America's Cup yachts) • about 42 to 45° for modern cruiser-racer yachts (fast cruising yachts) • about 50 to 60° for cruisers with an emphasis on interior space, ease of handling and often low draught rather than sailing performance, and for boats carrying two or more masts (since the forward sails adversely affect the aft sails when sailing upwind) • close to 90° for square riggers and similar vessels due to the sail shape which is very ineffective when sailing upwind
When the boat is traveling approximately perpendicular to the wind, this is called reaching. A 'beam' reach is with the apparent wind at right angles to the boat, a 'close' reach is anywhere between beating and a beam reach, and a 'broad' reach is between a beam reach and running. For most modern sailboats, that is boats with triangular sails, reaching is the fastest way to travel. The direction of the wind is ideal for reaching because it will maximize the lift generated on the sails in the forward direction of the boat, giving the best boat speed. Also when reaching, the boat can be steered exactly in the direction that is most desirable, and the sails can be trimmed for that direction. Reaching however may put the boat on a course parallel with the crests of the waves. When the waves are steep, it may be necessary to sail closer to the wind to avoid waves directly on the beam.
Sailing the boat within roughly 30 degrees either side of dead downwind is called a run. This can be the most comfortable point of sail, but requires constant attention. Loss of attention by the helmsman can lead to an accidental jibe, causing injury to the boat or crew. All on deck must be aware of, and if possible avoid, the potential arc of the boom, mainsheet and other gear in case an accidental jibe occurs during a run. A preventer can be rigged to reduce danger and damage from accidental jibes. In stronger winds, rolling increases as there is less rolling resistance provided by the sails, which are eased out. In smaller boats, death rolls can build up and lead to capsize. Any boat over-canvassed on a run can round up suddenly, heel excessively and stop suddenly in the water. This is called broaching and it can lead to capsize, possible crew injury and/or loss of crew into the water.
A Thistle running downwind with a → spinnaker.
Options for manoeuvering are also reduced. On other points of sail, it is easy to stop or slow the boat by heading into the wind; there may be no such easy way out when running, especially in close quarters or when a spinnaker, whisker pole or preventer are set.
Basic sailing techniques
An important aspect of sailing is keeping the boat in "trim". To achieve this a useful mnemonic (memory aid) is the phrase: Can This Boat Sail Correctly? This helps the crew to remember these essential points; • Course made good - The turning or steering of the boat vessel using the wheel or tiller to the desired course or buoy. See different → points of sail. This may be a definite bearing (e.g. steer 270 degrees), or towards a landmark, or at a desired angle to the apparent wind direction.
Sailing in front of Helsinki, Finland. 8mR Sagitta (Camper & Nicholson 1929), a true sailboat with no motor, lowers its → mainsail after a training session before returning to its mooring with the foresail only.
• Trim - This is the fore and aft balance of the boat. The aim is to adjust the moveable ballast (the crew!) forwards or backwards to achieve an 'even keel'. On an upwind course in a small boat, the crew typically sit forward to reduce drag.When 'running',it is more efficient for the crew to sit to the rear of the boat. The position of the crew matters less as the size (and weight) of the boat increases. • Balance - This is the port and starboard balance. The aim, once again is to adjust weight 'windward' or 'leeward' to prevent excessive heeling. The boat moves at a faster velocity
Sailing if it is flat to the water. • Sail trim - Trimming sails is a large topic. Simply put however, a sail should be pulled in until it fills with wind, but no further than the point where the front edge of the sail (the luff) is exactly in line with the wind. Let it out until it starts to flap, and then pull it in until it stops. • Centreboard (Daggerboard) - If a moveable centreboard is fitted, then it should be lowered when sailing "close to the wind" but can be raised up on downwind courses to reduce drag. The centreboard prevents lateral motion and allows the boat to sail upwind. A boat with no centreboard will instead have a permanent keel, some other form of underwater foil, or even the hull itself which serves the same purpose. With a daggerboard, on a close haul the daggerboard should be fully down and while running over half way up. Together, these points are known as 'The Five Essentials' and constitute the central aspects of sailing.
An important safety aspect of sailing is to adjust the amount of sail to suit the wind conditions. As the wind speed increases the crew should progressively reduce the amount of sail. On a small boat with only jib and → mainsail this is done by furling the jib and by partially lowering the mainsail, a process called 'reefing the main'. Reefing means reducing the area of a sail without actually changing it for a smaller sail. Ideally reefing does not only result in a reduced sail area but also in a lower center of effort from the sails, reducing the heeling moment and keeping the boat more upright. There are three common methods of reefing the mainsail: • Slab reefing, which involves lowering the sail by about one-quarter to one-third of its luff length and tightening the lower part of the sail using an outhaul or a pre-loaded reef line through a cringle at the new clew, and hook through a cringle at the new tack. • In-mast (or on-mast) roller-reefing. This method rolls the sail up around a vertical foil either inside a slot in the mast, or affixed to the outside of the mast. It requires a mainsail with either no battens, or newly-developed vertical battens. • In-boom roller-reefing, with a horizontal foil inside the boom. This method allows for standard- or full-length horizontal battens. Mainsail furling systems have become increasingly popular on cruising yachts as they can be operated shorthanded and from the cockpit in most cases, however, the sail can become jammed in the mast or boom slot if not operated correctly. Mainsail furling is almost never used while racing because it results in a less efficient sail profile. The classical slab-reefing method is the most widely used. Mainsail furling has an additional disadvantage in that its complicated gear may somewhat increase weight aloft. However, as the size of the boat increases, the benefits of mainsail roller furling increase dramatically. An old saying goes, "The first time you think of reducing sail you should," and correspondingly, "When you think you are ready to take out a reef, have a cup of tea instead."
Sail trimming is a large subject and is a matter of debate. The most basic control of the sail consists of setting its angle relative to the wind. The control line which accomplishes this is called a "sheet." If the sheet is too loose the sail will flap in the wind - which is called "luffing." Optimum sail angle can be approximated by pulling the sheet in just so far as to make the luffing stop. Finer controls adjust the overall shape of the sail.
A Contender dinghy on a reach.
Two or more sails are frequently combined to maximize the smooth flow of air. The sails are adjusted to create a smooth laminar flow over the sail surfaces. This is called the "slot effect". The combined sails fit into an imaginary aerofoil outline, so that the most forward sails are more in line with the wind, whereas the more aft sails are more in line with the course followed. The combined efficiency of this sail plan is greater than the sum of each sail used in isolation. More detailed aspects include specific control of the sail's shape, e.g.: • reefing, or reducing the sail area in stronger wind • altering sail shape to make it flatter in high winds • raking the mast when going upwind (to tilt the sail towards the rear, this being more stable) • providing sail twist to account for wind speed differential and to spill excess wind in gusty conditions • gibbing or lowering a sail
Hull trim is the adjustment of a boat's loading so as to change its fore-and-aft attitude in the water. In small boats, it is done by positioning the crew. In larger boats the weight of a person has less effect on the hull trim, but it can be adjusted by shifting gear, fuel, water, or supplies. Different hull trim efforts are required for different kinds of boats and different conditions. Here are just a few examples: In a lightweight racing dinghy like a Thistle, the hull should be kept level, on its designed water line for best performance in all conditions. In many small boats, weight too far aft can cause drag by submerging the transom, especially in light to moderate winds. Weight too far forward can cause the bow to dig into the waves. In heavy winds, a boat with its bow too low may capsize by pitching forward over its bow (pitch-pole) or dive under the waves (submarine). On a run in heavy winds, the forces on the sails tend to drive a boat's bow down, so the crew weight is moved far aft.
A ship or boat leaning over to one side under wind pressure or the action of waves, is said to 'heel'. As a sailing boat heels over beyond a certain angle, it begins to sail less efficiently. Several forces can counteract this movement. • The buoyancy of that part of the hull which is being submerged tends to bring the boat upright. • Raising the centreboard can paradoxically reduce heeling, because it increases leeway. • A weighted keel, which can in larger boats be canted from side to side, provides additional force to right the boat. Boats heeling in front of Britannia • The crew may move onto the high (upwind) side of Bridge in a round-Anglesey race 1998 the boat, called hiking, changing the centre of gravity significantly in a small boat. They can trapeze if the boat is designed for this (see Dinghy sailing). • The underwater shape of the hull relative to the sails can be designed to make the boat tend to turn upwind when it heels excessively: this reduces the force on the sails, and allows the boat to right itself. This is known as rounding up. • The boat can be turned upwind to produce the same effect. • Wind can be spilled from the sails by 'sheeting out', i.e. loosening the sail. • The sail shape can be altered to reduce its efficiency, e.g. tightening the downhaul (see list of nautical terms) • The sail area can be reduced. This manoeuvre is known as Reefing. • Lastly, as the boat rolls farther over, wind spills from the top of the sail and the angle of attack lessens the wind's force. Most of the above effects can be used to right a heeling boat and to keep the boat sailing efficiently: if however the boat heels beyond a certain point of stability, it can capsize. A boat is capsized when the tip of the mast is in the water. Yachts are traditionally divided into non-capsizable (which means that they have a heavy keel which in normal weather should stabilize the vessel) and non-drowning (which usually means that the vessel has a centerboard and even in normal circumstances can be capsized, but will not sink).
Sailing hulls and hull shapes
Sailing boats with one hull are "monohulls", those with two are "catamarans", those with three are "trimarans". A boat is turned by a rudder, which itself is controlled by a tiller or a wheel, while at the same time adjusting the sheeting angle of the sails. Smaller sailing boats often have a stabilising, raisable, underwater fin called a centreboard (or daggerboard); larger sailing boats have a fixed (or sometimes canting) keel. As a general rule, the former are called dinghies, the latter keelboats. However, up until the adoption of the Racing Rules of Sailing, any vessel racing under sail was
Musto Performance Skiff
Sailing considered a yacht, be it a multi-masted ship-rigged vessel (such as a sailing frigate), a sailboard (more commonly referred to as a windsurfer) or remote-controlled boat, or anything in between. (see Dinghy sailing) Multihulls use flotation and/or weight positioned away from the centre line of the sailboat to counter the force of the wind. This is in contrast to heavy ballast that can account for up to 90% (in extreme cases like AC boats) of the weight of a monohull sailboat. In the case of a standard catamaran there are two similarly sized and shaped slender hulls connected by beams, which are sometimes overlaid by a deck superstructure. Another catamaran variation is the proa. In the case of trimarans, which have an unballasted centre hull similar to a monohull, two relatively smaller amas are situated parallel to the centre hull to resist the sideways force of the wind. The advantage of multihulled sailboats is that they do not suffer the performance penalty of having to carry heavy ballast, and their relatively lesser draft reduces the amount of drag, caused by friction and inertia, when moving through the water.
Types of sails and layouts
A traditional modern yacht is technically called a "Bermuda sloop" (sometimes a "Bermudan sloop"). A sloop is any boat that has a single mast and a headsail (generally a jib) in addition to the mainsail. The Bermuda designation refers to the fact that the sail, which has its forward edge (the "luff") against the mast (the main sail), is a sail roughly triangular in shape. Additionally, Bermuda sloops only have a single sail Traditional sailing off the northern behind the mast. Other types of sloops are gaff-rigged coast of Mozambique. sloops and lateen sloops. Gaff-rigged sloops have quadrilateral mainsails with a gaff (a small boom) at their upper edge (the "head" of the sail). Gaff-rigged vessels may also have another sail, called a topsail, above the gaff. Lateen sloops have triangular sails with the upper edge attached to a gaff, and the lower edge attached to the boom, and the boom and gaff are attached to each other via some type of hinge. It is also possible for a sloop to be square rigged (having large square sails like a Napoleonic Wars-era ship of the line). Note that a "sloop of war," in the naval sense, may well have more than one mast, and is not properly a sloop by the modern meaning. If a boat has two masts, it may be a schooner, a ketch, or a yawl, if it is rigged fore-and-aft on all masts. A schooner may have any number of masts provided the second from the front is the tallest (called the "main mast"). In both a ketch and a yawl, the foremost mast is tallest, and thus the main mast, while the rear mast is shorter, and called the mizzen mast. The difference between a ketch and a yawl is that in a ketch, the mizzen mast is forward of the rudderpost (the axis of rotation for the rudder), while a yawl has its mizzen mast behind the rudderpost. In modern parlance, a brigantine is a vessel whose forward mast is rigged with square sails, while her after mast is rigged fore-and-aft. A brig is a vessel with two masts both rigged square. As one gets into three or more masts the number of combinations rises and one gets barques, barquentines, and full rigged ships.
Sailing A → spinnaker is a large, full sail that is only used when sailing off wind either reaching or downwind, to catch the maximum amount of wind.
Sailors use traditional nautical terms for the parts of or directions on a vessel; starboard (right), port (left), forward or fore (front), aft (rearward), bow (forward part of the hull), stern (aft part of the hull), beam (the widest part). Vertical spars are masts, horizontal spars are booms (if they can hit the sailor), gaffs (if they are too high to reach) or poles (if they cannot hit the sailor).
Rope and lines
Rope is the term used only for raw material; once a section of rope is designated for a particular purpose on a vessel, it generally is called a line, as in outhaul line or dock line. A very thick line is considered a cable. Lines that are attached to sails to control their shapes are called sheets, as in mainsheet If a rope is made of wire, it maintains its rope name as in 'wire rope' halyard. Lines (generally steel cables) that support masts are stationary and are collectively known as a vessel's standing rigging, and individually as shrouds or stays (the stay running forward from a mast to the bow is called the forestay or headstay). Moveable lines that control sails or other equipment are known collectively as a vessel's running rigging. Standing rigging (on the left) and running rigging (on the right), on a Lines that raise sails are called halyards while those sailing boat. that strike them are called downhauls or cunninghams. Lines that adjust (trim) the sails are called sheets. These are often referred to using the name of the sail they control (such as main sheet, or jib sheet). Sail trim may also be controlled with smaller lines attached to the forward section of a boom; such a line is called a vang, or a kicker in the United Kingdom. Lines used to tie a boat up when alongside are called docklines, docking cables or mooring warps. Some lines are referred to as ropes: A bell rope (to ring the bell), a bolt rope (attached to the edge of a sail for extra strength), a foot rope (on old square riggers for the sailors to stand on while reefing or furling the sails), and a tiller rope (to temporarily hold the tiller and keep the boat on course). A rode is what keeps an anchor attached to the boat when the anchor is in use. It may be chain, rope, or a combination of the two.
Walls are called bulkheads or ceilings, while the surfaces referred to as ceilings on land are called 'overheads'. Floors are called 'soles' or decks. The toilet is traditionally called the 'head', the kitchen is the galley. Lines are rarely tied off, they are almost always 'made fast' or 'belayed.' Sails in different sail plans have unchanging names, however. For the naming of sails, see → sail-plan.
Sailboat on a mooring ball near Youngstown, NY
Knots are among the most important things a sailor needs to know. Although only a few are required, the bowline in particular is essential. By also learning the clove hitch and "round turn and two half hitches," one can easily cope with all of the knot requirements of a boat. A more complete grasp of knot-tying includes mastery of the following knots: • • • • • • • • bowline clove hitch round turn and two half hitches rolling hitch figure of eight reef knot sheet bend stopper knots
Additional knots are available List of knots Even experienced sailors may forget their knots if they are not performed on a regular basis. Forgetting how to tie an important knot can damage a boat or cause injury. • http:/ / www. tollesburysc. co. uk/ Knots/ Knots_gallery. htm (Some of the important knots)
There are three basic rules for avoiding a collision at sea, but this is a simplification of a detailed set of regulations: 1. A yacht using sails as motive power on port tack gives way to one on starboard tack. . 2. The more maneuverable vessel gives way to the less maneuverable vessel. It is generally assumed that this means that power 'gives way' to sail, but this is not always the case. It is prudent for a small sailing vessel to stay out of the way of large power driven ships by making an early and obvious alteration in course to signal both recognition of a potential collision situation and that avoiding action has been taken. It is mandatory, by port and harbour regulations, that sailing vessels shall stay clear of shipping in a buoyed channel. 3. If a collision is imminent both vessels must take avoiding action even if one vessel (this is the 'stand-on' vessel) would normally take no action. Not to do so, if there is an
Sailing opportunity, may make the sailor the guilty party at an inquiry. The use of the term 'right of way' is borrowed from yacht racing environment, does not appear in internationally recognised rules for vessels not racing and is inappropriate to all other vessels and situations. Power driven vessel A that is on a potential collision course crossing the port side of power driven vessel B must give way. Sailing boats with their sails set on the same side of the boat, require that the windward boat shall give way to the leeward boat. Vessel A overtaking vessel B normally must keep clear of them . Head on collisions are avoided by vessels both turning to Starboard. If these rules are not followed in a yacht race, a protest may be called by one of the skippers. A hearing of protestor and protestee by the protest committee panel will decide who wins the rule breach. However there are many other rules besides these, that are applicable and sailors are required to know these, which are fundamental boating safety rules including: • The "rules of the road" or International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS) set forth by the International Maritime Organization are particularly relevant to sailboats because they may be sharing the same body of water as powered vessels, who are bound by the COLREGS. • The IALA International Association of Lighthouse Authorities standards for lateral marks, lights, signals, and buoyage and rules designed to support safe navigation. • The SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) regulations place the obligations for safety on the owners and operators of any boat including sailboats. These regulations specify the safety equipment needed and emergency procedures to be used appropriate to the boat's size and its sailing range. • When racing, all sailing vessels must follow the Racing Rules of Sailing promulgated by the International Sailing Federation as well as any prescriptions (additional rules) given by the national governing body and organisation running the event. When a boat that is racing encounters one that is not, the racing boat must comply with the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea with respect to the non-racing boat. It is the custom amongst sailors that a sailing boat cruising will not normally get in the way of a racing fleet. Similarly, all sailors give way to divers' boats and fishers for reasons of safety & courtesy. After sunset all boats racing are bound by the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS) rather than the Racing Rules of Sailing.
Sailboat racing ranges from single person dinghy racing to large boats with 10 or 20 crew and from small boats costing a few hundred dollars to multi-million dollar America's Cup or Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race campaigns. The costs of participating in the high end large boat competitions make this type of sailing one of the most expensive sports in the world. However, there are relatively inexpensive ways to get involved in sailboat racing, such as at community sailing clubs, U.S. Sailing team at the World Military classes offered by local recreation organizations and in Games Sailing Competition, December 2003 some relatively inexpensive dinghy and small catamaran classes. Additionally high schools and colleges may offer sailboat racing programs through the Interscholastic Sailing Association (in the USA) and the Intercollegiate Sailing Association (in the USA and some parts of Canada). Under these conditions, sailboat racing can be comparable to or less expensive than sports such as golf and skiing. Sailboat racing is one of the few sports in which people of all ages and genders can regularly compete with and against each other. Most sailboat and yacht racing is done in sheltered coastal or inland waters. However, in terms of endurance and risk to life, ocean races such as the Volvo Ocean Race, the solo VELUX 5 Oceans Race, and the non-stop solo Vendée Globe, rate as some of the most extreme and dangerous sporting events. Not only do participants compete for days with little rest, but an unexpected storm, a single equipment failure, or collision with an ice floe could result in the sailboat being disabled or sunk hundreds or thousands of miles from search and rescue. The sport of Sailboat racing is governed by the International Sailing Federation (ISAF ), and the rules under which competitors race are the Racing Rules of Sailing, which can be found on the ISAF web site. As well as these there is the "mini transats" in which very small craft and a solo sailer cross the Atlantic Ocean. The Vendee Globe is another race for larger boats. Other races include the Fastnet race from Cowes, around the Fastnet rock just of the coast of Ireland and back again to the Plymouth. There is also the Sydney to Hobart race. Other race much important is Valtur World Cup for Amateurs disputated in Pollina (Italy) in 2001.
• • • • • • • • American Sail Training Association Sailboat Catboat and Sloop Catamaran Cruising (maritime) Day sailer Dinghy racing Dinghy sailing
• History of ship transport • Ketch
Sailing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Land sailing List of nautical terms Marina Planing (sailing) → Points of sail Racing Rules of Sailing → Sail → Sail-plan Single-handed sailing Solar sail Trailer sailer Trimaran Yachting Yacht charter Yacht racing
• "Transportation and Maps" in Virtual Vault , an online exhibition of Canadian historical art at Library and Archives Canada
• • • • International Sailing Federation  American Sailing Association  Royal Yacht Association  US Sailing 
 Casson, Lionel. 1971. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World  "Transportation and Maps" in Virtual Vault (http:/ / www. collectionscanada. ca/ virtual-vault/ 026018-119. 01-e. php?q1=Transportation+ and+ Maps& PHPSESSID=709io6475tfesngi2m7226o454),the art of the boat is sofa an online exhibition of Canadian historical art at Library and Archives Canada  As would be seen by a wind in relation to the boat which also has a velocity. The curved surface of a sail serves to deflect the air. Deflecting the air results in a reaction force on the sail and rigging, which pushes the boat in a direction opposite to the deflection. It is often said that lift is generated by the pressure differential on the sails, but this is not entirely true--the pressure differential deflects the air, but it is the deflection that generates the force. Since the air behind the sailboat has been deflected, it now has less energy and is slower and is often called dirty air. Racing sailors try to avoid sailing in dirty air and attempt to give dirty air to opponents where possible. A common technique is trying to get upwind of an opponent, and make them sail in your dirty air, slowing them down  Forward of means making a smaller angle relative to the bow than the angle that the true wind makes relative to the bow     http:/ / terrytao. wordpress. com/ 2009/ 03/ 23/ sailing-into-the-wind-or-faster-than-the-wind/ http:/ / wordmunger. com/ ?p=1002 http:/ / www. storerboatplans. com/ Pdr/ PDRmeasurepointingleeway. html Large sails of big area, spinnakers serve to increase the sail area for more performance downwind
 http:/ / www. treehugger. com/ files/ 2007/ 02/ windmill_sailbo. php  http:/ / uk. geocities. com/ fnsnclr@btinternet. com/ yachts/ auto/ index. htm  Garrett, Ross (1996). The Symmetry of Sailing. Dobbs Ferry: Sheridan House. pp. 97–99. ISBN 1574090003.  Each leg at 45 degrees to the true wind is 0.71miles, but in reality is longer as tacking angles greater than 45 degrees are the norm and leeway is also significant
 Sails set for a breeze coming from the left hand side of the boat  Sails set for a breeze coming from the right side of the boat  the boat closer to where the wind is coming from,  Boat further away from the wind  http:/ / www. sailing. org/  http:/ / www. collectionscanada. ca/ virtual-vault/ 026018-119. 01-e. php?q1=Transportation+ and+ Maps& PHPSESSID=709io6475tfesngi2m7226o454  http:/ / www. asa. com/  http:/ / www. rya. org. uk/  http:/ / www. ussailing. org/
Points of sail
Points of sail describes a sailing boat's course in relation to the wind direction. First, there is a distinction between the port tack and the starboard tack. If the wind is coming from anywhere on the port side, the boat is on port tack. Likewise if the wind is coming from the starboard side, the boat is on starboard tack. Except when head to wind, a boat will be on either port or starboard tack while on any point of sail. For purposes of the racing rules and "rules of the road," the wind is assumed to be coming from the side opposite that which the boom is carried.
The points of sail. A. In Irons (into the wind) B. Close Hauled C. Beam Reach D. Broad Reach E. Running
Head To Wind
At this point of sail the boat is headed directly into the wind. A boat turns through this point of sail as it performs a tack. The boat is on neither port nor starboard tack. Since a boat cannot sail directly into the wind, if a boat comes head to wind and loses steerage, it is said to be "in irons," and may begin to travel slowly backwards. To recover, the → jib (headsail) is backed to one side, and the tiller is moved to the same side. In a single-sailed boat the "push, push, pull, pull" technique (i.e., "push" the boom towards the wind, "push" the tiller away, and then "pull" the boom and tiller back to their normal positions) can be used, which sails the boat backwards and steers the stern towards the wind. This results in the bow being pushed away from the wind and out of irons. Sailboats are usually put head to wind when raising or lowering sails. In this case, auxiliary (motorized) sailboats will typically be under power (engine running). In the sport of yacht racing, the current rules do not recognize a state in which a boat is on neither port nor starboard tack. Boats which are lying head to wind are either considered to
Points of sail be on their old tack, or on their new tack but in the act of tacking, and therefore required to stay clear of other boats.
The boat is pointed too close to the wind for the sails to generate any power (unless they are backed, see above). The sails will be luffing ("flapping") in the breeze and making noise, like a flag. The size of the angle in which a boat will be in irons will differ, depending on the performance characteristics of the particular sailboat. For example, racing sailboats can usually sail much closer to the wind (i.e., fewer degrees off the wind direction) than cruising yachts. This is known as "pointing higher." Pointing ability is very important for racing sailboats, as the real goal in a race is almost always velocity made good (VMG). VMG is the speed at which the boat is approaching the destination (usually a buoy or mark), as opposed to the speed at which the boat is moving through the water (boat speed). These two speeds almost always vary because, during a race, a boat usually cannot sail directly to the next mark. VMG may also refer to the upwind vector of boat speed (this is often the VMG expressed on sailing instruments). If a sailboat is tacking and turning into the wind with sufficient speed to complete the tack, when the boat is facing into the wind it is "luffing" but, due to forward speed, is still turning under control. If the boat attempts to tack with a slow initial speed, or otherwise stops forward motion while heading into the wind, the sailboat is said to be "in irons." Since there is no speed (no water flow past the rudder) there is no normal control of the direction of the boat, and it tends to drift directly backwards. To recover from this situation, the jib or forwardmost sail can be backed (tightened and pushed out) on the side that is the desired tack until the boat is at a sufficient angle to the wind for sailing, and/or the rudder can be turned to the side that is the desired tack (the tiller pointed in the desired direction that you wish to go) and held until the boat is at the correct angle to the wind and resumes forward motion. For single-sailed dingies, which have no jib or foresail, the mainsail can be backed (forced to windward with hand pressure on the boom) to achieve a similar result.
A boat is sailing close hauled when its sails are trimmed in tightly and it is sailing as close to the wind as it can without entering in irons. This point of sail lets the boat travel diagonally upwind. This is a precise point of sail. However, the exact angle relative to the wind direction varies from boat to boat. A boat is considered to be "pinching" if the helmsman tries to sail above an efficient close-hauled course and the sails begin to luff slightly.
Points of sail A square rigged ship cannot operate well in the close reach position, as the maximum deflection offered by the braces is typically 45 degrees off the running position. When heading up beyond a beam reach, a square-rigger must rely on its staysails and spanker.
When the boat is traveling approximately perpendicular to the wind, this is called reaching. A 'close' reach is somewhat toward the wind, and 'broad' reach is a little bit away from the wind (a 'beam' reach is with the wind precisely at a right angle to the boat). For most modern sailboats, reaching is the fastest way to travel. Different boats have different performance characteristics: on some boats, the beam reach is the fastest point of sail; on others, a broad reach is faster.
This is any upwind angle between Close Hauled and a Beam Reach. "Fetch" (or "fetching") is a synonym in many English-speaking countries for a close reach.
This is a course steered at right angles to the wind. This is a precise point of sail. Sails are put out at roughly 45 degrees.
The wind is coming from behind the boat at an angle. This represents a range of wind angles between Beam Reach and Running Downwind. The sails are eased out away from the boat, but not as much as on a run or dead run (downwind run).
On this point of sail, the wind is coming from directly behind the boat. Because running is the most difficult point of sail for modern yachts, and can be dangerous to those on board in the event of an accidental jibe, it is often called the "don't go zone". Modern racing yacht design favors sailing rigs that can point very high to windward, which means a high aspect ratio sail. Downwind performance suffers, but that is overcome by the use of a low aspect ratio → spinnaker for running.
Points of sail When running, the mainsail is eased out as far as it will go. The jib will collapse because the mainsail blocks its wind, and must either be lowered and replaced by a spinnaker or set instead on the windward side of the boat. Running with the jib to windward is known as gull wing, goose wing, butterflying or wing and wing. A → genoa gull-wings well, especially if stabilized by a whisker pole, which is similar to, but lighter than a spinnaker pole. In 'non-extras' or 'no flying sails' class races where spinnakers are not permitted, poled-out genoas are often used when running downwind. Cruising yachtsmen, when running downwind, will often set either a poled-out genoa or a pole-less cruising 'chute (or gennaker). When running downwind for protracted periods, for example when ocean-crossing in steady trade winds, cruisers sometimes set twin poled-out jibs without a mainsail. All of these options are more stable and require less trimming effort than a spinnaker. Steering is difficult when running because there is often little or no pressure on the tiller to provide feedback to the helmsman, so the boat may easily go off course. This tendency to turn off course when running can be dangerous, as the boat is least stable and can jibe accidentally if the lee side of the sail catches the wind. A preventer can be used on yachts to avoid this. Another problem with running in modern high aspect rigs is the fact that having the sail set at right angles to the wind guarantees a stall, and the stalled out wing sheds 'bubbles' of turbulence. Combined with the sea- and steering-induced rolling of the boat, this can build up a rolling resonance and lead to a broach or a death roll. Square rigged ships, since the sails develop lift off the top edges of the sails, and so are not necessarily stalled even on a dead run, are far better at running, since the conditions that lead to broaching are not present. They still, however, are difficult to keep on course, and require constant attention at the helm; when sailing on a reaching course, the boat is in a stable state, and it is possible to tie off the wheel and still maintain a steady course.
A sail is any type of surface intended to generate thrust by being placed in a wind—in essence a vertically-oriented wing. Sails are used in → sailing.
A square-rigged sail
History of sails
The ships built at around 10,000 BC were just crude log rafts or dug-out canoes. The earliest known ships were papyrus reed boats built by the Egyptians around 4,000 BC. The Greeks and Phoenicians had begun trading by ship around 1,200 BC. The Arabs had invented the sail in about 2,000 BC in an attempt to establish trading routes around the Persian Gulf. The Chinese had designed sails around 3,000 BC, and can still be seen on Sails on a small ship as seen from below traditional wooden ships sailing off the coast of Vietnam in Ha Long Bay. Square sails mounted on yardarms perpendicular to the boat's hull are very good for downwind sailing, and dominated in the
Sail ancient Mediterranean and spread to Northern Europe, while being independently invented in China and Ecuador. Although fore-and-aft rigs have become more popular on modern yachts, square sails continued to power full rigged ships through the Age of Sail and to the present day. Triangualar fore-and-aft lateen sails were invented independently in the Mediterranean (possibly from the square sail through the lugsail), the Indian Ocean, the Pacific (from V-shaped sails) and Peru, and continue to be used throughout the world. During the 16th-19th centuries other fore-and-aft sails were developed in Europe, such as the spritsail, gaff rig, → jib/→ genoa/staysail, and → Bermuda rig, which give better upwind sailing ability. In an interesting recent development, an elderly trawler, TS Pelican, was fitted with what are thought to have been the unorthodox riggings used by the Barbary pirates in the 16th century. The resultant performance has been remarkable, with the Pelican sailing, at speed, over 20 degrees nearer the wind than any square rigger.
Use of sails
Sails are primarily used on the water by sailing ships and sail boats as a propulsion system. For purposes of commerce, sails have been greatly superseded by other forms of propulsion, such as the internal combustion engine. For recreation, however, sailing vessels remain popular. The most familiar type of sailboat, a small pleasure yacht, usually has a → sail-plan called a sloop. This has two sails in a fore-and-aft arrangement: the → mainsail and the → jib. The mainsail extends aftward and is secured the whole length of its edges to the mast and to a boom also hung from the mast. The sails of tall ships are attached to wooden timbers or "spars". The → jib is secured along its leading edge to a forestay (strong wire) strung from the top of the mast to the bowsprit on the bow (nose) of the boat. A → genoa is also used on some boats. It is a type of jib that is large enough to overlap the mainsail, and cut so that it is fuller than an ordinary jib. Fore-and-aft sails can be switched from one side of the boat to the other in order to provide propulsion as the sailboat changes direction relative to the wind. When the boat's stern crosses the wind, this is called gybing; when the bow crosses the wind, it is called tacking. Tacking repeatedly from port to starboard and/or vice versa, called "beating", is done in order to allow the boat to follow a course into the wind. A primary feature of a properly designed sail is an amount of "draft", caused by curvature of the surface of the sail. When the leading edge of a sail is oriented into the wind, the correct curvature helps maximise lift while minimising turbulence and drag, much like the carefully designed curves of aircraft wings. Modern sails are manufactured with a combination of broadseaming and non-stretch fabric (ref New technology below). The former adds draft, while the latter allows the sail to keep a constant shape as the wind pressure increases. The draft of the sail can be reduced in stronger winds by use of a cunningham and outhaul, and also by bending the mast and increasing the downward pressure of the boom by use of a boom vang. Other sail powered machines include ice yachts, windmills, kites, signs, hang gliders, electric generators, windsurfers , and land sailing vehicles. Sail construction is governed by the science of aerodynamics.
Types of rigging
Generally speaking, 2 main types of rigging can be found to mount the main sails. These are square rigging and fore-and-aft rigging.
Sails propel the boat in one of two ways. When the boat is going in the direction of the wind (i.e. downwind - see → Points of sail), the sails may be set merely to trap the air as it flows by. Sails acting in this way are aerodynamically stalled. In stronger winds, turbulence created behind stalled sails can lead to aerodynamic instability, which in turn can manifest as increased downwind rolling of the boat. Spinnakers and square-rigged sails are often trimmed so that their upper edges become leading edges and they operate as airfoils again, but with airflow directed more or less vertically downwards. This mode of trim also provides the boat with some actual lift and may reduce both wetted area and the risk of 'digging in' to waves. The other way sails propel the boat occurs when the boat is traveling across or into the wind. In these situations, the sails propel the boat by redirecting the wind coming in from the side towards the rear. In accordance with the law of conservation of momentum, air is redirected backwards, making the boat go forward. This driving force is called lift although it acts largely horizontally. On a sailing boat, a keel or centreboard helps to prevent the boat from moving sideways. The shape of the keel has a much smaller cross section in the fore and aft axis and a much larger cross section on the athwart axis (across the beam of the boat). The resistance to motion along the smallest cross section is low while resistance to motion across the large cross section is high, so the boat moves forward rather than sideways. In other words it is easier for the sail to push the boat forward rather than sideways. However, there is always a small amount of sideways motion, or "leeway". Forces across the boat are resolved by balancing the sideways force from the sail with the sideways resistance of the keel or centerboard. Also, if the boat heels, there are restoring forces due to the shape of the hull and the mass of the ballast in the keel being raised against gravity. Forward forces are balanced by velocity through the water and friction between the hull, keel and the water.
The two main types of rigging
Parts of the sail
The lower edge of a triangular sail is called the "foot" of the sail, while the upper point is known as the "head". The lower two points of the sail, on either end of the foot, are called the "tack" (forward) and "clew" (aft). The forward edge of the sail is called the "luff" (from which derives the term "luffing", a rippling of the sail when the angle of the wind fails to maintain a good aerodynamic shape near the luff). The aft edge of a sail is called the "leech". Modern sails are designed such that the warp and the weft of the sailcloth are oriented parallel to the luff and foot of the sail. This places the most stretchable axis of the cloth along the diagonal axis (parallel to the leech), and makes it possible for sailors to reduce the draft of the sail by tensioning the sail, mast and boom in various ways. Often tell-tales, small pieces of yarn, are attached to the sail. They are used as a guide when trimming the sail.
Diagram showing the names of the parts of
a Bermudian-style mainsail. An alternative approach to sail design is that used in Junks, originally an oriental design. It uses horizontal sail curving to produce an efficient and easily controlled sail-plan.
Modern sails can be classified into three main categories: • → Mainsail, • → Headsail, • and → Spinnaker or downwind sail (also termed Kite). Special-purpose sails are often a variation of the three main categories. Most modern yachts including → bermuda rig, ketch and yawl boats have a sail "inventory" which usually includes more than one of these types of sails. Although the mainsail is “permanently” hoisted while sailing, headsails and spinnakers can be changed depending on the particular weather conditions to allow better handling and speed.
Diagram of Sailboat, in this case a typical monohull sloop with a Bermuda or marconi rig.
Mainsails as the name implies are the main element of the sailplan. A "motor" as well as a rudder for the boat, mainsails can be as simple as a traditional triangle-shaped, cross-cut sail (see Sail Construction below). In most cases, the mainsail isn’t changed while sailing although there are mechanisms to reduce its
Sail surface if the wind is very strong (a technique called reefing). In extreme weather, a mainsail can be folded and a trysail hoisted to allow steerage without endangering the boat. Headsails are the main driving sails when going upwind (sailing towards the wind). There are many types of headsails with → Genoa and → Jib being the most commonly used. Both these types have different subtypes depending on their intended use. Headsails are usually classified according to their weight (that is, the relative weight of the sailcloth used) and size or total area of the sail. A common classification is numbering from 1 to 3 (larger to smaller) with a description of the use for example: #1 Heavy or #1 Medium/Light. Special types of headsails include the Gennaker (also named Code 0 by some sailmakers), the drifter (a type of Genoa that is used like an asymmetrical spinnaker), the screecher (essentially a large Genoa), the windseeker and storm jib. Certain Genoas and Jibs also have battens which assist in maintaining an optimal shape for the sail. Spinnakers are used for reaching and running (downwind sailing). They are very light and have a balloon-like shape. As with headsails there are many types of spinnakers depending on the shape, area and cloth weight. Symmetrical spinnakers are most efficient on runs and dead runs (sailing with wind coming directly from behind) while asymmetric spinnakers are very efficient in reaching (the wind coming from the rear but at an angle to the boat or from the side).
A sail might look flat when lying on the floor but once it's hoisted, it becomes a three-dimensional, curved surface, in essence an airfoil. In order for a sail to be "built", it has to be designed in a number of elements (or panels) which are cut and sewn together to form the foil. In older days, this was rightfully considered an art which was later complemented (and arguably overshadowed) by technology. With the advent of computers, sail manufacturers were able to model their sails using special computer-aided design (CAD) programs and directly feed the data to very accurate laser plotters/cutters which cut the panels from rolls of sail cloth, replacing the traditional manual process (scissors). The key features that distinguish a "fast" from a "slow" sail are its shape related to the particular boat and rig and its ability to consistently maintain that shape. These two features rely mostly on the design of the sail (the way that the panels are placed with one another) and the sail cloth used. The traditional parallel-panel (cross-cut) gave way to more complex (radial) designs where the panels have different shapes for the top, mid, and lower sections of the sail depending on pressure of the air caused by its flow over the sail surface. Again aided by CAD and special modelling software the sailmakers use cloths of different weight, placing heavier cloth panels where there is more stress and lighter cloth where there is less to make savings in weight. Older fabrics (especially cotton and low budget synthetic), have the tendency to stretch with wind pressure which results in distorted and consequently inefficient sail shapes. Moreover, the cloth itself is heavy which adds to the inefficiency. Synthetic materials such as Nylon and Dacron were followed by advanced sail cloths made from exotic material yarns such as Aramid (e.g. Twaron, Technora or kevlar), carbon fiber, HMPE (e.g. Spectra/Dyneema), Zylon (PBO) and Vectran (see also Sailcloth). These materials were a breakthrough in sail technology as they provided the raw material in the manufacture of low-stretch, low-weight and long-life sail cloths. Manufacturers were able to use different
Sail weights of yarn to weave cloths with exceptional properties. Once the panels are sewn together (often by triple-stitch method), the sailmakers complete the sail by placing the finishing elements such as the leech and foot lines, protective patches in the areas where the sail will scrape against hardware (stanchions, spreaders), steel rings and straps at the tack and clew, cleats, batten pockets (if required) and sail numbers. Lamination Woven cloth or ribbons of high tensile fabric inserts can be "sandwiched" between two layers of PET film and placed in special ovens under pressure to bond into a single body, a process called lamination. The inserts provide the strength and the PET film the continuity and wind resistance. An alternative method is to sandwich a sheet of PET film between two layers of woven cloth. The latter process is popular when using cloth with high strength and UV tolerance, but an open weave. In the latter process the cloth protects the more easily torn PET film. A more complex sail may combine the processes. See also sailcloth.
A light-weather generally weighs around 100 gram/m² and a rough-weather sail/try-out weighs around 500gram/m².
Advances in sail materials and manufacture
In addition to advances in the exotic materials and consequent cloths themselves, manufacturers have also progressed the manufacturing process with the creation of glued and molded sails. Glued sails are regular paneled sails but instead of sewing the pieces together, the sailmaker uses a special, ultra-strong polymer glue which bonds through the use of ultrasound. In molding, a curved mold is designed and created in the optimum (three dimensional) shape of the sail that the sailmaker wants to produce. A film of PET film is placed on the mold and a special gantry hovers over the film laying the yarns based on instructions of a computer that has the model of the sail. Once this is done, a second sheet of PET film is placed on top and the whole mold (with the sail) is placed in a vacuum oven which causes the materials to bond (curing). The result is a smooth sail which is lighter and has a wider effective wind range (the minimum and maximum wind speed that the sail can withstand and be effective). Molding initially targeted high-end competition boats because of the costs of the sails produced but has steadily moved on to cover cruising yachts although panelled (woven) sails account for the majority of sails (racing or recreational) used around the world. The concept of molded sails was introduced by Sobstad Sails with its Genesis line but did not maintain consistent product performance. North Sails introduced its successful 3DL product line which also resulted in a legal battle with Sobstad. Variations of the molding sailmaking process are used by other leading sail manufacturers such as Quantum with the Fusion-M line and Doyle Sailmakers with the Stratis line and Dimension-Polyant with D4 which is available to all sailmakers. Other sailmakers are producing lines which make use of molding concepts although not necessarily the production process itself such as the UK-Halsey TapeDrive line.
Sail Stitching now happens using the triple-stitch, so that when a knot gets cut, the entire stitch does not raffle.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • → Sailing Sailcloth Cruising (maritime) → Points of sail → Sail-plan Rigging Wing Rudder Fin Solar sail Sail twist Sail Class Markings Marine canvas Baggywrinkle
Types of sails
• • • • • • • Flanker Lugsail Ringtail Royal Skysail Wingsail Turbosail
• Rotorsail • Junk
• Kite • Hang glider
• • • • Sailboats database: sailing yacht data sheets all over the world Sail Design Software  The quest for the perfect sailshape  FABRIC Sail Design Software 
 Simon de Bruxelles (28 February 2007). " Pirates who got away with it by sailing closer to the wind (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ news/ world/ africa/ article1449736. ece)". The Times. . Retrieved 2008-09-10.      http:/ / www. friend. ly. net/ ~dadadata/ junk/ tutorial. html http:/ / www. sailingtheweb. net http:/ / www. bsgdev. com http:/ / www. wb-sails. fi/ news/ 98_11_PerfectShape/ Main. htm http:/ / www. cerealog. fr/ extra/ uk/ produits/ fabric_sail_design/ index. htm
A sail-plan is a set of drawings, usually prepared by a naval architect. It shows the various combinations of → sail proposed for a sailing ship. The combinations shown in a sail-plan almost always include three configurations: A light air sail plan. Over most of the Earth, most of the time, the wind force is Force 1 or less. Thus a sail plan should include a set of huge, lightweight sails that will keep the ship underway in light breezes. A working sail plan. This is the set of sails that are changed rapidly in variable conditions. They are much stronger than the light air sails, but still lightweight. An economical sail in this set will include several sets of reefing ties, so the area of the sail can be reduced in a stronger wind. A storm sail plan. This is the set of very small, very rugged sails flown in a gale, to keep the vessel under way and in control. In all sail plans, the architect attempts to balance the force of the sails against the drag of the underwater keel in such a way that the vessel naturally points into the wind. In this way, if control is lost, the vessel will avoid broaching (turning edge-to-the wind), and being beaten by breaking waves. Broaching always causes uncomfortable motion, and in a storm, the breaking waves can destroy a lightly-built boat. The architect also tries to balance the wind force on each sail plan against a range of loads and ballast. The calculation assures that the sail will not knock the vessel sideways with its mast in the water, a capsize and possible sinking.
Sailing frigate and its rigging
In English, thanks to the British Admiralty, all sail-plans call a sail by the same name, no matter what their sail-plan. Once a sail is named, its lines have standard names according to their use. Once a sailor learns the standard names for the sails, he knows the terms for all the parts on any sail-plan. A sail plan is made by combining just a few basic types of sails: • A fore and aft sail is one that, when flat, runs fore and aft. These types of sails are the easiest to manage, because they often do not need to be relaid when the ship changes course. • A gaff rigged sail is a fore-and-aft sail shaped like a truncated triangle the upper edge of which is made fast to a spar called a gaff. The top of the gaff rigged sail tends to twist away from the wind reducing its efficiency when close-hauled. However, due to the gaff on the top edge of the sail the center of effort is typically lower, somewhat reducing the angle of heel (leaning of the boat caused by wind force on the sails) compared to a similar sized Bermuda rigged sail. • A square sail is set square to the mast from a yard, a spar running transversely in relation to the hull (athwartships). It is not, as commonly thought, named after the approximate shape of the sail, it is named for the square angle between the sail and the
Sail-plan mast. In the olden days design of a square rigger, sailors would have to climb the rigging and walk out on "footropes" under the yard to furl and unfurl the sails. In a modern square rigged design, Maltese Falcon, the crew can furl and unfurl its sails by remote control from the deck. Some cruising craft with fore-and-aft sails will carry a small square sail with top and bottom yards that are easily rigged and hauled up from the deck (not requiring climbing the mast); such a sail is used as the only sail when running downwind under storm conditions, as the vessel becomes much easier to handle than under its usual sails, even if they are severely reefed (shortened). • A lateen sail is a triangle with one or two sides attached to a wooden pole. This is one of the lowest drag (the sailing term is windage) sails, and it is not easy to manage. • A → Bermuda or Marconi sail is a triangular sail with one point going straight up. • A staysail ("stays'l") is a piece of cloth that has one or two sides attached to a stay, that is, one of the ropes or wires that helps hold the mast in place. A staysail was classically attached to the stay with wooden or steel hoops. Sailors would test the hoops by climbing on them. • A → jib is a staysail that flies in front of the foremost vertical mast. • a bowsprit is a horizontal spar extending from the bow (front) of the boat. It is used to attach the forestay to the foremost mast. Sails were classically made of hemp or cotton. They are now made from polyesters (Dacron and PET film), sometimes reinforced with crystalline hydrocarbons (Kevlar and Spectra). Some large, lightweight sails are made of polyamides (nylon). Ropes descriptions are: • Standing rigging does not change position. Usually it braces the masts. • Running rigging is used to adjust sails and anchors. • A line is a rope that has been put to use aboard a sailing vessel. • A stay is a wire or rope that supports a mast. It is part of the standing rigging, usually located in the fore-aft plane of the vessel. • A shroud is similar to a stay, but is located in the athwartship plane of the vessel. Thus, shrouds come down to the sides of the boat and are attached to chainplates. • A vang is a rope used to pull something around or down. • A boom vang pulls down on a boom. • A sheet is a line used to adjust the position of a sail so that it catches the wind properly. • Halyards are the lines on which one pulls to hoist something; e.g. the main-topgallant-staysail-halyard would be the line on which one pulls to hoist (unfurl) the main-topgallant-staysail. • A block is the seaman's name for a pulley-block. It may be fixed to some part of the vessel or spars, or even tied to the end of a line. • The sheave is the wheel within a block, or a spar, over which a line is rove. • A fiddle block has two or more sheaves in one block, each with its own axle, so the sheaves are aligned. • A snatch-block can be closed around a line, to grab the line, rather than threading the end of the line through the block. • A shackle is a piece of metal to attach two ropes, or a block to a rope, or a sail to a rope. Customarily, a shackle has a screw-in pin which often is so tight that a shackle-key must be used to unscrew it. A snap-shackle does not screw, and can be released by hand, but it is usually less strong or more expensive than a regular shackle.
Sail-plan • Running lines are made fast (unmoving) by belaying them to (wrapping them around) a cleat or a belaying-pin located in a pin-rail. Ropes were classically made of manila, cotton, hemp, or jute; papyrus (in ancient Egypt) and coir have also been seen. They are now made of stainless steel (301), galvanized steel, polyester (Dacron), polyamides (nylon), and sometimes crystallized hydrocarbons (Kevlar and Spectra). The standard terminology assumes three masts, from front to back, the fore-mast, main-mast and mizzen-mast. On ships with fewer than three masts, the tallest is the main-mast. Ships with more masts number them. Some barks (see below) have had as many as twelve masts. From bottom to top, the sails of each mast are named by the mast and position on the mast, e.g. for the mainmast, from lowest to highest: main course, main topsail, main topgallant ("t'gallant"), main royal, and main skysail. Since the early twentieth century, the topsails and topgallants are often split into a lower and an upper sail to allow them to be more easily handled. On many warships, sails above the fighting top (a platform just above the lowest sail on which snipers were positioned) were mounted on separate masts ("topmasts" or "topgallant masts") held in wooden sockets called "tabernacles". These masts and their stays could be rigged or struck as the weather and tactical situation demanded. In light breezes, the working square sails would be supplemented by studding sails ("stuns'l") out on the ends of the yardarms. These were called as a regular sail, with the addition of "studding". For example, the main top studding sail. The staysails between the masts are named from the sail immediately below the highest attachment point of the stay holding up the staysail. Thus, the mizzen topgallant staysail can be found dangling from the stay leading from above the mizzen (third) mast's topgallant sail to some place (usually two sails down) on the second (main) mast. The jibs, staysails between the first mast and the bowsprit, were named (in order of distance along the bowsprit) fore topmast staysail (or foretop stay), inner jib, outer jib and flying jib. All of the jib's stays meet the foremast just above the fore topgallant. Unusually, a fore royal staysail may also be set. The stays below a bowsprit are martingales , and those above it bracing the bowsprit are bobstays. The martingales are often the strongest stays on a ship, and often constructed of chain. The pole hanging vertically down from the bowsprit is called the "dolphin striker". The stays on a ship roughly form hoops of tension holding the masts up against the wind. Many ships have been "tuned" by tightening the rigging in one area, and loosening it in others. The tuning can create most of the stress on the stays in some ships. This was a common emergency procedure on sailing warships. Almost every type of tall ship had a gaff-sail on the mizzenmast, and called it the spanker. This would sometimes be split into lower and upper spankers. A ship would fly its ensign and anchor light off a drop line from the spanker's gaff.
Types of ships
Sailboat types may be distinguished by: • hull configuration (monohull, catamaran, trimaran), • • • • keel type (full, fin, wing, centerboard etc.), purpose (sport, racing, cruising), number and configuration of masts sail plan (square and/or fore and aft rigged sails).
Depending on which sails are used, a boat can have several names (eg barguentine, brik, ...)
• Sloop: a → Bermuda or gaff → mainsail lifted by a single mast with a single → jib bent onto the forestay, held taut with a backstay. The mainsail is usually managed with a spar on the underside called a "boom." One of the best-performing rigs per square foot of sail area and is fast for up-wind passages. This rig is the most popular for recreational boating because of its potential for high performance. On small boats, it can be a simple rig. On larger sloops, the large sails have high loads, and one must manage them with winches or multiple purchase block-and-tackles.
• Cutter: like a sloop with two jibs (a staysail and a yankee) in the foretriangle. Better than a sloop for light winds, it is also easier to manage. It has slightly less up-wind ability than a sloop because it has more windage.
Sail-plan • Yawl: like a sloop or catboat with a mizzen mast located aft (closer to the stern of the vessel) of the rudder post. The mizzen is small, and is intended to help provide helm balance.
• Ketch: like a yawl, but the mizzenmast is often much larger, and is located forward of the rudder post. The purpose of the mizzen sail in a ketch rig, unlike the yawl rig, is to provide drive to the hull. A ketch rig allows for shorter sails than a sloop with the same sail area, resulting in a lower center of sail and less overturning momentum. The shorter masts therefore reduce the amount of ballast and stress on the rigging needed to keep the boat upright. Generally the rig is safer and less prone to broaching or capsize than a comparable sloop, and has more flexibility in sailplan when reducing sail under strong crosswind conditions – the mainsail can be brought down entirely (not requiring reefing) and the remaining rig will be both balanced on the helm and capable of driving the boat. The ketch is a classic small cargo boat.
• Catboat: a sailboat with a single mast and single sail, usually gaff-rigged. This is the easiest sail-plan to sail, and is used on the smallest and simplest boats. The catboat is a classic fishing boat. A popular movement among home-built boats uses this simple rig to make "folk-boats." One of the advantages of this type is that it can be rigged with no boom to hit one's head or knock one into the water. However, the gaff requires two halyards and often two topping lifts. The weight of the gaff spar high in the rigging can be undesirable. The gaff's fork (jaws) is held on by a rope threaded through beads called trucks (US) or parrel beads (UK). The gaff must slide down the mast, and therefore prevents any stays from bracing the mast. This usually makes the rig even heavier, requiring yet more ballast. • Gunter: a rig designed for smaller boats where the mast is often taken down. It consists of a relatively short mast (usually slightly shorter than the boat so that it can be stowed inside) and a long gaff (often only slightly shorter than the mast). However, rather than the usual trapezoidal shape of a gaff sail, it is triangular, like a Bermuda rig. This allows the gaff, when hoisted, to pivot upwards until it is vertical, effectively forming an extension to the mast. Thus a decent-sized sailing rig can be added to the boat while still allowing all the equipment to be stowed completely inside it. The popular Mirror class of dinghy is gunter rigged for this reason.
• Schooner: a fore-and-aft rig having at least two masts, with a foremast that is usually smaller than the other masts. Schooners have traditionally been gaff-rigged and in small craft are generally two-masted, however many have been built with Marconi rigs (and even junk rigs) rather than gaffs and in the golden age of sail, vessels were built with as many as seven masts. One of the easiest types to sail, but performs poorly to windward without gaff topsails. The extra sails and ease of the gaff sails make the rig easier to operate, though not necessarily faster, than a sloop on all points of sail other than up-wind. Schooners were more popular than sloops prior to the upsurge in recreational boating. The better performance of the sloop upwind was outweighed for most sailors by the better performance of the schooner at all other, more comfortable, points of sail. Advances in design and equipment over the last hundred years have diminished the advantages of the schooner rig. Many schooners sailing today are either reproductions or replicas of famous schooners of old.
• Brig: two masts, both square-rigged with a spanker on the mainmast.
• Brigantine: two masts, square-rigged on the foremast and fore-and-aft rigged on the mainmast.
• Barquentine: is a three masted vessel, square rigged on the foremast and fore-and-aft rigged on the main and mizzen masts. Some sailors who have sailed on them say it is a poor-handling compromise between a barque and a ship, though having more speed than a barque or schooner.
• Barque: three masts or more, square rigged on all except the aftmost mast. Usually three or four masted but five masted barques have been built. Lower-speed, especially downwind, but requiring fewer sailors than a ship. This is a classic slow-cargo ship.
• Fully rigged Ship: three or more masts, square rigged on all, with stay-sails between. The classic ship rig originally had exactly three masts, but four and five masted ships were also built. The classic sailing warship — the ship of the line — was fully rigged in this way, because of high performance on all points of wind. They were larger than brigs and brigantines, and faster than barques or barquentines, but required more sailors.
• Bragana or felucca: a classic in the Mediterranean or Indian Ocean. Three lateen sails in a row.
• Polacre: a three master with a narrow hull; carrying a square-rigged foremast, followed by two lateen sails. The same vessel, if she substituted her square-rigged mast with another lateen rigged one, would be called a xebec.
• Junk: the standard Chinese design: Elliptical sails made flat with bamboo inserts (battens), permitting them to sail well on any point of sail. Easy to sail, and reasonably fast. The nature of the rig places no extreme loads anywhere on the sail or rigging, thus
Sail-plan can be built using light-weight, less expensive materials. Some of the largest sailing ships ever constructed were junks for the Chinese treasure fleets. Junks also customarily had internal water-tight rooms, kept so by not having doors between them. Usually they were constructed of teak or mahogany.
Every sail-plan has maximum dimensions  . These maxima are for the largest sail possible and they are defined by a letter abbreviation. • J The base of the foretriangle measured along the deck from the forestay pin to the front of the mast. • I The height measured along the front of mast from the jib halyard to the deck. • E The foot length of the mainsail along the boom. • P The luff length of the mainsail measured along the aft of the mast from the top of the boom to the highest point that the mainsail can be hoisted at the top of the mast. • Ey The length of a second boom (For a Ketch or Yawl). • Py The height of the second mast from the boom to the top of the mast.
Sloop rig sail-plan measurements
• → Glossary of nautical terms • Rigging
• Bolger, Philip C. (1998). 103 Sailing Rigs "Straight Talk". Gloucester, ME: Phil Bolger & Friends, Inc.. ISBN 0-9666995-0-5.
 For its similarity to martingale on a horse's bridle, which prevents the horse's head from being raised further than a desired point.  Sail Measurement Assistance (http:/ / www. secondwindsails. com/ measurement. php)  Sail Measurement (http:/ / www. hoodsailmakers. com/ MeasurementForm. htm)
The term Bermuda rig refers to a configuration of mast and rigging for a type of sailboat and is also known as a Marconi rig; this is the typical configuration for most modern sailboats. Developed in Bermuda in the 17th century, the term Marconi was a much later reference to the inventor Guglielmo Marconi, whose wireless radio masts the Bermuda rigs were said to resemble.
The rig consists of a triangular sail set aft of the mast
Diagram of a Bermuda or Marconi rig,
with its head raised to the top of the mast; its luff runs in this case a typical monohull sloop. down the mast and is normally attached to it for its entire length; its tack is attached at the base of the mast; its foot controlled by a boom; and its clew attached to the aft end of the boom, which is controlled by its sheet. Originally developed for smaller Bermudian vessels, and ultimately adapted to the larger, ocean-going Bermuda sloop, the Bermuda sail is either set as a → mainsail on the main mast, or as the course (the principal sail) on another mast. The Bermuda rigging has largely replaced the older gaff rigged fore-and-aft sails, except notably on schooners. The traditional design as developed in Bermuda featured very tall, raked masts, long bowsprits and booms, and vast areas of sail. This is still seen, today, in the Bermuda Fitted Dinghy, which is raced in Bermuda, but elsewhere the design has omitted the bowsprit, and otherwise become less extreme (Bermuda sloops, especially the single-masted ones, were demanding vessels that required large, experienced crews. This fact was the reason the Bermuda Sloop Foundation chose a three-masted, rather than a single-masted, design for its newly-built Spirit of Bermuda, which is intended as a training ship for inexperienced youths). A Bermuda rigged sloop with exactly one → jib is known as a Bermuda sloop, Marconi sloop or Marconi rig. Bermuda sloop can also refer to a more specific type of vessel, small sailing ships, traditional in Bermuda, which may, or may not, be Bermuda rigged. The foot of a Bermuda sail may be attached to the boom along its length, or in some modern rigs the sail is attached to the boom only at its ends. This modern variation of a Bermuda mainsail is known as a A three-masted Bermuda sloop of the loose-footed main. In some early Bermudian vessels, the Royal Navy, typical of the design of Bermudian ships by the 19th Century. mainsails were attached only to the mast and deck, lacking booms. This is the case on two of the three masts of the newly-built Spirit of Bermuda, a replica of an 1830s merchant schooner. Additional sails were also often mounted on traditional Bermudian craft, when running
Bermuda rig down wind, which included a spinnaker, with a spinnaker boom, and additional jibs. This can still be seen today in the vast sail areas that can be carried by the Bermuda Fitted Dinghy. The main controls on a Bermuda sail are: • The halyard used to raise the head, and sometimes to tension the luff. • The outhaul used to tension the foot by hauling the clew towards the end of the boom. • The sheet used to haul the boom down and towards the center of the boat. • The vang or kicking strap which runs between a point partway along the boom and the base of the mast, and is used to haul the boom down when on a run.
History of the Bermuda rig
The Bermuda rig developed from leg-of-mutton sails in Bermuda during the course of the 17th and 18th Centuries. The design was very useful on the gusty Bermudian waters for the boats that were the mainstay of transport around the archipelago into the 20th Century. The mean wind direction is from the West, and as the islands lie in a line near to the wind, the ability to sail upwind, to the West was vital. As Bermuda turned to a maritime economy, after the dissolution of the Somers Isles Company in 1684, the rig was adapted to larger, ocean-going ships, the famous Bermuda sloops.
A 17th Century woodcut of a triangular-sailed Bermudian vessel.
The development of the rig is thought to have begun
with fore-and-aft rigged boats built by a Dutch-born Bermudian in the 17th Century. The Dutch were influenced by Moorish lateen rigs introduced during Spain's rule of their country. The Dutch eventually modified the design by omitting the masts, with the yard arms of the lateens being stepped in thwarts. By this process, the yards became raked masts. Lateen sails mounted this way were known as leg-of-mutton sails in English. The Dutch called a vessel rigged in this manner a bezaan jacht. A bezaan jacht is visible in a painting of King Charles II arriving in Rotterdam in 1660. After sailing on such a vessel, Charles was so impressed that his eventual successor, The Prince of Orange presented him with a copy of his own, which Charles named Bezaan, The rig had been introduced to Bermuda some decades before this. Captain John Smith reported that Captain Nathaniel Butler, who was the governor of Bermuda from 1619 to 1622, employed the Dutch boat builder, one of the crew of a Dutch frigate which had been wrecked on Bermuda, who quickly established a leading position among Bermuda's boat makers (to the resentment of many of his competitors, who were forced to emulate his designs). A poem published by John H. Hardie in 1671 described Bermuda's boats such: With tripple corner'd Sayls they always float, About the Islands, in the world there are, None in all points that may with them compare.
Ships with somewhat similar rigs were in fact recorded in Holland during the 17th Century. By the 19th century, the design of Bermudian vessels had largely dispensed with square topsails and gaff rig, replacing them with triangular main sails and jibs. The lightweight Bermuda cedar vessels were widely prized for their agility and speed, especially upwind. The high, St. George's Harbour, Bermuda, ca. raked masts and long bowsprits and booms favoured in 1864. The two boats at left are Bermuda rigged, one with a bowsprit, Bermuda allowed its vessels of all sizes to carry vast one without. areas of sail when running down-wind with spinnakers and multiple jibs, allowing great speeds to be reached. Bermudian work boats, mostly small sloops, were ubiquitous on the archipelagos waters in the 19th century, moving freight, people, and everything else about. The rig was eventually adopted almost universally on small sailing craft in the 20th Century, although as seen on most modern vessels it is very much less extreme than on traditional Bermudian designs, with lower, vertical masts, shorter booms, omitted bowsprits, and much less area of canvas.
• Sailing in Bermuda: Sail Racing in the Nineteenth Century, by J.C. Arnell, 1982. Published by the Royal Hamilton Amateur Dinghy Club. Printed by the University of Toronto Press.
• Bermuda Sloop Foundation  • Article on the Spirit of Bermuda • Burning Sea: Sloop History. 
—- from Classic Boat, December 2006.
• Rootsweb: Excerpt of Tidewater Triumph, by Geoffrey Footner, describing development of the Baltimore clipper (large chapter on Bermuda sloops and role of Bermudian boatbuilders).  • Partial list of Bermudian-built Royal Naval vessels (from The Andrew and the Onions, by Lt. Cmdr. I. Strannack).  • Rootsweb: Comprehensive list of Ships of Bermuda.  • Boats.com: New Bermuda Sloop Commissioned.  • Fourteen Feet, Crew of Six.  • Class Rules: Bermuda Fitted Dinghy  • The Royal Bermuda Yacht Club  • Royal Hamilton Amateur Dinghy Club 
 " Marconi rig (http:/ / www. ybw. com/ forums/ showthreaded. php/ Cat/ 0/ Number/ 447545/ page/ vc/ vc/ 1)". Yachting and Boating World. 31 December 2003. . Retrieved 24 May 2009.         " New Ship: The Sloop (http:/ / www. mmhell. com/ news/ 1/ 319. html)". MM Hell. . Retrieved 24 May 2009. http:/ / www. bermudasloop. org/ http:/ / www. bermudasloop. org/ images/ pdfs/ classic_boat_article_dec06. pdf http:/ / www. burningsea. com/ shipguide/ Sloop/ History. htm http:/ / freepages. genealogy. rootsweb. com/ ~fassitt/ footner. html http:/ / www. geocities. com/ gpvillain/ shipnames. html http:/ / www. rootsweb. com/ ~bmuwgw/ ships. html http:/ / www. boats. com/ content/ boat-articles. jsp?contentid=17408& contenttype=103& a=102& sa=111& subject=General+ News& subcatid=121& author=Staff& month=4& year=2004 http:/ / www. boats. com/ content/ boat-articles. jsp?contentid=11330 http:/ / www. boats. com/ content/ boat-articles. jsp?contentid=11331 http:/ / www. rbyc. bm/ http:/ / www. rhadc. bm/
   
A mainsail is the most important sail raised from the main (or only) mast of a sailing vessel. On a square rigged vessel, it is the lowest and largest sail on the main mast. On a fore-and-aft rigged vessel, it is the lowest and largest and often the only sail rigged aft of the main mast, and is controlled along its foot by a spar known as the boom. A sail rigged in this position without a boom is generally called a trysail, and is used in extremely heavy weather. The modern → Bermuda rig uses a triangular mainsail as the only sail aft of the mast, closely coordinated with a → jib for sailing upwind. A large overlapping jib or → genoa is often larger than the mainsail. In downwind conditions (with the wind behind the boat) a → spinnaker replaces the jib.
The mainsail of this cutter is indicated in red
Traditional fore-and-aft rigs used a four-sided gaff rigged mainsail, sometimes setting a gaff topsail above it. A roll mainsail is furled by being rolled within (or around) the mast or boom.
A headsail of a sailing vessel is any → sail set forward of the foremost mast. The most common headsails are staysails, a term that includes → jibs and the larger → genoa. Other headsails are set independently of any forestays, such as the → spinnaker. Some headsails can only be flown on specific → points of sail, such as the → spinnaker, which is only flown when sailing downwind, and the gennaker, used when sailing a course between downwind and close hauled.
The galeas Albanus with four staysails as headsails: (left to right) flying jib, outer and inner jib and "the" staysail
• Sail plan
The genoa or jenny was originally referred to as the 'overlapping jib' or the Genoa jib, being named after the city of Genoa as explained below. It is a type of large → jib used on → bermuda rigged craft, commonly the single-masted sloop and twin-masted boats such as yawl and ketch. Its large surface area increases the speed of the craft in moderate winds; in high wind conditions a smaller jib is usually substituted, and downwind a → spinnaker may be used. The feature that distinguishes a genoa from a jib is that the former extends past the mast, overlapping the mainsail when viewed from the side.
The term genoa is often used somewhat interchangeably with jib, but technically there is a clear delineation. A jib is no larger than the foretriangle, which is the triangular area formed by the mast, deck or bowsprit, and A jib, left, compared to a roughly 110% genoa, right. The foretriangle forestay. A genoa is larger, is outlined in red. with the leech going past the mast and overlapping the mainsail. To maximize sail area the foot of the sail is generally parallel and very close to the deck when close hauled. Genoas are categorized by the percentage of overlap. This is calculated by looking at the distance along a perpendicular line from the luff of the genoa to the clew, called the LP (for "luff perpendicular"). A 150% genoa would have an LP 50% larger than the foretriangle length. Sail racing classes often specify a limit to genoa size.
Genoa (sail) Different classes of genoa have overlaps; a number 1 genoa may be a 150%, and a number 2 genoa, 125%. Jibs are also defined by the same measure, with overlaps of 100% or less. Under Performance Handicap Racing Fleet rules most boats are allowed 155% genoas without a penalty.
Maximizing the sail area causes more difficult handling. It is harder to tack a genoa than a jib, since the overlapping area can become tangled with the shrouds and/or mast unless carefully tended during the tack. Genoas are very popular in some racing classes, since they count only the foretriangle area when calculating foresail size; a genoa allows a significant increase in actual sail area within the calculated sail area. In boats where sail restrictions are not applicable, genoas of 200% overlap can be found, although those over 150% are not often seen, since the additional area is shadowed by the mainsail when close hauled and generates diminishing returns in terms of power per actual sail area.
The Gennaker has been around for several decades now, and as the name suggests it is a hybrid between a genoa and an asymmetrical → spinnaker. A brand name of North Sails, the gennaker is a cruising sail based on the Code 0 spinnakers used on racing boats. Gennakers and similar code 0 variants offered by other makers are even larger than genoas (200% overlaps are not uncommon) and they have a much greater camber for generating larger amounts of lift when → reaching. Flat cut gennakers can be effective for angles as low as 60 - 70 degrees. Spinnakers perform much better when running because the main sail blocks the wind of gennaker above 135 -150 degrees.
In Dr Manfred Curry's influential book Yacht Racing , he describes his systematic experiments on yacht rigs in wind tunnels and on boats during the 1920s and 1930s. He showed the analogy of jibs with aircraft slats, and stated that a larger jib overlap enhanced the slot effect between the jib and the mainsail, especially when used with a fully battened mainsail. He stated correctly that not only does the jib enhance the performance of the main, but that counterintuitively the main enhances the performance of the jib. Curry had difficulty promoting his concept at first. He stated : "It seemed impossible to convince yachtsmen of the value of the overlapping jib for beating to windward through the publication of articles until I beat the six metre boats on the Mediterranean by using the first overlapping jib at [a regatta at] Genoa (Italy) and until the Swedish boat "Maybe" beat the American six metres using these large jibs". Thus whether or not Curry invented these jibs, he developed their use on dinghies and yachts, and their name commemorates the first major regatta where they were used successfully - in his hands. In modern usage this sail would no doubt have been named the Curry jib. However Curry did not evaluate the optimum distribution of sail area where all the sail area is measured. Modern research has shown that where jib overlap is not 'free' sail area, it is generally more efficient to use a larger mainsail or taller jib (or both) and reduce the jib overlap correspondingly.
Genoa (sail) A correct explanation of the interaction between jib and mainsail was published by aerodynamicist and yachtsman Arvel Gentry in 1981 , and "is much more complicated than the old theories imply". This states that the widely believed explanation of the slot effect is "completely wrong" and shows that this is not due to the venturi effect (or "valve effect" to use Curry's term) accelerating the air in the slot. Instead it is shown that the air in the slot is slowed down and its pressure increased reducing the tendency of the mainsail to stall, that the mainsail reduces the air pressure on the lee side of the jib accelerating that airflow, and that the mainsail increases the angle at which the air meets the luff of the jib, allowing the boat to point higher. Gentry points out that proper understanding of sail interaction allows better sail trimming.
• North Sails
G-series cruising gennakers
 Jerry Cardwell, Dieter Loibner (2007). Sailing Big on a Small Sailboat, 3rd. Ed.. Sheridan House, Inc.. p. 68. ISBN 1574092472.  Ross Garrett (1996). The symmetry of sailing. Sheridan House, Inc.. p. 124. ISBN 1574090003.  Curry, M.Yacht Racing The Aerodynamics of Sails and Racing Tactics. First published in English 1928, Fifth edition 1948.  Curry p. 67  A Review of Modern Sail Theory (http:/ / www. arvelgentry. com/ techs/ A Review of Modern Sail Theory. pdf), Proceedings of the Eleventh AIAA Symposium on the Aero/Hydronautics of Sailing September 12, 1981  http:/ / www. northsails. com/ north_america/ cruising_sails/ gennakers. html
A jib (also spelled jibb) is a triangular staysail set ahead of the foremast of a sailing boat. Its tack is fixed to the bowsprit, to the bow, or to the deck between the bowsprit and the foremost mast. Jibs and → spinnakers are the two main types of headsails on a modern boat.
Modern yachts and small craft
On a boat with two staysails the inner sail is called the staysail, and the outer (foremost) is called the jib. This combination of two staysails is called a cutter rig (or a yankee pair) and a boat with one mast rigged with two staysails and a mainsail is called a cutter. On boats with only one jib, it is common for the clew of the jib to be further aft than the mast, meaning the jib and mainsail overlap. An overlapping jib is called a genoa jib or simply a → genoa (see illustration).
A jib, left, compared to a → genoa, right. The foretriangle is outlined in red.
On cruising yachts with more than one jib, it is common for the innermost jib to be self-tacking, either by using a boom along the foot of the sail, or by cleating the jib sheet to a track, or both. On other cruising yachts, and nearly all racing sailboats, the jib needs to be worked when tacking. On these yachts, there are two sheets attached to the clew of the jib. As the yacht comes head to wind during a tack, the active sheet is released, and the
Jib other sheet (the lazy sheet) on the other side of the boat is pulled in. This sheet becomes the new active sheet until the next tack.
Schooners typically have up to three jibs. The foremost one sets on the topmast forestay and is generally called the jib topsail, a second on the main forestay is called the jib, and the innermost is called the staysail. Actually, all three sails are both jibs and staysails in the generic sense. A square-rigged ship typically has four jibs (though vessels with more or fewer exist). From forward to aft, these sails are called: • • • • Flying jib Outer jib Inner jib Fore (topmast) staysail
The barque Alexander von Humboldt, with four jibs set and a fifth furled on the bowsprit
• Lateen sail • → Sail-plan
The name is a corruption of the name of the first sailboat that carried this type of sail, which was revolutionary at the time. The name of the boat was "The Sphinx", and the sail became colloquially known as a "Sphynxer" . A spinnaker is a special type of → sail that is designed specifically for → sailing off the wind from a reaching course to a downwind, i.e. with the wind 90°–180° off the bow. The spinnaker fills with wind and balloons out in front of the boat when it is deployed, called flying. It is constructed of lightweight fabric, usually nylon, and is often brightly colored. It may be optimised for a particular range of wind angles, as either a reaching or Bear of Britain, a Farr 52 with a running spinnaker, by the shaping of the panels and masthead spinnaker in front of Calshot seams. Some types of spinnaker can be carried by the Spit side of the boat, but still in front of the mast. This is called "Flying a shy spinnaker", and is used for reaching [see below]. The spinnaker is often called a kite, or a chute (as in cruising chute)
Spinnaker because it somewhat resembles a parachute in both construction and appearance. This should not be confused with the spinnaker chute which is a hull fitting sometimes used for launching and recovering the spinnaker.
A Spinnaker is extremely useful for sailing with the direction of the wind. A spinnaker is a type of airfoil and will generate lift if it is flown at a reaching angle. Since the lift and drag generated by the spinnaker both act to move the boat forward, lift to drag ratio is unimportant compared to their combined total. The goal then is to generate the maximum amount of lift possible with no consideration of drag. Because of this, running spinnakers have extreme amounts of camber, making them nearly hemispherical in form. The large camber maximizes the drag. Reaching spinnakers have less camber as they operate partially with an airflow that generates lift. A well designed spinnaker will have taut leading edges when filled; leading edges that curl in will both reduce the lift and risk a collapse of the spinnaker. A well designed spinnaker will also have a smooth curve when filled, with no bubbles or depressions caused by inconsistent stretching of the sail fabric. Any deviations from a smooth curve will cause the airflow over the leeward side of the sail to separate, in a reaching spinnaker, causing a reduction in lift and reduced performance. When running downwind in heavy weather or when hit by a gust, with or without a spinnaker, there may be a tendency for a roll of increasing amplitude to build up, known as the death roll. It has been shown that this is due to aerodynamic instability of → bermuda rigs when running, which can be aggravated by gusts, waves, mainsail twist, daggerboard etc too far down, hull form, and the sailing equivalent of pilot-induced oscillation. Excessive heel leads to loss of rudder effectiveness resulting in the boat slewing round uncontrollably in the direction opposite to the direction of heel. This is known as broaching. Aerodynamic instability when running can be countered by easing the pole forward slightly and over-sheeting the spinnaker somewhat to stop it swinging from side to side, by reducing mainsail twist using the boom vang, and by skillfully trimming the mainsheet. Luffing carefully onto a broad reach may help to retain control, as can moving everyone's weight as far aft as possible. Reducing sail should be considered.
Types of spinnakers
There are two main categories of spinnakers, symmetric and asymmetric depending on whether a plane of symmetry exists for that particular sail. Asymmetric spinnakers operate more like a jib, generating lift from the side, rather than the top like a symmetric spinnaker. This makes asymmetrics a better choice on reaching courses than symmetric spinnakers, which excel when running. While a fully equipped racing boat might have a number of spinnakers, both symmetric and asymmetric, to cover all courses and wind conditions, cruising boats almost always use an asymmetric, due to the broader application and easier handling afforded by the asymmetric.
The symmetric one is the most classic type, running symmetrical alongside the boat controlled by lines known as a sheet and a guy running from the lower two corners of the sail. The windward line, or guy, is attached to the corner called the tack of the sail, and is stabilized by a spinnaker pole. The leeward (downwind) line is called the sheet. It attaches to the clew of the spinnaker and is used to control the shape of the sail. The spinnaker pole must be moved in each gybe, and is quite difficult for beginners to use. However, it can be sailed in all downwind wind directions.
420 class dinghies with symmetric spinnakers.
Symmetric spinnakers when sailing across the wind (reaching) develop most of their lift on the forward quarter, where the airflow remains attached. When correctly set for reaching, the leading edges of a symmetric spinnaker should be nearly parallel to the wind, so the flow of air over the leading edge remains attached. When reaching, the sail camber allows only some attached flow over the leeward side of the spinnaker. On running the spinnaker is angled for maximum drag, with the spinnaker pole at right angles to the apparent wind. The symmetric spinnaker also requires care when packing, since the three corners must be available on the top of the packing.
Asymmetric spinnakers resembling large jibs and flown from spinnaker poles are not a new idea and date back to at least the 19th Century. However in the 1980s a new concept appeared, starting with the Sydney Harbour 18ft Skiff fleet. Since the 1960s many faster sailing craft, starting with catamaran classes, had discovered that it is faster to sail downwind on a series of broad reaches with efficient airflow across the sail rather than directly downwind with the sails stalled. RS K6 keelboat with an asymmetric This technique had developed to the extent that in bar spinnaker on a retracting bowsprit. conversation at the end of one season Andrew Buckland observed that the 18s had sailed all season without pulling the spinnaker pole back from the forestay and that all the systems could be simplified by eliminating the pole and setting the spinnaker from a fixed bowsprit. The concept quickly evolved to a sail with a loose luff much more like a conventional spinnaker than the old jib style asymmetric sails. Julian Bethwaite was the first to rig and sail a boat with one the next season, followed shortly by Andrew Buckland. The concept has spread rapidly through the sailing world. The tack of the sail may be attached at the bow like a → genoa but is frequently mounted on a bowsprit, often a retracting one. If the spinnaker is mounted to a special bowsprit, it is often possible to fly the spinnaker and the jib at the same time; if not, then the spinnaker will be shadowed by the jib, and the jib should be furled when the spinnaker is in use.
Spinnaker The asymmetric has two sheets, very much like a jib, but is not attached to the forestay along the length of the luff, but only at the corners. Unlike a spinnaker, the asymmetric does not require a spinnaker pole, since it is fixed to the bow or bowsprit. The asymmetric is very easy to Gybe since it only requires releasing one sheet and pulling in the other one, passing the sail in front of the forestay. Asymmetrics are less suited to sailing directly downwind than spinnakers, and so instead the boat will often sail a zig-zag course downwind, gybing at the corners. An asymmetric spinnaker is particularly effective on fast planing dinghies as their speed generates an apparent wind on the bow allowing them to sail more directly downwind. It is also particularly useful in cruising yachts in the form of a cruising spinnaker or cruising chute, where the ease of handling is important. Various types of asymmetrics exist, and a common nomenclature classifies them by code from 0 to 6. Codes 1, 3, and 5 are reaching sails, and codes 2, 4, and 6 are running sails; the code 0 is a hybrid of genoa and spinnaker, designed to work like a genoa but classified under racing rules as a spinnaker. • Code 0 The code 0 asymmetric is a tight reaching sail, the most upwind capable of the asymmetrics. The luff is as straight as possible, and the sail is flatter than other spinnakers. Due to the flatness of the code 0, it is usually made with a wire luff for strength, and of a heavier, less stretchy fabric than normal for a spinnaker. Due to the tight luff and flat cut, the code 0 can be fitted for roller furling. • Code 1 The code 1 is a light air reaching sail, where the apparent wind angles at low speeds has a significant effect to create angles of less than 90 degrees. • Code 2 The code 2 is a medium air running sail, used for apparent wind angles over 90 degrees. • Code 3 The code 3 is a medium air reaching sail, used for apparent wind angles near 90 degrees. • Code 4 The code 4 is a heavy air running sail, used in the heaviest winds normally expected. • Code 5 The code 5 is a heavy air reaching sail, used in the heaviest winds normally expected. • Code 6 The code 6 is a storm sail, for running in storm conditions. Spinnakers for cruising boats are starting to be patterned after the roller furling code 0 racing spinnakers, as they provide the easiest handling. North Sails, for example, offers three gennaker sails, based on the racing code 0 asymmetrics, with different sizes and cambers for varying angles and wind speeds. Other manufacturers offer similar cruising code 0 designs under different names, such as the screecher and reacher for upwind and downwind use respectively.
Flying the spinnaker
Since they will only be used on certain points of sail, raising and lowering the spinnaker is a task that is often performed while under sail. Due to the size of spinnakers (the spinnaker is often double or more the size of the mainsail) this can be a difficult operation, since the sail will immediately catch the wind.
Rigging the symmetric spinnaker
Typically the symmetric spinnaker is packed in its own bag, called a turtle, with the three corners on top for ready access. The clews (lower corners) are controlled by lines called sheets, which lead from the clews back to the stern of the boat, and serve to control the sail position. Symmetric spinnakers have the windward clew secured to a spinnaker pole which is attached to the mast and holds the windward edge of the sail in position. Lines that control the spinnaker pole are called guys. In small boats, a single line may serve as a combination sheet/guy. The head (top corner) is attached to the spinnaker halyard, which is used to raise the sail up the mast. The spinnaker pole may be allowed to raise and lower with the force of the wind, or it may have lines attached to it to raise (the topping lift) and lower (the foreguy or downhaul) the angle of the pole. If these lines are used, they are generally set up before setting sail, and left in place even when the spinnaker is stowed. Since symmetrics are downwind sails, they are never tacked, they are only jibed. When jibing a symmetric, the pole is moved to the bow, where the sail is detached, and the opposite corner attached. This corner now becomes the windward corner. The guys are adjusted as before to set the sail angle on the new course. To retrieve the spinnaker, the windward corner is detached from the spinnaker pole, and the guy is released. This allows the spinnaker to collapse into the shadow of the mainsail, where the foot is gathered by a crewmember. The halyard is then lowered, and a crewmember gathers the sail and stuffs it carefully into the turtle, corners out, and ready for the next deployment.
Rigging the asymmetric spinnaker
Like the symmetric, the asymmetric is often stored in a turtle, with the corners on top for easy access. Unlike the symmetric, asymmetrics have the tack attached to the bow or a bowsprit (often retractable), and have two guys attached to the clew. The head of the sail is attached to the spinnaker halyard, which is used to raise the sail. The guys are passed to either side of the forestay, one to each corner; they may be passed outside the tack of the asymmetric, or between the tack and the forestay. The guy on the downwind side of the hull is used to set the angle, and the opposite guy is left slack. Often a tack line is used at leading edge to provide adjustable tension on the luff of the spinnaker. To keep the tack near the centerline of the boat, it may be attached to the forestay with a sliding collar (often riding over the furled jib on parrel beads or similar device). This allows the tack to slide up and down the forestay to adjust the luff tension. On racing boats, the tack of the asymmetric is often rigged to a retractable bowsprit, which increases the foretriangle area and prevents interference with the jib. As this trend becomes more popular in racing boats, it may result in similar adaptations to cruising boats as well.
Spinnaker Jibing with the asymmetric is much less complex than the symmetric, due to the lack of the spinnaker pole. Much like a jib, all that is required is to change guys--however, since the asymmetric still flies in front of the forestay, the operation is reversed. The sheet is slackened, and the opposite guy is pulled in, which allows the sail to pass around in front of the forestay, and then be sheeted in on the new lee side of the boat. Retrieving the asymmetric is similar to the process for the symmetric. The guys are released, allowing the sail to collapse to the front of the boat. The foot of the sail is then gathered, and the halyard released and the head of the sail lowered, where it is packed into the turtle.
The dousing sock, "spinnaker sleeve", snuffer, or just sock, is a device used to make deploying and retrieving the spinnaker a much easier task. The sock is a long fabric tube with a ring in one end to hold it open. Since the spinnaker is stored in the sock, the first step is to set up the sock. Two lines are attached to the sock; one is attached to a bridle on the ring, for pulling the sock down, and one is up the inside, from the ring, through the top, and back down, for raising the sock; these lines may be two ends of the same line, to form a loop. The head of the spinnaker is attached the top of the sock and the ring runs down to the tack. The resulting bundle is stuffed into the spinnaker bag. The top of the sock will have provisions for attaching to the spinnaker halyard. The spinnaker is raised as normal, but with the sock in place the spinnaker is unable to catch the wind. Once the spinnaker is raised and the guys are ready to set, the sock is raised, releasing the spinnaker. The sock remains bundled up at the head of the sail while the spinnaker is deployed. To retrieve the spinnaker, the sheet or the tack is released and the sock is pulled down, gathering the sail. The halyard is then dropped and the sail may be packed away.
A spinnaker chute is usually a tube or aperture in the deck close to the forestay, for the launching and recovery of the → spinnaker. They are most commonly found on modern dinghy designs, and updated older classes. To allow recovery of the spinnaker into the chute, one or more recovery patches are fitted to the spinnaker, to which the tail of the spinnaker halyard is attached or passed through. The spinnaker and its halyard thus form a continuous loop, passing through the chute. If the spinnaker chute penetrates the hull and is required to be watertight, it takes the form of a hard tube sealed to the hull at both ends. If a watertight arrangement is not required, a cloth tube may be used to contain the lowered spinnaker.
Etymology of the Word
Some dictionaries suggest that the origin of the word could be traced to the first boat to commonly fly a spinnaker, a yacht called the Sphinx, mispronounced as Spinx. The Sphinx first set her spinnaker in the Solent in 1865, and the first recorded use of the word was in 1866 in the August edition of Yachting Calendar and Review (p. 84). Some further claim that the friends of Sphinx's owner, Herbert C Maudslay of Seaview IoW, jokingly referred to the sail as "Sphinx's half-acre", and this was later to be abbreviated as spinnaker. In
Spinnaker addition, the term may have been influenced by the spanker, originally a gaff rigged fore-and-aft sail. It has been pointed out, however, that the skippers of the barges on the Thames (see Thames sailing barge) also used the term spinnaker for their → jib staysails. Unlike the other, tanned sails of these boats, the spinnakers were usually of white color. It has thus been suggested that the term could be "connected with the obsolete word spoon, meaning to run before the wind (cf. spindrift). Early usage of the verb to spoon can be traced back to the 16th century; the change from spoon to spin in the term spindrift is attributed to a local Scottish pronunciation. According to Merriam Webster's dictionary, however, spindrift derives from a local Scottish pronunciation of speen (not spoon), meaning "to drive before a strong wind." According to Merriam-Webster's dictionary, finally, the origin of the word spinnaker is simply unknown.
 " Cruising with an Asymmetrical Spinnaker (http:/ / www. cncphotoalbum. com/ doityourself/ spinnaker/ spinnaker. htm)". . Retrieved 04-09-2007.  " J Boats (http:/ / www. jboats. com/ jdifference. htm)". . Retrieved 2007-09-10.  Spinnaker entry (http:/ / www. askoxford. com/ results/ ?view=dict& freesearch=spinnaker& branch=13842570& textsearchtype=exact) in the Compact Oxford English Dictionary; Spinnaker entry in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1996). Oxford University Press. According to encyclopedia.com (http:/ / www. encyclopedia. com/ doc/ 1O27-spinnaker. html). Both retrieved on 20 July, 2008.  according to Richard Mayne (2000). The Language of Sailing. Taylor & Francis. (p. 282) (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Fp63wWByImQC& pg=PA282& lpg=PA282& dq=spinnaker+ origin& source=web& ots=dtNyErd7oz& sig=wzW-k7CvU8NfbIZxGkJ79V_GP4k& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result) ISBN:1579582788  Spinnaker entry (http:/ / www. askoxford. com/ results/ ?view=dict& freesearch=spinnaker& branch=13842570& textsearchtype=exact) in the Compact Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved on 20 July, 2008.  Edward Keble Chatterton (1912): Fore and Aft, vii, p. 232-33. (no editor and place indicated). As cited in: Richard Mayne (2000). The Language of Sailing. Taylor & Francis. (p. 282) (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Fp63wWByImQC& pg=PA282& lpg=PA282& dq=spinnaker+ origin& source=web& ots=dtNyErd7oz& sig=wzW-k7CvU8NfbIZxGkJ79V_GP4k& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result) ISBN:1579582788  Spindrift entry on Merriam Webster (http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ spindrift). Retrieved 20 July, 2008.  Spinnaker entry on Merriam Webster (http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ spinnaker). Retrieved 20 July, 2008.
• Spinnaker How-To (http:/ / www. hmc. edu/ org/ sailing/ sailing-spinnaker. htm) • Spinnaker (http:/ / www. ukhalsey. com/ LearningCenter/ encyclopedia/ encyclopedia4c. asp), UK-Halsey's Encyclopedia of Sails: Spinnaker • Of Carbon and Codes (http:/ / www. sailinganarchy. com/ general/ 2002/ code0. htm), a Sailing Anarchy article on asymmetric spinnaker types. • North Sails (http:/ / www. northsails. com/ north_america/ cruising_sails/ gennakers. html) Gennakers information page.
Spinnaker • Using the Asymmetrical Spinnaker (http:/ / www. sailnet. com/ forums/ gear-maintenance-articles/ 19794-using-asymmetrical-spinnaker. html), Brian Hancock, SailNet.com • Spinnaker rigging guide (http:/ / www. harken. com/ rigtips/ spinnaker. php) at Harken.com, showing rigging for symmetric and asymmetric spinnakers. • |ATN's (http:/ / www. atninc. com) spinnaker sleeve and Tacker
Glossary of nautical terms
This is a glossary of nautical terms; some remain current, many date from the 17th-19th century. See also Wiktionary's nautical terms and Category:Nautical terms.
Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U W Y References
• Above board – On or above the deck, in plain view, not hiding anything. • Above-water hull – The hull section of a vessel above waterline, the visible part of a ship. Also, topsides. • Act of Pardon / Act of Grace – A letter from a state or power authorising action by a privateer. Also see Letter of marque. • Abaft – Toward the stern, relative to some object ("abaft the fore hatch"). • Abaft the beam – Further aft than the beam: a relative bearing of greater than 90 degrees from the bow: "two points abaft the port beam". • Abandon ship! – An imperative to leave the vessel immediately, usually in the face of some imminent danger. • Abeam – On the beam, a relative bearing at right angles to the centerline of the ship's keel. • Abel Brown – A sea song (shanty) about a young sailor trying to sleep with a maiden.  • Aboard – On or in a vessel (see also "close aboard"). • Absentee pennant – Special pennant flown to indicate absence of commanding officer, admiral, his chief of staff, or officer whose flag is flying (division, squadron, or flotilla commander). • Absolute bearing – The bearing of an object in relation to north. Either true bearing, using the geographical or true north, or magnetic bearing, using magnetic north. See also "bearing" and "relative bearing". • Accommodation ladder – A portable flight of steps down a ship's side. • Admiral – Senior naval officer of Flag rank. In ascending order of seniority, Rear Admiral, Vice Admiral, Admiral and Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy). Derivation Arabic, from Amir al-Bahr ("Ruler of the sea"). • Admiralty – A high naval authority in charge of a state's Navy or a major territorial component. In the Royal Navy (UK) the Board of Admiralty, executing the office of the Lord High Admiral, promulgates Naval law in the form of Queen's (or King's) Regulations and Admiralty Instructions. • Admiralty law – Body of law that deals with maritime cases. In the UK administered by the Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division of the High Court of Justice.
Glossary of nautical terms • Adrift – Afloat and unattached in any way to the shore or seabed, but not under way. It implies that a vessel is not under control and therefore goes where the wind and current take her (loose from moorings, or out of place). Also refers to any gear not fastened down or put away properly. It can also be used to mean "absent without leave". • Advance note – A note for one month's wages issued to sailors on their signing a ship's articles. • Aft – Towards the stern (of the vessel). • Afloat – Of a vessel which is floating freely (not aground or sunk). More generally of vessels in service ("the company has 10 ships afloat"). • Afternoon watch – The 1200-1600 watch. • Aground – Resting on or touching the ground or bottom. • Ahead – Forward of the bow. • Ahoy – A cry to draw attention. Term used to hail a boat or a ship, as "Boat ahoy!" • Ahull – 1. When the boat is lying broadside to the sea. 2. To ride out a storm with no sails and helm held to leeward. • Aid to Navigation – (ATON) Any device external to a vessel or aircraft specifically intended to assist navigators in determining their position or safe course, or to warn them of dangers or obstructions to navigation. • All hands – Entire ship's company, both officers and enlisted personnel. • All night in – Having no night watches. • Aloft – In the rigging of a sailing ship. Above the ship's uppermost solid structure; overhead or high above. • Alongside – By the side of a ship or pier. • Amidships (or midships) – In the middle portion of ship, along the line of the keel. • Anchor – An object designed to prevent or slow the drift of a ship, attached to the ship by a line or chain; typically a metal, hook-like or plough-like object designed to grip the bottom under the body of water (but also see sea anchor). • Anchorage – A suitable place for a ship to anchor. Area of a port or harbor. • Anchor's aweigh – Said of an anchor when just clear of the bottom. • Anchor ball – Round black shape hoisted in the forepart of a vessel to show that it is anchored. • Anchor buoy – A small buoy secured by a light line to anchor to indicate position of anchor on bottom. • Anchor chain or anchor cable – Chain connecting the ship to the anchor. • Anchor detail – Group of men who handle ground tackle when the ship is anchoring or getting underway. • Anchor home - The term for when the anchor is secured for sea. Typically rests just outside the hawse pipe on the outer side of the hull, at the bow of a vessel. • Anchor light – White light displayed by a ship at anchor. Two such lights are displayed by a ship over 150 feet (46 m) in length. • Anchor rode – The anchor line, rope or cable connecting the anchor chain to the vessel. Also Rode • Anchor watch – Making sure that the anchor is holding and the vessel is not drifting. Important during rough weather and at night. Most marine GPS units have an Anchor Watch alarm capability. • Andrew – Traditional lower-deck slang term for the Royal Navy.
Glossary of nautical terms • Apparent wind – The combination of the true wind and the headwind caused by the boat's forward motion. For example, it causes a light side wind to appear to come from well ahead of the beam. • Arc of Visibility – The portion of the horizon over which a lighted aid to navigation is visible from seaward. • Armament – A ship's weapons. • Articles of War – Regulations governing the military and naval forces of UK and USA; read to every ship's company on commissioning and at specified intervals during the commission. • ASDIC – A type of sonar used by the Allies for detecting submarines during the Second World War. • Ashore – On the beach, shore or land. • Astern – Toward the stern; an object or vessel that is abaft another vessel or object. • Asylum Harbour – A harbour used to provide shelter from a storm. • ASW – Anti-submarine warfare. • Athwart, athwartships – At right angles to the fore and aft or centerline of a ship • Avast – Stop! Cease or desist from whatever is being done. • Awash – So low in the water that the water is constantly washing across the surface. • Aweigh – Position of an anchor just clear of the bottom. • Aye, aye (pronounced /ˌаɪ ˈаɪ/) – Reply to an order or command to indicate that it, firstly, is heard; and, secondly, is understood and will be carried out. ("Aye, aye, sir" to officers). Also "yarr". • Azimuth compass – An instrument employed for ascertaining position of the sun with respect to magnetic north. The azimuth of an object is its bearing from the observer measured as an angle clockwise from true north. • Azimuth circle – Instrument used to take bearings of celestial objects.
• Back and fill – To use the advantage of the tide being with you when the wind is not. • Backstays – Long lines or cables, reaching from the rear of the vessel to the mast heads, used to support the mast. • Baggywrinkle – A soft covering for cables (or any other obstructions) that prevents sail chafing from occurring. • Bank – A large area of elevated sea floor. • Banyan – Traditional Royal Navy term for a day or shorter period of rest and relaxation. • Bar – Large mass of sand or earth, formed by the surge of the sea. They are mostly found at the entrances of great rivers or havens, and often render navigation extremely dangerous, but confer tranquility once inside. See also: Touch and go, grounding. Alfred Lord Tennyson's poem "Crossing the bar", an allegory for death. • Bar pilot – A bar pilot guides ships over the dangerous sandbars at the mouth of rivers and bays. • Barrelman – A sailor that was stationed in the crow's nest. • Beaching – Deliberately running a vessel aground, to load and unload (as with landing craft), or sometimes to prevent a damaged vessel sinking. • Beacon – A lighted or unlighted fixed aid to navigation attached directly to the earth’s surface. (Lights and daybeacons both constitute beacons.)
Glossary of nautical terms • Beam – The width of a vessel at the widest point, or a point alongside the ship at the mid-point of its length. • Beam ends – The sides of a ship. "On her beam ends" may mean the vessel is literally on her side and possibly about to capsize; more often, the phrase means the vessel is listing 45 degrees or more. • Bear – Large squared off stone used for scraping clean the deck of a sailing man-of-war. • Bear down or bear away – Turn away from the wind, often with reference to a transit. • Bearing – The horizontal direction of a line of sight between two objects on the surface of the earth. See also "absolute bearing" and "relative bearing". • → Beating – Sailing closer to the wind than about 60° (see also reaching, running and tacking). • Beaufort scale – The scale describing wind force devised by Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort in 1808, in which winds are graded by the effect of their force (originally, the amount of sail that a fully-rigged frigate could carry). Scale now reads up to Force 17. • Before the mast – Literally, the area of a ship before the foremast (the forecastle). Most often used to describe men whose living quarters are located here, officers being quartered in the stern-most areas of the ship (near the quarterdeck). Officer-trainees lived between the two ends of the ship and become known as "midshipmen". Crew members who started out as seamen, then became midshipmen, and later, officers, were said to have gone from "one end of the ship to the other" (also see hawsepiper). • Belay – 1. To make fast a line around a fitting, usually a cleat or belaying pin. 2. An order to halt a current activity or countermand an order prior to execution. • Belaying pins – Bars of iron or hard wood to which running rigging may be secured, or belayed. • Bend – A knot used to join two ropes or lines. Also see hitch. • → Bermudan rig – A triangular mainsail, without an upper spar, which is hoisted up the mast by a single halyard attached to the head of the sail. This configuration, introduced to Europe about 1920, allows the use of a tall mast, enabling sails to be set higher where wind speed is greater. • Berth (moorings) – A location in a port or harbour used specifically for mooring vessels while not at sea. • Berth (sleeping) – A bed or sleeping accommodation on a boat or ship. • Best bower (anchor) – The larger of two anchors carried in the bow; so named as it was the last, best hope. • Between the Devil and the deep blue sea – See Devil seam. • Bight (pronounced /ˈbаɪt/) – 1. Bight, a loop in rope or line – a hitch or knot tied on the bight is one tied in the middle of a rope, without access to the ends. 2. An indentation in a coastline. • Bilge – The bilge is the compartment at the bottom of the hull of a ship or boat where water collects so that it may be pumped out of the vessel at a later time. • Bilge keels – A pair of keels on either side of the hull, usually slanted outwards. In yachts, they allow the use of a drying mooring, the boat standing upright on the keels (and often a skeg) when the tide is out.
Glossary of nautical terms • Bilged on her anchor – A ship that has run upon her own anchor, so the anchor cable runs under the hull. • Bimini top – Open-front canvas top for the cockpit of a boat, usually supported by a metal frame. • Bimmy – A punitive instrument • Binnacle – The stand on which the ship's compass is mounted. • Binnacle list – A ship's sick list. The list of men unable to report for duty was given to the officer or mate of the watch by the ship's surgeon. The list was kept at the binnacle. • Bitt – A post mounted on the ship's bow, for fastening ropes or cables. • Bitter end – The anchor cable is tied to the bitts, when the cable is fully paid out, the bitter end has been reached. The last part of a rope or cable. • Blue Peter – A blue and white flag (the flag for the letter "P") hoisted at the foretrucks of ships about to sail. Formerly a white ship on a blue ground, but later a white square on a blue ground. • Boat – A craft or vessel designed to float on, and provide transport over, water. • Boat-hook – A pole with a hook on the end, used to reach into the water to catch buoys or other floating objects. • Boatswain or bosun (both pronounced /ˈboʊsən/) – A non-commissioned officer responsible for the sails, ropes and boats on a ship who issues "piped" commands to seamen. • Bobstay – A stay which holds the bowsprit downwards, counteracting the effect of the forestay. Usually made of wire or chain to eliminate stretch. • Bollard – From 'bol' or 'bole', the round trunk of a tree. A substantial vertical pillar to which lines may be made fast. Generally on the quayside rather than the ship. • Bombay runner – Large cockroach. • Bonded jacky – A type of tobacco or sweet cake. • Booby – A type of bird that has little fear and therefore is particularly easy to catch. • Booby hatch – A sliding hatch or cover. • Boom – A spar attached to the foot of a fore-and-aft sail. • Booms – Masts or yards, lying on board in reserve. • Boom vang or vang – A → sail control that lets one apply downward tension on a boom, countering the upward tension provided by the sail. The boom vang adds an element of control to sail shape when the sheet is let out enough that it no longer pulls the boom down. Boom vang tension helps control leech twist, a primary component of sail power. • Bottomry – Pledging a ship as security in a financial transaction. • Bow – The front of a ship. • Bow chaser – See chase gun • Bowline – A type of knot, producing a strong loop of a fixed size, topologically similar to a sheet bend. Also a rope attached to the side of a sail to pull it towards the bow (for keeping the windward edge of the sail steady). • Bowse – To pull or hoist. • Bowsprit – A spar projecting from the bow used as an anchor for the forestay and other rigging. • Bow thruster – A small propeller or water-jet at the bow, used for manoeuvring larger vessels at slow speed. May be mounted externally, or in a tunnel running through the bow from side to side.
Glossary of nautical terms • Boxing the compass – To state all 32 points of the compass, starting at north, proceeding clockwise. Sometimes applied to a wind that is constantly shifting. • Boy Seaman – a young sailor, still in training • Brail – To furl or truss a sail by pulling it in towards the mast, or the ropes used to do so. • Brake – The handle of the pump, by which it is worked. • Brass monkey or brass monkey weather – Very cold weather, origin unknown. A widely circulated folk etymology claiming to explain what a brass monkey is has been discredited by several people including Snopes and the Oxford English Dictionary. • Bridge – A structure above the weather deck, extending the full width of the vessel, which houses a command centre, itself called by association, the bridge. • Bring to – Cause a ship to be stationary by arranging the sails. • Broaching-to – A sudden movement in navigation, when the ship, while scudding before the wind, accidentally turns her leeward side to windward, also use to describe the point when water starts to come over the gunwhale due to this turn. • Buffer – The chief bosun's mate (in the Royal Navy), responsible for discipline. • Bulkhead – An upright wall within the hull of a ship. Particularly a load bearing wall. • Bull of Barney – A beast mentioned in an obscene sea proverb. • Bulwark (pronounced /ˈbʊlək/ in nautical use) – The extension of the ship's side above the level of the weather deck. • Bumboat – A private boat selling goods. • Bumpkin or Boomkin – 1. A spar, similar to a bowsprit, but which projects from the stern. May be used to attach the backstay or mizzen sheets. 2. An iron bar (projecting out-board from a ship's side) to which the lower and topsail brace blocks are sometimes hooked. • Bunting tosser – A signalman who prepares and flies flag hoists. Also known in the American Navy as a skivvy waver. • Buntline – One of the lines tied to the bottom of a square sail and used to haul it up to the yard when furling. • Buoy – A floating object of defined shape and color, which is anchored at a given position and serves as an aid to navigation. • Buoyed up – Lifted by a buoy, especially a cable that has been lifted to prevent it from trailing on the bottom. • By and large – By means into the wind, while large means with the wind. By and large is used to indicate all possible situations "the ship handles well both by and large". • By the board – Anything that has gone overboard.
• Cabin – an enclosed room on a deck or flat. • Cabin boy – attendant on passengers and crew. • Cable – A large rope. • Cable length - A measure of length or distance. Equivalent to (UK) 1/10 nautical mile, approx. 600 feet; (USA) 120 fathoms, 720 feet (219 m); other countries use different values. • Canister – a type of antipersonnel cannon load in which lead balls or other loose metallic items were enclosed in a tin or iron shell. On firing, the shell would disintegrate,
Glossary of nautical terms releasing the smaller metal objects with a shotgun-like effect. • Canoe stern – A design for the stern of a yacht which is pointed, like a bow, rather than squared off as a transom. • Cape Horn fever – The name of the fake illness a malingerer is pretending to suffer from. • Capsize – When a ship or boat lists too far and rolls over, exposing the keel. On large vessels, this often results in the sinking of the ship. • Capstan – A large winch with a vertical axis. A full-sized human-powered capstan is a waist-high cylindrical machine, operated by a number of hands who each insert a horizontal capstan bar in holes in the capstan and walk in a circle. Used to wind in anchors or other heavy objects; and sometimes to administer flogging over. • Captain's daughter – The cat o' nine tails, which in principle is only used on board on the captain's (or a court martial's) personal orders. • Cardinal – Referring to the four main points of the compass: north, south, east and west. See also "bearing". • Careening – Tilting a ship on its side, usually when beached, to clean or repair the hull below the water line. • Cat – 1. To prepare an anchor, after raising it by lifting it with a tackle to the cat head, prior to securing (fishing) it alongside for sea. (An anchor raised to the cat head is said to be catted). 2. The cat o' nine tails (see below). 3. A cat-rigged boat or catboat. • Catamaran – A vessel with two hulls. • Catboat – A cat-rigged vessel with a single mast mounted close to the bow, and only one sail, usually on a gaff. • Cat o' nine tails – A short nine-tailed whip kept by the bosun's mate to flog sailors (and soldiers in the Army). When not in use, the cat was kept in a baize bag, hence the term "cat out of the bag". "Not enough room to swing a cat" also derives from this. • Cat head – A beam extending out from the hull used to support an anchor when raised in order to secure or 'fish' it. • Centreboard – A board or plate lowered through the hull of a dinghy on the centreline to resist leeway. • Chafing – Wear on line or sail caused by constant rubbing against another surface. • Chafing gear – Material applied to a line or spar to prevent or reduce chafing. See Baggywrinkle. • Chain-shot – Cannon balls linked with chain used to damage rigging and masts. • Chain locker - A space in the forward part of the ship, typically beneath the bow in front of the foremost collision bulkhead, that contains the anchor chain when the anchor is secured for sea. • Chain-wale or channel – A broad, thick plank that projects horizontally from each of a ship's sides abreast a mast, distinguished as the fore, main, or mizzen channel accordingly, serving to extend the base for the shrouds, which supports the mast. • Chase gun, 'chase piece or chaser – A cannon pointing forward or aft, often of longer range than other guns. Those on the bow (bow chaser) were used to fire upon a ship ahead, while those on the rear (stern chaser) were used to ward off pursuing vessels.
Glossary of nautical terms Unlike guns pointing to the side, chasers could be brought to bear in a chase without slowing. • Cheeks – 1. Wooden blocks at the side of a spar. 2. The sides of a block or gun-carriage. • Chine – 1. A relatively sharp angle in the hull, as compared to the rounded bottoms of most traditional boat hulls. 2. A line formed where the sides of a boat meet the bottom. Soft chine is when the two sides join at a shallow angle, and hard chine is when they join at a steep angle. • Chock-a-block – Rigging blocks that are so tight against one another that they cannot be further tightened. • Civil Red Ensign – The British Naval Ensign or Flag of the British Merchant Navy, a red flag with the Union Flag in the upper left corner. Colloquially called the "red duster". • Clean bill of health – A certificate issued by a port indicating that the ship carries no infectious diseases. Also called a pratique. • Clean slate – At the helm, the watch keeper would record details of speed, distances, headings, etc. on a slate. At the beginning of a new watch the slate would be wiped clean. • Cleat – A stationary device used to secure a rope aboard a vessel. • Clench – A method of fixing together two pieces of wood, usually overlapping planks, by driving a nail through both planks as well as a washer-like rove. The nail is then burred or riveted over to complete the fastening. • Clew – The lower corners of square sails or the corner of a triangular sail at the end of the boom. • Clew-lines – Used to truss up the clews, the lower corners of square sails. • Close aboard – Near a ship. • → Close-hauled – Of a vessel beating as close to the wind direction as possible. • Club hauling The ship drops one of its anchors at high speed to turn abruptly. This was sometimes used as a means to get a good firing angle on a pursuing vessel. • Coaming – The raised edge of a hatch, cockpit or skylight to help keep out water. • Companionway – A raised and windowed hatchway in the ship's deck, with a ladder leading below and the hooded entrance-hatch to the main cabins. • Compass – Navigational instrument showing the direction of the vessel in relation to the earth's geographical poles or magnetic poles. Commonly consists of a magnet aligned with the earth's magnetic field, but other technologies have also been developed, such as the gyrocompass. • Corrector – a device to correct the ship's compass, for example counteracting errors due to the magnetic effects of a steel hull. • Counter – The part of the stern above the waterline that extends beyond the rudder stock culminating in a small transom. A long counter increases the waterline length when the boat is heeled, so increasing hull speed. • Courses the lowest square sail on each mast– The mainsail, foresail, and the mizzen on a four masted ship (the after most mast usually sets a gaff driver or spanker instead of a square sail). • Coxswain or cockswain (pronounced /ˈkɒksən/) – The helmsman or crew member in command of a boat.
Glossary of nautical terms • As the crow flies – A direct line between two points (which might cross land) which is the way crows travel rather than ships which must go around land. • Crance/Crans/Cranze iron – A fitting, mounted at the end of a bowsprit to which stays are attached. • Cringle – A rope loop, usually at the corners of a sail, for fixing the sail to a spar. They are often reinforced with a metal eye. • Cro'jack or crossjack – a square yard used to spread the foot of a topsail where no course is set, e.g. on the foremast of a topsail schooner or above the driver on the mizzen mast of a ship rigged vessel. • Crow's nest – Specifically a masthead constructed with sides and sometimes a roof to shelter the lookouts from the weather, generally by whaling vessels, this term has become a generic term for what is properly called masthead. See masthead. • Cross Trees – A strong cross piece that allows to spread the top mast stays allowing for taller masts, larger top sails. Allows to extend the height of the ships mast. • Crutches – Metal Y shaped pins to hold oars whilst rowing. • Cuddy – A small cabin in a boat. • Cunningham – A line invented by Briggs Cunningham, used to control the shape of a sail. • Cunt splice or cut splice – A join between two lines, similar to an eye-splice, where each rope end is joined to the other a short distance along, making an opening which closes under tension. • Cuntline – The "valley" between the strands of a rope or cable. Before serving a section of laid rope e.g. to protect it from chafing, it may be "wormed" by laying yarns in the cuntlines, giving that section an even cylindrical shape. • Cut and run – When wanting to make a quick escape, a ship might cut lashings to sails or cables for anchors, causing damage to the rigging, or losing an anchor, but shortening the time needed to make ready by bypassing the proper procedures. • Cut of his jib – The "cut" of a sail refers to its shape. Since this would vary between ships, it could be used both to identify a familiar vessel at a distance, and to judge the possible sailing qualities of an unknown one. Also used figuratively of people.
• Daggerboard – A type of light centerboard that is lifted vertically; often in pairs, with the leeward one lowered when beating. • Davy Jones' Locker – An idiom for the bottom of the sea. • Day beacon – An unlighted fixed structure which is equipped with a dayboard for daytime identification. • Dayboard – The daytime identifier of an aid to navigation presenting one of several standard shapes (square, triangle, rectangle) and colors (red, green, white, orange, yellow, or black). • Deadeye – A wooden block with holes which is spliced to a shroud. It is used to adjust the tension in the standing rigging of large sailing vessels, by lacing through the holes with a lanyard to the deck. Performs the same job as a turnbuckle. • Deadrise – The design angle between the keel (q.v.) and horizontal. • Dead run – See running. • Deadwood – A wooden part of the centerline structure of a boat, usually between the sternpost and amidships.
Glossary of nautical terms • Decks – the structures forming the approximately horizontal surfaces in the ship's general structure. Unlike flats, they are a structural part of the ship. • Deck hand – A person whose job involves aiding the deck supervisor in (un)mooring, anchoring, maintenance, and general evolutions on deck. • Deck supervisor – The person in charge of all evolutions and maintenance on deck; sometimes split into two groups: forward deck supervisor, aft deck supervisor. • Deckhead – The under-side of the deck above. Sometimes paneled over to hide the pipe work. This paneling, like that lining the bottom and sides of the holds, is the ceiling. • Derrick – A lifting device composed of one mast or pole and a boom or jib which is hinged freely at the bottom. • Devil seam – The devil was possibly a slang term for the garboard seam, hence "between the devil and the deep blue sea" being an allusion to keel hauling, but a more popular version seems to be the seam between the waterway and the stanchions which would be difficult to get at, requiring a cranked caulking iron, and a restricted swing of the caulking mallet. • Devil to pay (or Devil to pay, and no pitch hot) – 'Paying' the Devil is sealing the devil seam. It is a difficult and unpleasant job (with no resources) because of the shape of the seam (up against the stanchions) or if the devil refers to the garboard seam, it must be done with the ship slipped or careened. • Directional light – A light illuminating a sector or very narrow angle and intended to mark a direction to be followed. • Displacement hull – A hull designed to travel through the water, rather than planing over it. • Disrate – To reduce in rank or rating; demote. • Dog watch – A short watch period, generally half the usual time (e.g. a two hour watch between two four hour ones). Such a watch might be included in order to slowly rotate the system over several days for fairness, or to allow both watches to eat their meals at approximately normal times. • The Doldrums - also called the "equatorial calms", is a nautical term for the equatorial trough, with special reference to the light and variable nature of the winds. • Dolphin – A structure consisting of a number of piles driven into the seabed or riverbed in a circular pattern and drawn together with wire rope. • Downhaul – A line used to control either a mobile spar, or the shape of a sail. • Draft or draught (both pronounced /ˈdrɑːft/) – The depth of a ship's keel below the waterline. • Dressing down – Treating old sails with oil or wax to renew them, or a verbal reprimand. • Driver – The large sail flown from the mizzen gaff. • Driver-mast – The fifth mast of a six-masted barquentine or gaff schooner. It is preceded by the jigger mast and followed by the spanker mast. The sixth mast of the only seven-masted vessel, the gaff schooner Thomas W. Lawson, was normally called the pusher-mast. • Dunnage (pronounced /ˈdʌnɨdʒ/) – 1. Loose packing material used to protect a ship's cargo from damage during transport. 2. Personal baggage.
Glossary of nautical terms
• Earrings – Small lines, by which the uppermost corners of the largest sails are secured to the yardarms. • Echo sounding – Measuring the depth of the water using a sonar device. Also see sounding and swinging the lead. • Embayed – The condition where a sailing vessel is confined between two capes or headlands by a wind blowing directly onshore. • Extremis – (also known as “in extremis”) the point under International Rules of the Road (Navigation Rules) at which the privileged (or stand-on) vessel on collision course with a burdened (or give-way) vessel determines it must maneuver to avoid a collision. Prior to extremis, the privileged vessel must maintain course and speed and the burdened vessel must maneuver to avoid collision.
• Fair – 1. A smooth curve, usually referring to a line of the hull which has no deviations. 2. To make something flush. 3. A rope is fair when it has a clear run. 4. A wind or current is fair when it offers an advantage to a boat. • Fast – Fastened or held firmly (fast aground: stuck on the seabed; made fast: tied securely). • Fathom (pronounced /ˈfæðəm/) – A unit of length equal to 6 feet (1.8 m), roughly measured as the distance between a man's outstretched hands. Particularly used to measure depth. • Fender – An air or foam filled bumper used in boating to keep boats from banging into docks or each other. • Fetch – 1. The distance across water which a wind or waves have traveled. 2. To reach a mark without tacking. • Fid – 1. A tapered wooden tool used for separating the strands of rope for splicing. 2. A bar used to fix an upper mast in place. • Figurehead – symbolic image at the head of a traditional sailing ship or early steamer. • Fire ship – A ship loaded with flammable materials and explosives and sailed into an enemy port or fleet either already burning or ready to be set alight by its crew (who would then abandon it) in order to collide with and set fire to enemy ships. • First-rate – The classification for the largest sailing warships of the 17th through 19th centuries. They had 3 masts, 850+ crew and 100+ guns. • Fish – 1. To repair a mast or spar with a fillet of wood. 2. To secure an anchor on the side of the ship for sea (otherwise known as "catting".) • First Lieutenant – In the Royal Navy, the senior lieutenant on board; responsible to the Commander for the domestic affairs of the ship's company. Also known as 'Jimmy the
Glossary of nautical terms One' or 'Number One'. Removes his cap when visiting the mess decks as token of respect for the privacy of the crew in those quarters. Officer i/c cables on the forecastle. In the U.S. Navy the senior person in charge of all Deck hands. • First Mate – The Second in command of a ship. • Fixed propeller – A propeller mounted on a rigid shaft protruding from the hull of a vessel, usually driven by an inboard motor; steering must be done using a rudder. See also outboard motor and sterndrive. • Flag hoist – A number of signal flags strung together to convey a message, e.g. 'England expects...'. • Flank – The maximum speed of a ship. Faster than "full speed". • Flare – 1. A curvature of the topsides outward towards the gunwale. 2. A pyrotechnic signalling device, usually used to indicate distress. • • • • Flatback – A Great Lakes slang term for a vessel without any self unloading equipment. Flotsam – Debris or cargo that remains afloat after a shipwreck. See also jetsam. Fluke – The wedge-shaped part of an anchor's arms that digs into the bottom. Fly by night – A large sail used only for sailing downwind, requiring little attention.
• Folding propeller – A propeller with folding blades, furling to reduce drag on a sailing vessel when not in use. • Following sea – Wave or tidal movement going in the same direction as a ship • Foot – 1. The lower edge of any sail. 2. The bottom of a mast. 3. A measurement of 12 inches. • Footloose – If the foot of a sail is not secured properly, it is footloose, blowing around in the wind. • Footrope – Each yard on a square rigged sailing ship is equipped with a footrope for sailors to stand on while setting or stowing the sails • Force – See Beaufort scale. • Fore, foreward (pronounced /ˈfɒrərd/, and often written "for'ard") – Towards the bow (of the vessel). • Forecastle – A partial deck, above the upper deck and at the head of the vessel; traditionally the sailors' living quarters. Pronounced English pronunciation: /ˈfoʊksəl/, "fo'csle". The name is derived from the castle fitted to bear archers in time of war. • Forefoot – The lower part of the stem of a ship. • Foremast jack – An enlisted sailor, one who is housed before the foremast. • Forestays – Long lines or cables, reaching from the front of the vessel to the mast heads, used to support the mast. • Foul – 1. The opposite of clear. For instance, a rope is foul when it does nor run straight or smoothly, and an anchor is foul when it is caught on an obstruction. 2. A breach of racing rules. • Founder – To fill with water and sink → Founder (Wiktionary) • Frame – A transverse structural member which gives the hull strength and shape. Wooden frames may be sawn, bent or laminated into shape. Planking is then fastened to
Glossary of nautical terms the frames. A bent frame is called a timber. • Freeboard – The height of a ship's hull (excluding superstructure) above the waterline. The vertical distance from the current waterline to the lowest point on the highest continuous watertight deck. This usually varies from one part to another. • Full and by – Sailing into the wind (by), but not as close-hauled as might be possible, so as to make sure the sails are kept full. This provides a margin for error to avoid being taken aback (a serious risk for square-rigged vessels) in a tricky sea. Figuratively it implies getting on with the job but in a steady, relaxed way, without undue urgency or strain. • Furl – To roll or gather a sail against its mast or spar. • Futtocks – Pieces of timber that make up a large transverse frame.
• Gaff – 1. The spar that holds the upper edge of a four-sided fore-and-aft mounted sail. 2. A hook on a long pole to haul fish in. • Gaff rigged – A boat rigged with a four-sided fore-and-aft sail with its upper edge supported by a spar or gaff which extends aft from the mast. • Gam – A meeting of two (or more) whaling ships at sea. The ships each send out a boat to the other, and the two captains meet on one ship, while the two chief mates meet on the other. • Gammon iron – The bow fitting which clamps the bowsprit to the stem. • Galley – the kitchen of the ship • Gangplank – A movable bridge used in boarding or leaving a ship at a pier; also known as a "brow". • Gangway – An opening in the bulwark of the ship to allow passengers to board or leave the ship. • Garbling – The (illegal) practice of mixing cargo with garbage. • Garboard – The strake closest to the keel (from Dutch gaarboard). • Garboard planks – The planks immediately either side of the keel. • → Genoa or genny (both pronounced /ˈdʒɛnɨ/) – A large jib, strongly overlapping the mainmast. • Ghost – To sail slowly when there is apparently no wind. • Gibe – See gybe. • Give-way (vessel) - Where two vessels are approaching one another so as to involve a risk of collision, this is the vessel which is directed to keep out of the way of the other. • Global Positioning System – (GPS) A satellite based radionavigation system providing continuous worldwide coverage. It provides navigation, position, and timing information to air, marine, and land users. • Going about or tacking – Changing from one tack to another by going through the wind (see also gybe). When ready to go about the helmsman or skipper calls "Ready about", the crew then each call "Ready!", and as the turn is made the helmsman calls "Lee oh!". • Gooseneck – Fitting that attaches the boom to the mast, allowing it to move freely. • Goosewinged – Of a fore-and-aft rigged vessel sailing directly away from the wind, with the sails set on opposite sides of the vessel – for example with the mainsail to port and the jib to starboard, to maximize the amount of canvas exposed to the wind. Also see
Glossary of nautical terms running. • Grapeshot – Small balls of lead fired from a cannon, analagous to shotgun shot on a larger scale. Similar to canister shot but with larger individual shot. Used to injure personnel and damage rigging more than to cause structural damage. • Grave – To clean a ship’s bottom. • Grog – Watered-down pusser's rum consisting of half a gill with equal part of water, issued to all seamen over twenty. (CPOs and POs were issued with neat rum) From the British Admiral Vernon who, in 1740, ordered the men's ration of rum to be watered down. He was called "Old Grogram" because he often wore a grogram coat), and the watered rum came to be called 'grog'. Often used (illegally) as currency in exchange for favours in quantities prescribed as 'sippers' and 'gulpers'. Additional issues of grog were made on the command 'splice the mainbrace' for celebrations or as a reward for performing especially onerous duties. The RN discontinued the practice of issuing rum in 1970. A sailor might repay a colleague for a favour by giving him part or all of his grog ration, ranging from "sippers" (a small amount) via "gulpers" (a larger quantity) to "grounders" (the entire tot). • Groggy – Drunk from having consumed a lot of grog. • Ground – The bed of the sea. • Grounding – When a ship (while afloat) touches the bed of the sea, or goes "aground" (qv). • Gunner's daughter – see kissing the gunner's daughter. • Gunwale (pronounced /ˈɡʌnəl/, "gun'll") – Upper edge of the hull. • Gybe or jibe (both pronounced /ˈdʒаɪb/) – To change from one tack to the other away from the wind, with the stern of the vessel turning through the wind. When ready to gybe the helmsman or skipper calls "Ready to gybe", the crew then each call "Ready!", and as the turn is made the helmsman calls "Gybe oh!". A gybe may also happen accidentally when sailing downwind. (See also going about and wearing ship.)
• Halyard or halliard – Originally, ropes used for hoisting a spar with a sail attached; today, a line used to raise the head of any sail. • Hammock – Canvas sheets, slung from the deckhead in messdecks, in which seamen slept. "Lash up and stow" a piped command to tie up hammocks and stow them (typically) in racks inboard of the ship's side to protect crew from splinters from shot and provide a ready means of preventing flooding caused by damage. • Handy billy – A loose block and tackle with a hook or tail on each end, which can be used wherever it is needed. Usually made up of one single and one double block. • Hand bomber – A ship using coal-fired boilers shoveled in by hand. • Hand over fist – To climb steadily upwards, from the motion of a sailor climbing shrouds on a sailing ship (originally "hand over hand"). • Handsomely – With a slow even motion, as when hauling on a line "handsomely". • Hank – A fastener attached to the luff of the → headsail that attaches the → headsail to the forestay. Typical designs include a bronze or plastic hook with a spring-operated gate, or a strip of cloth webbing with a snap fastener. • Harbor – A harbor or harbour, or haven, is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. Harbours can be man-made or natural. • Hard – A section of otherwise muddy shoreline suitable for mooring or hauling out.
Glossary of nautical terms • Harden up – Turn towards the wind; sail closer to the wind. • Hardtack – A hard and long-lasting dry biscuit, used as food on long journeys. Also called ship's biscuit. • Hatchway, hatch – A covered opening in a ship's deck through which cargo can be loaded or access made to a lower deck; the cover to the opening is called a hatch. • Hauling wind – Pointing the ship towards the direction of the wind; generally not the fastest point of travel on a sailing vessel. • Hawse pipe, hawse-hole or hawse (pronounced /hɔːz/) - The shaft or hole in the side of a vessel's bow through which the anchor chain passes. • Hawsepiper – An informal term for a merchant ship’s officer who began their career as an unlicensed merchant seaman, and so did not attend a traditional maritime academy to earn their officer's licence (also see before the mast). • Hawser – Large rope used for mooring or towing a vessel. • Head – The toilet or latrine of a vessel, which in sailing ships projected from the bows • Head of navigation – A term used to describe the farthest point above the mouth of a river that can be navigated by ships. • → Headsail – Any sail flown in front of the most forward mast. • Heave – A vessel's transient, vertical, up-and-down motion. • Heaving to – Stopping a sailing vessel by lashing the helm in opposition to the sails. The vessel will gradually drift to leeward, the speed of the drift depending on the vessel's design. • Heave down – Turn a ship on its side (for cleaning). • Heeling – Heeling is the lean caused by the wind's force on the sails of a sailing vessel. • Helmsman – A person who steers a ship • Highfield lever – A particular type of tensioning lever, usually for running backstays. Their use allows the leeward backstay to be completely slackened so that the boom can be let fully out. • Hitch – A knot used to tie a rope or line to a fixed object. Also see bend. • Hog – 1. A fore-and-aft structural member of the hull fitted over the keel to provide a fixing for the garboard planks. 2. A rough flat scrubbing brush for cleaning a ship’s bottom under water. • Hogging – When the peak of a wave is amidships, causing the hull to bend so the ends of the keel are lower than the middle. The opposite of sagging. • Hold – In earlier use, below the orlop deck, the lower part of the interior of a ship's hull, especially when considered as storage space, as for cargo. In later merchant vessels it extended up through the decks to the underside of the weather deck. • Holiday – A gap in the coverage of newly applied paint, slush, tar or other preservative. • Holystone – A chunk of sandstone used to scrub the decks. The name comes from both the kneeling position sailors adopt to scrub the deck (reminiscent of genuflection for prayer), and the stone itself (which resembled a Bible in shape and size). • Horn – A sound signal which uses electricity or compressed air to vibrate a disc diaphragm. • Horn timber – A fore-and-aft structural member of the hull sloping up and backwards from the keel to support the counter. • Horse –
Glossary of nautical terms 1. Attachment of sheets to deck of vessel (main-sheet horse). 2. (v.) To move or adjust sail by brute hand force rather than using running rigging. • • • • Hounds – Attachments of stays to masts. Hull – The shell and framework of the basic flotation-oriented part of a ship. Hull-down – Of a vessel when only its upper parts are visible over the horizon. Hull speed – The maximum efficient speed of a displacement-hulled vessel.
• Hydrofoil – A boat with wing-like foils mounted on struts below the hull, lifting the hull entirely out of the water at speed and allowing water resistance to be greatly reduced.
• Icing – A serious hazard where cold temperatures (below about -10°C) combined with high wind speed (typically force 8 or above on the Beaufort scale) result in spray blown off the sea freezing immediately on contact with the ship • Idlers – Members of a ship's company not required to serve watches. These were in general specialist tradesmen such as the carpenter and the sailmaker. • Inboard motor – An engine mounted within the hull of a vessel, usually driving a fixed propeller by a shaft protruding through the stern. Generally used on larger vessels. Also see sterndrive and outboard motor. • Inboard-Outboard drive system – See sterndrive. • Inglefield clip – A type of clip for attaching a flag to a flag halyard. • In irons – When the bow of a sailboat is headed into the wind and the boat has stalled and is unable to maneuver • In the offing – In the water visible from on board a ship, now used to mean something imminent. • In-water survey – a method of surveying the underwater parts of a ship while it is still afloat instead of having to drydock it for examination of these areas as was conventionally done.
• Jack – 1 – A sailor. Also jack tar or just tar. 2 – A flag. Typically the flag was talked about as if it were a member of the crew. Strictly speaking, a flag is only a "jack" if it is worn at the jackstaff at the bow of a ship. • Jacklines or jack stays – Lines, often steel wire with a plastic jacket, from the bow to the stern on both port and starboard. The Jack Lines are used to clip on the safety harness to secure the crew to the vessel while giving them the freedom to walk on the deck. • Jack Tar – A sailor dressed in 'square rig' with square collar. Formerly with a tarred pigtail. • Jenny – See genoa • Jetsam – Debris ejected from a ship that sinks or washes ashore. See also flotsam. • → Jib – A triangular staysail at the front of a ship. • Jibboom – A spar used to extend the bowsprit. • Jibe – See gybe.
Glossary of nautical terms • Jigger-mast – The fourth mast, although ships with four or more masts were uncommon, or the aft most mast where it is smallest on vessels of less than four masts. • Jollies – Traditional Royal Navy nickname for the Royal Marines. • Joggle – a slender triangular recess cut into the faying surface of a frame or steamed timber to fit over the land of clinker planking, or cut into the faying edge of a plank or rebate to avoid feather ends on a streak of planking. The feather end is cut off to produce a nib. The joggle and nib in this case is made wide enough to allow a caulking iron to enter the seam. • Junk – Old cordage past its useful service life as lines aboard ship. The strands of old junk were teased apart in the process called picking oakum.
• Keel – The central structural basis of the hull • Keelhauling – Maritime punishment: to punish by dragging under the keel of a ship. • Kelson – The timber immediately above the keel of a wooden ship. • Killick – A small anchor. A fouled killick is the substantive badge of non-commissioned officers in the RN. Seamen promoted to the first step in the promotion ladder are called 'Killick'. The badge signifies that here is an Able Seaman skilled to cope with the awkward job of dealing with a fouled anchor. • Kissing the gunner's daughter – bend over the barrel of a gun for punitive beating with a cane or cat • King plank – The centerline plank of a laid deck. Its sides are often recessed, or nibbed, to take the ends of their parallel curved deck planks. • Kitchen rudder – Hinged cowling around a fixed propeller, allowing the drive to be directed to the side or forwards to manoeuvre the vessel. • Knee – Connects two parts roughly at right angles, eg. deck beams to frames. • Knot – A unit of speed: 1 nautical mile (1.8520 km; 1.1508 mi) per hour. Originally speed was measured by paying out a line from the stern of a moving boat. The line had a knot every 47 feet 3 inches (14.4 m), and the number of knots passed out in 30 seconds gave the speed through the water in nautical miles per hour. • Know the ropes – A sailor who 'knows the ropes' is familiar with the miles of cordage and ropes involved in running a ship.
• Ladder – On board a ship, all "stairs" are called ladders, except for literal staircases aboard passenger ships. Most "stairs" on a ship are narrow and nearly vertical, hence the name. Believed to be from the Anglo-Saxon word hiaeder, meaning ladder. • Laker –Great Lakes slang for a vessel who spends all its time on the 5 Great Lakes. • Land lubber – A person unfamiliar with being on the sea. • Lanyard – A rope that ties something off. • Larboard – Obsolete term for the left side of a ship. Derived from "lay-board" providing access between a ship and a quay, when ships normally docked with the left side to the wharf. Replaced by port side or port, to avoid confusion with starboard. • Large – See by and large. • Lateral system – A system of aids to navigation in which characteristics of buoys and beacons indicate the sides of the channel or route relative to a conventional direction of
Glossary of nautical terms buoyage (usually upstream). • Lay – To come and go, used in giving orders to the crew, such as "lay forward" or "lay aloft". To direct the course of vessel. Also, to twist the strands of a rope together. • Laying down – Beginning construction in a shipyard. • Lazarette – Small stowage locker at the aft end of a boat. • League – A unit of length, normally equal to three nautical miles. • Leech – The aft or trailing edge of a fore-and-aft sail; the leeward edge of a spinnaker; a vertical edge of a square sail. The leech is susceptible to twist, which is controlled by the boom vang and mainsheet. • Lee side – The side of a ship sheltered from the wind (cf. weather side). • Lee shore – A shore downwind of a ship. A ship which cannot sail well to windward risks being blown onto a lee shore and grounded. • Leeway – The amount that a ship is blown leeward by the wind. See also weatherly. • Leeward – In the direction that the wind is blowing towards. • Length overall, LOA – the length of a ship. • Let go and haul – An order indicating that the ship is in line with the wind. • Letter of marque and reprisal – A warrant granted to a privateer condoning specific acts of piracy against a target as a redress for grievances. • Lifebelt, lifejacket, life preserver or Mae West – A device such as a buoyant ring or inflatable jacket which keeps a person afloat in the water. • Lifeboat – 1. Shipboard lifeboat, kept on board a vessel and used to take crew and passengers to safety in the event of the ship being abandoned. 2. Rescue lifeboat, usually launched from shore, used to rescue people from the water or from vessels in difficulty. • Liferaft – An inflatable, covered raft, used in the event of a vessel being abandoned. • Line – the correct nautical term for the majority of the cordage or "ropes" used on a vessel. A line will always have a more specific name, such as mizzen topsail halyard, which describes its use. • Liner – Ship of the line: a major warship capable of taking its place in the main (battle) line of fighting ships. Hence modern term for prestigious passenger vessels: ocean liner. • List – The vessel's angle of lean or tilt to one side, in the direction called roll. • Loaded to the gunwales – Literally, having cargo loaded as high as the ship's rail; also means extremely drunk. • Loggerhead – An iron ball attached to a long handle, used for driving caulking into seams and (occasionally) in a fight. Hence: 'at loggerheads'. • Long stay - A description for the relative slackness of an anchor chain; this term means taught and extended. • Loose cannon – An irresponsible and reckless individual whose behavior (either intended or unintended) endangers the group he or she belongs to. A loose cannon, weighing thousands of pounds, would crush anything and anyone in its path, and possibly even break a hole in the hull, thus endangering the seaworthiness of the whole ship. • Loose footed – A mainsail that is not connected to a boom along its foot. • Lubber's hole - A port cut into the bottom of the mizzentop (crow's-nest) allowing easy entry and exit. It was considered "un-seamanlike" to use this easier method rather than going over the side from the shrouds, and few sailors would risk the scorn of their shipmates by doing so (at least if there were witnesses)
Glossary of nautical terms • Lubber's line – A vertical line inside a compass case indicating the direction of the ship's head. • Luff – The forward edge of a sail. • Luff up – To steer a sailing vessel more towards the direction of the wind until the pressure is eased on the [sheet]. • Luffing 1. When a sailing vessel is steered far enough to windward that the sail is no longer completely filled with wind (the luff of a fore-and-aft sail begins to flap first). 2. Loosening a sheet so far past optimal trim that the sail is no longer completely filled with wind. 3. The flapping of the sail(s) which results from having no wind in the sail at all. • Lying ahull – Waiting out a storm by dousing all sails and simply letting the boat drift.
• Mae West – A Second World War personal flotation device used to keep people afloat in the water; named after the 1930s actress Mae West, well-known for her pneumatic torso. • Magnetic bearing – An absolute bearing (qv) using magnetic north. • Magnetic north – The direction towards the North Magnetic Pole. Varies slowly over time. • Mainbrace – One of the braces attached to the mainmast. • Making way - When a vessel is moving under its own power. • Mainmast (or Main) – The tallest mast on a ship. • Mainsheet – Sail control line that allows the most obvious effect on → mainsail trim. Primarily used to control the angle of the boom, and thereby the mainsail, this control can also increase or decrease downward tension on the boom while sailing upwind, significantly affecting sail shape. For more control over downward tension on the boom, use a boom vang. • Man of war or man o' war – a warship from the Age of Sail • Man overboard! – A cry let out when a seaman has gone overboard. • → Marconi rig – Another term for bermudan rig. The mainsail is triangular, rigged fore-and-aft with the lead edge fixed to the mast. Refers to the similarity of the tall mast to a radio aerial. • Marina – a docking facility for small ships and yachts. • Marines Soldiers afloat. Royal Marines formed as the Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot in 1664 with many and varied duties including providing guard to ship's officers should there be mutiny aboard. Sometimes thought by seamen to be rather gullible, hence the phrase "tell it to the marines". • Mast – A vertical pole on a ship which supports sails or rigging. • Masthead – A small platform partway up the mast, just above the height of the mast's main yard. A lookout is stationed here, and men who are working on the main yard will embark from here. See also Crow's Nest. • Master – Either the commander of commercial vessel, or a senior officer of a naval sailing ship in charge of routine seamanship and navigation but not in command during combat. • Master-at-arms – A non-commissioned officer responsible for discipline on a naval ship. Standing between the officers and the crew, commonly known in the Royal Navy as 'the
Glossary of nautical terms Buffer'. • Matelot – A traditional Royal Navy term for an ordinary sailor. • Mess – An eating place aboard ship. A group of crew who live and feed together, • Mess deck catering – A system of catering in which a standard ration is issued to a mess supplemented by a money allowance which may be used by the mess to buy additional victuals from the pusser's stores or elsewhere. Each mess was autonomous and self-regulating. Seaman cooks, often members of the mess, prepared the meals and took them, in a tin canteen, to the galley to be cooked by the ship's cooks. As distinct from "cafeteria messing" where food is issued to the individual hand, which now the general practice. • Midshipman – A non-commissioned officer below the rank of Lieutenant. Usually regarded as being "in training" to some degree. Also known as 'Snotty'. 'The lowest form of animal life in the Royal Navy' where he has authority over and responsibility for more junior ranks, yet, at the same time, relying on their experience and learning his trade from them. • Mizzenmast (or Mizzen) – The third mast on a ship. • Mile – see nautical mile. • Mizzen staysail – Sail on a ketch or yawl, usually lightweight, set from, and forward of, the mizzen mast while reaching in light to moderate air. • Monkey's fist – a ball woven out of line used to provide heft to heave the line to another location. The monkey fist and other heaving-line knots were sometimes weighted with lead (easily available in the form of foil used to seal e.g. tea chests from dampness) although Clifford W. Ashley notes that there was a "definite sporting limit" to the weight thus added. • Moor – to attach a boat to a mooring buoy or post. Also, to a dock a ship. • Mould – A template of the shape of the hull in transverse section. Several moulds are used to form a temporary framework around which a hull is built.
• Nautical mile – A distance of 1.852 kilometres (1.151 mi). Approximately the distance of one minute of arc of latitude on the Earth's surface. A speed of one nautical mile per hour is called a knot (qv). • Navigation rules – Rules of the road that provide guidance on how to avoid collision and also used to assign blame when a collision does occur. • Nipper – Short rope used to bind a cable to the "messenger" (a moving line propelled by the capstan) so that the cable is dragged along too (used where the cable is too large to be wrapped round the capstan itself). During the raising of an anchor the nippers were attached and detached from the (endless) messenger by the ship's boys. Hence the term for small boys: 'nippers'. • No room to swing a cat – The entire ship's company was expected to witness floggings, assembled on deck. If it was very crowded, the bosun might not have room to swing the 'cat o' nine tails' (the whip).
Glossary of nautical terms
• • • • Oakum – Material used for caulking hulls. Often hemp picked from old untwisted ropes. Oilskins or oilies – Foul-weather clothing worn by sailors. Oreboat – Great Lakes term for a vessel primarily used in the transport of iron ore. Orlop deck – The lowest deck of a ship of the line. The deck covering in the hold.
• Outboard motor – A motor mounted externally on the transom of a small boat. The boat may be steered by twisting the whole motor, instead of or in addition to using a rudder. • Outdrive – The lower part of a sterndrive (qv). • Outhaul – A line used to control the shape of a sail. • Outward bound – To leave the safety of port, heading for the open ocean. • Overbear – To sail downwind directly at another ship, stealing the wind from its sails. • Overfalls – Dangerously steep and breaking seas due to opposing currents and wind in a shallow area, or strong currents over a shallow rocky bottom. • Overhaul – Hauling the buntline ropes over the sails to prevent them from chaffing. • Overhead – The "ceiling," or, essentially, the bottom of the deck above you. • Over-reaching – When tacking, holding a course too long. • Over the barrel – Adult sailors were flogged on the back or shoulders while tied to a grating, but boys were beaten instead on the posterior (often bared), with a cane or cat, while bending, often tied down, over the barrel of a gun, known as (kissing) the gunner's daughter. • Overwhelmed – Capsized or foundered. • Owner – traditional Royal Navy term for the Captain, a survival from the days when privately-owned ships were often hired for naval service. • Ox-eye – A cloud or other weather phenomenon that may be indicative of an upcoming storm.
• Panting – The pulsation in and out of the bow and stern plating as the ship alternately rises and plunges deep into the water • Parbuckle – A method of lifting a roughly cylindrical object such as a spar. One end of a rope is made fast above the object, a loop of rope is lowered and passed around the object, which can be raised by hauling on the free end of rope. • Parrel – A movable loop or collar, used to fasten a yard or gaff to its respective mast. Parrel still allows the spar to be raised or lowered and swivel around the mast. Can be made of wire or rope and fitted with beads to reduce friction. • Part brass rags – Fall out with a friend. From the days when cleaning materials were shared between sailors. • Paying – Filling a seam (with caulking or pitch), lubricating the running rigging; paying with slush (q.v.), protecting from the weather by covering with slush. See also: The Devil to pay. (French from paix, pitch) • Paymaster – The officer responsible for all money matters in RN ships including the paying and provisioning of the crew, all stores, tools and spare parts. See also: purser. • Pier-head jump – When a sailor is drafted to a warship at the last minute, just before she sails. • Pilot – Navigator. A specially knowledgeable person qualified to navigate a vessel through difficult waters, e.g. harbour pilot etc.
Glossary of nautical terms • PIM – Points (or plan) of intended movement. The charted course for a naval unit's movements. • Pipe (Bos'n's), or a bos'n's call – A whistle used by Boatswains (bosuns or bos'ns) to issue commands. Consisting of a metal tube which directs the breath over an aperture on the top of a hollow ball to produce high pitched notes. The pitch of the notes can be changed by partly covering the aperture with the finger of the hand in which the pipe is held. The shape of the instrument is similar to that of a smoking pipe. • Pipe down – A signal on the bosun's pipe to signal the end of the day, requiring lights (and smoking pipes) to be extinguished and silence from the crew. • Piping the side – A salute on the bos'n's pipe(s) performed in the company of the deck watch on the starboard side of the quarterdeck or at the head of the gangway, to welcome or bid farewell to the ship's Captain, senior officers and honoured visitors. • Pitch – A vessel's motion, rotating about the beam/transverse axis, causing the fore and aft ends to rise and fall repetitively. • Pitchpole – To capsize a boat end over end, rather than by rolling over. • Planing – When a fast-moving vessel skims over the water instead of pushing through it. • Pontoon – A flat-bottomed vessel used as a ferry, barge, car float or a float moored alongside a jetty or a ship to facilitate boarding. • Poop deck – A high deck on the aft superstructure of a ship. • Pooped – 1. Swamped by a high, following sea. 2. Exhausted. • Port – Towards the left-hand side of the ship facing forward (formerly Larboard). Denoted with a red light at night. • Porthole or port – an opening in a ship's side, esp. a round one for admitting light and air, fitted with thick glass and, often, a hinged metal cover, a window • Port tack – When sailing with the wind coming from the port side of the vessel. Must give way to boats on starboard tack. • Press gang – Formed body of personnel from a ship of the Royal Navy (either a ship seeking personnel for its own crew or from a 'press tender' seeking men for a number of ships) that would identify and force (press) men, usually merchant sailors into service on naval ships usually against their will. • Preventer (gybe preventer, jibe preventer) – A sail control line originating at some point on the boom leading to a fixed point on the boat's deck or rail (usually a cleat or pad eye) used to prevent or moderate the effects of an accidental jibe. • Privateer – A privately-owned ship authorised by a national power (by means of a Letter of marque) to conduct hostilities against an enemy. Also called a private man of war. • Propeller walk or prop walk – tendency for a propeller to push the stern sideways. In theory a right hand propeller in reverse will walk the stern to port. • Prow – a poetical alternative term for bows. • Purchase – A mechanical method of increasing force, such as a tackle or lever. • Pusser – Purser, the person who buys, stores and sells all stores on board ships, including victuals, rum and tobacco. Originally a private merchant, latterly a warrant officer. Also, in modern use, a term for the Navy in general (pussers) or a sailor in particular (a pusser). • Principal Warfare Officer – PWO, one of a number of Warfare branch specialist officers.
Glossary of nautical terms
• Queen's (King's) Regulations – The standing orders governing the British Royal Navy issued in the name of the current Monarch. • Quarterdeck – The aftermost deck of a warship. In the age of sail, the quarterdeck was the preserve of the ship's officers. • Quayside – Refers to the dock or platform used to fasten a vessel to
• Rabbet or rebate (pronounced /ˈræbət/) – A groove cut in wood to form part of a joint. • Radar – Acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging. An electronic system designed to transmit radio signals and receive reflected images of those signals from a "target" in order to determine the bearing and distance to the "target". • Radar reflector – A special fixture fitted to a vessel or incorporated into the design of certain aids to navigation to enhance their ability to reflect radar energy. In general, these fixtures will materially improve the visibility for use by vessels with radar. • Range lights – Two lights associated to form a range (a line formed by the extension of a line connecting two charted points) which often, but not necessarily, indicates the channel centerline. The front range light is the lower of the two, and nearer to the mariner using the range. The rear light is higher and further from the mariner. • Ratlines – Rope ladders permanently rigged from bulwarks and tops to the mast to enable access to top masts and yards. • → Reaching – Sailing across the wind: from about 60° to about 160° off the wind. Reaching consists of "close reaching" (about 60° to 80°), "beam reaching" (about 90°) and "broad reaching" (about 120° to 160°). See also beating and running. • Ready about – A call to indicate imminent tacking (see going about). • Red Duster – Traditional nickname for the Red Ensign, the civil ensign (flag) carried by United Kingdom civilian vessels. • Reduced cat – A light version on the cat o'nine tails for use on boys; also called "boys' pussy". • Reef 1. Reef: To temporarily reduce the area of a sail exposed to the wind, usually to guard against adverse effects of strong wind or to slow the vessel. 2. Reef: Rock or coral, possibly only revealed at low tide, shallow enough that the vessel will at least touch if not go aground. • Reef points – Small lengths of cord attached to a sail, used to secure the excess fabric after reefing. • Reef-bands – Long pieces of rough canvas sewed across the sails to give them additional strength. • Reef-tackles – Ropes employed in the operation of reefing. • Relative bearing – A bearing relative to the direction of the ship: the clockwise angle between the ship's direction and an object. See also absolute bearing and bearing. • Rigging – The system of masts and lines on ships and other sailing vessels. • Righting couple – The force which tends to restore a ship to equilibrium once a heel has altered the relationship between her centre of buoyancy and her centre of gravity. • Rigol – The rim or 'eyebrow' above a port-hole or scuttle.
Glossary of nautical terms • Rode – The anchor line, rope or cable connecting the anchor chain to the vessel. Also Anchor Rode. • Roll – A vessel's motion rotating from side to side, about the fore-aft/longitudinal axis. List (qv) is a lasting tilt in the roll direction. • Rolling-tackle – A number of pulleys, engaged to confine the yard to the weather side of the mast; this tackle is much used in a rough sea. • The ropes – the lines in the rigging. • Rope's end – A summary punishment device. • Rowlock (pronounced /ˈrɒlək/) – A bracket providing the fulcrum for an oar. Also see thole. • Rubbing strake – An extra plank fitted to the outside of the hull, usually at deck level, to protect the topsides. • Rummage sale – A sale of damaged cargo (from French arrimage). • Running rigging – Rigging used to manipulate sails, spars, etc. in order to control the movement of the ship. Cf. standing rigging. • → Running before the wind or running - Sailing more than about about 160° away from the wind. If directly away from the wind, it's a dead run.
• Sagging – When the trough of a wave is amidships, causing the hull to deflect so the ends of the keel are higher than the middle. The opposite of hogging. • → Sail-plan – A set of drawings showing various sail combinations recommended for use in various situations. • Saltie – Great Lakes term for a vessel that sails the oceans. • Sampson post – A strong vertical post used to support a ship's windlass and the heel of a ship's bowsprit. • Scandalize – To reduce the area and efficiency of a sail by expedient means (slacking the peak and tricing up the tack) without properly reefing, thus slowing boat speed. Also used in the past as a sign of mourning. • Scow – 1. A method of preparing an anchor for tripping by attaching an anchor cable to the crown and fixing to the ring by a light seizing (also known as becue). The seizing can be broken if the anchor becomes fouled. 2. A type of clinker dinghy, characteristically beamy and slow. • Scud – A name given by sailors to the lowest clouds, which are mostly observed in squally weather. • Scudding – A term applied to a vessel when carried furiously along by a tempest. • Scuppers – Originally a series of pipes fitted through the ships side from inside the thicker deck waterway to the topside planking to drain water overboard, larger quantities drained through freeing ports, which were openings in the bulwarks. • Scuttle – A small opening, or lid thereof, in a ship's deck or hull. • Scuttlebutt – A barrel with a hole in used to hold water that sailors would drink from. Also: gossip. • Scuttling – Cutting a hole in an object or vessel, especially in order to sink a vessel deliberately.
Glossary of nautical terms • Sea anchor – A stabilizer deployed in the water for heaving to in heavy weather. It acts as a brake and keeps the hull in line with the wind and perpendicular to waves. Often in the form of a large bag made of heavy canvas. • Seaboots - High waterproof boots for use at sea. In leisure sailing known as sailing wellies. • Sea chest – A watertight box built against the hull of the ship communicating with the sea through a grillage, to which valves and piping are attached to allow water in for ballast, engine cooling, and firefighting purposes. • Seacock – a valve in the hull of a boat. • Seaman – Generic term for sailor, or (part of) a low naval rank • Seaworthy – Certified for, and capable of, safely sailing at sea. • Self-unloader – Great Lakes slang term for a vessel with a conveyor or some other method of unloading the cargo without shoreside equipment. • Sennet whip – A summary punitive implement • Shakes – Pieces of barrels or casks broken down to save space. They are worth very little, leading to the phrase "no great shakes". • Sheer – The upward curve of a vessel's longitudinal lines as viewed from the side. • Sheet – A rope used to control the setting of a sail in relation to the direction of the wind. • Sextant – Navagational instrument used to measure a ship's latitude and longitude. • Shift tides - Sighting the positions of the sun and moon using a sextant and using a nautical almanac to determine the location and phase of the moon and calculating the relative effect of the tides on the navigation of the ship.  • Ship – Strictly, a three-masted vessel square-rigged on all three masts, or on three masts of a vessel with more than three. Hence a ship-rigged barque would be a four master, square-rigged on fore, main and mizzen, with spanker and gaff topsail only on the Jigger-mast. Generally now used to describe most medium or large vessels outfitted with smaller boats. As a consequence of this submarines may be larger than small ships, but are called boats because they do not carry boats of their own. • Ship's bell – Striking the ship's bell is the traditional method of marking time and regulating the crew's watches. • Ship's biscuit – See hard tack. • Ship's company – The crew of a ship. • Shoal – Shallow water that is a hazard to navigation. • Shoal draught – Shallow draught, making the vessel capable of sailing in unusually shallow water. • Short stay - A description for the relative slackness of an anchor chain; this term means somewhat slack, but not vertical nor fully extended. • Shrouds – Standing rigging running from a mast to the sides of a ships. • Sick bay – The compartment reserved for medical purposes. • Siren – A sound signal which uses electricity or compressed air to actuate either a disc or a cup shaped rotor. • Skeg – A downward or sternward projection from the keel in front of the rudder. Protects the rudder from damage, and in bilge keelers may provide one "leg" of a tripod on which the boat stands when the tide is out. • Skipper – The captain of a ship. • Skysail – A sail set very high, above the royals. Only carried by a few ships.
Glossary of nautical terms • Skyscraper – A small, triangular sail, above the skysail. Used in light winds on a few ships. • Slop chest – A ship's store of merchandise, such as clothing, tobacco, etc., maintained aboard merchant ships for sale to the crew. • Slush – Greasy substance obtained by boiling or scraping the fat from empty salted meat storage barrels, or the floating fat residue after boiling the crew's meal. In the Royal Navy the perquisite of the cook who could sell it or exchange it (usually for alcohol) with other members of the crew. Used for greasing parts of the running rigging of the ship and therefore valuable to the master and bosun. • Slush fund – The money obtained by the cook selling slush ashore. Used for the benefit of the crew (or the cook). • Small bower (anchor) – The smaller of two anchors carried in the bow. • Snow – A form of brig where the gaff spanker or driver is rigged on a "snow mast" a lighter spar supported in chocks close behind the main-mast. • Son of a gun – The space between the guns was used as a semi-private place for trysts with prostitutes and wives, which sometimes led to birth of children with disputed parentage. Another claim is that the origin the term resulted from firing a ship's guns to hasten a difficult birth. • Sonar – A method of using sound pulses to detect, range and sometime image underwater targets and obstacles, or the bed of the sea. Also see echo sounding and ASDIC. • Sou'wester 1. A storm from the south west. 2. A type of waterproof hat with a wide brim over the neck, worn in storms. • Sounding – Measuring the depth of the water. Traditionally done by swinging the lead, now commonly by echo sounding. • Spanker – A fore-and-aft or gaff-rigged sail on the aft-most mast of a square-rigged vessel and the main fore-and-aft sail (spanker sail) on the aft-most mast of a (partially) fore-and-aft rigged vessel such as a schooner, a barquentine, and a barque. • Spanker-mast – The aft-most mast of a fore-and-aft or gaff-rigged vessel such as schooners, barquentines, and barques. A full-rigged ship has a spanker sail but not a spanker-mast (see Jigger-mast). • Spar – A wooden, in later years also iron or steel pole used to support various pieces of rigging and sails. The big five-masted full-rigged tall ship Preussen (German spelling: Preußen) had crossed 30 steel yards, but only one wooden spar – the little gaff of its spanker sail. • Spindrift – Finely-divided water swept from crest of waves by strong winds. • → Spinnaker – A large sail flown in front of the vessel while heading downwind. • Spinnaker pole – A spar used to help control a spinnaker or other → headsail. • Splice – To join lines (ropes, cables etc.) by unravelling their ends and intertwining them to form a continuous line. To form an eye or a knot by splicing. • Spurling pipe - A pipe that connects to the chain locker, from which the anchor chain emerges onto the deck at the bow of a ship. • Square meal – A sufficient quantity of food. Meals on board ship were served to the crew on a square wooden plate in harbor or at sea in good weather. Food in the Royal Navy was invariably better or at least in greater quantity than that available to the average landsman. However, while square wooden plates were indeed used on board
Glossary of nautical terms ship, there is no established link between them and this particular term. The OED gives the earliest reference from the U.S. in the mid 19th century. Squared away – Yards held rigidly perpendicular to their masts and parallel to the deck. This was rarely the best trim of the yards for efficiency but made a pretty sight for inspections and in harbor. The term is applied to situations and to people figuratively to mean that all difficulties have been resolved or that the person is performing well and is mentally and physically prepared. Squat effect is the phenomenon by which a vessel moving quickly through shallow water creates an area of lowered pressure under its keel that reduces the ship's buoyancy, particularly at the bow. The reduced buoyancy causes the ship to "squat" lower in the water than would ordinarily be expected, and thus its effective draught is increased. Stanchion – vertical post near a deck's edge that supports life-lines. A timber fitted in between the frame heads on a wooden hull or a bracket on a steel vessel, approx one meter high, to support the bulwark plank or plating and the rail. Standing rigging – Rigging which is used to support masts and spars, and is not normally manipulated during normal operations. Cf. running rigging.
• Stand-on (vessel) - A vessel directed to keep her course and speed where two vessels are approaching one another so as to involve a risk of collision. • Starboard – Towards the right-hand side of a vessel facing forward. Denoted with a green light at night. Derived from the old steering oar or steerboard which preceded the invention of the rudder. • Starboard tack – When sailing with the wind coming from the starboard side of the vessel. Has right of way over boats on port tack. • Starter – A rope used as a punitive device. See teazer, togey. • Stay – Rigging running fore (forestay) and aft (backstay) from a mast to the hull. • Staysail – A sail whose luff is attached to a forestay. • Steering oar or steering board – A long, flat board or oar that went from the stern to well underwater, used to steer vessels before the invention of the rudder. Traditionally on the starboard side of a ship (the "steering board" side). • Stem – The extension of keel at the forward end of a ship. • Stern – The rear part of a ship, technically defined as the area built up over the sternpost, extending upwards from the counter to the taffrail. • Stern chaser – See chase gun. • Stern tube – The tube under the hull to bear the tailshaft for propulsion (usually at stern). • Sterndrive – A propeller drive system similar to the lower part of an outboard motor extending below the hull of a larger power boat or yacht, but driven by an engine mounted within the hull. Unlike a fixed propeller (but like an outboard), the boat may be steered by twisting the drive. Also see inboard motor and outboard motor. • Stonnacky – A punitive device. • Stopper knot – A knot tied in the end of a rope, usually to stop it passing through a hole; most commonly a figure-eight knot. • Strake – One of the overlapping boards in a clinker built hull. • Studding-sails (pronounced /ˈstʌnsəl/, "stunsail") – Long and narrow sails, used only in fine weather, on the outside of the large square sails. • Surge – A vessel's transient motion in a fore and aft direction. • Sway –
Glossary of nautical terms 1. A vessel's lateral motion from side to side. 2. (v) To hoist: "Sway up my dunnage". • Swigging – To take up the last bit of slack on a line such as a halyard, anchor line or dockline by taking a single turn round a cleat and alternately heaving on the rope above and below the cleat while keeping the tension on the tail. • Swinging the compass – Measuring the accuracy in a ship's magnetic compass so its readings can be adjusted – often by turning the ship and taking bearings on reference points. • Swinging the lamp – Telling sea stories. Referring to lamps slung from the deckhead which swing while at sea. Often used to indicate that the story teller is exaggerating. • Swinging the lead – 1. Measuring the depth of water beneath a ship using a lead-weighted sounding line. Regarded as a relatively easy job, thus: 2. Feigning illness etc to avoid a hard job.
• Tabernacle – A large bracket attached firmly to the deck, to which the foot of the mast is fixed. It has two sides or cheeks and a bolt forming the pivot around which the mast is raised and lowered. • Tack 1. A leg of the route of a sailing vessel, particularly in relation to tacking (qv) and to starboard tack and port tack (also qv). 2. Hard tack: qv. • Tacking 1. Zig-zagging so as to sail directly towards the wind (and for some rigs also away from it). 2. Going about (qv). • Taffrail – A rail at the stern of the boat that covers the head of the counter timbers. • Tailshaft – A kind of metallic shafting (a rod of metal) to hold the propeller and connected to the power engine. When the tailshaft is moved, the propeller may also be moved for propulsion. • Taken aback – An inattentive helmsmen might allow the dangerous situation to arise where the wind is blowing into the sails 'backwards', causing a sudden (and possibly dangerous) shift in the position of the sails. • Taking the wind out of his sails – To sail in a way that steals the wind from another ship. cf. overbear. • Tally – The operation of hauling aft the sheets, or drawing them in the direction of the ship's stern. • Teazer – A rope used as a punitive device. • Thole – Vertical wooden peg or pin inserted through the gunwale to form a fulcrum for oars when rowing. Used in place of a rowlock. • Three sheets to the wind – On a three-masted ship, having the sheets of the three lower courses loose will result in the ship meandering aimlessly downwind. Also, a sailor who has drunk strong spirits beyond his capacity. • Thwart (pronounced /ˈθwɔrt/) – A bench seat across the width of an open boat.
Glossary of nautical terms • Timoneer – From the French timonnier, is a name given, on particular occasions, to the steersman of a ship. • Tingle – A thin temporary patch. • Tiller - a lever used for steering, attached to the top of the rudder post. Used mainly on smaller vessels, such as dinghies and rowing boats. • Toe-rail – A low strip running around the edge of the deck like a low bulwark. It may be shortened or have gaps in it to allow water to flow off the deck. • Toe the line or Toe the mark – At parade, sailors and soldiers were required to stand in line, their toes in line with a seam of the deck. • Togey – A rope used as a punitive device • Topmast – The second section of the mast above the deck; formerly the upper mast, later surmounted by the topgallant mast; carrying the topsails. • Topgallant – The mast or sails above the tops. • Topsail – The second sail (counting from the bottom) up a mast. These may be either square sails or fore-and-aft ones, in which case they often "fill in" between the mast and the gaff of the sail below. • Topsides – the part of the hull between the waterline and the deck. Also, Above-water hull • Touch and go – The bottom of the ship touching the bottom, but not grounding. • Towing – The operation of drawing a vessel forward by means of long lines. • Travellers – Small fittings that slide on a rod or line. The most common use is for the inboard end of the mainsheet; a more esoteric form of traveller consists of "slight iron rings, encircling the backstays, which are used for hoisting the top-gallant yards, and confining them to the backstays". • Traffic Separation Scheme – Shipping corridors marked by buoys which separate incoming from outgoing vessels. Improperly called Sea Lanes. • Transom – a more or less flat surface across the stern of a vessel. Dinghies tend to have almost vertical transoms, whereas yachts’ transoms may be raked forward or aft. • Trice – To haul and tie up by means of a rope. • Trick – A period of time spent at the wheel ("my trick's over"). • Trim – Relationship of ship's hull to waterline. • True bearing – An absolute bearing (qv) using true north. • True north – The direction of the geographical North Pole. • Tumblehome – A description of hull shape when viewed in a transverse section, where the widest part of the hull is someway below deck level. • Turn – A knot passing behind or around an object. • Turtling – When a sailboat (in particular a dinghy) capsizes to a point where the mast is pointed straight down and the hull is on the surface resembling a turtle shell.
Glossary of nautical terms
• Under the weather – Serving a watch on the weather side of the ship, exposed to wind and spray. • Under way – A vessel that is moving under control: that is, neither at anchor, made fast to the shore, aground nor adrift. • Underwater hull or underwater ship – The underwater section of a vessel beneath the waterline, normally not visible except when in drydock. • Up-behind – Slack off quickly and run slack to a belaying point. This order is given when a line or wire has been stopped off or falls have been four-in-hand and the hauling part is to be belayed. • Up-and-down - A description for the relative slackness of an anchor chain; this term means that the anchor chain is slack and hangs vertically down from the hawse pipe. • Upper-yardmen – Specially selected personnel destined for high office.
• Vang 1 – A rope leading from gaff to either side of the deck, used to prevent the gaff from sagging. 2 – See boom vang. • Vanishing angle – The maximum degree of heel after which a vessel becomes unable to return to an upright position. • V-hull – The shape of a boat or ship which the shape of the hull comes to a straight line to the keel.
• Wake – Turbulence behind a vessel. Not to be confused with wash. • Waist – the central deck of a ship between the forecastle and the quarterdeck. • Wales – A number of strong and thick planks running length-wise along the ship, covering the lower part of the ship's side. • Wash – The waves created by a vessel. Not to be confused with wake. • Watch – A period of time during which a part of the crew is on duty. Changes of watch are marked by strokes on the ship's bell. • Watercraft – Water transport vessels. Ships, boats, personal water craft etc. • Waterway – A strake of timber laid against the frames or bulwark stanchions at the margin of a laid wooden deck, usually about twice the thickness of the deck plank. • Waypoint – A location defined by navigational coordinates, especially as part of a planned route. • Wearing ship – Tacking away from the wind in a square-rigged vessel. See also Gybe. • Weather gage – Favorable position over another sailing vessel to with respect to the wind. • Weather deck – Whichever deck is that exposed to the weather – usually either the main deck or, in larger vessels, the upper deck. • Weather side – The side of a ship exposed to the wind. • Weatherly – A ship that is easily sailed and maneuvered; makes little leeway when sailing to windward.
Glossary of nautical terms • Weigh anchor – To heave up (an anchor) preparatory to sailing. • Wells – Places in the ship's hold for the pumps. • White horses or whitecaps – Foam or spray on wave tops caused by stronger winds (usually above Force 4). • Wheel or ship's wheel – The usual steering device on larger vessels, a wheel connected by cables to the rudder. • Wheelhouse – Location on a ship where the steering wheel is located, often interchanged with pilothouse and bridge. • Wide berth – To leave room between two ships moored (berthed) to allow space for maneuver. • Whipstaff – A vertical lever connected to the tiller, used for steering on larger ships before the development of the ship's wheel. • Windage – Wind resistance of the boat. • Windbound – A condition wherein the ship is detained in one particular station by contrary winds. • Wind-over-tide – Sea conditions with a tidal current and a wind in opposite directions, leading to short, heavy seas. • Windward – In the direction that the wind is coming from. • Windlass – A winch mechanism, usually with a horizontal axis. Used where mechanical advantage greater than that obtainable by block and tackle was needed (such as raising the anchor on small ships). • Worm, serve, and parcel – To protect a section of rope from chafing by: laying yarns (worming) to fill in the cuntlines, wrapping marline or other small stuff (serving) around it, and stitching a covering of canvas (parceling) over all.
• Yard – The horizontal spar from which a square sail is suspended. • Yardarm – The very end of a yard. Often mistaken for a "yard", which refers to the entire spar. As in to hang "from the yardarm" and the sun being "over the yardarm" (late enough to have a drink). • Yarr – Acknowledgement of an order, or agreement. Also aye, aye. • Yaw – A vessel's rotational motion about the vertical axis, causing the fore and aft ends to swing from side to side repetitively.
 Abel Brown the Sailor shanty (http:/ / www. traditionalmusic. co. uk/ sea-shanty/ Abel_Brown_the_Sailor. htm)  Snopes urban legends item about "brass monkey". (http:/ / www. snopes. com/ language/ stories/ brass. htm)  " Doldrums (http:/ / amsglossary. allenpress. com/ glossary/ search?p=1& query=doldrums)". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. . Retrieved 2009-06-04.  Melville, Herman (1851). " 53 (http:/ / en. wikisource. org/ wiki/ Moby-Dick/ Chapter_53)". Moby-Dick; or, The Whale. Harper and Brothers. .  " The Mariner's Mirror (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=lagPAAAAIAAJ& q="shift+ his+ tides"& dq="shift+ his+ tides"& lr=& pgis=1)". . Retrieved 2009-04-28.  " shift, v. 13.b. (http:/ / dictionary. oed. com/ cgi/ entry/ 50222781)". OED Online. . Retrieved 2009-04-29.  " waist definition (http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ search?db=dictionary& q=waist)". dictionary.reference.com. . Retrieved 2008-12-11.
Article Sources and Contributors
Article Sources and Contributors
Sailing Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=308413214 Contributors: -Majestic-, 16@r, 7&6=thirteen, AHMartin, Abdominator, Abtinb, Academic Challenger, Adam.J.W.C., AdamAdamsson, Adambro, Aeon1006, Aij, Alexfusco5, Alexgd, Alpha Ralpha Boulevard, Amcox, Anders Torlind, Andre Engels, Andres, Andrew1718, Andrewa, Andrewconti, Andrwsc, Anetode, Anthony Appleyard, AnyFile, Arpingstone, AtlBo, AuburnPilot, Audiesheridan, Avillia, Awhansen, AxelBoldt, Ayla, Baldhur, Banderas, Basement12, Batintherain, Bearings, Benjaminb, Betacommand, Betterusername, Big Bird, Big iron, Bigwyrm, Boatmik, Bob frasier, Bobo192, Borgx, BradBeattie, Brclarke, Brim, BruceHallman, Buildboats, Bull on Steroids, Cadre, CambridgeBayWeather, Camw, Canoerrowersailor, Canthusus, Capecodeph, Capneb, Capricorn42, Captainwiki, Captmack, Cdc, Cerise, CharlotteWebb, Chowbok, Chris the speller, Chris.n.richardson, Clawson, Closenplay, Cmdrjameson, Cocomonkey, Cometstyles, Contumacy First, Conversion script, Copywriter49, Crimson1984, Cshoffmann, Cst17, Cyclonenim, Cyrius, DJ Clayworth, DailySail, DanielRigal, Danielpunkass, Dante Alighieri, Dastal, Davandron, DaveSymonds, DaveThur, David depaoli, DavidH, Davidhorman, Demi, DerHexer, Dingar, Discospinster, Djfoley123, Dmr2, Doldrums, Dongoud, Donreed, Doug, Duccio, Dumdingo, Dvaladares, EarthPerson, East718, Eeekster, Egil, Elhs1, Elhs3, Ellywa, EncMstr, EngSeadog, Epbr123, EricV89, Ernmuhl, Escape Orbit, Euchiasmus, Everyking, Ewlyahoocom, Exploding Boy, Fabartus, Femto, Fleminra, Fluzwup, Frank fletcher, Fredrik, Freezingmariner, Fullobeans, GCW50, GaryJGolden, Gautier lebon, Geniac, Gettingtoit, Giftlite, GilbertoSilvaFan, Gilliam, Gjmulder, GraemeL, Greaddy247, Greswik, Grifter923, Grouse, Guliolopez, Gveret Tered, Gwicke, HGB, Hairy Dude, Halmonster, HamishMacBeth, Hbent, Hcatlin, Hcberkowitz, HeadSnap, Hellibelli, Henry Flower, Highjinx, Hilosoph, Hohum, Hottentot, Hugh Manatee, Hugh2414, Iamknowledgeable, Ibn Battuta, Icenhauer, Indon, Infrogmation, Irynamuha, Ixfd64, J 1982, J.Wolfe@unsw.edu.au, J.delanoy, JFBurton, JJM, JLogan, JMNHH, JNW, JRigMast, Jagged 85, Jagra, Jahiegel, Jameslwoodward, Jane Fallen, Jasgrider, Jbrooks, Jclemens, JeLuF, Jef-Infojef, Jganz, Jjj0923, Joechao, Joethon, Johantheghost, John254, JohnI, Johnor, Jono12345, Jordanbigel, Joshhm, Jouke Bersma, Joyous!, Juliancolton, Julianp, Justfred, Justsail, Kane5187, Karen Johnson, Kelvinc, Keno, Kevin Murray, Kils, Kingturtle, Knowsetfree, Kosebamse, Kostisl, Krallja, Kubigula, Kuzaar, LOL, Lakedog70, Lakefall, LeanneMillington, LeaveSleaves, Leithp, Leon411, Leotardo, Lisa beside sarah, Lowellian, Lussmu, MER-C, MUTiger86, MValdini, Maczenwes, Mamalujo, Marceo, Martarius, Math Champion, Matt Gies, Mbbradford, Mboverload, Meggar, Meisterkoch, Mentifisto, MerlinMags, Metricben, Mgpalmer, Michal Nebyla, Mierlo, Mike Rosoft, Mikeymeeg, Minesweeper, Minghong, Mjmills, Mkooiman, Monobi, Mrdarklight, Mrees1997, Mu5ti, Musical Linguist, Mwanner, NERIUM, Naufana, NeilGoneWiki, Netrafic, NewEnglandYankee, NickCatal, NickXi, Nigelj, Nopira, Nosc, Nposs, Nroose, Ntufar, Nycapitalist, P4k, Pablomismo, Paroxysm, Pbutler, Peak Freak, Penguinboi44, PeteVerdon, Phiwum, Pinkadelica, Plcsys, Plugwash, PoliticalJunkie, Pollinator, Poromiami, Prillen, Ptresnan, Puchiko, Puchscooter, Pundit, Quarion.nialo, Queenmomcat, Quercus basaseachicensis, Quintana, RHaworth, RK, RPellessier, RadioTheodric, RainbowOfLight, Rambo1501, Raysonho, Rdsmith4, RedWolf, Reliableforever, Rettetast, Rex07, RexNL, Rich Farmbrough, Richard D. LeCour, Richard W.M. Jones, Richi, Ricky81682, Rizla, Rmrfstar, Rogerd, RolandYoung, Ronank, Ronsonmanchild, Roux-HG, RoySmith, Rubingr, RudyB, Ryulong, S, SCEhardt, SKLAU, SWAdair, Sailinginnovation, Sailingmast, Sailingregister, Sailor1889, Sailor1909, Sailor66, Sam Hocevar, Sam Korn, Sandahl, Santalinko, Saperaud, Scriberius, Sebdo, Senator Palpatine, Sephiroth BCR, Shai-kun, Shawm, Sheflin, ShelfSkewed, Sillybilly78, Singlefin, SkipperWiki, SkyWalker, Slrman, Smobri, Solet, Sparky132, Springlake04, Srice13, Staceyneil, Stan Shebs, Stevertigo, Steyt, Sunray, Suwatest, Swerdnaneb, T-r-davies, Tarquin, TastyPoutine, Taxman, Tayana, Taymaishu, Terence, Texture, TheObtuseAngleOfDoom, TheSailMaster, Thegreatdr, Thingg, Thorshorn, TigerShark, Tom harrison, TonyClarke, Topory, Treekids, Trevor1357, Triwbe, Trulystand700, Turtleflipper, Until It Sleeps, Vanjagenije, Vanka5, Velela, Versageek, Vinsci, Vivenot, Vmikulich, Warpflyght, Wasted Time R, Watersports, Western sun, Wikiscient, Will Beback, Will w2, Wolfadeus, Wolfrock, Xurei, Yvwv, Zundark, 734 anonymous edits Points of sail Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307564472 Contributors: AIEA, Alexgd, Alpha Ralpha Boulevard, Andrew c, Andrewa, Bigwyrm, Boatman, Bryanmcdonald, Cacetudo, CatherineMunro, Constructive editor, Ddermott, Demi, Donfbreed, Duesentrieb, Eric Shalov, Ewlyahoocom, Fluzwup, Gmknextek, Halmonster, Heron, ImperatorExercitus, Julianp, Kaganer, Louisa Anderson, MMerrifield, MUTiger86, Mrees1997, Nigelj, PGPirate, Paddles, Pak21, Paolo.dL, PhilKnight, Scriberius, Soderick, Sunray, Susan Davis, Swpb, ThePedanticPrick, TonyClarke, Will Beback, Ysangkok, 49 anonymous edits Sail Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=308411481 Contributors: 172, Accurizer, Aesopos, Aioth, Alansohn, Alexgd, Alexx.net, Anders Törlind, AndonicO, Andrewa, Andycjp, AnyFile, Axlq, BenFrantzDale, Bernfarr, Boatman, Brenont, Cadwaladr, Capecodeph, Chaparral2J, Chris the speller, Cmdrjameson, Couperman, Dachshund, DanPope, DanaRoberts, Davandron, DirkvdM, Dtgriscom, Ely ely82, Enviroboy, Ernmuhl, Esprit, Evertype, Fluzwup, Gaius Cornelius, Gbwhitmore, Gcaptain, Gene Nygaard, Geo Swan, Geronimo20, Glenn, Glloq, GreyCat, Gundersen53, Halmonster, HappyCamper, HeadSnap, Hephaestos, Heron, Hu, Icep, Inferno, Lord of Penguins, Isnow, J.delanoy, Jack of Many, Japanese Searobin, Jclemens, Jiri Svoboda, Jnc, Joefaust, Joyous!, Julianp, Julleras, KVDP, Kevin Murray, Kils, Kneiphof, Krash, Kukini, Kurt Eichenberger, Lynhines, MBisanz, MCBastos, MER-C, Malcolm Farmer, Marc Mongenet, Mark.murphy, Mastman49631, Mattisse, Mbvanleeuwen, Meggar, Montrealais, Mr swordfish, Mrees1997, Mstrebe, Mwanner, Nigelj, Osteoderm, PRB, Pablomismo, Patrick, PhilKnight, Pietrow, Plcsys, RG2, Rama, Ranveig, Ray Van De Walker, Recognizance, Rgough, Richard Harvey, Rmrfstar, Ronark, Ronsonmanchild, RoyalBlueStuey, Sailor66, Salgueiro, Sam Hocevar, Sam8, Sdr, Shoeofdeath, Sinopitt, Skapur, Smack, Snowdog, Sonett72, Staceyneil, Stevenj, Stevertigo, Suisui, Tarquin, TonyClarke, Tropenman, True Wind, Vadmium, Versageek, Versus22, WackyBoots, Wjbean, Yuval madar, Yvwv, Zevnik, 193 anonymous edits Sail- plan Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=282233954 Contributors: AGGoH, AHMartin, Alperkaan, Andrewa, Arpingstone, Bagheera, Bellhalla, Bigwyrm, Boatman, Brianhe, Brim, Bryan Derksen, Carloseduardo, Casito, Chinasaur, Chowbok, Cynthia Bennett, DBetty, DanMS, Dmbrunton, Dmr2, Do Make, DocWatson42, Dwbird2, Dysprosia, EgbertMcDunk, Egil, Fabiform, Fluzwup, Gonzalo Diethelm, JForget, Jipre, Jnc, JohnOwens, KVDP, Kingpin13, Kosebamse, Leonard G., Loren Rosen, Lupo, Mark Richards, Mark.murphy, Minnesota1, Motorrad996, Mrees1997, Nigeltde, Olsonist, Ortonmc, Paul A, Pibwl, PierreAbbat, Plumpurple, Pmoir, Poitypoity, RJP, Ralph Morris, Ray Van De Walker, Rgough, Robogun, RoyalBlueStuey, Sailman, Scriberius, Smack, Stefanhanoi, Timtrent, Tom Hunter, TonyClarke, Trekphiler, Urhixidur, Walzmyn, Wik, Xanzzibar, Yuriybrisk, 59 anonymous edits Bermuda rig Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=292019565 Contributors: 123456798, Andres, Andrewa, Aodhdubh, Boatman, CatherineMunro, Davandron, Elonka, Finavon, Fxer, Gaius Cornelius, Julesd, Kelovy, Kevin Murray, Madmarigold, Malo, Mangoe, Michael Devore, Olsonist, Pjvpjv, RadioTheodric, Riana, Tony Sidaway, Until It Sleeps, 16 anonymous edits Mainsail Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=300148286 Contributors: AHMartin, Aldie, Andrewa, Betacommand, Boatman, Brim, Chris the speller, Dhaluza, Geniac, Julianp, Nk, Plorimer, 6 anonymous edits Headsail Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=305488159 Contributors: Brad101, Fullobeans, Jnc, LPfi, Nigelj, Pgan002, Scriberius, Zvar, 4 anonymous edits Genoa (sail) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=305499507 Contributors: Andrewa, Bjhaupt, Boatman, Brim, CatherineMunro, Celenoglu, Cumulus, Egil, Fluzwup, G-W, Interiot, JLaTondre, Justzisguy, Kirk Hilliard, Olsonist, Retaggio, Rjwilmsi, TheParanoidOne, Uroboros, Wayne Miller, 20 anonymous edits Jib Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=308309979 Contributors: Academic Challenger, Alai, Andrewa, Arjun01, Bauldfroog, Bewildebeast, Bigperec, Boatman, BoomerAB, Brim, CatherineMunro, Chrisvls, Coffeepusher, Cumulus, Davandron, Discospinster, Djinn112, DocWatson42, Domthedude001, EdJogg, Egil, Epbr123, Evil Monkey, Fullobeans, Glenn, Grubel, Guyom, Infinoid, Ingo Felger, InvaderCito, Ioeth, JIBREAL, John kirk, Kickin kenny94, Kirrages, LLcopp, LeaveSleaves, Loupeter, MUTiger86, MangoChicken, MementoVivere, Mierlo, Mu5ti, Narthring, Natl1, Neelix, Nooby Nooby Noo, Nutz000, Pako, PeteVerdon, Phanton, Pibwl, Pinkadelica, Ponyo, QueenCake, RHaworth, RPThor, Raysonho, Redvers, Shawn81, Smalljim, Tarcieri, Tide rolls, Weetoddid, Zvar, 101 ,ينامanonymous edits Spinnaker Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=305996483 Contributors: Adam.J.W.C., Ainlina, Alexgd, Andrewa, Appraiser, Astryker, Atlant, Attilios, Axl, Bigvern, Billytrousers, Boatman, Boingolover, CatherineMunro, Closedmouth, Cmdrjameson, Corsarius, Cuchullain, Cyfal, Daggerstab, DanaRoberts, Davandron, Demi, Dstookey, Etnoy, Fluzwup, Foobaz, G-W, Gracenotes, Harmonica, Herkjason, Historygypsy, Ibn Battuta, Interiot, Julianp, Karuna8, Kevin Murray, Korg, LindsayH, Luk, Malcolm Morley, Michelham, Mierlo, Mwanner, Onionmon, PhilKnight, Radagast83, Rich257, Rjwilmsi, SKLAU, Safemariner, Sanspach, Science4sail, Stevertigo, Swillden, Tayana, Unitfloat, Unyoyega, Versageek, Woohookitty, Zahid Abdassabur, 54 anonymous edits
Article Sources and Contributors
Glossary of nautical terms Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=308547224 Contributors: 41Coxswain, Aclayartist, Ahoerstemeier, Ahruman, Ale jrb, Alexthe5th, Alls0rts, Altenmann, AnOddName, Ancient kayaker, Angr, Athaenara, Auntof6, Bellhalla, Benea, BlckKnght, Blinder Seher, BoH, Boatbuff, Boatman, Bobblewik, Boing splash, Brenont, Brianboulton, Britmax, BruceRD, CSWarren, Cadwaladr, Canthusus, Capneb, CaptainHaddock, Cason, Ceyockey, ChrisCork, ChrysalSnowlax, Circeus, Cjkporter, Clarityfiend, ClemMcGann, Dabbler, Dangherous, Davidscarter, Denelson83, Digger Smith, Dinkytown, Discospinster, Dmsc893, DopefishJustin, Dsmouse, Emersoni, EncMstr, Eric, Fabartus, Fastifex, Fentonrobb, Fishdecoy, Fluzwup, Fosnez, Funandtrvl, Gaius Cornelius, Geronimo20, Gigacannon, Gildos, Glenn, HJKeats, Hairy Dude, Haus, Hu12, Iceberg3k, Ike9898, Interiot, J Clear, JBazuzi, JLaTondre, Jackelfive, James Galloway, Jnc, John L. Andrews, JohnI, Jonathan de Boyne Pollard, Jonathunder, Jtneill, Just plain Bill, Kacoryell, Kaganer, Kaszeta, Katr67, Keith D, Kelby, Kinkyfish, Kirk, Kusma, Kwamikagami, Kwebb, Lgbarker, Life of Riley, Lightdarkness, Lightmouse, Lights, Llavigne, Mabzilla, Macmanui, Maelnuneb, Mangostar, Maralia, Mark Richards, Mark.murphy, Markbassett, Marksatterfield, Marquessd, Martinbone, Mattisse, Mausy5043, Mccready, Mehranwahid, Mierlo, Mrees1997, Mu5ti, Najro, Neelix, Nick1nildram, Nihiltres, Nuno Tavares, Nyctopterus, Obersachse, Oro Verde, Outriggr, Peregrinoerick, Peter Horn, Philip Trueman, Pmeisel, Prillen, Pwqn, QuantumEleven, Rapscallion, Red Sunset, Rettetast, Revmdhalley, Rex the first, Rich257, Richard New Forest, Rl, Ronhall, Roregan, Safemariner, Sallicio, Sams013, Scriberius, SimonP, Skapur, Skyring, Snowmanradio, Springnuts, Stevage, Thewayforward, Timo Honkasalo, Tinned Elk, TristanTzara, Tumblweed, Txsurf, Una Smith, Utilitysupplies, VanBurenen, Vvmodel, Wayne Miller, Welkinridge, Wernher, Wikited, WillyWonka, Wilsbadkarma, Xanzzibar, Xenotrope, Yomangani, Z07, 212 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:freiheitu.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Freiheitu.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Ibn Battuta, Nordelch, Sander, Saperaud, Toutíorîx, 3 anonymous edits Image:Yachting -- June 1873.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Yachting_--_June_1873.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Hugh Manatee Image:Mast zelikvor.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mast_zelikvor.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Tropenmann Image:Points of sail.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Points_of_sail.svg License: unknown Contributors: Andrew c Image:Beating an upwind course.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Beating_an_upwind_course.svg License: unknown Contributors: User:DnetSvg, User:Julianp Image:Lettenmaier.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lettenmaier.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: Dubaj, Ibn Battuta, Julien Carnot, Mattes, Toutíorîx Image:Sailing in front of Helsinki, Finland.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sailing_in_front_of_Helsinki,_Finland.jpg License: unknown Contributors: User:Majestic Image:Contender sailing dinghy.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Contender_sailing_dinghy.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Gwicke Image:Tacking near Britannia Bridge.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tacking_near_Britannia_Bridge.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Velela Image:Musto Skiff.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Musto_Skiff.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Gwicke Image:Mozambique - traditional sailboat.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mozambique_-_traditional_sailboat.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Apalsola, Berrucomons, Calderwood, Calliopejen, FlickrLickr, FlickreviewR, Guety, Mangostar, Pibwl, Überraschungsbilder, 1 anonymous edits Image:Rigging, sailing.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rigging,_sailing.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bühler, Ibn Battuta, Jodo, Toutíorîx Image:mooring-youngstown.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mooring-youngstown.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Mkooiman Image:US Sailing Team2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:US_Sailing_Team2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bühler, G.dallorto, Ricky81682 Image:Shrike-port-beam.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Shrike-port-beam.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Susan Davis Image:Shrike-reaching.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Shrike-reaching.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Susan Davis Image:Shrike-running.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Shrike-running.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Susan Davis Image:DSC 7439-MR-VoileLatine.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DSC_7439-MR-VoileLatine.jpg License: Attribution Contributors: Editor at Large, Korrigan, Para Image:MainSailTypes.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MainSailTypes.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: User:KVDP Image:Parts of a sail.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Parts_of_a_sail.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Anakin101, DanPope, 1 anonymous edits Image:Sloop Example.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sloop_Example.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Original uploader was Kevin Murray at en.wikipedia Image:Tackling.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tackling.png License: unknown Contributors: Bilou, Lukas skywalker, Wst Image:Sail plan sloop.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sail_plan_sloop.svg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Casito at en.wikipedia Image:Sail plan cutter.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sail_plan_cutter.svg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Casito at en.wikipedia Image:Sail plan yawl.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sail_plan_yawl.svg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Casito at en.wikipedia Image:Sail plan ketch.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sail_plan_ketch.svg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Casito at en.wikipedia Image:Sail plan catboat.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sail_plan_catboat.svg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Casito at en.wikipedia Image:Sail plan scooner.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sail_plan_scooner.svg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Casito at en.wikipedia Image:Sail plan brig.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sail_plan_brig.svg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Casito at en.wikipedia Image:Sail plan brigantine.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sail_plan_brigantine.svg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Casito at en.wikipedia Image:Sail plan barquentine.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sail_plan_barquentine.svg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Casito at en.wikipedia Image:Sail plan barque.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sail_plan_barque.svg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Casito at en.wikipedia Image:Sail plan ship.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sail_plan_ship.svg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Casito at en.wikipedia Image:Sail plan felucca.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sail_plan_felucca.svg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Casito at en.wikipedia Image:Sail plan xebec.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sail_plan_xebec.svg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Hardscarf, Ibn Battuta, Webaware Image:Sail plan junk.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sail_plan_junk.svg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Casito at en.wikipedia Image:Sail Measurements.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sail_Measurements.png License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Pmoir
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Royal Navy - Bermuda Sloop.jpeg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Royal_Navy_-_Bermuda_Sloop.jpeg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Aodhdubh at en.wikipedia Image:Bermuda rig - 17th Century woodcut.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bermuda_rig_-_17th_Century_woodcut.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Aodhdubh at en.wikipedia Image:St Geo Harbour 1864.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:St_Geo_Harbour_1864.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Edward James Image:Yacht mainsail.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Yacht_mainsail.svg License: unknown Contributors: User:Masur Image:Albanus schooner.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Albanus_schooner.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Bruno Girin Image:Jib vs genoa.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jib_vs_genoa.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: user:Cumulus Image:Alexander von Humboldt 1.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Alexander_von_Humboldt_1.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Żeglarz Image:Bear of Britain spinnaker.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bear_of_Britain_spinnaker.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ibn Battuta, Malcolm Morley Image:420 Class Dinghies with spinnakers.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:420_Class_Dinghies_with_spinnakers.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Btr, Ibn Battuta, Kresspahl, Mattes, RThiele, Soebe, Toutíorîx, Umherirrender Image:Asymmetricspinnaker.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Asymmetricspinnaker.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: E dog95, Koavf, Malcolm Morley
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/