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follow the terms and definitions laid down by the proposition, although that is not a strict rule in our

more informal format. It is valuable for you to engage with, and refute if you can, arguments put forward by the other side, but it is best t o avoid plodding introductions t o this like 'I am now going to make.some pofnts of rebuttal ' and then say '...and now for my own speech.' This is clumsy. Both counter-arguments and your speech should be a seamless whole. Rebuttals might start with phrases like: 'When the proposition/ opposition asserted...' 'I simply cannot agree with the proposal...because..' 'This side of the house would wish t o dissent vigorously from the suggestion that...not least because...' 'It is impossible t o credit...for these reasons: firstly..., secondly..., thirdly...' - continue with a broad consideration of your arguments and likely objections to them. To be convincing and give a sense of intelligently engaged authority you should be able to refer t o others' thoughts on the same subject(s) by way of introduction; a dictionary of quotations is useful here or a thematic speechwriters' handbook. [See Library] Have relevant supporting analysis from sources other than your own opinions, such as reliable journals, quotations from authorities on your subject, suitable statistics drawn from genuine sources. Even canvassing opinions and reasons among your more thoughtful friends and family members of different generations can provide useful insights into ranges of views, feelings and reasoning. Be aware that newspapers are unlikely to be impartial, but that should not stop you using that source with that awareness. Amuse the audience occasionally with wit and humour. Sarcasm may not always w o r k t o your advantage and abuse of the opposition never does. However silly an argument or counter-argument its folly has to be proven, not asserted. Using rhetorical or verbal flourishes engages attention and makes a powerful point. Strong vocabulary, a good sense of rhythms and repetition all help. Sustain an argument for about four to six minutes. Show that the three speeches have been well co-ordinated and rehearsed, avoid repetition and build powerful arguments. -You should each summarise your reasons for your position at the end with clarity and conviction. You will make the greatest impact by crafting this conclusion in fresh words and looking straight at your audience. Preparing for a closing speech During the floor debate and questions, while answering them with as much civility and detail as possible, the closing speaker should be making notes of main points given for the other side that need rebuttal. You should also be prepared to deal with new points