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The RCA Sound Powered Telephone consists of a
transmitter ami one or more receiver units. The
system generates its own transmitting power and
should never he used in conjunction with battery-
operated telephone systems. The motors used in the
transmitters and receivers are essentially the same
but differ in a few poims. such as length of contacts,
shape oi armature, and number of turns and size of
wire in the operating' coil. In the Sound Powered
Telephone system, all motor units, hoth transmitting
and receiving, afe connected in parallel. All open
circllit lille switch is inserted in serles with each
transmitter, thus eliminating unnecessary noises on
the line fr0111 transmitters not in tlse. The switch
Illlht be depressed while a transmitter is in use.
Sound Powered Telephones are moisture proofed
and will witlhtand immersion without damage to the
mechanism. These telephones are designed to oper-
ate efficiently under most conditions encountered in
marine practice, even under pressures varying-
widely frOlll normal atmospheric pressure.
Figures (A) (ll)"and (C) illustrate. in a sim-
plified manner. the functioning of a Sound Powered
Telephone lIlotor unit. Notice that the unit
of a coil located within the field of a permanent
net. An armature passing through the coil. shown
in (A). centered within the air gap between the
t\\'o poles. The armature is connected by means of
a drive rod to a diaphragm. Notice that the mag-
netic lines of force, represented by the arrows, pass
from the "N" to the "5" pole of the magnet. \Vith
the armature in this position, 110 magnetic lines of
force are passing vertically through the coi\.
\Vhen the motor unit is used as a transmitter. the
sound waves compress the air before the diaphragm.
forcing the diaphragm in. thus moving the armature
to the right. as illustrated in (B). Tn this position
the armature nearly bridges the air gap and forms a
llluch better path for the magnetic lines of force than
the air did. i\fagnetic lines of force are, therefore,
condncted along the armature and up through the
coil in a vertical direction, inducing an electric cur-
rent within the coiL
Since sound waves are vibrations, causing com-
pression and rareficatioll of the atmosphere in which
they travel, the diaphragm will vibrate with the
and remain in anyone position for only a
moment. After reaching the position shown in (B)
the diaphragm moves outward to the position shown
in (C), forming a path for the magnetic lines of
force through the coil in the opposite direction, and
inducing an electric current within the coil flowing
in the opposite direction. Thus it can be seen that
when the diaphragm is actuated by sound waves, the
motor unit generates corresponding electrical im-
pulses which are fed to a second motor unit
ployed as a receiver.
\Vhen a motor unit is used as a receiver. the actioll
taking place is the reverse of that when used as a
transmitter. -\Vhen used as a receiver, electrical
impulses entering Ihe coil magnetize the armature.
:'.fagnetic poles of the same polarity repel each other
and those of opposite polarity attract each other.
The current flowing through the coil in (B) mag-
netizes the armature in such a direction that the top
of the armature is "N": therefore. it would be
pelled by the "N" pole and attracted by the "5" pole
of the permanent magnet, thus drawing the dia-
phragm inward. As the direction of current re-
verses. the polarity of the armature reverses. and its
position in the air gap will be reversed, forcing the
diaphragm outward. thus compressing the atmos-
phere before it. It can be seen that the diaphragm
of the receiver will vibrate in unison with thai of the
transmitter and excite corresponding sound waves
in the atmosphere before it.
(e) (Al ( Bj