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H. J. Res. 195

APRIL 1 AND 2, 1926


Mr. JOHtN A. STEWART, New York City Mr. VASILI D. DUMBADZE, New York City Maj. HENRY G. OPDYCKE, New York City


9;1S3 19' r



STEPIIEN 0. PORTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman HENRY W. TEMPLE, Penusylvannia. JAMES T. BEG. Ohio. J. CHARLES LINTIICUM, Mfaryhnd. CHARLES M. STED.MAN, North Carolin.i




I. WALTON MOORE, Virgin. MARTIN I. I)AVEY, Ohio. D.AVID J. O'CONNELL, Nev York. S. 1). Mcl'EYNOLDS, Tennessae. CIIAILES 0. EDWARDS, uc:g:.


WILLIAM N. VAILE, Colcra~lo.

E)GAR C. ELLIS, 'Mi -ouri.

MORTON 1. IIUILL, Illinois. JOSEI1l W. MARTIN, J.., Mas.idihsttt;. CHA ILES A. EATON, Nr'.v itJvrsky. HENRY A. COOPER, Wisccnzin. EMU NI!

F., Clerk



Thursday, April 1, 1926. The committee this day met, Hon. Stephen G. Porter (chairman) presiding. The CHARMAN. The committee will be in order. This meeting has been calle(l for the consi(leration of the joint resolution (H.6. Res. 1'J5) introduced by the gentleman from Virginia, Mr. Moore. Mr. MoORE of Virginia. rrhe resolution is very simple. It only assumes the possibility that the President may wish to appoint a representative to the Government of the Republic of Georgia. Mr. Stewart, of New York City, is here to make the first statement. (T1'he resolution referred to is as follows:)
JOINT IESOI.UTION 'ro fling for the appointraint of . dil(natic rtpt'-entattive to tle Natloal Ittjubie of GcoIgJht Whereas the Kilngdom of Geor;4ia for mnzy centuries ntintainl itN indeIxndent existence, its racial identity, zaid the integrity of it-; l ng e. in:,itu tiols, al | s aungtillt ti, "lllt :-t r.tlstill t tict '..iOit 2111dfinqlete't ilVitSioti to which It was st.lijected, ad ils tvrritry hs bIet .lice tle fourth c(,itury. and 1(1. oCculded y Ih ople of tMe Chtri.-tial faiiih: 1it4 Whereas the khingldo wa succeeded I- the Nutio,;.I le.liie of Geargi,
which was regularly nll frvzly *staldisied. wil a writteli cenllt A ti,, on

May '21, 1118; azln Whereas the existence of the Il4,iuulic b

ICt'1 g.,iertiliy rtcognlizd by een

the natiuns of the \wrld. ,xcept the Untieu St~attis; ami1 Wh'lerels not iiztalldiitlg stlit txt'i.sS recugiition 1y the ilsIan Governmeit ill E120 that Goverllliat hams si:'e itt' tiI', nil tw uxerc-t.s cu ntrol of the territory of the It( mplid', which hias been ,oillild to trallft its gut erttztentuiltl activities 11ll1 Tillis, rlld thelln froi uatun, to lFraitee, wiiere

it., offie is now cind : lldt| Whw'o it i. the r. of V 44nzs., titlt lh(. Gottami(.t of i:e 1litited hingr..: Sinitts siuild expre-. its dli-:t!,roval 4f th( unw1varrant (1 atetion of tit htissini Gioverntilt k111 its syttqlathy with the t tjOiF cif 't tIjuibhic 'Hter'tore lk it Ik' olrcd by th" SCt,.f,' Ot',! the iounti'e (,[ ) prt'sr''atotlwc-s of tile Unitcd Slics of t r %l I- 'jt. ('oevi'f . i' lt pri vikPn siihll l b mald.b by 11 law for defrayig t he -x ,n-o it.ieb. to tilt :yliihwent of a1 dilIttat it representative, to the Nai ,e al Republic of G(eurg".ia wltinevr the l'rc.idnt shall dc i it exjiediettt to inake sielt alqnmtttilcnt.

M'. STrFwAN'. I

,,isitez. ?
of tiLe Aiini,,mle ('o. and president

:1111a director

of the qtewart-larmoit ('o. -ir. 1Fimr. What is the liine,- of the two


Af'. G. Collier.

Tih:w.president of the lis:t cotlitniiy is MI'. Barron Te


Mr. Fisir. Is that an advertising business? Mr. STEAR T. No; it makes dry ammonia and ammonia products in a factory at Biuffalo and other places. I am also president of a company, which operates hand and agriculfarm and development tural enterprises, etc. I am also president of the Stewart-Lurmon Co.. which is a land company. Mr. Fisn. Operating where? Mr. S'rz.W.RT. In .ew York and the South. I. with lay brother James, am the eastern agent of the Ajax Iron Co.. of which my brother Sidney is the secretary, treasurer, and nanagi ng director. what Mr.Coormn. 'hat company'makes 'r. STEWART. It makes gas en,_ines and oil-machinery products. It has been firmiv'established which are shipped all over the word. in the business as a reputable company for 50 years.. "My brother James and I were agents of the Pennsylvania Turn-Buckle Co., of which my brother was the head and is'sill actively interested as a director, which has a capital of a half million dollsris. Mr. Coorrni. I asked you what your business is. not the director's. Mr. SITWART. I am alco chairinan of the board of governors of Washington Sulgrave Institution. Mr. Frsir. You are not a lawyer? Mr. STEWA.T. I am not a practicim, lawyer. although I prepar(od eight years for a course in international law in Ileidelburg University befor, enteriilv the office of Evarts. Southunayd & Choate as a student clerk. My profession has been in journalism, inwhich I have been partner in two daily papers and one magazine: arid owner of one magazine. I am chairman of the executive committee of Washintrton-Lafavette Institution, anti chairman of the board of the Institute of Pictorial Education. I am chairman of the board of tile American Society; president of the International League of Highway llrovements: ilelulber of the executive committee of the International Institute of Efficiency; on the executive colmittee and chairman or .active mnieiior (if 52 different or'2,;nizations. I hope that qualifies me. Mr. ('ooiri;. It was 1lnt personal qualification: it was the name of
th, lusincss. Yoi said somiothini,, albou an iron and all oil company.

Mr. STrEwA.rr. The Ajax Iron Works. Mr. Coorlrl. What is that ? Mr. STrEW.RT. It makes drilling maplines. Cnlils, and things of that kind. Mi'. Fisni. I wanted to find out whether von were a lawyer aInd whether vol represented this organization ? MV. S'I:wMIT. Ye;: I do representt an organization, as chairman of a speial colillittee of the Caucasian Society, whi'h is intereted in Georgia. Mr. IsIt. A',. volt a Georgian ?
Mr. Si'. .MIr. ('oolrrE. I I1i1 not: G(eor'ia is in -oitlieastern E'uro)pe. Where is the Caiieisian Society lo-ated and what located in tlhe "ity of New York. It was orIt i., Ienry Lne Wilson. anibas-

is it
,1i,. STEWART.

about a year and a half ao by sador to Mexico at one time.



Mr. BEGO. What do you mean by that? Mr. STEWART. It is g;vrned precisely as America is. It has a president and cabinet. It I as a constituent'assembly elected by the people and a cabinet aplpointed by the president, the president being elected by the people. The form of governent is almost precisely like that of the united States. Mr. BIrn',. It is an independent republic? Mr. Sa' rwAmn'. Estabisl1ed as an independent republic.
Mr. Fist,. Is it a fact that this Republic of Georgia is a part of the Soviet union? M'. STLW.Ir. It is not. The CHMAn.x. It woiidte a much more orderly procedure if the witness were allowed to present his side of the case and then

Mr. COOrR. Is lie the one who had trouble during the Carranza administration? Mr. STEWART. Yes. I think Mr. Wilson was the proponent of th9 United States side of that question. He has been in the diplomatic service for many years. Mr. Barron G. Collier is vice presi dent and also the consul general under appointment by the Georgian Government, which functions in Paris, and has for the last year under asylum of the very generous French Government. lhe membership of the society is representative, and I think niany of the names which are enrolled in that society are well known-to the gentlemen about this table. Mr. HuLL. How large a group? Mr. S1EWART. It is a group now of several hundred. Mr. O'CONNELL. Mr. Collier is in it? Mr. STEWAMT. He is vice president. Mr. Buco. What is the form of government in Georgia? Mr. STEwAirr..It is a democratic republic.

even a nanue, and vet the picop)le of (Georl'gia stand practically alone in an acconiujlishnlient Which finds oliV onie jairalel killing the nations of the world. The history of .eorgia iitedates the invasion of the Tralls-aucas hrilAlxander. 1,(0 years lkfoire ('irist ; iil stCe~sivel' after hxandi r' thi's little nti ll)i Wiis iniltiated by the Rotiniiin, liv the Arals. bv tile Mongols-. hr lie T'artaris. liv the I', the '1iirts.. and. iinallv. i%the R&.siais. I lith Course16O b% o1f 2.00 years this Ieolple has fought (ov-er 125 wars. It is a wealthy iliI. eIt-, hills: and ralle'vs colitai ll practicallv every nuiileral that is foudil in ilit' iled Stites. 'iue Trais-Caujasial Is-tilus Aallds hir't ill it (liat!\\lity of oil Iliat lih.- ai'o'iliid Baltu and inl north
l.iaawaiting" exploilt i It h. Iiae'irnl lla is dello,lti o1' col aid lilwstoie. ift. ('o ti.l. ]Exlloitantio oi s14%--loieiit Mr. Fxloilat iollil 1l xiwxru. tr , seii't, f flit' w orl. It l ha. iluid'r lithe atllthuritv of iP'nofe.-.or , ,F:en(iii.\\he u a aimiber lii oftlile ( bitairio Vater ' twer ("'ru iiiiio.h. a1horMlqnver ili itsmlilta :ii a qn .oxi tiiu 120.0ii4a10'. tutll i hit'it il,tili.t' ill it,. li hill(lC

answer questions When lie has coiiil)leted hi. statement. Proceed ail state Vour case in your own war. 'r. STEWART. Mi'. ('hltirnian and gentleiien of the conitiitee. outside of eastern EurolO, and )articilarly among thie nations of this hemisphere. Georgia is but little knllown. To 111(.st of us it is not



tains are manganese, gold, silver, steel, copper, iron, etc., the nations of the world have regarded it as a fair prey for exploitation under force of arms. Mr. O'Co..EL,L. It is used there in the worst sense. Mr. STEWART. Yes. But despite the fact that, year after year, this people has been decimated by the onslaughts of predatory forces, and despite the fact that in the long war between Persia and the Turks, on the one side, and Georgia on the other, during which two out of every three fighting men and women were killed, the Georgians have maintained their racial identity and their institutions; they have preserved their language and their hold upon the soil which God gave them. There is no other nation on earth that has so glorious a history as the Georgians. Mr. HtuL.L,. How numerous is the population? Mr. STEWAUT. 'heir population to-day is in the neighborhood of 3,000,000, which is almost entirely a native population. Just think of it! A reputable statistician, a man who understands insurance computation, has computed that in the course of 2,000 years the Georgians have lost in battle, fighting to maintain their land, something like 30,000,000 or 40,000,000 of their people; yet there they are to-day, where the Creator planted them. Some 1,700 years ago they adoe)ted Christianity, and for 1,700 years they have "fought to maintain that Christianity. In the fourtli century, under the direction of Constantine the Great, the Bible was translated into the vernacular, having its origin in the Zendish, which is a member of the Sanserit family of languages. To-day, standing over against Russia, with its I6 per cent of illiteracy, stands little Georgia, with 96 per cent of litericy. It has a long-established literature; it has an ancient art. It has within its population soome of the greatest scholars of the worli. There is no land that. facing such conditions as Georgiza has faced, has maintained! itself so well against vastly superior forces. It is significant, Mr. Chairman, that even the ('zars of Russia have had to treat with these people as friends and equals. Under Cathterine the Great a ,onveition of amity an friendship was entered into betveeit Ru.ssia anil the (iorgian kingdom, a treaty afterwards incontinently viohited bY that s.mue Rlluusia, in nutir-A (lte course when oiu't,1li(.6l b" l~lV-jzt IItEu)q . .\tt,,r15 a vive royalty was granted. It is signilicant thai. )will_, to the inherent honesty of these 1)eopl,1. their im-,'wervilJi integrity, thirf'i l)Ilb)itv, their collrage. and their great intelligence, tile 'z urs. suspicious of their own people. always 0urouuileI theit-'el'es h~ (;colglans. Let me illiu.trate somiethi., of the natural integrity" of the Georgianl people. I have in New York a friend wIlE) in the ,le (.oure of )l~isi-.s vis t(,d (;or,,ia .i10 remit . I t chre for. inm lnY 1ontlis. Ile told e that o(e Iiin.. he1 hi'hll-.ell :1 l:'.,e ba.-cet of ras.hherries from a pea.-atit (1-i latli ,t, on the patfoim of a railroad trs nationn: wtlit into Ile var. to t'tlity the swket. uah while there heard I sollie rather 14 talki., oihtsI. an1 ll,' heard illn ln'isi his nta me uncutioliel aitI we.nt olit and fotuld thol,, it giril arguing with it soldier who was on v.1.1r4I. lh .alleI the ;ohd~iet. who hail been in Ailltica. at14 si:d, " hat is the lliatter ' l)i'l I Il lrpay the h girl f'" The sol:]ivr rjlie l. "' Qlli,- Ihe 'onliit ry: she ."li ti at X11'o


overpaid her five times and she wants to give you back your change; and insists on it." This gentleman said, that even coming from America, which is supposed to be reasonably honest, he was deeply impressed with such treatment at the hands of a girl of her classand being an American he gave her not only. that which he had paid her originally but considerably more besides. Through the ages the Georgians have been noted for their honesty, also for their courtesy, and I have been told by people who have visited there that there is no more charmingly hospitable people on earth than the Georgians. It is a part of the Georgian social creed that when one has a guest he must defend the integrity of that guest and safegunard him even with his own life. Now, what made Georgia the target of surrounding nations, the Persians and the Turks, is because Georgia was a Christian nation; hence she has had to defend her Christianity through the deaths of hundreds of thousands of her people. She stands in this regard on a parity with the Armenians, for her Christianity dates back almost to the time when the Armenians accepted Christianity. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, it America has any reputation at all in the world, if it. have any reason for pluming itself upon its reputation, it is because always America has been sympathetic with little peoples struggling to maintain their racial integrity and their independence. 6eorgia stands precisely where America stood in 1776. Perhaps it was meant by God that little nations should have no standing in the world; perhaps it. meant was that little peoples ever should be exploited by greater peoples who have the force to carry out such ruthless exploitation as the Russians have been doing in Georgia for the last four years. Georgia gained her independence. She established a democratic republican form of government. She was included arbitrarily by the soviet government as one of the soviet States, but that was entirely without. her violation-she had no voice in the matter-there was no method by which that act could have been stopped. Obviously, a nation like Russia, has a right to wr-ite into her constitution anything she pleases, even though it arbitrarily includes an implied authority over neighboring States. But also'in the Russian constitution there is included the recognition of the independence of Georgia; and the declaration is therein made-and we have the text with usthat. Georgia has the right to withdraw from the soviet union, a union into which she never entered. It is also stated therein that she hins time absolute right of independence. And yet after this convenition, or, rather, after this constitution was written, after these statements were made, the Bolshevist government of Soviet Russia, true to form, hurled a red army into Georgia and took temporary possession of her; but shortly after, when the Georgians had ralfiedl their forces, the first red inva ders were driven out. It is the splendid history of this little country that the Russians under the Czars, a more powerful entity than that of the bolsheviki, were never able wholly ioconquer the Georgians, who defendefl themselves in their mountain fastnesses. The Russians have acknowledged that the only way they could have taken possession of Georgia was by waiting until tihe IPersians and the Turks had so weakened the fighting


forces of Georgia that the Georgians did not have the strength to aqist; and they accepted the situation as best they could. Georgia has no claim to make upon the sympathies of the American people except that claim of sympathy which America has always accorded to a. Christian people struggling for independence. She recognizes the fact that it is only owing to the kindly generosity of the French people that she is permitted through her Government to function in the city of Paris as Belgium functioned on French soil when the Germans were in possession of Belgium. It is by no means unprecedented in the history of nations that a rightful government representing a people who are the rightful owners of a soil has been obliged to find refuge in a neighboring State. Mr. BF o. My first question will answer whether I can ask another one. Are you giving a prepared statement or talking offhand? Mr. STEWART. I am talking extemporaneously. Mr. BFO. The thing that I would like to hear discussed is why the legislative should undertake to instruct the Executive. As I understand procedure in this country, it is wholly within the Executive to recognize it or withhold. I do not care anything about the history of Georgia until I am convinced that tile Executive is not doing his duty. The CIARAN,1A.. That is the crux of the entire matter, but I would rather have him make his statement tban to interject it in time middle of his statement. Mr. VAILE. I hope the gentleman will not be debarred from continuing the history of Georgia. Mr. By(ao. Thatis the point that is of value to me. The CHAI .MAN. Let Us defer that until lie has com)letecd his statement. Mr. O'CoxriiL. I think the witness is building up his case successfully. Mr. VAILE. This is one of the most interesting statements I have heard in a long time. M'. O'COVxELL. It is. Mr. Fisir. I agree that he should finish without interruption. I (to not agree at all with the statements lie has made to the committee, and I will show later on from authorities that, quite to the contrary, this State of (Georgia has been incorporated into the Russial Ei 1 pire since 1801 and has been under the Russian Empire ( 120 years and has been a part of the Socialist Union for four or five years and is to-day a part. I ait willing for him to continue. fMr. S'rmtwarr. I (o not agree that is the fact. Mr. LINTiIICUM. What is the exact location of Georgia and the number of square miles of its area? Mrt'. ST:WAwT. Georgia lies between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. It is hemmed in by a mountain range north and south. Mr. ('ouptra. The southeastern l)art of Europe. Mr. STi.Wiur. It is antl was the main highway for many centuries between Asia and Europe. 3Mr. LIxrimicu.NM. What is the area? Mr. S'FwIArr. The area is about 48,4100 square miles, but associated with Georgia are two other republics, Azerbaidjan and North


Caucasia-the combined area is about 150,000 square miles. Total population, 14,000,000. Mr. CooPER. That is not Georgia alone. That includes also Azer. baidjan and Armenia. Mr. STEWART. Yes. I say that on the isthmus are these three countries. Mr. COOPER. Are you asking that the United States recognize Armenia and Azerbaidjan? Mr. STEWART. Not under this resolution. ir. COOPER. Then there are not 14,000,000 people concerned het6.

Mr. EATON. How many governments have already recognized the government of Georgia? Mr. STEWART. Nearly every nation on earth except the United States of America. Mr. FAIRCHILD. The Russians? Mr. O'CoNNELLL. Have they ministers there as well? Mr. STEWART. They have. MJr. FISH. The government he is talking about is not in the country he is talking about; it is in Paris. Mr. STEWART. I explained that. Mr. Fisit. It did not convey the impression to the listener that those countries had ministers in Paris. Anyone would have thought from the statement that they had ministers in Georgia. Mr. CooPFR. Ile did not say that until Mr. Fish brought that out. Mr. STEWART. I have not had opportunity. The CHAIRMA. Proceed with your statement. Mrli. STwART. America naturally is not well informed as regards the history of places in eastern Europe, nor have we come very closely into contact with them. Answering the statement or remarks of the gentleman from New York, I will say this, that be their situation what it may be, whether tley be a party to the soviet federation or whether they not be, yet England and France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Japan, Argentine, Chile, Brazil, and Mexico, I believe, have recognized the independence of the Georgian republic. Mr. Fisii. When? '1hey recognized them when they were an independent republic before they were incorporated into the socialist union four or five Years ago. Mr. STEvAwr. 1919, 1920, 1921. Mr. Fish. After the war when they were an independent republic. Mr. SrEWAIIT. But they never have withdrawn that recognition as is discoverable in the French Diplomatic Yearbook, a copy of which we have with us. There is a section given over to Georgia, the Georgian government and diploinatic establishments. Mr. Fisit. What year? Mr. STE.WART. TIs last issue; this last year. Tlie C11AITI AN. Proceed. Mr. STEWART. Let us take one or two precedents in relation to Georgia. The CIFMRMHA-'. Pursue the Paris situation further by stating to the committee definitely and somewhat in detail exactly where the government of the Republic of Georgia is functioning.
-96153-- 26 2

There are 3,000,000 in Georgia.



Mr. STEWART. The Government of the Republic of Georgia is functioning in the city of Paris. When the second Bolshevik army invaded Georgia and killed 38,000 persons, a majority of those killed being women and children, and noncombatants, the Georgian Government was driven from Tifles to Batoum and from Batoum into France, which had offered an asylum to this Government. The Government functions there as-well as any government ever functioned in a similar condition. Mr. FAIRCHILD. Do I understand that up to the time they were driven out of Georgia Georgia? those countries which recognized them had accredited ministers in .Mr. STEWART. Yes. W hat I intended to say when interrupted was that Georgia's status in Paris is that of every country which had been recognized as independent and hence was akcountry to which in ordinary course ministers are sent. Mr. FAIRCIILD. When they were driven out of Georgia those foreign ministers accredited to Georgia went with them to Paris. Mr. STEWART. Let Doctor Dumbadze answer. This is Doctor Dumbadze who is a, Georgian and represents his Government and has since tile time of the revolution. Mr. Fisir. It is quite interesting that there were foreign representatives of governments accredited to the Georgian Go'ernment in Paris. Is that a, fact? Mr. STEWART. I made no such statement. I am perfectly willing to stand by what I said. Mr. Fisir. I understood that to be your meaning. What do you mean by having representatives of foreign governments at Paris? Mr. STE:WART. I made no such statement. The CHiAIM.AX. I would like tie date when they were drivon out of Georgia STATEMENT OF MR. VASILI D. DUMBADZE, GENERAL DIPlOMATIC AND ECONOMIC REPRESENTATIVE OF THE REPUBLIC OPr GEORGIA Doctor DuMImADZY. The Georgian Government was driven from Georgia, beginning March, 1921, when the bolshevik government to the north and east, and other States-Turkey-to the south, invaded Georgip in violation of Georgia's treaty rights, and our government was conipelled to flee from Georgia. The CHIR .x. tow do they finance this government since they were driven otit? Mr. STEWART. I am glad to answer the gentleman's question, because it gives me opportunity. Mr. O'CoXN-,i.T,. The witness should be permitted to make his very forceful and instructive statement. Mr. STI'WART. 'Mr. Chairmauun, I am waiting for an opportunity to make that statement, and if it does not move the sympathies of the niemnbers of this committee, then I must say the American heart is made of stone. 'I'liese people carried with themi into their exile all the great national tr(-astires of (;corgia, which have possibly a value of half a billion dollars. They are now deposited deep in tie va'tilts of tile French mint. The members of the government, and tho.o


who accompanied them, left behind them all personal property. They took what they hastily could seize and made their exit. For several years, and I give it to you as a fact, those men have supported themselves by the sweat of their brows in honest labor which has been given to them ].- the sympathetic French people. Despite the fact that at hand in their vaults they have treasures of a half a billion dollars, and more. their integrity, their patriotism, their love of their country, their reverence for those works of the past, all have inhibited them'from using one iota of those treasures for funds with which to supIort themselves; and they maintain their government and themselves by day labor, by any work that comes to hand, by translations; two of the most Iarne&I scholars in the world are elgaged in translating documents and making reports on archaeological subjects for wages. They are living without borrowing from their neighbors. Tile Georgians are a homogeneous people. They stunid almost alone among the nations of the world in the fact" that although driven to dire distress by the invasions of their country, they never yet have appealed for help to the world. They never luimve c'me on their knees to America asking for American money to put clothing on their backs and food into their stomachs, although they needed both. That is a record which stands practically unique. Will you not agree with me, in the circumstances of our rlationshil, with little peoples and big peoples during the last 10 distressful years, that it isa very remarkable thing that this people, who nie-d money and supplies of every kind. have neither tried to borrow or have own begged from us. Oi the contrary, they have stood omi th ,ir their poverty. Is not feet. independent, honest, and unashamed ill that a record which should al~lleal to American sympathy? Why, in (God's name, Flhould America, Wi. It a reputal ion throughout the World as being the big brother of nations in dist re.s, turn hei" back oil Georgia when she has a prect'dent in Weiets iild, alld action in soil regard to Greee, when Grece was not in lo:!-se- ioni of her o and when she had a government fiiictioning from llace to ll'mi'e outsile and inside herown territory? Mr. WelNser's resohitioli wu.. inlroa e duced, and it was passed. and % recognized ill measure ti e independonce of the Creeks. We had done that before. I think. although I ilaV 1ot lie righi:. that ti e Ctngess of the Unitedl Statels, ole or othel budy of tIhe Coglress. pwIa.ed re.-olitiion. favorable to Irelanl, and yet frel1nd had no govelimetCli ihtat Nw functioning" yet we lmythy. gave Ireland our s is 4i te r:olutio. s of syapathy vwere passed The ('H.IriMAN. it for tile Irish people, and ik rc:oluition along this liine, alihiiigh it did not pas-, Colgle,.s. a.- 1( cflii; it ljiiC(e the Iloml: Uut hot the

Smmli e.

Mr. MOOIE of Vi'ginia. This ic olution an(d (lie House resolitiion introduced i"Mr. WAeiber with reference to Greece are almmlo.-t in 1is resolution l)as-e~d the Ilou.-e. It wa.s the thle Nii \vw4i'ds. occasion of 1Vebster's first great speech. Yol said that practically all tle nations of the Worl ave eog_has niot, Juili lnized the indelendene of the Repliblic of Geogili. li its of Course, except ill (Olvtituiti0li. it ta1teiejit whilci it !mi ire-


pudiated. The Government of the United States has declined to recognize Soviet Russia, has it not? Mr. STEWAr. Yes. But Ruesia alse hres definitely recognized the independence of Georgia, May 7, 1920, in common with other nations. Mr. LINTmCUl. I wanted to go into that question about the soviet government giving liberty to the Georgians tp become independent. Mr. STEWART. -MayI read that? This is an extract from the treaty concluded at Moscow May 7, 1920, between the Democratic Republic of Georgia and the Russian Socialistic Soviet Federated Republic, article 1; basing it on the rights of all ,'eoples--proclamation of the Russian Socialistic Federated RepublicL-to freely dispose of themWeyves even up to and including total separation from the state of which they form a part--" Russia recognizes without reservation the independence and sovereignty of the Georgian State, and voluntarily renounces al sovereign rights which b4onged to Russia with respect to the Georgian people and territory." Mr. O'CONNELL. What is the date of thatI Mr. STEWART. May 7,1920. Article 2, basing itself on the principles proclaimed in the first article, Russia pledges herself to renounce all rights to intervene in the affairs of Georgia. Mr. McREYN-OLDS. When did she take charge of Georgia?



Mr. VAuI.

In March, 1921, 10 months after that. A scrap of parer?


Mr. LIXTmitCUm. Russia recognized that independence and it seemed to be a sop to other nations to recognize Russia. and as soon as some nations did recognize Georgia, she went back and took possession of Georgia, is that right? Mr. STEWAPT. There were emotions and passions which were very decidedly mixed in the Bolshevik mind which impelled such action by the Soviet Government. .fr. ('. N-ALT.Y. In connection with this matter generally, it might be interesting to know that Mr. Little, of -L.nsas, now dead, who :,-rved as consul for the State Department in this area for'some years, made a very interesting speech in the House four years ago about Georgia and the Georgian people. Mr. VAILE. I heard that speech. You might put a copy of that in the hearing. It was a ver:, interesting statement. He was very much in sympathy with th. aspirations of the Georgian people for independence. (See Appendix, No. 18.) The CHAbRAN'. Before you leave the question of recognition, you are familiar with the provisions of the Soviet constitution to permit any State to secede at any time it desires? Mr. STEWAR.T. Yes. The CHM::,rA-. How has the Soviet Government treated Georgia in that respect? Mr. STEWART. Occupation by the Red Army is an answer to your question, Mr. Chairman. Mr. LITIMcusr. Did not Georgia make application for relief under that section that was denied hlt'i?


but if they do they will shoot them.


Mr. STEWART. I think I am stating the case correctly that Georgia never recognized any right of any Russian Government to interfere with her independence. Mr. CoNXNALJ.Y. Rtissia gives them a constitutional right to secede,

Mr. STEWART. res; that is it. Mr. Dunmbadze says that under this act, Georgia served pro forma notice on the Soviet Government. granted by the Soviet Government, for Georgia to be released from tinder the'Soviet Government. G4 orgia (lid make application under

In answer to that question, regarding that privilege


Mr. CONNALY. When?

Mr. OPDYCKE,. WVithin a year and a half, ii 19"23 and 1924, they made such application, and'in both instances it wa:i denied them. Mr. STEWART. Mr. Vasili D. DIumbadze is the. representative of the Georgian Government. I rather despair that you would credit the story which I could tell you of Doctor l)uubailze's sacrifices in the cause of liberty of his native (icorgia. Four times lie was captured bv the Bolshevik. Four times lie was condemned to death. His father, 76 years of age, and the head of the religious establishment of the Georgian Republic. was placed against a stone wall and 19 bullets were put into him. His uncle was captured; he went against a stone -wall and was killed. Even in free America, far removed from. the centers of disturbance in eastern Europe, one effort which nearly succeeded was made upon that Georgian repre. sentative's life. ie carries in his body to-day 3 inches of a knife blade which the surgeons have not dared to cut out and have told him to let it lie there because his life was more safe with the blade in him than out. He has been betrayed in America four times by men who have sought his confidence when he had responded in his generous nature to their appeaLs. They have tried once to kill him and twice to ruin him; three times efforts have been made to deport him front the United States of America. Christian America, sympathetic, kindly America, simply because he stood as a barrier between his country and her exploitation by wicked men. If suffering, if honesty, if patriotism, if untold sacrifices in life, in treasure, are not an appeal to the sympathetic heart of America; if there is on earth a Christian nation such as the Georgian nation is that can not succesfullv make an appeal to the sympathetic American people, expressed. through their representatives in Congress in the city of Washington, let us seek to revise the o inion which the word at large in the person of its peasantry ana plain people have of the people of the United States. I know through my own personal knowledge that when Theodore Roosevelt was President of the United states and had established a reputation as champion of the plain people of the world, in almost every peasant hut of Europe there was his picture, a cut from some newspaper or a photograph sent over by some relative living in America. I do know that' when Woodrow Wilson was in Paris everywhere the plain people of Europe responded to the hope--such a hope as had been held long centuries within the European heart-that here was a man who finally would give liberty to the world. America never has been wont to turn her back upon an appeal of Georgia's


kind. Millions and tens of millions and hundreds of millions of dollars have been poured out from the pockets of our people and from the Treasury of the United States in the relief of distress, and we never have asked any questions about race, religion, or previous condition of servitude. 'There is no appeal which can be made, and I frankly grant it, based absolutely on the precedents of international law, and, perhaps, the specific practices of the United States Government in regard to its relation to people like the Georgian people. But is there not here a case which seems to have in it a peculiar and a particular reason why we should place Georgia in a category by herself and why we should not consider her strictly from a legalistic point of view! Georgia appeals to me as a Christian peopl who fought for Christianity and suffered for Christianity an( allowed themselves to be killedby thousands upon the field of battle in order to preserve the religion of Christ which they had adopted. There is one further statement which I can make. Mr. Husband, who was Commissioner General of Immigration, now Second Assistant Secretary of Labor, said, and I see no particular reason why anybody should refrain from quoting him, that he had visited G'eorgia and that he had staved there relatively a long time amongst the people; he had traveled fnom town to town through the country, met lhe people in conversation and or. social occasions, had been treated with hospitality which found no parallel outside of his own native land: and Mr. Husband said jokingly to me one day, "If I were exiled from my native country, I should seek an asylum in Georgia." le added, "Nowhere on earth is there a finer body of men and women." This fine, upstanding body of Christian men and women make an appeal to the people of the United States through their Congress in the city of Washington for some expression of sympathy that will denote to the people of the world that America still stanls as the champion of little people struggling for that liberty which we ourselves gained only in the travail of eight years of war. N,. 'There is an identical resolution in the Senate Mr. O('oN.introduced by Senator Copeland, of New York. ir. STEWAR1T. Yes. The CI.xARM.;N. Before you close, I will ask you two or three questions. Mr. STEWART. If you desire specific and exact information as regards the political and commercial situation of Georgia, Doctor Dumbadze is here to speak with authority and with all the docuilients which go with authority. Mr. BEao. Have you presited this plea to the State Department and been denied ? Mr. STEwAT. If I may be permitted, Mr. Moore visited the State Department. There has'been no denial of the State Department in regard to the introduction of this measure. Ir. BoGo. What is that statement? Mr. SwA 1 rr. There is no denial from the State Department of the policy of the introduction of this resolution. Air. Brco. That is not my question. Has anybody presented a plea for recognition to the proper authorities of the "State Department?


Mr. STEWART. No; for the reason that we thought that under precedents it was quite proper we should seek the passage of this resolution, at least, its introduction in the Congress of the United States. It is not unprecedented. Mr. BEGO. I always supposed that countries wanting recognition went to the executive first. I may be in error. That is my supposition, that any country that wants recognition proceeds though the regular executive channels to receive tlat recognition. If that has not been done, why not-that is my question C Mr. STEWART. Is it absolutely without precedent that a joint resolution or a resolution has been introduced in either House of Congress in regard to a matter of this kind? Mr. BEGo. There may have been resolutions of this kind, but so far as I know, and I have not investigated it, there has never been a resolution of that kind until after the State Department had, to. say the least, postponed a recognition. The CHA RMA.. There is the case of Greece and the case of Argentina. Mr. O'CONNELL. Did anybody representing the Georgian Republic discuss the matter in that connection with the State Department, or not? Mr. STEWART. Mr. V. 1). Dumbadze. Mr. BEoO. What attitude did the State Department take on that? Mr. STEWART. Obviously, very friendly; otherwise, we should not have introduced it here. It is rather embarrassing to discuss in' open session these matters, and for me to discuss them in any way because of conversation I had with them at the State Deaprtment. Mr. BEGo. I (1o not wish to embarra - but I do not see any other door open to me. Perhaps the State department has considered favorably this particular proposition. Mr. STEWART. I am not authorized to speak for the State Department. The latter has been put before the State Department. No %vord has been sa;d in the State Department that militated against the introducti. ,f this resolution. The CHAIRMAN. To clarify this situation, the usual; method of recognition is for the Nation to apply to the Executive, and if he is favorable to recognition he apl)oints a diplomatic representative, and if that diplomatic representative is confirmed by the Senate that amounts to a ratification by the Senate, and then the. House appropriates sufficient mone3? to pay his expenses and salary. It requires the action of the President, the 'Senate, and the House, to recognize a country. There are two or three cases, notably the case of Greece, where the House made the appropriation in advance of action by the Executive; of course, the ordinary way is for the Executive to recognize. Mr. BEo. Is it not a fact that the House can not force nor prevent the Executive from recognizing? We can refuse to pay, but that does not control the recognition, and we can not force it. Is that the truth? The COARMAN.. That is exactly what I said. The Hcuse can not force the President; you must have joint action of the Senote, flouse, and Executive.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA . Mr. EDWARDS. Has this resolution been referred to the State De. partment for report? The CHAIRMAN. NO. Mr. EDWARDS. We have nothing from the State Department before the committee?

propriated in an appropriation bill for the expenses of an ambassador to Cuba before tile ambassador had been appointed, before the Executive had taken action? Air. BFwO. There is nothing to prevent our doing that, but there is nothing to compel the Executive to spend that appropriation if he does not want to. The CHAIRMAN. I have always held the view on these foreign matters that Coiigress has a right, to pass a resolution requesting the President to do certain things. That has been done many times. Mr. COOPER. As I understand the law, not the law but the established practice, a civilized nation before officially recognizing another government, requires that the other government must, t least, be in active control of some portion of the territory over which it claims jurisdiction. Here we have a government that is in Paris, some thousands of miles away from the country which it claims to govern, and it exercises jurisdiction over not one inch of that territory. Now, when we come to the question of recognizing a government that does not govern anything, we come to the very crux of this matter. They could ask us to recognize Armenia Azerbaidjan, any bit of territory in the world, if revolutionists could go to some foreign country and claim there that they are a governmtent controlling territory thousands of miles away. It would continually get us into trouble if that principle is to obtain in recognition of revolutionary governments. Mr. EATON. Do you consider those people in Paris revolutionaries? Mr. COOPER. I do. They are not in control of that Government. Mr. LINTHICUr. I do not take it that this resolution goes that far. This resolution says:
. That provision shall be made by law for defraying the expenses incident to the appointment of a diplomatic representative to the National Republic of Georgia vbvever the President shall deem it expedient to make such ap. pointment. Mr. STEWART. The resolution simply is a gesture of sympathy.

The CHAIRMAN. No. Mr. LINTHICUM. Is it not true that only a few years ago we ap-

Mr. CoorER. It is a matter of exceeding importance to this country and to every other country in the world, if the Congress of the United States is in advance to say that it will appropriate money if the Executive shall recognize an alleged government thousands Uf miles distant from the territory which it claims to govern and not one foot of which it can exercise authority ovet. Mr. MooRE of Virginia. Mr. Webster argued that question in the Greek case, and the Turks were in possession of Greece. Mr. COOPER. But Greece was all of the time fighting on her own soil, controlling some portion of her soil, and she had troops in Greece. But there is no war or revolution here. Mr. EDWARDS. They are subdued-driven out.


Admiralty intelligence department, 1904-5; governor of Hong Kong Naval Prison, 1907-08; admiralty war staff, 1910-11; naval attach British Embassy, St. Petersburg, April, 1912, to November, 1917; bead of naval mission to Finland, December, 1918, to June, 1019, etc. A. R. McDonnell, educated St. Paul's School, London. C. B. E. (civil); resident in Russia, 1902-1919; British vice cousul, Baku, south Russia, 19071916. British military forces in Caucasus and north Persia, 1916-1919 (temporary major). Foreign office temporary first division clerk 1919-1923.

Mfr. STEWART. In the first place, Mr. Cooper, recognition has been accorded to the Government of Georgia; the independence of her people has been recognized by every nation on earth except the Americans. Mr. CooPER. The nienshevist government, so called, which was fighting the Bolshevists, had control of Georgia for about two years; then the Armenians and the Turks got into war and the Soviet Government went down and took control over that territory. Mr. STEWART. I think there is a slight misapprehension as to the real facts of the situation, but what I want to say is that every nation except America has recognized the Georgian Government. Tfhe Georgian Government still continues, and her diplomatic status is recognized by England, Germany, and France. Mr. Coo.ER. In what way? How do they recognize it? M'. STEWART. In many ways. I might explain that Georgia is a very wealthy country-trans-Caucasia, the isthmus, within the confines of 150,000 square miles, is the richest country in the world. I know a little something of the wild scramble on the part of men of wealth and high standing, and men of no wealth and low standing, for concessions from Georgia, and they are willing to pay substantial sums for concessions for oil, for iron, coal, etc., to pay hard cash. Despite the fact that the second red army holds the Georgian people in subjection by their presence on their soil, so far as such control as Georgia can exercise over its own people, is exercised. There are several hundred thousand Georgians in exile and in the mountains of Georgia. The mountaineers are the very backbone of Georgia and they have been of every contest for centuries in fighting for liberty. These still are outside of contact with and control by the Bolshevik Government; and they are operating independently and under the leadership of the government in Paris. Ordinarily when you set up against a people of 2,600,000 a force of 150,000,000, there is only one result that is possible-the superior force subjugates the minor force. And yet to an extent that is hardly credible, that Georgian Government in Paris functions as the government of the people of Georgia, although that governing is not expressed in terms of open activities. We must not forget that. Georgia represents a force that has been fighting for centuries and centuries, a people of unexampled hardihood. Mr. COOER. I am after the facts. Mr. STEWART. I am here to answer. Mr. CooprEn. I have taken some pains to look into this matter and have here the official report of the British trades union delegation to Russia in November and December, 1924. The delegates consisted of 10 members of whom 7 were "general council delegates" and 3 were "advisory delegates." Among the advisory delgates were: Harold Grenfell: Retired in 1920 from British Navy with rank of captain.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA George Young. educated at Eton and foreign universities. M. V. 0., diplomatice service (passing in Russian 189-1915). Admiralty Intelligence 19151918. Volunteered in ranks, February, 1918. and commissioned R. M. A., August. Daily News correspondent through German revolution, December, 1918 to August, 1919. Professor of Portuguese, 1919-1922, and examiner in Ottoman law, London University, etc.

The concluding paragraph of this report says:

With respect to the national minorities in Georgia there can be no doubt that all that the present system by which they secure home rule gives the best practical possibility of satisfactorily securing their lives and liberties. Finally, that it is In the Interests of the workers and peasants of Caucasia and of the world that the Inclusion ut the Trans-Caucasian Federation in the Union of Socialist Russia should continue, and that the Caucasus should not again become the scene of rival military occupations and race wars.

This is a long and interesting report, and contains many reproductions of photographs and other pictures. I am not in sympathy with the Soviet GovernmentMr. STEWART (interposing). I am familiar with that report. Mr. CooPER. But as a legislator I have important duties to perform in this matter, as has every other member of this committee. In this report the British delegation tell how Georgia came to be included in the soviet republic, and then they say:
The reception given to the delegates and the numbers that r.marcled in the public processions convinced them that a large proportion of the industrial population of the capital were enthusiastic supporters of the present gov. ernient-

That -was in the capital of Georgia.

The situation In Georgia, t fact, seems to be essentially the same as in Azerbaidjan and Armenia-that Is, a majority of the Industrial workers with a nucleus of Russians are prepared to lay down their lives for the present government.

Mr. O'CONNE L. As administered by Russia. Mr. Coo~en. Yes.

The small minority that remains In opposition are not now prepared, to lay down their lves to overthrow It.

And further:
On March 17, the Georgian Meushevist Government was driven out of Tiflis and obliged to sue for liace, which was arranged by Moscow. The Menshevist Government left for Paris, taking the contents of the treasury with them, and a Soviet Republic was proclaimed in Georgia. In return, Moscow persuaded Angora to return Jiatouni to Georgia, which accordingly suffered little loss of territory. From the foregoing it is clear that the overthrow of the Menshevist Gov. ermnent of Georgia, and the eventual inclusion of that sovereign state in the Union of Soviet Republics was not an unprovoked poll"cal aggression by Moscow. The "protection" of Georgia had become a prize for which world powers were competing so as to secure control of the oil and manganese resources. It had become for Georgia a choice between Turkish or Russian occupation, and the Russians gave them back their full territories and a very full autonomy, which they would not have got from the Turks.

Mr. O'CONNFLJ. Is that a report of the soviet? Mr. VAILE. It speaks for itself.

Mr. CoOPE1R. I wish to answer the question of my friend from New York City as to whether this is a report of the soviet. Mr. O'Co.NxELL. I say, is it? Mr. Coornaz. It is the official report of the British trade union delegation to Russia in 1924. The question for us in considering


it is, does it tell the truth. As Matt Carpenter in a famous case said when a lawyer on the other side sneeringly alluded to one of his itnesses:
It Is the duty of a court to believe the truth even though it come from the lips of a drunken cobbler.

It is the truth we want. Mr. O'Co.0V . I will say to my friend from Wisconsin that I NrN (lid not say it was; I saiJ? is it? Mr. S-rwixvrr. From highest English sources have come Utter repudiation of this report. It was not accepted by the British Goveritment; it was not accepted by the people of Great Britain as statements of unbiased truth. It has not been accepted by labor as a safe criterion for their action in regard to Soviet Russia. I think generally it is recognized by those absolutely and personally familiar with the situation that there is no such situation existing in Georgia to-day as is represented to be fact in this report. There is a rely negligible division of he Georgian people against their own interests and against independence and in favor of the Soviet Government. These are communists. It is true that in Tiflis there have been expressions favorable to the continuance of soviet rule, but tjat report is not an unbiased statement of facts; the real facts fall not at all into that category. Mr. CooPER. Have you been over it? Mr. SnWVA rT. I have not, but I have made inquiries from the very best authorities. That report is not a safe basis upon which one could inform himself of the facts of this situation, as will probably be developed by Doctor Dumbadze in a formal statement. The CITAIIMAN. Those recognitions by Great Britain, France, and Italy were made at the time the present officials who are now in Paris were in Georgia; is that correct? Mr. STFWAIrI. That is true. The Chic.... In other words, they were in possession of the country at the time of the recognition, and your resolution asks us to suggest recognition when they are not in possession, where they are functioning in a foreign capital? Mr. S'rMwAHT'r. That is true. Mr. FAcCIM.i . As I understand the point you made, in view of the fact that the Georgian Republic was recognized while they were still in possession of their soil by all countries except the United States and that no recognition has been withdrawn, that creates a situation, when they were forced out of their country, like that of Belgium, which has become a precedent in a similar

Mr. Fii. Although I am oppcsing this resolution, Mr. Stewart, and have been front the beginning, I was very much interested by your remarks. I agree with what you say about the libeity-loving Georgians, and I am familiar with their history and have tte utmost sympathy for any people fighting for their iibertv and the independence of their country. But you have a different situation from that which Mr. Little raised in the Hfouso a number of years ago. At that time I was one of the strongest advocates of his r,.colution; I talked the matter over with Mr. Little, who then desired retognition of the republic; I should have voted for it at that tine, when it


was an independent Republic, when the Menshevists were in control and the Geor gan ople had their own government. 14our years ago by brute orcc it was incorporated into the Soviet Union, and it is now a ward of the Soviet Union. The Mensheviki goveri'm-nt was forced out to Paris. It was entirely a different situation from what y'ou are presenting to us to-day and asking us to do. It is the same as if Great Britain should consider before their Parliament te recognition of the Philippines, which want independence and are under the United States Government. The point raised here by vju and by the chairman that it is identical with the Webster inr.dont to recogize Greece is not at all identical. The Greeks had a government and an army fighting Turkish control; the Greeksu wC,'e successful in certain parts and controlled certain ports. Byron fought and died in a Greek city; and, of course, it was entirely right that we recognize them, because they had a government in Greece. Mr. 1 AILE. You said that Georgia had diplomatic representatives now in several countries, and mentioned England and Germany. Do you mean accredited ministers to those countries who are in those countries now? Mr. STEWAr. Yes. Mr. FIsiT. Have those countries accredited representatives to that government at Paris? Mr. STEWART. Other governments transact business through repin every case. resentatives of the Georgian Government Mr. Fsi. What business can your government transact with any foreign government when you are not in control of a single inch of your territory and when for the first time in many years, almost centuries, there is no active fighting going on in Georgia, to-d!ay? Mr. O'CONNF.iL. How could there be under the circumstances with a military force there; how could they put up a fight? Mr. CoopiaF. This report of the British delegation says it is the withdrawn. local militia; the army is almost As to the Tcheka, It was pointed out that it was not only a question of the
internal position in Georgia, but of the international situation also. The Caucasus under Tsarlsm was garrisoned by a very large force. It was now practically held by local militia, but was still an object of foreign Intrigue, and might possibly become an objective of foreign intervention. The frustration of such intrigues in the interests of peace required special precautions. In fact, the delegation was left with the impression that adoption of the two measures recommended depended solely on the international situation. The CHAInMAx. Representatives of the Georgian Republic are

recognized by the German Government which transacts its business with that representative? Mr. STEWArT. Absolutely. (All governments are represented in Paris, where the Georgian Government can have and does have access to them and transacts business through them.) Mr. Fismi. Of course, they have not withdrawn their recognition, but when Germany or any other country wants to do business in Georgia, they have got to do it through the government in existence there, the de facto government; therefore, they do it with the Soviet Government--every country in the world except the United States deals with the Soviet Government at Petrograd. Georgia is part of the Soviet union to-day. Is it a fact that all these governments


recognize the Soviet Government, France, England and Germany, that you have mentioned? 1fr. STEWART. They do, but they do not recognize the Soviet Government in relation 'to things pertaining to Georgia. The French and British Governments in their treaties with the Soviet Government particularly and specifically excepted Georgia from the terms of the treaty with the Soviet Government. Mr. Fisrn. How would those people--the Harriman interests, our people, and other people, Germans, English, the Anglo-Persian Oil Co., deal-froin what government do '}iey get those concessions in Georgia? Mr. STEWART. Mfay I be permitted to ask Major Opdycke to answer that question? STATEMENT OF HENRY G. OPDYCKE, CIVIL ENGINEER, NEW YORK CITY MNfr. OPDYCKE. I am a member of the Americau Society of Civil Engineers. Mr. Hum,. An American citizen? Mr. OPDYCKE. Yes; a Knickerbocker New Yorker, and I have been identified and interested in the subject of Russia and Georgia for 18 years. I became interested in some work in Russia which involved organization and functioning of egineering interests. Mr. O'CONNELL. lVere you over there? Mr. OPDYCKE. I was there several times, and in the Crimea, and familiar with Georgia all the time. Mr. FIsI. Have you ever been in Georgia? Mr. OPDYCKE. No; but I have been in close touch with the Georgian government in Paris and in intimate contact with the gentleman you have heard mentioned here to-day, with the activities of Doctor I)umbadze in Russia and in this country, and I may say, without any reward whatever financially, and since the war began in 1914, in the interest of the subject of Georgian independence itself. The subject of the Caucasus is so little known here. In fact, the discussion here to-day indicates that Georgia is not very well known. There has recentlybeen publishd a little brochure to cover this question. This committee will be provided with copies of it. Great pains were taken with it and I have read it and I know to be true largely the facts contained therein except possibly personal acquaintance with its ancient history. (See Appendix 15). Mr. V.IL:. By whom prepared? Mr. Oi-nci F. Inder the auspices of Mr. V. D. Dumbadze, and with the assistance of the Caucasian Society, which consists of a few gentlemen of prominence who are interested in the subject of Georgian independence for the subject itself. Mr. Fisir. What do citizens of other countries do, business men who want to go into Georgia and get oil concessions, manganese concessions, etc.-with whom do they deal, the government at Paris or the soviet government? rf. OPDYCKE. The history of the gentlemen who have gone to Russia for oil and manganese concessions, Sinclair, hariman, the Standard Oil Co., etc., is that they have gone to the Soviet Govern-


ment and made arrangements for concessions even in Georgia. Up to date in each case the Georgia Government has excepted to this procedure, i. e., the Georgian Government in Paris has excepted fromally. Mr. VAILE. It was taken up with the Georgian Government at Paris? Mr. OPDYCKE. No. American interests, Sinclair, and Harriman, did not take it up with the Paris Government but with the soviet, but none of them have been consummated yet, and they have withdrawn after they get into them. The Harrimans are withdrawing now. Mr. COOPER. Is this with a view to recognition of the Georgian Republic? Have they withdrawn with a view to recognition of this republic? Mr. OPDYCKE. They have withdrawn, due to the absolute inability or impossibility of the Soviet Government doing business with them. Mr. VAILE. Why is it impossible? Mr. OPnDYCKE. Because the soviets have never carried out any of their agreements. Mr. ELLIS. Impossible for them to do business with the Soviet Government? Mr. OPDYCKE. Yes; we are not doing business to-day. Mr. O'CONIELL. They do not recognize contracts. Mr. Fisit. Do you happen to know they are loing $80,000,000 a year-two or three times more than 1913-with the Russian Government? Mr. OPDYCKE. I know that the Soviet Government and their representatives come over here and plank down cash on the table and want to buy, and then they find men that will do something for ft them; that I do not consider trade. Mr. VAILE. To clarify this situation, you say these deals which the Harrimans and others have made with'the Soviet Government have not been carried through because it is impossible to deal with the Soviet Government. Suppose this situation arises, an ordinary situation: An American group of capitalists asks for a concession, permission to operate certain properties in this territory of Georgia. It agrees to pay the government which grants the concession so much money. "There is nothing further for the government to do except receive the money. Why can not such a deal as that be carried through, as it involves no particular action on the part of the government granting the concession? Mr. OpDYCiRE. It could be if they kept their contracts, but they do not. Mr. VAILE. Do they not put the concessionaire in possession? The CIAIm.%I'N. They need protection. Mr. VAILU. In what respect do they not keep their contracts? Mr. OPYCKE. In the Sinclair matters; I have not all the facts at hand just now, but after the concessions were granted the soviets demanded a loan of fifty to a hundred million dollars. Mr. VAiTL:. As a further condition? Mr. OP)DYCKE. Without being in the contract, and because it was not granted the whole thing was off and they did not deal.


Mr. CooPER. Was that the Sinclair that had the Teapot Domei Mr. OPDYCKE. The Sinclair in Russia. Mr. COOPER. Don't you know it is the same man? Mr. OPDYCKE. I do not know. Mr. COOPER. You believe it is, Is it the Sinclair that had concessions in Mexico, the one that got the Teapot Dome ? Mr. OPDYCKE. The Sinclair Oil Co. I am not familiar with the Teapot Dome. It is the New York Sinclair Oil Co. Mr. VAILX. Has it been possible, and has it been done for the Soviet Government to put a concessionaire in physical possession of properties in Georgia so that they could have operated? Air. OPDYCKF. I do not know any reason why it should not. I think they have, as a matter of fact, actually put the Harriman people in possession of certain properties there. But it is by other conditions arising since that time, making it practically impossible for them to go to work, and they are not working to any extent. Mr. VAiLE. Conditions later added to the original concession? Mr. OPDYCKE. I can not tell you what, but the facts are, and it is plainly evident by the facts, that they ae not doing iork they expected to do. The Soviet Governmelnt has absolute physical control of the lower part of that country. They are not in possession of the mountains; Russia never had them. But they can, with their army in possession there, put anybody in control of anything they want to. They have the physical power, but the fact is that new labor conditions, etc., have raised the price of materials so much that the project can not be operated. MV. FAIRCHILD. The Georgians themselves will not work for them? Mr. OPDYCKE. It is not a question of the Georgians; it is a question of the governing of the soviets in (mat territory, the way they handle the local situation. The C1fHI1.%t'AN. Have you a list of men who compose this Caucasian Societ ? Mr. OPDYCKE. No; I am not a member of that society. Mr. O'CONNEL. . Read that list. Mr. OrDycKr.. I have in my hand a heading of the Caucasiran Society, copy of circular embodying this House Joint Resolutioa 195, which has the following names on it: Henry Lane Wilson, president; Barron G. Collier, vice president; Edwin Wildman, executive director; Perley Morse, treasurer; Franklin A. Wagner, general counsel; and the following general committee: Bartlett Arkell, Robert Appleton, George Gordon Battle, Helen Varick Boswell, Robert Fulton Cutting, Barron G. Collier, Mrs. Royal S. Copeland, Mrs. James Creelman, Rev. Dr. S. 11. Chester, Brig. Gen. Clarence R. Edwards, John Hays Hammond, Archibald Hopkins, John A. Hopper, Perley Morse, John A. Stewart, William R. Wilcox, Henry Lane Wilson, Lucius Wilmerding, and Edwin Wildman. Mr. STWARr. I have a complete list which will be sent you from New York.
Mr. CooPFR.. Are those all the names? Mr. O'CONNELL. Officers and executive committee.



The CIAIRMAN. I would like to have a list and their affiliations. Mr. STEWArr. Yes; we will get it. (The list referred to is given in the appendix.) Mr. COOPER. It is 12 o'clock. The resolution calling for the impeachment of a United States judge is before the House. Nothing else demanding our attention is of such importance as that resolution. The CHAIRMAN. I am entirely at the command of the committee. (Thereupon, at 12 o'clock noon, the committee adjourned to meet again at 10.15 o'clock a. in., Friday, April 2, 1926).


Friday, April 2, 1926. The committee this day met, Hon. Stephen G. Porter (chairman) presiding. The CHAIRMAN. The committee will be in order. We will resume consideration of House Joint Resolution 195, providing for appointment of a diplimatic representative to the National Republic of Georgia. STATEMENT OF JOHN A. STEWART, OF NEW YORK CITY-Resumed Mr. STEWART. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, I want to ask the privilege of making a formal statement to this committee for the record, which in one phase of this hearing will, perhaps, clarify the atmosphere. I am not so inexperienced in appearing before committees of the Congress nor so ignorant of the psychology of committees generally sitting in hearings in respect o foreign nations not to understand that there is due to any such committee a frank statement as to the identity of every motivating influence and a frank disclosure of what may be suspected to lie unseen behind any such appearance as this of ourselves before such a committee as yours. Hence I feel it to be my duty to Jay before this committee the following facts in order that they may be made a part of the record of these bearings. First, the Caucasian Society was organized as a humble means of presenting to the people of the United States, and in particular to the Members of Congress, the case of the Georgians. There is nothing in regard to the activities of this committee or of any individual, a member or otherwise of it, that does not plainly appear on the surface. No oil company, no iron company, no company or corporation is identified with the society or the purposes of the society. Neither the society itself nor any individual connected with this society represents any corporate interest or any individual interest that has moved or is moving to obtain from the Georgians or from the government of the Georgians any concession, proprietary rights, or to reach any other end the attainment of which relates to business exploitation. 'Nobody connected with the conunittee, directly or indirectly, is paid any retainer or receives any emolument for wvhat he or she may be doing in behalf of Georgian freedom.


Second, what small expense there is in the furtherance here of the project to secure from the people of the United States an authority. tive expression of sympathy with the Georgian Government and their people has always been met andi is being met by Mr. Vasili D. Dunbadze out of his private, personal means; and I may say here and now, upon the authority of Mr. Dumbadze, that lie has not received nor is receiving from any corporate or private source what. soever any fund or funds that relate to any concession or to any project that has reference to the profitable exploitationi of Georgia and the Georgians. Third, it is true that efforts have been made by Americans and other nationals to secure concessions or private rights that relate to Georgia's private or public domain, but it. equally true that his Government and Mr. Dumbadze are consistently refusing to give any consideration to any such offer for concessions, returning always this reply to any such discussion: That no consideration will be given to any matter relating to the upbuilding of Georgia's industrial establishment having reference to the proper expl'ultatijn of her natural resources until after the Georgians have seclved their independence and their government occupies their rightful position in the capital city of Tiflis (with proper reservations to be made in the event of any vitally exigent situation the development of which is not now to be forese%). Fourth, it is true that when the Georgian Government shall rest in complete and secure control of their rightful territory, the soil upon which the Georgian people have lived continuously for 3,000 years, then the rightfully constituted authorities will consider such development of its natural resources in the interests of all its people; with due regard to a proper profit arising from such development, upon a basis which the government has repeatedly referred to as an "American " kind of development, but which development, however, will proceed after a plan of friendly regard for all friendly nations. But the Georgian Government has not recognized nor will it recognize the title of anyone to whom there has been granted by the Bolsheviki Government any concession, relating to any property in Georgia. Fifth, it is true that, specifically, the Georgian Government has been urged to enter into contracts with those desiring concessions, which consummated relationship would have been very immediately profitable to the Georian Government and would have permitted it to have freed itself from the poverty which besets it, but the members of the Government have courteously refused to consider any such development or exploitation until after they should have been permitted by a more kindly fate to rest secure in their capital, in Tiflis. It is true, and is frankly admitted, that as soon as the Georgian Government shall have secured control of its own country it will develop, with the help of American and others, its natural resources, and try to make such development profitable to all concerned; it is true that discussions have been had in regard to the methods by which such natural resources might be developed anti Georgia placed on a sound business basis. It is true that there has been discussion with members of the American Government


upon this subject; it is true that certain people in authority informally have suggested that there might be placed at the service of the Georgian Government and people such scientific data, such professional help as might aid the Georgians in the fair development of their wonderful resources. It is true that there is now going on and that there will continue to go on the formation of plans upon a highly scientific and economic basis that would, if permitted to be cried out,.not only be of vast benefit to the Georgians but to all pec Ales. X. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, not only am I making this affirmation deliberately, but I am willing to put my signature to a sworn affidavit that so far as I know to the contrary there is not one fact to impugn the facts which I have herein set forth. Mr. MOORE of Virginia. One of the gentlemen asked yesterday if you could furnish the names of the members of the Jaucasian Society? Mr. SrEWART. Yes. Mr. MooRE of Virginia. Will you do thatI Mr. STEwAirr. I will do that. Mr. MOORE of Virginia. Dr. Albert Shaw is a member, is he not? Mr. STEWART. Doctor Shaw is representing the Near East Relief. Finally, gentlemen, I have here a statement of Mr. Collier which is somewhat a repetition of the statement I have just made. It is a fact highly honorable to 3arron G. Collier, whom I fancy most of this committee know, that when Mr. Dumbadze, in the name of his Government, asked Mr. Collier to accept the position of consul general for this continent, Mr. Collier replied, and that reply is le? with Mr. Dumbadze, that he would be glad to accept so hono:?-'e a distinction provided it were distinctly understood that Mr. Collier in accepting the position would accept with it no salary, no emolument in money of any other kind, and would not use his position for any money-making purposes. I have the honor to present to you, Mr. Chairman, the following statement from Mr. Collier, who'was here yesterday in person, as were Dr. Albert Shaw, Mr. Perley Morse, Mr. Edwin Wildman, Mr. Hugh James Fleming, and others, to hear and be heard upon the matter of Georgia independence. It is addressed to Mr. Poeter, dated March 31, 1926, and reads as follows:
The Republic of Georgia is situated between Asia in the south and western Europe in the north. It is bordered by Turkey and Armenia in the south, and the Crimean portion of Russia in the north. It is a gateway between Asia and western Europe. With its sister republics it numbers fourteen and onehalf millions in population. It is the cradle of tie Caucasian or white race. Its people are the blood brothers of we Americens and of Christian civilization throughout the world. Because these people for 1,700 years, or 17 centurles, have unswervingly fought the battles of Christianity, they have rightfully been adjudged the standard bearers of Christianity. They have been recognized by every important country including Russia, and they only seek the same consideration from the United States. Their desire for this recognition is by. no means a part of a program which will lead to warfare but a part of an intelligent attempt to "get their house in order." The people of Georgia are an educated and cultured people with a percentage of literacy 2 over 96 per cent. There are more than 4,000 public



schools, In addition to which there #re irammer schools, agricultural and theological colleges, with many technical aLd industrial schools no well. They naturally desire no interference with theso 0.duvatioial advantages which it has taken them centuries to develop. The business and industrial progress of their people should not be interrupted, and to restore their equilibrium and happiness" they ask the moral force of American public opinion.
to support their people in the enjoyment of "life, liberty, arid the pursuit of

Now, let me call particularly your attention to this paragraph:

They have never appealed to the world for aid or charity, but they do ask your committee to grant them American recognition with Its moral support now as being of inestimable value in their present struggle to restore to their people the ordinary privileges of liberty and the opportunity to administer their laws and pursue their lives and their religion in their own way.

And the statement of Mr. Collier closes with this paragraph:

The present cycle of time and events has constituted America the moral leader of the world and it is opportune and right that the cause of the Tran-. Caucasian Republic should be submitted to this tribunal of Justice. Respectfully submitted.


Co'n~ul General.

Mr. ELLs. Is there any proper sense in which it can be said that the Russian Government as now constituted may claim anything as against the Georgian people by virtue of conquest? Have they ever been at war with one another? Mr. STEWART. Many times armed resistance to tyrannical authority. Mr. ELLIS. Is the. present status due to war? Were they so involved in the World War or in any way that they can claim the right of conquest, or any rights from conquest? Mr. STEWART. Not at all. Georgia was alternately inundated and self-freed for hundreds and hundreds of years. In the time of Catherine, Russia entered into a convention. Mr. ELLIS. I am asking you to come back to more recent events. They have gone in and taken absolute control of this country under some sort of pretence. Mr. STE WART. It was the same as the Belgian situation. The treaty (1783) was one of amity and friendship as between equals; it was so regarded, and the activities under that treaty were upon such basis. Georgia accepted this treaty which was advocated and forwarded by official activities from St. Petersburg, for the reason that to the south and to the east of them lay an enormous Mohammedan population, with which they had been constantly at war. When the Persians and the Turks warred with Georgia the nation was reduced by 500,000; so that as a matter of mutual policy the Georgians had been constantly at war with the Turks, and this treaty with Russia was accepted, and it operated all right until after the wer with the Persians and the Turks, in which Russia secretly connived at the undoing of Georgia. The Georgians were then so exhausted as the result of that war they could offer no real defense against the unwarranted occupation of their territory by the Russians. Mr. ELLIS. When was that? Mr. STEWART. 1783 and 1801; Russia after that war forcibly an. nexed Georgia. The annexation was never recognized by the


Georgians and they have repeatedly rebelkd. Tht Russians never were able to conquer the Georgian mountaineer,: the torch of liberty has burned there for centuries, and to-day the Soviets have given up the thought of conquering these people in their mountain fastnesses. It is only in the industrial centers, such as Tiflis. Baku. etc., that the Bolsheviks are in control. But only because superior armed force accomplished the evil act which the Bolsheviki Government that succeeded the Kerensky Government could not accomplish by persuasion. Mr. ELLis. But that domination was never recognized by the old Russian regime. Mr. STEWART. Before the time of the treaty it was constantly recognized. STATEMENT OF VASlLI D. DUMBADZE, REPRESENTATIVE OF THE REPUBLICS OF GEORGIA, AZERBAIDJAN, AND NORTH CAU. CASA Mr. DUMBADZE. In 1917 when the bolsheviki took the rule of lussia, chaos reigned in Georgia when the old Russian Governmient oiicials abandoned their posts and tied over tile border to the white armies. This abandonment released Georgia from autocratic Russian rule as well as from obligations to the new red rule. This situation compelled tile Georgians to unite into an assembly or Seim in February, 1918, after wich under their restored sovereignty they declared their independence under an act which was ratified by" their constituent assembly March 12, 1919. Afterward, in 1920, Georgia was recognized de facto by the great powers. Then Soviet Russia recognized Georgia by a treaty of May 7, 1920. A. few nignths later, in compact within the AngoraTurkish Government, without declaration of war, the bolsheviki invaded Georgia. Tile great powers recognized Georgia de jure-just before the bolsheviki invasion of Georgia. France and England protested against this invasion (see Appendix No. 7), and k rance proposed to take the Georgian Government with its parliament and cabinet into Paris where the Georgian minister plenipotentiary had full diplomatic status. which he still exercises as this diplomatic directory indicates on page 1l. (See appendix to Mr. Dumbadze's brief.) . England and France recognized Soviet Russia in 1924-25, but made emphatic reservations for Georgian liberty, that is they exCluded Georgia from Soviet interference. The Nords of the British treaty are practically the same as in the French treaty and are "Recognizes the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics as Ieing the ie jure Government of those territories of tile ancient Russian Empire which recognizes its authority." The CHAntAx. I have asked the gentleman to put into the record copies of the recognitions by these various governments and other documents. Now, I will ask you this question. Did the Georgian government make an applicati6n to our Government at any time for recognition?


Mr. DUMBADZE. The Georgian government in Paris did not mak this application, but General Harbord was sent by President Wilson to make an investigation of the Near East, including Georgia and General Harbord made a very thorough report of his findings in Georgia. The CIAIRBIAN. Did he discuss the Georgian situation? Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes. I will ask Mr. Stewart to read this. Mr. STEWART. From the report of Major General Harbord of 19191 upon conditions in the Near East:
Let us glance at the picture and consider the historic, political, and economic past and present of these peoples and their claim to the attention of the civi. lized world, for they are among those races that "present the greatest humanitarian opportunity of the age," and upon whose destiny depends the "world' s peace at the world's crossways, the focus of war infection since the beginning of history."

The CHAIM AN. Is that all he said on the subject? Mr. OPDYCKE. There is considerably more. (Full report attached.) Mr. STEWART. That excerpt is from page 3 of this blue book by Dumbadze. (Appendix No. 15.) Mr. MooRe of Virginia. You said a while ago that the mountaineers of Georgia have never acquisced in or submitted to the Soviet rule. Mr, )U1MADZE. That is true. Mr. Moopr. of Virginia. What proportion of the population is made up of mountaineers? Mr. ]J )311ADZE. The proportion is small, maybe one-tenth of the wholc Georgian population, but they were so strong, owing to their strategic position, that in 1924, when Soviet Russia turned all our churches into dancing schools and killed and exiled 30,000 women and children, these mountaineers came down from the mountains and freed all Georgia from the Bolsheviks, and it was not until Soviet Russia later ecnt 100,000 red soldipru that they were obliged to go back, and they are still in the mountain. Mr. MoorE of Virginia. Does the Soviet Government undertake to send anv armed forces into the mountains? Mr. l)U.MnDAzE. They undertake it in summer, but are unsuccessful; in the winter it is not possible to penetrate these mountains. Mr. MooRE of Virginia. Fighting goes on whenever they attempt to go into the mountains? Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes. Mr. MoonE of Virginia. It is very similar to the case of the natives in North Africa. Mr. DuMRADZE. Yes. Back irn the Russian Tsarist rgim6 they tried for 55 years to conquer the Caucasus. Owing to their strategic position, only when old Russia granted a vice royalty to Georgia did they desist, and the Georgian mountaineers held this strategic position in the Caucasus in that remarkable manner for 55 years. George Keinan described these people in his book with great care. The CHAIMAN . Was the recognition by Great Britain and France and other Europvan countries of the Georgian Republic made at the request of the Georgian Republic? Mr. DuMDADZE. The de facto recognition by Great Britain and France and Italy and others was made upon our application. In the



Interallied Conference of which Briand was president, de jure recognition was accorded us upon our demand January 27, 1921. The letter is as follows:

Parks, January 27, 1921. To his excellency M. GLwEUETCHKORT, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Georgia, Paris. Mr. MUNISTM: After having taken cognizance of the decision by which tMe supreme council, under date of January 20, has resolved to recognize de jure the independence of Georgia as soon as this country should formally express the desire, you undertook, by letter of January 27, to adress to me the official request of the government and the people of Georgia, to become recognized de jure by the allied powers. I hastened to communicate your letter to the conference; this latter was unanimous in deciding to recognize de Jure the Georgian Government. The allied powers arp happy to be able to prove thus anew the sympathy with which they have followed the efforts of the Georgian people toward independence and the admiration inspired in them by the work it has already accomplished. Be pleased to accept, Mr. Minister, the assurance of my highest regard.

and France recognized the Soviet Government they made reservation in favor of the Georgian Republic, a distinct reservation? Mr. DUMDADZE. Yes; a distinct reservation. Mr. MooRE: of Virginia. That has been disregarded by Soviet Ru sia. Mr. DU.MiBADZE. Yes. Also in article 2 paragraph 4 of the Russian right to withdraw, Soviet constitution, the Georgian people have a our Government to but when the Georgian people asked through authorize a referendum for that purpose, Soviet Russia refused every time, stamping their request as a revolt. (See Appendix No .) Mr. EDwARDs. Has this matter ever been taken up with The Hague Court? Mr. DUMBADZE. Not The Hague Court, but the League of Nations. Mr. EDWAI DS. You had it before the League of Nations? Mr. DT.,MBADZE. Yes; it was brought before the League of Nations, and they passed sympathetic resolutions three different times. Mr. OPDYCKE. I will read a quotation from a verbatim record, as follows:
The assembly, reiterating the resolution adopted on September 22, 1922, by the third assembly, with reference to Georgia: Invites the council to follow attentively the course of events in this part of the world so that it may be able to seize any opportunity which may occur to help in the restoration of this country to normal conditions by any peaceful means in accordance with the rules of international law.

Mr. MooRE of Virginia. You have stated that when Great Britain

time it was passed upon the report of this committee from papers

Mr. DU.NMBADZE. This resolution was passed. Mr. OPDYCKE. This resolution was passed and repassed.

The third

which are set forth on the subject by Mr. E. M. McDonald, which I will put in the record later. The CHAIRMAN. What is the date of that? Mr. OPDYCKE,. 1924. Mr. EDWARDS. Then they did nothing more than pass a resolution by the assembly? Mr. OPDYCKE. That is it, September 25, 1924.



(The resolution and report referred to are as follows:),

The assembly has referred to the sixth committee for consideration a proposal submitted by the delegations of Belgium, the British Empire, and France in the following terms: "The assembly, reiterating the resolution adopted on September 22, 1922, by the third assembly, with reference to Georgia: "Invites the council to follow attentively the course of events in this part of the world, so that it may be able to seize any opportunly which may occur to help in the restoration of this country to normal conditions by any p&aiceful means in accordance with the rules of international law." This proposal is a textual productionn of the resolution adopted In 1922. The third assembly, prompted by feelings which we are sure our colleagues all share at the present time, entrusted to the council the duty of watching the situation and seizing any favorable opportunity to improve it by peaceful means in accordance with international law. The main features of the situation remain unaltered, and the tragic events which are at this moment taking place in Georgia must bring back- to us the anxieties of the third assembly. As the resolution of the year 1922 is already on record, we may venture, in addition, to express the hope that the Governments of the States members of the league may perhaps be able to assist the council, either with information or by exercise of their influence for peace so far as circumstances may permit. The committee requests the assembly to give instructions for the present report to be communicated to the council, in order that the latter may be able, at a time and in the manner it nmy consider the most opportune, to take into consideration the indications it contains.


The 1'RESIDEN.%T (translation). We now pass to the fifth item on our agenda, the situation In Georgia. (Annex 15, Document A. 95, 1924, VIi.) I invite M. Enekell, chairnian of the sixth committee, and 31r. E. M. MacDonald, rapporteur, to take their places on the platform. (M. Enckell, chairman of the sixth committee, and Mr. E. M1.MacDonald, rapporteur, took their places on the platform.) The P'RESIDE.NT (translation). The rapi)porteur will address the assembly. Mr. E. 31. MAC)o. AL (Cai ida), rapporteur. The question of the situation in Georgia, which has beenl dealt with by the sixth committee. was put forward by the delegations of the B3ritish Empire, France, and Belgium. The report of the sixth committee is before you. Perhaps you will permit me, in a very few words, to outline the present situation in that unhappy country. A proud people, which for centuries had maintained its independence, became nmerged in the Ruislan nation a little over a hundred years ago. After the Great War, in common with a great many other countries in a similar position, the Georgian people asserted their independence on February 26, 1918, and adopted a constitution on the lines of a democratic republic. That nation so reconstructed was, on December 11, 1920, recognized by the supreme council, which was then composed of Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and Belgium. In view of later events, it is significant to note that on May 7 of the same year Russia herself recognized de jure the independence of Georgia, using the following words in the treaty in that regard: "Russia recognizes without reserve the independence and sovereignty of the Georgian State, and willingly renounces the sovereign rights which belong to Russia as regards the Georgian people and terrain." On January 27, 1921, the allied powers recognized the State of Georgia de Jure at the same time as Esthonla and Latvia, which are now members of the league. Similar recognition was extended by a large number of other countries: Poland, Rumania, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Argentina, Panama, Haiti, Mexico, Liberia, Luxemburg, and Siam. On February 25, 1921, the minister plenipotentiary of the new State presented his credentials to the President of the French Republic, and since that date the Georgian legation has been functioning at Paris. What then happened-and it is an almost unprecedented action in the history of the world-


was that Russia, in spite of her recognition of Georgia, proceeded to disregard the step which she had taken and to attack Georgia. Since then the position of that country has appealed to the sympathy of all the nations of the world. 17that the status of Georgia, as constituted, has been further recognized and approved is seen by the fact that no less distinguished a person than the present Prime 3Min'ster of F:ance, M. Ilferriot, in 1922 brought the situation of Georgia, as it then was, before the French Chamber of Deputies, where his statement with regard to tl.e position of affairs was approved by the then Premier, M. PoincarC. The present Chancellor of the Exchequer in Great Britain, Mr. Snowden, brought the situation before the British House of Commons in July of last year. While it may be said, in considering this matter, that Great Britain has recognized the Soviet Government in Russia, it must at the same time be borne In mind that that recognition was limited, and was coupled with a reservation, because Great Britain only recognized the Union of Soviet Republics as being the de Jure Government of such territories of the former Russian Empire as recognized its authority. As far as Georgia is concerned, it seems to me, therefore, that she has a full right to claim the sympathy of all the other nations of the world. The representations which were made to our committee or. behalf of that unhappy State disclosed the following facts: "The sufferings of the Georgian people are beyond all endurance: the terror, which is Russia, is relaxed at times, not only does rot know any period of relaxation In Georgia, but Is becoming more and more vio!ent; deportations, Imprisonment, tortures in the dungeons of the Cheka, execution without trial of representatives of all classes are more and more numerous; the arrested political people are treated is bandits, and intellectuals and workmen are deprived of all means of work; Georgians being hostile to the power, their admission to commercial and industrial enterprises as well as Into the public services is hindered by every means; the clergy is persecuted for the exercise of their religious duties, and for having put into the true light th e actual state of affairs. The chief of the Georgian Chureb. 'atriarch Catholicos Ambrosius, was condemned to many years imprisonment and is now In vlo~e confinement." This is the situation, and I am sure it is one which will appeal to every member of this assembly. It is therefore with full confidence that I submit to you the conclusions of the second committee. [Applause.) The PRESIDENT. (translation). Professor Gilbert Murray, delegate of the British Empire, will address the assembly. delegation merely to emphasize the purely humanitarian character of this resolution. There Is no question of interference In the domestic affairs of the Russian Empire. There Is no question whatever of using any form of military pressure to bring about a settlement of the fighting in Georgia In one way or the other. But every war or threat of war Is the concern of the League of Nations, and if the wholesale slaughter and devastation now taking place in Georgia is not techhically a war it is at least a terrible example of human suffering; and the league is concerned, according to article 23 of the covenant, In endeavoring to alleviate the sufferings of mankind. We ask the council to watch for any opportunity that may offer to restore normal conditions in that afflicted region, by any peaceful means in accordance with the rules of international law. The league wishes to offer its good offices to both sides in reestablishing normal conditions. I am afraid that we can do mromore than that, but I feel convinced that we can (1o no less. It has been suggested, as Mr. H. 31. MacDonald pointed out, that the policy of Great Britain has been inconsistent on this matter. On Jr.nuary 27, 1921, Great Britain recognized Georgia de jure as an independent State, and this year the British Government has recognized the Soviet Government: hut, as Mr. B. 31. MacDonald pointed out, the words of that recognition were very carefully, and I think correctly, chosen. I venture to suggest that it would not have been proper for Ills 3Majesty's Government to Interfere In the burning question then at issue between the Soviet Government and that of Georgia. At any rate, the recognition was expressed in very careful and correct language. Ills Majesty's Government recognized the Union of Socialistic Soviet Republics as being the do jure government of those territories of the former Russian Empire which recognized its authority. It went no further.



(British Empire). I rise on behalf of tlh British

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEOROIA One word more: It is only too often the fate of this assembly to be faced by problems it can not solve and by masses of human suffering which it can not with its present resources cure or even alleviate. The question arises in such cases as to what the league ought to do. It is perfectly clear that we rmust not make promises which we can not fulfil; it is clear that It would be cruel to encourage hopes which will not be realized. But surely it Is equally clear that we can not simply turn away our eyes from these masses of suffering and pretend, for diplomatic reasons, a callous indifference which we do not feel. I think we can only do, in this and similar cases, what is recommended in the resolution before us. We must beg the sufferers to be patient to the very limit of human patience; we must acknowledge the duty which for the time being we can not fulfil and ask the council to watch for every opportunity that may present itself of offering effective mediation and bringing peace to the regions where there is now war. (Applause.) The PRESIDENT (translation). Count Bonin-Longare, delegate of Italy, will address the assembly. Count BoNx.x-LoNoAnX (Italy) (translation). Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen, the fifth assembly has had a proposal laid before it in which the council Is asked to follow attentively the course of events In Georgia with a view to restoring the country to normal conditions and putting a stop to bloodshed. It is clear that, at the time when the assembly of the league is in session and is engaged in constructing its noble edifice of universal peace, it can not turn a deaf ear to rumors of war and strife. The league would be failing in its duty if, while drafting and codifying the doctrines which are to establish the peace of the world on unshakable foundations, It affected to ignore the tragedy of a war at the very gates of Europe. There can thus be no two opinions in regard to the proposal put forward by the Belgian, French, and British delegations and tie Italian delegation wishes to support it, more especially as the rapporteur has given us a very timely reminder that we should not be adopting a new resolution but simply reviving one which was unanimously adopted by the third assembly tw9 years ago. It is, however, one of the immutnble laws of international politics that countries can not allow sentiment alone to guide them, and though we are anxious to do all In our power to save every single life we can, we must remember that we are on difficult ground and that a false step might land us in a very awkward predicament. The situation of the two countries in conflict is such that the mediating action which we propose to exercise might, notwithstanding our disinterested motives, encounter most serious difficulties. We must, therefore, act with the utmost caution. Accordingly, I am glad to see from the report before us that the council is allowed wide discretion as to choice of time and methods. The council, which is preeminently a political body, will be able to consider the situation from the twofold standpoint of sentiment and reason. It can steer a course through the shoals cf this difficult problem and so attain without difficulty the humane and peaceful aim which we are pursuing. [Applause.) The PMSIDENT: (Translation). M. de Brouck~re, delegate of Belgium, will address the assembly. M. de BrouckLre (Belgium) (translation). Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen, I should like briefly to express my approval of the prudent counsel which the honorable delegate of Italy has just given us and to say how sincerely I share the hopes expressed by the British delegate. In this matter, as in every other, caution is essential. Not only in the Caucasus, but everywhere else, the league may find itself on trencherous ground. We must, first and foremost, ask the council to exercise in the future, as it has done with such conspicuous success in the past, that political wisdom and foresight to which reference has just been made and which, as experience his shown, Is very rarely synonymous with inaction. If the league taeitly allows a whole nation to fight and perish without taking the slightest heed. its Iaction would, believe me, prove so serious that, far from merely avoiding ineldents, it would provoke the most serious difficulties. 96153-26----3



I venture to say that the league's policy would be singularly inconsistent and indeed derisive if at a time when the foremost intellects of the day are devoting themselves heart and soul to the study of problems of peace, it should stand aloof, if it sheltered behind a cloud of abstractions, and shut its eyes to the fact that war is raging at our gates. It has been rightly said-and those who are most anxious to intervene and prevent war are obliged to recognize the fact-that, at the present juncture, we can do very little. But should we on this account remain silent Surely not. There is a certain virtue in words themselves. Things which we can not do now we will be able to do when the conscience of the world has given us greater power, and it is this conscience which we must awaken and to which we must appeal. We must, by unanimously adopting the resolution before us, speak a word of hope to the oppressed. We must tell them that we know that war, unjust war, is raging, and that sooner or later, as soon as the time comes, we will see that justice is done. [Applause.] The PRESIDENT (translation). M. Georges Monnet, delegate of France, will address the Assembly. M. GEORGEs BONNET (France) (translation). Mr. President, ladles and gentlemen. I should like to say a few words in support of the eloquent speeches which have Just been made. The draft resolution in question has been submitted jointly by the Belgian, British. and French delegations, and you will remember that it was eloquently defended in this Assembly by M. Paul Boncour. As M. de Brouck~re has just emphasized, the League of Nations can not remain silent in the presence of suffering such as are now being endured by the Georgian people. The league must make its voice heard, and this is the aim of the draft resolution which you are asked to adopt. It is true that we must exercise the utmost caution. Legal considerations must be taken in conjunction with sentimental ones. We claim that the text before you takes both into consideration, and accordingly the French delegation associates itself with what has been said by the previous speakers and asks you to adopt the resolution. [Applause.] The PRESIDENT (translation). Does anyone else wish to speak? The discussion is closed. The sixth committee asks that Its report should be submitted by the assembly to the council in order that the latter may be able to take it into consideration at tli. time and in the manner which it may consider the most opportune. On this understanding I put the following resolution to the vote: The assembly decides to authorize the transmission to the council of the report of the sixth committee regarding the situation in Georgia (Document A. 95, 1924, VII), in order that the council may be able, at a time and in the manner it may consider the most opportune, to take into consideration the indications it contains. (The resolution was unanimously adopted.)

The CHAIMAN. Proceed.


Mr. OMDYCiH. I have prepared a very simple memorandum to go into the record, recapitulating the matter. By reason of my acqliaintance and my travel in Russia I feel that I can speak wit?,

a fair degree of accuracy of the facts and with a fair estimation of

the qualifications of these people for serving their Governmenit.

Mr. Chairmann and gentlemen of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the propriety and desirability of Congiess acting favorably on the bill before 'ou, H. J. lies. 195, authorizing the President to appoint a diplomatic representative to the Republic of Georgia, may be considered from three principal viewpoints:
First, the right to the restoration of possession of its territory under its legal position as a matter of simple justice.


Second, its moral right to possess its territory by its historical allegiance to Christianity and honesty of purpose. Third. the desirability of its independent possession of its territory by reason of its economical importance to the United States. While it is not generally appreciated in this country, Georgia's history shows beyond contradiction that it never was in fact a Russian people and always fought to remain a distinctly separate state, and only sought alliance with Russia in order to protect itself front invasion by stronger neighbors who constantly sought its downfall. The treaty with Russia in 1783 was for this sole uurpose, and when in 1801 Russia violated this treaty and annexed Georgia to its own sovereignty, it left a people continuously determined to be free, even to the (late of its final declaration of independence on May 26, 1918. These people never were conquered even by Russia's large armies often at their gates. and Russia came to realize its inability to govern Georgia autocratically, and did actually grant them a vice-royalty government which provided a better feeling, but not complete satisfaction until the revolution of the Boisheviki destroyed the Romanoff Government and presented the opportunity for independence, which was effected by their declaration of May 26, 1918. With such a history in mind the Bolsheviki did actually by a solemn treaty of May 7, 1920, renounce the rights of Russia in Georgia and" willingly granted them "without reservation" their independence and sovereignty, and further agreed to abstain from ntereference in the internal 'affairs of Georgia. There certainly was no doubt about the legality or completeness n of that act on the part of the bolslievists. Mr. MooRE of Virginia. Who was heading the Soviet Government at that time? Mr. O')YCKE. Lenin. Previous to this state of affairs Georgia sought the recognition of the world powers, and was recognized by the acts of the Argentine Republic in 1919. France, Great Britain, Japan. and Italy in the early part of 1920. and by Belgium and Germany later in the same year, do facto, all of whoin later in 1921 recognized the government de jure. and since that time, when Great Britain and France recognized the Soviet Government. they both in no uncertain terms reserved from their recognition the independence of Georgia. Within a tew weeks after the recognition of Georgia by the world powers. and even before Georgia had reasonable time to secure recognition of America. the Bolsheviki deliberately violated their treaty of recognition and with the help of Turkey from the south crushed! the population of Georgia and forcibly dro-e the Government out of the country and set up a soviet government over a beaten but unconquered country. M r. Coorr.. Did you say with the aid of people from the smith? Mr. O1-DYCK.. Turkey. People front tie south, Turkey being to the south of Georgia. Mr. COOPER. It is your claim there that tile Turks were in alliance with Russia? Mr. OI'DYCKiE. Yes; I believe that is true, that Soviet Russia had an understanding with them at least.


Such an act was unprecedented and certainly did not legally deprive Georgia of its de jure status. Therefore Georgia should be aided with our sympathy in securing possession of her country. The details of the wonderful history of this Christian land have been more fully covered by the other speakers.' But I can not leave this reason for recognition without calling your attention again to , this land of fhe Garden of Eden, the golden fleece% the cradle of Christianity, and even the beginning of the spoken language, with its wealth of ancient literature and art, and ask how we can afford to lose this opportunity to preserve them for posterity. Much consideration should be shown to the desires of the officials of independent Georgia, who when driven out of their country by the reds, gathered up what money and stores they could carry, took along with them the ancient art treasures of Georgia, and carried them away to France where they were safely stored in the vaults of the French Government awaiting a time for their restoration to an independent State of Georgia. It may be noted here that, unlike the other ravished countries, they never asked charity from the world, and these fleeing officials instead of lining their pockets with the values of Georgian art in their possession, used the money taken away for the benefit of its many refugees, stored the art treasures away, and went to work for a living while ceaselessly toiling for their liberty. To-day they are living in Paris in extremely humble fashion, although functioning properly in the maintenance of the Georgian Legation. Surely such conduct should be rewarded by the Christian world, and especially by America whose love of a square deal, its valuation of the Christian faith, and its preservation has so very often caused it to unselfishly support downtrodden communities. It is my personal knowledge that these gentlemen of the legation had a building of several floors where this legation was maintained.

gether in the evenings aiter work to transact their business, and at a tremendous sacrifice. The pay of one of these gentlemen, who is of an exceedingly high type, was approximately $80 a month in our money. Mr. VAniL. From what source was that received? Mr. OPDYCKE. He was doing translating work and library work, archaeological work, with the French Government. Mir. VAILE. It was not money paid by the people of Georgia? Mr. OPDYCKE. N'o; they were working for outside people-French activity-had a job in Paris. At these metings, where we gathered together a number of times, the meals were very frugal and the whole conduct that of frugal people. Georgia and its federated neighbors have within their boundaries immense stores of oil, manganese, copper, timber, and silk cocoons, cotton, tea, and many other natural resources well known to this committee and required by the United States in its manufactures. The Soviet Government have well established the fact that no real commercial relations of any degree of reliability can be carried on by

They were functioning there in the various ways that they had of doing things that they could do without physical possession of their country. The acting president, when I was there, lived in an apartment on the fourth floor a very modest apartment, and they got to-


them, and, on the other hand, the high character of the independent government of Georgia guarantees reliable business relations with them, and it may be further said that they are even anxious to have the help of American ingenuity and energy. They have expressed many times their desire for development by American capital under the most liberal terms. To sum up the problem before us I might simply say that this country, small in size but great in history, character, and opportunity, deserves our help and we in turn should recognize our power to aid humanity by helping them with every means possible to regain their territory, thereby performing again our duty to posterity and as well opening this tremendous field of economic value to our coun.y. An intimate acquaintance with many Georgians covering a period of the past 15 years has convinced ine of their absolute loyalty and integrity. I therefore beg your favorable rel)ort on the resolution before you. One work in connection with communication between the Georgian mountaineers and the Georgian Government in Paris. I hapl)pened to have been present at a mne2t;ng of this conference where actual communication was, kept up with these people in the mountains. I have seen communicat ions arrive and coninunications depart. 'Mr. 1)umbadze while there things I have been present with were goinr on. I simply call his attention to the fact that in that respect it kold ive you Q'ntletnen the fill facts-that there are groups of men in control in the mountains there and in other pants of Georpia. Mr. CooPFR. It was m y understanding at. the time of this recognition when the Menshivists were in control there that many of them wanted that alliance with Russia because they had been allied with them before, to save them from the Turks, and the Turks were then battling through there. Mr. OpDYCKE. They were coming tp there under what we believe was an agreement with the Bolsheviks. Doctor Dumbadze can give you more direct information because lie was there on the job at the time. Mr. Mootr of Virginia. Let us get more as to the present conditions. Are the Turks as well as the Russians occupyinig Georgian this territory tit time? Mr. Ornycic.. No. The attitude of the Turks is different now than at that time. Mr. Moonu of Virginia. Wherein different? Mr. Orvyctr:. Because just at this particular time when they canto tip into Georgia from the smith as the Bolshevists came down from the north. thie was an under stan(1in or ahllin'e of s.ome kind between them, the details of which Mr. l)umnbai;ze can give you. Mr. 'Moom Virginia. They did not fight each other? of rYcht.lz. No: they were acting together to accomplish time Mr. Oi same results. MIr. 1)UMBADZE. Georgia was invaded by Soviet Russia and the Turks. Turkey got from Soviet Russia 10,000 square kilometers of our land. 250,000 in population, and copper mines of 6,601,000 tons estimated deposits, etc.


Mr. M[OORE.. The Turks along with the Russians invaded Georgia? Mr. EATON. The Turks took one section and Soviet Russia took

the other, and they drove you and your government'out? Mr. DUMR.%DZE. Yes; tley were in agreement at that time. Mr. EATON. Was anything said about that matter, any reference made to the Georgian Republic in treaties negotiated at" Lausanne. the Turkish treaty? Mr. DUINJBADZI,. No; nothing, because we had no representative there. Mr. COOPFR. That is the time that the Turks went through Armenia just below Georgia and butchered the people indiscrininately, slaughtered thousands of them, and then were coming up into Georgia? Mr. 1)UMIAIDZF'. No. The Turks did not go through the Republic of Armenia at that time. The Turk came his own way front the south along the coast of the Black Sea. .Mr. CooPE,R. I understand they did not get into Georgia necessarily through Armenia, but it 6,as the same time they wire going up through Armenia and butchering them by the thousands, the same time that they went into Russia? Mr. I)UMIADZE. No. They were not in the Republic of Armenia at this time. When my government withdrew to Batoum, the farthest western part of tieorgia, tho Turks and Soviet R.its;a occupied the industrial part of Georgian country along the railroad. The Soviets and Turkey negotiated a treaty about trade and diplomacy at this time. Mr. EDWARDS. Where were these Armenians slaughtered? Mr. Du.3 Anzr. The Armenian slaughter was not at this time. Everything was quiet in the Republic of Armenia. The Armenians, then Bolievistic, did not fight with the Turks after 1920. Mr. EDWARDS. Are the Turks still harassing the Armenismns? Mr. I)u.%m.%zr. They did not harass the Armenians in this section which is tho Bulshevistic Republic of Armenia. I hear the Turkish Government is getting more progressive and liberal in their governjuent, and wherever they have political influence they will use all well-known means to modernize their Government and quiet the population. Mr. FAIRCHILD. Regarding the phy-sical condition here. I notice by this meap that the Caucasus Mounitains run fcom the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea. Along that land al))roach from Russia ig there easy access by land? Mtr. I)uMIIAIIZE. No. Not directly to Georgia. Mr. FAIuCHILD. In other words, if Turkey and Russia were cooperating together in warfare with other nations, would the possession of Georgia by Russia give them an easy access by land, or -woul they be dependent upon the Black Sea approach to Georgia? Mr. DUAMADZE. While the physical access through Georgia itself between these countries is difficult by land-and more or less easy by the Black Sea-the obviously ultimate fall of the tyrannical government of the soviet will leave the aspirations of the Turk to possess Georgia a matter to be dealt with later, as Georgia adjoins and is open to Turkey on the south, and may afford an opportunity, if Georgia is not protected, to add this Christian nation to the Mohammedan forces.


Mr. STEWAR. How does Russia get access to Georgia--over the mountains? Mr. DuMBADZE. Directly through the mountains; it is very get through the mountain passes; the army can not get to. Georgia that way. So they send soldiers by way of the Black Sea. Mr. FAIRCHILD. You have explained that the wealth of Georgia is the motive why Russia wants to keep possession? Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes; together with its immense value imperialistically as a base for mihtary operations and propaganda against Persia, etc. the whole of Asia Minor and Mr. FAIRCHILD. I was wondering whether Russia's relations with the rest of the world would be helped in their alliance with Turkey, by being next-door neighbors-was that one of the motives? Mr. DUmiADZE. Yes; and besides this economical value Georgia possesses, according to statistics of the United States Department of the Interior, high-grade manganese mines, estimated at 110,000,000 metric tons, of which America uses 850,000 tons annually. Georgia's supply is sufficient to last the American steel industry 120 years. Mr. FAIRCIHLD. Are there ,any easy passes over the Caucasus Mountains? Mr. DUMBADZE. No. There are only two passes, and they are extremely difficult. Mr.'FAIRCI,). There is no easy access by land from Russia to Georgia? ir. DUMBADZE. No, not at all; on the contrary. Mr. FAIRCHILD. The only access is bv the Black Sea? Mr. DUM.,BADZE. Yes. The Black Sea, except the passes mentioned. The CHAntrAN. When the bolsheviki entered Georgia, was it by way of the Black Sea or the mountains? Mfr. DUMIBADZE. Azerbaidjan and Armenia. They established Bolshevisim in Azerbaidjan on the eastern side, in 1920. The CI[AIUMAN. They came in by way of Baku?
Mr. I)U.3tADZE. Ys.* Mr.. MARTIN. Ilow much of an army do they have there now? M',\fr. I)u3.i .. I Georgia from Azerbidjan, about 40.000 in


Mr. C(oot'F. Where do you get those figures from? Mr. 1)UTii.%Dzt:. Fron statistics in Europe and America and quoted

They then sent 60,000 additional soldiers in 1924-1925.

on page 9 of Karl Kautskv's book on Georgia. Mr. CooFU. Was it 30,600 or 60,0001 Mr. Duimm)zE. I mentioned two years, 1924 and 1925; some statistics show 35,000 in 1922; some 60,000 additional 1924, and statistics of last year, 1925, showed from 35.000 to 45,001) additional in 1925, totaling over 100.000 Soviet troops in Georgia. Nr.Coo rFl. is, in the three countries? That Mr. DUMiBADZE. No; I men Georgia. Mr. Coo R. Was it in Georgia alone? Mr. DUtIHAuZE. Distinctly I mentioned Georgia. They transfer troops from their other soviet countries in Trans-Caucasus, as needed; where they tre keeping their troops at this identical time it is impossible to say. Mr. EujS. Is thai arny sustained by taxes assessed against the people of Georgia?


Mir. DUMBADZL. Yes; that army is supported by the Soviet M6scow Government, who impose outrageous taxes on our people. Mr. VAILE. In a statement read yesterday from those British labor representatives' report, it was said at the time of the statement the only military force in Georgia consisted of militia. It did n6t, as I remember,'describe what the militia was. Mr. CooPER. It did not say "only," either; it said principally by the local militia. Mr. VAILE. IS there any local military force comprised of the people of Georgia which is concerned with its government for Soviet

Mr. DuBmAzE. No. The regular troops of the independent Republic of Georgia, after being driven westward by the Soviet army to Batoum, dispersed when the government left Georgia for Paris. Some of these troops were captured and some fled to the mour -tins north of Kutais, where they remained out of reach of the red army. There was no other army or independent troops of Georgia other than these and the mountain soldiers spoken of. When the Soviets invaded Georgia the first to arrive from Russia were the "Tcheka "--composed of men of every race under the sun-with a number of former Georgians recruited'in Moscow. Then followed the regular red army, among which there were also some ex-Georgians. These two organizations-the Tcheka and the red army-were the only invaders and are to-day exercising their arbitrary Russian inquisition-punishing without trial, etc., as you well know. I desire you to fully imdcrstand that at no time did any body of Georgian soldiers, regular or local, desert their people and fight for red Russia. Mr. EDWARDS. HOW many communists do you have in Georgia, if any? Mr. DU.MBADZE. According to statistics of Bolshevik Russia, dated February, 1925, there are about 369,000 communists in Russia, and these statistics show that Caucasus has 6 per cent of them. As the Caucasus has about 22.000, as Georgia has about one-fifth of the population of the Caucasus, a proper estimate would be about 4,500 more or less. Mr. EDWARDS. What about Georgia? Mr. DU.HiADZE. We have not apportioned it. There is no means to calculate; very few. Mr. VAILE. How large is this local military force of militia which is referred to in that British report? Mr. DU3MBADZE. This British report was made in 1924, and at that time the forces of Soviet Russia were large, because the Georgian people were fighting against Soviet Russia. The Georgian soldiers which were captured as soldiers may have been forced into the Russian Army. The Communist army in Russia may be 500,000 to 700.000 soldiers, a few of them are "Communists; some are hired soldiers, and some along with captured Georgians were forced to serve in the Bolshevik army. Mr. VAILE. Those soldiers you are now referring to were in the Soviet army? Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes.


Mr. VATLE. They were part of the national force of Russia? Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes. Mr. VAILE. The British report seemed to refer to a different force corresponding to our local militia, to a local military force? Mr. DUMBADZE. ' he British report can not be taken as a reliable report as it was discredited universally by even the Socialists of the world, and besides it flatly contradicts the Soviet's own official statements. I will file with you a very able comment on that reportby the Social Democrat Labor Party of Georgia. Mr. VAmLE. I think you are probably correct. Mr. DUMBADZE. It was not accepted by the English Government and people, and we are deeply convinced that it is Soviet propaganda, an insidious example. Mr. VAILE. Very good; and I think you are correct in saving we can not rely on it; at least, not wholly, but we want to find out to what extent. Mr. DUMBADZE. There is a Georgian military force under the Soviet regime, composed of Russian Soviets. Mr. VAILE. The Georgian militia served the Soviet regime, but not in 1924? Mr. DuMfBADzE. Not at all, except these communists from Moscow, who were exported from there. All countries have communists now. Mr. VAILE. Did the Georgian people have any local police force which operated to maintain order? Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes, but they dispersed when Soviet Russia entered Georgia. You refer to the Georgian regime; it was Bolshevik Soviet Russia regime which was referred to in the English report. Mr. VAILE. Then all the ordinary police work was done by the Soviets? Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes-after the soviets entered Georgia the Tcheka; not like we have in America, the police force, but the Soviet Teheka who condemn without trial, without court. Mr. MARTIN. You do not think the sentiment of your country is in favor of Russia?
Mr. DUMBADZE. Not at all.

Mr. MARTIN. That statement was made yesterday. Mr. DUMtBADZE. I repeat there is not that sentiment. If our country would be allowed to have a plebiscite, I do not believe the Georgian Republic would give 1 or 2 per cent in favor of the Soviet regime or any Russian regime at all. Mr. FAIRCHILD. You say if there was a vote in Georgia about 2 per cent of the Georgians would vote for Russia? Mr. DUMBADZE. 1 do not believe even that many would vote for Russia. Mr. MooRE of Virginia. Dnrin- the centuries has there been much intermarriage of Russians and (eorgians? Mr. DU MBADZr. A few of them; it is difficult to tell about that. The integrity of the Georgian people stays always the same; the Georgian influence prevails, if a Georgian marries a Russian the children are Georgians. Mr. COOPER. Have they refused to let you have a plebiscite? Mr. DUMBADZE. They refused it distinctly.



Mr.COOPER. Do you know that General Wood in the Philippines has refused to allow the Philippines to have a plebiscite? Mr. DUMBADZE. I am not entitled to critize Genecal Wood's acts. I am only considering the Georgian question. Mr. EATON. You have the Tcheka yet, do you? Mr. VAILE. Just as we have a local police force. Mr. DUMBADZE. It is not like a United States police force, unfortunately, but as I explained previously a Russian inquisition. May I be permitted to file a brief afterward s? The CIAIR-MAN. Yes. Mr. DUMBADZE. With statistics and document that the Congressmen want. I will file it. (The statement referred to is as follows):
STATEMENT BY MBR.VAST!.I 1). DtMnIA0ZE. GENERAL. DIPLOMATIC AND IECONOM1C REPRESENTATIVE OF TIE RItl' OF GOmuca.' Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the Committee on Foreign Relarions, among the nations emancipated by the events of the Great War and by the revolutions which followed. Georgia is one of the most ancient. She is also the nation which has kept longer than any olher the last vestige of her independence; indeed she was not annexed to Russia until forcibly annexed In the beginning of the niteteenth century, so that this foreign domination lasted but a little over a hundred years. From a geographical point of view, Georgia is very distinctly separated from Russia; that Is to sy, from that vast plain stretching from the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea to the Baltic, and the Arctic Ocean, by that natural barrier formed by the chain of the great Caucasian Mrsro.unins on the north. From the ethnographical point of view the Geo-.gian people, being" in no wise Slav, are altogether unlike the Russians. They are of a different type, as entirely different as are their language, their traditions, their customs, and their manners. Although the majority are like the Russintis. profe.sedly of the Greek Orthodox Church, the Georgian nation, even in this particular domain, has never mingled with the Russians. 11er ecclesiastical traditions were maintained even under Russian rule. in 6pite of the temporary suppression of the ancient rights of the Georgian Church, Georgia restored this autocephaly of the Georgian Church on the muorrow of the pan-Russian revolution in 1917. These priniordiail facts taken into consid#-ration, it is easy to understand that with the crumbling of the former Russian Elipire in 1917-18, a people such as the Georgians. homogeneous. with pronounced ethnical characteristics, with feelings of nationality aroused, having a still vivid remembrance of a*freedom of age-long duration, pos.sessed of a precisely defined territory, alert and already initiated into political life. would (f necessity have to constitute themselves an indeipelent State, or otherwise descend into inevitable chaos. This movement for independence in Georgia was altogether spontaneous and without pre(edent unanimous. Already during the last decades of Russian rule an exceedingly strong denioeratic current had made itself felt in Georgia: it was at its height durToward. 1917 it Ing the revolution wlhieh convul.ed Ru-1sia in 1905-1906. reached completed maturity and Is the chief reason of the stability of the Institutions created by independent Georgia. National sentiment. fertilized and renewed by the ideal of democracy, facilli stated the application of this ideal. acting a. a sure basis. a settled framework, a medium. coherent and united in spite of the differences in class and conditions. T'ils rapid outline i. sufficient to show how not only inevitable in view of political ciretunstances, but also essentially necessary was the solemn act of 2th May. 1918, by which the national council proclaimed the independence of Georgia an( the Installation of her government. Georgia. of which Tiflis. with its half-million population, is the capital, Is situated in Transcaucasia, between the Black and the Caspian Seas (40-49

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA northern latitude, and 39-470 east of Greenwich). She is separated from Old Russia by the celebrated Caucasian Mountain chain, which stretches for distance of a thousand miles from the Black Sea to the Caspian, and has an average height of 10,000 feet and In some places, and as in the peaks of the Nbllruz and the Kasbek. even 18,000 feet. The frontiers of Georgia are-in the north, the Caucasian Mountain chain; ill the east. AzerbaidJan; in the south, Armenia; and In tile southwest, Turkey. To quote from an interesting booklet of impressions and observations on Georgia. ly Mr. Karl Kauisky, member of German Parliament investigating conditions in (k!orgia: "At a first glance Georgia is bewitching, and this impression deepens as the endless variety of its pictures disclose themselves to our view. From a eat-oast. with subtropical vegetation. the Caucasus rises to a height of more than 15.000 feet. The (erman explorer. Merzbaeher, related in his book 'TI.e Caucasian Highlands.' that from the summit of Elbrus (18,000 feet), he enjoyed a view which made such a powerful Inpression that compared with it the laks of the Central Alps only left at feeble remembrance. "He also declares that the Via Mala, the Tamina, the Liechtenstein Gorge, and other renowned places were left far behind by the wild, rocky scenery of the Tchegun or of the Alasan and Korsuf Rivers. Neither the Bernese Oberland nor Engadine, neither Judikarlen nor Cortina came near to equaling the Swanetnian landscape in the grandeur of its proportions or in the splendor of its colors. "I have quoted the testimony of the classic explorer of the mountains and people of the Caucasus, as I was prevented from enjoying Its beauties on the spot. "Merzbacher was as well acquainted with the Alps as with the Caucasus, and others who knew both mountain ranges consider the beauty and dimensions of the Caucasus to be superior to those of the Alps. If the reader will' Imagine the Day of Naples to be a part of Switzerland, he will get an idea of the variety and perfection of nature to be found in Georgia. "Georgia not only combines subtropical coasts and glaciers but also contains n great fullness of vegetation, produced by the tropical heat and great hunidity, and close to this are arid desert regions. There is also a surprising number of medicinal springs of various kinds, which burst out of the volcanic soil. "Georgia has much to offer to Invalids, as well as to nature lovers and artists. before the war tourists and invalids, both from Russia and from western Europe, had begun to visit the wonderful country whose attractions were heightened by the fact that, unlike Switzerland and Italy, they were, In many respects, as yet untried. In the Caucasus there are virgin forests and remote valleys which no stranger has hitherto trodden. An evidence of the primitive character (of the country Is furnished by the circumstance that large beasts of prey are constantly met with there, as well as other kinds of wild animals. Bear's flesh comes into the market at Tiflis for sale like h(evf with u tand at no higher price. On one occasion when, out of curiosity, I bought some bear's flesh I asked where the bear had been shot and was informed 50 miles front Tifllo-quite near the capital and not in some remote Caucasiai valley. "But Geor-ia is not only a veritable paradise for tourists, sportsmen, and invalids. Nature also felt obliged to please the economists. Natural beauty and richness of soil, which are so seldom found together, are combined in Georgia to nn extraordinary degree. The soil iN extremely fruitful and capable of hearing rich harvests of southern and northern products. according to the position of the lanjid. Oranges. figs. olives, and tea flourish on the coast of the Black Sea anti cotton is cultivated toward Azerbaidjan. Maize, wheat, or barley are sown almost everywhere. Georgia is particularly rich in excellent wine and seems to be the home of time grape, which grows wild in the woods. Tobacco also thrives very well and In quality seejns to be better than that of Trebizond. Nowhere have I seen such abundance of fruit as in Georgia, and in this respect It can only ie compared with California. The Georgian mounIn tains, e.specially tie Cauclsus, are infinitely rich in valuable wood. minerals, too, Georgia conceal, great treasures, of which the most important is the manganese of Tchiaturi, which ranks as the richest in the world. "Thus Georgia lacks nothing to make her not only one of the most beautiful. but also one of the richest countries in the world," (P. 11 ff.)



In enlarging upon the natural resources which Georgia possesses, her imniense manganese deposits are of first consideration. In order to sum up briefly the Importance of Georgian manganese to the American steel industry and to show the comparative reserve supply in these two countries, let me quote from United States Document No. 1: 9, "Manganese and Manganlferous Ores in 1919," by H. A. C. Jenison: "About 850,000 gross tons of high-grade ore was required In the production of 41,000,000 tons of steel in 1918, and at that rate the high-grade (domestic) reserves could supply the requirements of the steel Industry for less than two years. (P. 96.) "The reserves of high-grade ore (in the Tchiatour district of Georgia) are estimated variously at 45,000,000 to 110,000,000 metric tons-enough to supply the requirements of the American steel industry at the rate of production in 1918 for 50 to 120 years." Aside from tile manganese mines, Georgia possesses several large deposits of iron ore. Immense quantities of copper ore exist in the Georgian soil. Copper Is found almost everywhere throughout the State and is regarded as one of its great assets. Georgia has been called, potentially, a second Montana, on account of the practically limitless copper deposits. Aside from copper, which Is found not only In Georgia but throughout all of Caucasla, silver, lead, and zinc are plentiful; mercury, nickel, and cobalt are also inuned. In northwestern Georgia oil Is so plentiful in the soil that the peasants for years have secured their fuel and light from taps In their "back yards," much as an American farmer would go to the spring for water, or a Scranton, Pa., suburbanite replenishes his coal bin from his residential plot. The oil-bearing fields of Georgia have been scientifically surveyed by M. Koniushewski, a wellknown Russian mining engineer, and by V. Babet, geologist and chief of the Georgian Governmert laboratory at Tiflis, 1918-1921. In their elaborate reports both of these experts present a wide range of oil-bearing lands, " Which," says 31i. Babet, "are distributed almost anywhere in Georgia." The Georgian field, offering untold wealth, has been but superficially worked. Georgia possesses very rich coal beds, which, however, have never been the object of extensive exploitation. The reserve supply in the mines of Tvibouli is estimated at 94,500,000 tons. Much more rich than the coal deposit of Tvlbouil is that of Tk.vareheli, situated 60.4 miles from the port of Otchemtehlirl in the basin of Gallzga. The deposit of coal, without counting the thin layers, is estimated at approximately 140,000,000 tons; and in adding the thin layers it would amount to approximately 200,000,000 tons. The quality of this voal is equal to that of Great Britain. (D. Abkhazi, "IL es Itlchelsses Naturelle.; do la Georgie.") Rich deposits of gold have bcen discovered In the Caucasian Mountains and in the sands of the river bed% although gold mining has not been recently developed to any considerable extent. Antiquity, however, is full of glorious legends of the pilgrimages of the Argon:uts to collect gold In the streams of the Cau.asus. The ancient historians, Manon, Ilerodotus, Dlodore, say that Colchide (western Georgia), was a gold-produelng country. Strabon, the historian, relates that the torrents which fell from the Caucasian Mountains, rolled. In their fall, balls of gold smid, lie adds that there was extraced also from its soil, silver and iron, and he perceives the reasons for the expedition of the Argonauts, in the rlchus of that country, where "one fould in great quantity gold, silver, and Iron." Pliny mentions the great wealth of these regions In precious metal". Plutarch reports that Savtak, King of Iberia (eastern Georgia). sent to 1'inpeii a bed, a table, and a throne of pure gold. (Plutarque: Pompke; XI,.) The reason for the nonexploliation of this tremendous ore wealth is that the Georgian mountaineers, in protest against the violation of Georgia's treaty with Ruszia in 1801-1,1O, have never permitted the itusslans, either under the Czar's rglime or the Soviet r6gime, to penetrate into the Interior of their mountain fiastneses. With reference to this subject there Is an interesting statement it a b)ook called "Turkey, ltMm,,ha, tile Blink 'e'. nud Clrca,:sia," published in 1851 by It. Clay, London (pp. 342-3.13), as follows: "Ileineggs. the Ilmssian mineralogist, one of the earliest travelers in the Caucasnms, who was sent out many years before the war (Russia's war with Circassin, which lasted for 55 years) commenced with presents to the chleftians of the Camcasus, but really with the Intention of ascertaining the truth of time reports respecting the existence of gold in the mountains, in his report to the government, says that lie discovered. on the south side of the territory of the

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA Suonl, the galleries and shafts whence the ancients, in all probability, were accustomed to get their wonderful supply of gold and silver. From that time all traces of them have been lost; hence it is concluded that the mountaineers, dreading the inroads of foreign invaders, destroyed every vestige of them. That gold exists in that part of the Caucasus, there can be no doubt, as this metal is found in the Ingour and all its tributary streams that have their source in the alpine region of Elbruz. It is also worthy of remark, that shortly after the report of Reineggs, the Ru-slans commenced their aggressive war in the Caucasus, no doubt partly stimulated by the hope of obtaining possession of their valuable mines. Indeed, there is not an iMtelligent Russian, whatever may be his political opinions, who does not believe that these mines will one day prove the source of Inexhaustible wealth to any power who may obtain possession of the country. Since Reineggs's time, several attempts have been made by adventurers to obtain an entrance into the mysterious home of the Suoni in their search for gold, but they never returned." The development of hydroelectric power in Georgia is still in its infancy. The great number of rivers and streams of the Caucasian Range, offers vast opportunities as an inexhaustible source of water-power energy. Professor Reginald Aubrey Fessenden, in his book " The Deluged Civilization of the Caucasus Isthmus" (p. 84), published In 1923, has this to say on the subject of hydroelectric power from the Caucasus (in which Georgia shares with more than 75 per cent): "The Caucasus is better provided with power than any other place in the ,world. The principal sources are: 1. Hydraulic, from the melting of the glaciers and rainfall, 120,000,000 horsepower. 2. Hydraulic. from flow equal to evaporation, from Black Sea to Caspian Basin. 5,000.000 horsepower. "The figures for the hydraulic power may be taken as correct; the writer was engineering commissioner for the Ontario Niagarit Falls Power Commission, and that plant was erected by his assistants. They are the horsepower obtainable from the sources 365 days per year, 10 hours per day. With a free hand and a golf course one could in five years (the financial problems have nat been overlooked; the witer was brought up in the banking business) transform the Caucasus isthmus Into a creative Hyperborea which would supply all of Ru. sla with more than it could Possibly use of everything except cervalz, and give opportunity for the development of a civilization as it should be, i. e., one in which the necessary physical labor becomes a form of healthful, universal, and useful physical exercise and all else is a matter of individu:,l initiative." For more detailed informnation on the subject of the mineral resources of Georgia, see Appendix No. 1. "Mineral. Resources of Georgia and Cuca.isla." by D. Chambashidze, F.R.G.S. "As early as the eighth century B. C." says Mr. Karl Kautsky in his book on Georgia (p. 14), "colonies were planted by Greek towns along the Black Sea. The Georgians became acquainted with Greek civilization at a time when the Germans, or their predecessors, living in primeval woods, stood on no higher plane of civilization than the savage Indians of North America when they were discovered by Europeans." Christianity penetrated Georgia In the first century through the holy apostle, St. Andrew. At the beginning of the fourth century King Mirlan and the whole of the Georgia people embraced the new religion. Since that time Georgia has remained the advance guard, on the oriental front, of the Christian world trust Into the world of Islam. Surrounded by Mussulman countries. it is cast like a little island in the ocean of Islam which has menaced and submerged it for long centuries. Armenia having been rendered "hors tie combat" at an early date, It was Georgia alone without any assistance from the Christian world, which sustained the repeated assaults of Mussulv'ian and Mongol. Although many times victorious she was often conquered and pitilessly reduced by slaughter and fire. But in spite of all Georgia was able to maintain her faith and national character, remaining a free and independent State up to the nineteenth century. This was costly, however. for nearly a third of her territory was torn from her by Turkey and "'mmissulmanized" during three centuries of domination-and this third was the most important part as regards culture and Christian monuments. In place of 7,000,000 inhabitants which Georgia numbered during the period of her greatest glory, the twelfth century, there remained only half a million at the time

NATIONAL IIEPUBLIC OF GEORGIA of her incorporation Into the Russian Empire. In place of 115,830 square miles of territory there remained only 29,160. In 1920 the area of Georgia comprised 43,000 square miles and the population approximately 4,000,000. Christian civilization flourished on Georgian soil. The activities of the Georgian church overflowed the boundaries of the country. Georgian monks founded ten or a dozen monasteries at Jerusalem, Mount Sinai, Mount Athos, and in many other places where they devoted themselves to the service of God and to the most intense intellectual work, especially In the ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries. The work of certain monks of this period bears a high mark of mental culture and philosophical thought, for example, Ephrain Mtsire and George Mtatymindeli, et al. The Georgian ecclesiastical library contains among its numerous manuscripts those dating from the sixth and seventh centuries and recently a palyipsest of the fifth century containing various parts of the Holy Scriptures.

Professor Zurab Avaloff writes of these Palimpsests:

The study of 2,000 paiges of these palimpsests has only Just begun. Among the fragments already deciphered there are portions of the apocryphal lives of the Apostles, Ancient versions of the utmost importance to our canonical texts may very probably emerge from the "ensemble" of these Georgian palimpsests. In speaking of the history of the Georgian Church it would be an oversight not to mention fer archiaeologlcil treasures. "How large was the production of enamel articles in Christian Georgia," " says Prof. N. Kondakov in his book Description of Monuments and Antique Objects of Art in Various Churches and Convents in Georgia," composed by order of His Majesty, the Emperor of Russia, edited In Petrograd, in 1890, church stores of Gelat, which up to now "can be judged by looking at tile possesses so many precious productions of Byzantla, and which are counted as being very rare in the first museums of Europe and in the oldest church Byzantine repositories. Georglan churches possess more than half of all tile enamels in the world. The only rival of Georgia is the depository of the Church of St. Mark, in Venice. whose treasures were bought and brought from the Orient, and are better guarded front being looted. The antiquities of Georgia were sometimes stolen or taken away on the pretense of renovating them." in the Metropolitan Musetmt of Art in New York. were they sniehow found their way from the church of the monastery of Jumatl in Georgia, there are nine enamel medallions. In the Handbook of the Plerpont Morgan wing of this nuseaum, page 55, there is the following reference made to these medallions. (See Appendix No. 23:) "Tile highest quality of Byzantine enameling is exemplified in the nine medallions in Case J (fig. 28) with half-length figures of ChriS. the Virgin, and saints, which once decorated a large icon of St. Gabriel. now destroyed, formerly in the church of the monastery of Jumati. in Georgia (Caucasla). The medallions, which date from the end of the eleventh century, are superlatively fine it execution, design, and color. The minute surfaces of the Clolsons give the sheen of gold to the rich hues of the enamel-to tle blue and green, scarlet. yellow, and flesh color, which are set like gems In the plain gold of the background." Along with ecclesiastical culture there developed a lay culture which reached Its culmination in the twelfth century. epoch of tilegreat Queen Tamara. This was also the period of the greatest Iolitical and economic power of Georgia, whose domination extended over the whole of Transcaueasla and a large part of the North Caucasus. The Kingdom of Georgia was then bounded I)erent in the oi the west by the Black Sea and on the east by the Caspian. North ('aucasus. Treblzond in Asia Minor and Kazv-In in Persia were all inwork of this period is tile eluded within her boundaries. The best known poem of Shot'ha ltust'haveil, "The Knight in the Panther's Skinl." ,,An translation of this poem was made by Marjory Scott Wardrop and published by the Royal Asiatic Society. London. in 1912.) This poem is compared with the masterpieces of the Renaissance, but with this characteristic difference that it is austere and free from sensuality and scepticism. The lyric notes, the great power of which rivals. their extreme delicacy, predominate throughout this epic. The reader is carried away by the magnificent description of Nature therein. Tile translation of and commentaries upon Greek philosophical works were very widespread. Petrisoneli was the most

NATIONAL, REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA distinguished exponent of the Neo-Platonic School to which he contributed greatly. After the twelfth century there began for Georgia a period of great misfortunes. The invasions of Ghengis Khan and Tamerlane brought about in general the political, economic, and cultural decadence of the country, although there were times of recovery and renaissance. Thus in the notes of the Arabs reference Is made to 700 Georgian villages completely destroyed, numberless churches, fortresses, and castles In ruins, and of the flight of the population into the mountains where they sought refuge in secret eaves only to fall victims of the warriors of Tamerlane. The conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453 cut off Georgia from all connection with the Christian Occident. From this time on Georgia found herself surrounded by Mohammedan peoples who made relentless war upon her as a Christian kingdom. Under these conditions Georgia was obliged to seek a Christian ally, and she turned to her neighbor, Russia, who had the same religion as herself, for protection and alliance. Negotiations were undertaken early in the eighteenth century toward the end of which Russia had fixed upon an oriental policy and sought to establish herself in the Caucasus. Thus the interests of Russia and of Georgia coincide(] and a treaty was signed In 1783 between the King of Georgia, Irakly II, and Catherine of Russia. (See Appendix No. 2.) Under this treaty Georgia retained her dynasty and complete Independence In home affairs, while surrendering to Russia her sovereignty as regards foreign affairs. Russia agreed to support Georgia by force of arms in case of a defensive'war against the Mussulman. This treaty with Russia Irritated Turkey and Perqla, who, in order to wreak vengeance upon the Georgian King, Invaded his territory several times. The Russians not holding to their obligations, failed to send an army to the assistance of the Georgian King. with disastrous results. The Russian Government went still further after the death of Catherine. In 1801 Czar Alexander I violated the treaty and proclaimed the annexation of Georgia to his Empire. The Georgian dynasty, Intellectuals, statesmen, and the most influential nobles, to the number of about 7,000, were deported to Russia and scattered here and there over Its vast expanse. The Georgian nation replied with a dozen revolts during the nineteenth century as a policy of russiflcation was put Into operation In the country. Tens of thousands of Russian colonists were brought to Georgia and granted lands. The Georgian language was driven from all state institutions. Georgian intellectuals could not find positions in their own country. The Georgian Church was deprived of Its ancient Independence granted by Antioch In tihe eighth century, and was forced to depend upon the Russian Synod administration. (See Appendix No. 10, Chronology of Important Events In the History of Georgla.) I may refer those Interested in Georgian Church history to the booklpt (Sep Appendix No. 3). called "The Autocephaly of the Orthodox Church of Georgia," by Llamnz Dadeshkelinni. On page 3 of this booklet we read that"The merits of the Georgian Church before the Univetsal Church are great. We have the testimony to this effect of niany ('hristian h'1storian; e. g., Kerakos, an Armenian historlan of the thirteenth century, says that Q'een Tamara, of Georgia. made a treaty of peace with the Sultan of Damaseus. and since that time the Sultans have treated Christlans more humanely. 9Dositheus. Patriarch of .Terunsalem. says the pious lverian (Georgian) kings have always been administrators md protectors of the Holy S'rlpilmdhre and other Holy Places. "The Arab historian, lbu Shaddana. also says that Queen Tanmarn offered Salladin 200.000 dinars for the Holy Cross, and in 1197 nsked thiat tle monasteries taken from the Christians should be restored. Even at the present day there are at the Holy Places. Mount Athos. Bulgarla. Syria. Cyprus, Antioch, over 30 monasteries and churches built by the Georgians." In the thirteenth century, when the Georgian Kingdom still flourished. Georgian rendered great service and protection to ('hristlan nations4 which were under Mohammedan oppression, and centuries later, as stated by Professor Djavaloff In his book, "1 Georgian Boundaries ": "During the last centures time Armenians had often fallen back upon time Georgians, as in 1705. when thousands of refugees came to Georgia to escape the persecutions of the Persian Shah, Agha-Mahomet-Kahn. Between IS27 and 1829 Georgian hospitality was extended to more than a hundred thousand Armenian refugees front Turkey and 30,000 from Persla " (p. 32).

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF'GEORGIA The Georgian Church, from the time of its inception, has been the "principal factor of the power and glory of the national Georgian State." A very complete history of the Georgian Church has been written by Michel Tamarati, called "The Georgian Church From Its Origin to Our Days," Rome, 1910, In which he says: "If the Georgians, who had to endure through many centuries terrible and bloody political storms and continuous wars, were able to conserve to the last moment the independence of their country and the practice of the Christian faith complete and intact in its primitive purity; if to-day they speak their own tongue; if they are valued in the large family of humanity as a nation still strong, they owe this indubitably to their church. Christlanism took root in Georgia, the cross of Christ became the symbol and the emblem of their nationality and of their historic life. Thus through centuries Georgian life is a continued martyrology, a drama In history" (pp. 387-3S9). Dr. B. J. Dillon, in his book "The Ecllpse of Russia," reveals the cynical methods of the Russian Government in treating Georgia when he quotes a Russian diplomat, as follows: "We have only two ways of. dealing with weaker nations, and they are exemplified in our treatment of Georgia and Bulgaria. The Kingdom of Georgia came to us and asked for an alliance. We made it. Some time afterwards the Georgians fell upon evil days. Being attacked by Persia, they claimed our active help as equals and allies. But we answered we were too busy elsewhere and left them to their fate. Thereupon the Persians fell upon them and killed two men out of every three, so that the nation was literally bleeding to death. Then the Georgians came to us a second time, now no longer as equals and allies but as humble suppliants." There we have the Russian "method" in its naked state; and, as Doctor Dillon rightly says, "the system carried out In Georgia was the same as was being used in Turkey and elsewhere." (See p. 225.) During the first half of the nineteenth century Russia gradually abolished all privileges guaranteed to Georgia, like the law courts, administration, the monetary system, and introduced harsh administration. Georgia offered stubborn resistance to all these measures, but all was in vain, as she was surrounded by hostile Persia and Turkey, and the ever-increasing penetration of Russia did not give her a chance to restore her independence. The national institutions of Georgia were abolished at that time, the language suppressed in the schools, and every chance of individual development crushed. Forcible Russifleation was Introduced, and the young generation was refused education In its own native tongue. The national Georgian Army was disbanded in 1874. In this way the small Christian nation which expected protection received heavy blows, one after another, and this during the nineteenth century, when Russia posed as a liberator of the small Slav people in the Balkans and the protector of Christianity In the East. Guorgia was not conquered by Russia. Only by open violation of the treaty of alliance of 1783, which Georgia had concluded in good faith, was the Rus.sian Tsar enabled to bring the Georgian Kingdom under his scepter. That the Ru4.s ans became masters of Georgia by victorious warfare is not the historical fact. By a breach of international law, vigorously protested at the tivme by Great Britain and France, Russia established her overlordship of this part of the Caucasus. Russia's subjugation of Georgia was completed by the annexation of Mingrelia (in 1803) and ineretia (in 1810), formerly independent principalities and parts of the ancient Georgian Kin~gdom. But in spite of the a&-antaige taken of her momentary weakness, Georgia remained loyal to Russia, which insured her the preservation of her Christian religion. Following this annexation of Georgia, many Caucasians attained prominence in the Russian Government. In imperialist armies and as goverrors of provinces, Caucasian men occupied high posts and influenced the destiny of Russia. The distinguished Russian prime minister, Witte, well known in America for his activities In connection with the Portsmouth peace treaty during tht, Russian-Japanese War, gives in his memoirs (Vol. II. pp. 37 and 44) high praise for the loyalty, honesty, and courage of the Caucasians, "thousands an( thousands of whom," he says, "have shed their blood for the honor of the Russian sword. * * * Caucasian generals have left behind the most brilliant pages in Russia's military history."




The officials of the Caucasian vice royalty, however, were chiefly Russians because the Czarist Government followed a policy of disrupting the national sentiments of non-Russian minorities by imposing local administration by Russians. Thus in Czarist days Georgians and the other Caucasians seldom found an opportunity of devoting their abilities to the direct benefit of their country, with the only exception of the small number who yielded to the Russification policy and abandoned their native tongue and traditions. To liberate her provinces lost to Turkey, Georgia gave full support to Russia in the three wars against Turkey in the nineteenth century, and lastly in 1914, when Georgia mobilized, apart from those special Georgian volunteer corps fighting on the Caucasus front, about 200,000 of her best manhood in the cause of the Allies. As an example of the high regard of the Russians for the Georgian soldiers, in "La Resurrection Georgienne," (p. 199), Mr. Paul Gentizon says, " As Grand-Duke Nicholas, commander in chief of the occidental front, said: 6If, during the battle, I have five or six Georgians to each company, I may feel at ease."' After the Russian revolution of February and March, 1917, and the overthrow of Imperial Russia, the viceroy who had governed Caucasla in the name of the Czar ceased to function. In October, 1917, when the Bolsheviks seized power In Petrograd and Moscow, chaos followed in Transcaucasla through the withdrawal of the entire admin. istrative, Judicial, and military establishments who fled across the frontiers and joined the WLite Armies being organized to restore old Russia. This abandonment on the part of Russia released Georgia from all obligations toward the new Bolshevik Government and threw her upon her own resources. The national Integrity of the Georgian people that had been held forcibly under Russian rule was thus automatically restored. The situation, demandIng organization and defense, forced the leaders and peoples of Georgia and the other nations of the Caucasus, to take their fate into their own hands, particularly in view of the imminence of the Turks on their frontiers, and especially to assure the continued development of their national life. The Transcaucasians united November 15, 1917, into a committee of government for the Transcaucasian States, forming a combined assembly, Siem, In February, 1918. It soon became apparent, however, that this would not work out satisfactorily. Georgia realized that she must act independently or become the victim of Turkish ambition which sought to create a Turkish Empire that would Include all the Islamitic tribes of Caucasla and Persia, and extend its Influence from the Black to the Caspian Seas, and on May 26, 1918, In Tiflis, Georgia declared her independence. (See Appendix No. 4.) The Hon. Zurab Avaloff, justice of the supreme court and member of the Russian Senate in Kerensky's Provisional Government, in his book, "The Independence of Georgia in International Politics," describes very poignantly the emotions which actuated the Georgian people in those days just preceding their declaration of Independence: "The actuality of those days obliged us to set the question precisely in that way; much deeper reasons, too, forced us to choose this path. How could we not hear in this unique moment the thunder of historical elements; how could we keep silent to the voices of those who lived no more; how could we not think of those who were yet to come? How many generations had it taken to create the Georgian nation? And for how many generations had she vainly sought conditions for her free development and a place in the sun? "Now that independence knocked at the gates-how not to rush toward her! If we missed the moment, what were we to say to those who would uome after us? Maybe this people was born but for slavery and will finally berop.e 'ethnical material,' out of which, owing to conditions, Persians or Turk3 er Russians will be molded? No! They remember! They wish to rice and be themselves again! * 0 * A page of history Is being turned over'" (p. 55). The Georgian people, under their restored sovereignty, carefully organized their new government and established international relations. Their act of independence was approved, confirmed, and ratified March 12, 1919 (aPi Appendix No. 4), by their Constituent Assembly, which was elected according to the electoral system of direct, equal, universal, secret, and proportion"l voting of citizens of both sexes. Under the system of proportional suffrage th. whole country was taken as one electoral district and the 130 seats of the assembly distributed among all parties in proportion to the number of votes cast for

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA their candidates. In the election to the Constituent Assembly, February, 1919, 514,000 electors voted-Social Democrats, 408,000 votes, 109 seats: National Democrats, 30,000, 8 seats; Federal Socialists, 33,000, 8 seats. The constitution and political organization was that of a democratic republic. The executive power was intrusted to the cabinet, whose President was elected by the Constituent Assembly. President appointed, as does the American President, the members of his cabinet. The administrative bodies were controlled by the assembly, to which the cabinet and Its President were personally responsible and whose confidence they must possess. Administration was decentralized by enlarging the power of the local councils, democratically elected. Towns, rural districts, and villages exercised complete self-government in all questions local, economic, and educational questions. All citizens were equal In the eyes of the law. The Georgian nobility, inspired by their democratic feelings, formerly enjoying wide privileges, renounced them voluntarily. The interests of workmen were fully protected. The church was completely separated from the state and was enabled to function in accordance with Georgian customs for the first time since Russia had suppressed it in 1811. The Georgian Government sought to bring their country up to the most perfect organization of life by means of systematic development of all the material and educational resources of the people and by the consolidation of the democratic institutions. Mr. Wladimir Woytinsky, In his book "The Georgian Democracy," under a chapter called "The renaissance of Georgian culture and public Instruction" (p. 265), describes very well the radical reorganization of Georgian social life effected in that Ittle Republic during the brief period of her independence and self-government. "The first task of the Georgian democracy was the radical reorganization of education. "The schools of Tsaristle Russia pursued two aims--social oppression and national oppression. "The new school, founded by the democratic State (Georgia) was to permit the affirmation of social liberty and help the development of national culture. "The organization of primary schools is not yet completed. However, at the beginning of the school year 1920-21 the number of primary schools, comprising three grades, exceeded 2,000 (nearly double the number of schools existing before the revolution) ; the number of pupils reached approximately 120,000. "Trhe school system of Georgia is arranged so that every pupil, having passed the three classes of the primary school, can enter Into an elementary high school. The schools of this type in the beginning of the school year 1920-21 numbered 150. The teaching comprises four years of study. On leaving these schools one may enter into the secondary schools, which correspond to the upper classes of European colleges and lyceums. "Education is free in all grades, including the colleges. The schools of all classes are distributed throughout the land in such a manner that the country towns are not less favored than the cities from the point of view of education. "There exist, in Tiflls, a polytechnic school and two universities, one of which belongs to the State. This State university has four faculties; literature, law, science, and medicine. The number of students, men and women, is approximately 2,000. It is endeavored to make of the State university not only a school of higher education, but a center of culture and the seat of Georgian science. Two years, of course, can not suffice to judge in what measure the Georgian University will respond to this aim. But the University of Tiflis is working with energy to the reconstruction of the history of the country. " Some hundred students, among the most capable, have been sent abroad (to [Americal France, to England, to Germany, to Italy) at the expense of the State. in order to specialize in the spheres most useful to the country. "On January 1, 1920, there were in Georgia 2,112 libraries and reading rooms. This figure is relatively high for a country of three millions of inhabitants." All parties and all classes of the population cooperated willingly with the Government regardless of personal sacrifices. The State embarked on farseeing undertakings, such as construction of railways, highways, roads, bridge'. viaducts, drainage of marshlands, the irrigation of aril plains, etc. That these plans were only partially carried out and that the efforts to maintain a firm

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA democratic commonwealth finally failed was due to the sudden and treacherous invasion of the Bolsheviks In 1921. In January, 1920, Soviet Russia's proposal to Georgia to enter into a military alliance against Denikin. who was at that time commander in chief of the White Army, which was the exponent of the regime of old Russia, was rejected; and in his book " The Independence of Georgia in International Politics," Professor Zurab Avaloff tells us that, "On February 11, 1920, Denikin himself recognized the independence of the Republic of Georgia." In April, 1920, the reds succeeded in occupying Baku and assuming power in Azerbaidjan, and later on In Armenia, taking advantage of the helpless state of these two countries that were paralyzed by economic chaos and internal dissentions. Al attempts to counteract this Bolshevik menace effectively in Azerbaidjan and Armenia therefore failed entirely. The war of Poland against Soviet Russia gave Georgia her first opportunity to pursue a vigorous defense against the Bolsheviks in 1920, and Soviet Russia, now anxious to placate Georgia, engaged In a treaty (see Appendix No. 5) May 7, 1920, recognizing the independence of Georgia and her territorial integrity. An extract of this treaty, Articles I and II, reads as follows:

"Basing itself on the right of all peoples, proclaimed by the Russian Socialist Soviet Federative Republie, to freely dispose of themselves, even up to and including the total separation from the State of which they form a part, Russia recognizes without reservations the Independence and sovereignty of the Georgian State and renounces fully and willingly to all the sovereign rights which belonged to Russia in regard to the people and the territories of Georgia.

"Basing itself on the principles proclaimed in the first article preceding of the present treaty, Russia pledges herself to renounce to all intervention in the interior affairs of Georgia." This recognition of Georgia's independence by the soviets themselves was Georgia's final triumph and conclusive release from the soviet claim. From Moscow's point of view, however, this treaty was a cloak to enable her within one month after its ratification to foment a communistic revolution within the borders of the republic and to accomplish by secret propaganda and treachery what she had failed to achieve by force. Nearly a thousand agents of the Cheka were imported Into Tiflis, under various pretexts resorted to by her diplomatic mission there, and, by the expenditure of large sums of money and by extravagant promises of loot, the communists proceeded to disaffect the Georgians and attempted to subvert the national army and to create irritating causes as an excuse for forceful interference. In the meantime, the independence of Georgia was confirmed through her recognition de facto by the European powers. To quote from a memorandum of the secretary-general of the League of Nations, on November 20, 1920: (See Appendix No. 0, "Documents relative to the question of Georgia before the League of Nations," p. 8.) She (Georgia) has been recognized de facto by the governments of the following countries: France -------------------------------------------------------. - Jan. 11,1920 Great Britain ------------------------------------------------. Jan. 11, 1920 Italy --------------------------------------------------------. Jan.11,1920 Japan -------------------------------------------------------. Feb. 7,1920 Belgium -----------------------------------------------------Aug. 26,1920 On January 27, 1921, the allied powers recognized the State of Georgia de jure, and Mr. A. Briand, president of the Interallied Conference, conlstng of Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, Belgium, and others, wrote to TiN Excellency Mr. E. Gueguetchkori, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Georgia, as follows: (See Appendix No. 6,p. 62.) Mr. MINISTER: After having taken cognizance of the decision by which the supreme council, under date of January 26th, has resolved to recognize de Jure the independence of Georgia, as soon as this country should formally express the desire, you undertook, by letter of January 27th, to address to me the

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF OEOROIA official request of the Government and the people of Georgia, to become recognized de jure by the allied powers. I hastened to communicate your letter to the conference; this latter was unanimous in deciding to recognize de jure the Georgian Government. The allied powers are happy to be able to prove thus anew the sympathy with which they have followed the efforts of the Georgian peoples toward independence and the admiration inspired in them by the work it has already accomplished. * Kindly accept, Mr. Minister, the assurance of my highest regard.

Similar recognition was extended by a large number of other countriesPoland, Rumania, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Argentina, Panama, Haiti, Mexico, Liberia, Luxemburg, and Siam. As a result of the establishment of Bolshevik rule in Azerbaldjan in April, 1920, and Armenia December, 1920, Georgia found herself threatened by the Bolsheviks on the north and east and by the Turks on the south. While the Turks again attempted to occupy Batum, the Bolsheviks grasped the opportunity to march on Tiflis. Moscow moved its Red Army against the Georgias from three directions, from the west across the Black Sea coast, from Azerbatdjan, along the River Kura, and from Armenia in the south. Upon the arrival of these overwhelming forces in front of Tiflis the officials of the Georgian Government were forced to remove to Batum and eventually to embark on an Italian warship and to take refuge In Europe. This was In Februniry and March, 1921. As an instance of the duplicity of Soviet Russia I attach hereto (see Appendix No. 7) on official memorandum of the Georgian Government, presented to the great powers of Europe, on the Invasion of Georgia by the armies of Soviet Russia, together with an authentic report of the commander of the Eleventh Russian Soviet Army, Hecker, to the president of the military revolutionary council of the Eleventh Army, showing conclusively that even at the time of Soviet Russia's solemn recognition of the independence of the Republic of Georgia she was planning the invasion of Georgia to accomplish its downfall. (See Appendix No. 8.) The murderous invasion of the Bolsheviks In Georgia was Communistic Moscow's defiance to Europe's recognition of the sovereignty of that Republic and a typical example of the Soviet Government's treacherous use of its trentleq and d!qregard of it. obligations under them. A more brutal violation of the laws and customs of nations than that committed In Georgia could not be imagined. Moscow delivered no ultimatum, made no declaration of war, gave no valid excuse for her intrigue and surreptitious invasion, but without warning or ,retext swooped down upon Georgia, as she had on the other Caucasian Repi Ics, for purposes of conquest and the seizure of the wealth of the notion, and the despoliation of her Christian churches and schools. Priests of high and low degree were stripped of their robes, forced into dirty Soviet uniforms, maltreated and many killed or banished. The Patriarch (Katholi. kos) AmbrosIus was sentenced to 10 years' Imprisonment for the simple crime of having sent a protest against this horror to the League of Nations. The churches were looted and turned into dance halls, the women outraged and children massacred. Thousands were murdered and thousands sent into exile. Others were forced to take refuge in the mountain districts and in foreign countries. Stores and houses were plundered and the railroads and factories robbed of their best equipment. A prosperous and happy country was brought to a state of ruin and forced, against the will of the people, under the merciless and devastating rule of Soviet Communists, sent from Moscow. Soviet hypocrisy was revealed when the Bolshevik official press of Moscow declared that the overthrow of the Georgian Government had not been accomplished by the red army, but by a revolutionary movement from within the Georgian State. In an attempt to Justify her course, an entirely false account of what transpired in the Caucasus was broadcast to the world. Soviet Russia sought to conceal her imperialistic ends by setting up a government in Tiflis composed of red partisans of Georgian nationality, imported from Moscow and long associated with the Communistic State. The Soviet Government, which was forced upon the Georgian people and derived its powers from the strength of the Russian army of occupation, Is not accepted by the Georgian people as their rightful government. Moscow persists in its attempt to "soveltize" these non.Russian democratic peoples.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA Except where the red army's garrisons are maintained, and where the Cheka, the Russian inquisition, rules, this violent procedure is not successful. The Cheka-prosecutor, judge, and executioner in one-imposes the death sentence without trial. Thus it is enabled to exert the greatest terror without any re* striction, and it has not desisted from using its powers rigorously. The methods of the Cheka are hardly paralleled in ancient or modern times. The policy employed is one of false accusations, barbaric torture, and terrorism, to wholly break the spirit and morale of the people and reduce them to abject obedience and nonresistance. To quote from an article which appeared in Scrilmer's Magazine, in February, 1925, by Mr. Ellsworth Huntington, called "The Suicide of Russia". "Here are some interesting statistics from the London Times of September 1, 1922. A dispatch from Riga states that, according to official Bolshevist figures, the tribunal known as the Cheka executed 1,766,118 persons before being renamed the supreme political administration, in February, 1922. All those people were done to death in a period of less than five years. Many more have been executed since. The total, as printed in the Times, Includes 6,675 professors and teachers, 8,800 doctors, 355,250 other intellectuals. Besides this, there were 1,243 priests, 54,650 officers, and 12,950 landowners. This makes something like 440,000 persons, all of whom belonged to the upper classes. A large part of these, by right of birth or ability, had made themselves influential leaders. The rest of those executed comprised 59,000 policemen, 192,350 workmen, 260,000 soldiers, and 815,000 peasants." Since the occupation of Georgia in 1921, the Cheka has continued its terrorism there, maintaining its headquarters in Tiflis and having its agents throughout Caucasla. The Georgians abhor Bolshevism, but as the Commun!sts' press dominates and their own press and language is permitted for propaganda only, they are unable to express their real feelings openly. They will, it is certain, never accept the communistic ideals of Moscow nor submit to the rule of the Soviets. The general discontent and opposition of the population against Moscow's method of governing by terror and the Cheka became so strong that the government in Moscow has tried to mislead the outside world and appease its criticism by granting formal autonomy to the Caucasian States by permitting them to establish a Transcaucasian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic by an agreement signed March 12, 1922. This federation includes the "Soviet Republics" of Azerbaidjan, Armenia, and Georgia, and is a member of the Union of Soviet Republics. According to the constitution of this Union of Socialist Soviet Republics of July 6, 1923 (see Appendix 9), each united republic retains the right of free withdrawal from the union (chap. II, 4). This was the pretense of freedom that was inserted to deceive the people ard fool the world. Its true meaning was illustrated when, in September and October, 1924, Georgia attempted to exercise thiO right and regain her independence.. Her movement was stamped is a revolt. This upri ig revealed for a short time to the outside world the real situation in Transcaucasia. Tile attempt on the part of the Georgians was the spontaneous outburst of a suppressed and suffering nation. Though it failed, it gave notice to the world that the Georgian people dd not accept the Soviet rule. The Georgian people have demon. strated that they will itevcr peacefully submit to the red ",goernment by assassination." The uprising of 1924 was suppressed with all the savageries and inhumanities characteristic of Cheka rule. Among others, the metropolitan of the Georgian Church, Nazaril, was murdered at Kutais. Women and children of the soldiers fighting in the mountains were used as shields by the Bolsheviks (luring their attacks. Even Lloyd-George raised his voice against the Bolsheviks. Ile emphatically denounced the Russian atrocities In Georgia. In a special cable to the New York American on December 13, 1924, he said "Today," alluding to the bloodshed in Georgia. it i, a red ]lroviv(e in more senses than one." It is almost impossible to state accurately the number of Georgians killed by the invading red army and murdered by the Cheka army of occupation. In the New York Evening Sun of January 1, 1925, we read that"In the last six months the Georgians have been deprived of personal and national liberty, their Industries have been destroyed, and according to recent official reports nearly 4,000 of their people have been executed by Moscow's

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OP GEOIGIA * * * The Georgians revolted against the Soviet exactions, but orders. instead of winning a hearing in Maocow. as they demanded, they were arrested wholesale on the charge of disloyalty and tried, not by their own courts and judges but by Moscow tribunals on evidence furnished by the Soviet's own It is the results of these trials that have secret police and political spie. Just been made known to the world and that have furnished such a complete revelation of Moscow's understanding of the meaning of a Soviet autonomous * " republic. * And in the New York Times of March 31, 1925, there appeared the following wireless communication from Constantinople: "CONSTANINOPLE, March 30.-An American observer who has just arrived from Georgia says the Soviet regime has become much stiffer there since the revolution last autumn. The population lives in terror of the Cheka and mutual suspicion characterizes the whole national atmosphere. "According to local estimates the number of counterrevolutionaries executed after the autumn revolt was between 3,000 and 4,000. The Cheka carries out now continual arrests for any or no reason. "The people as well as the administration are now living on their capital. There is no production. Private trade is still prohibited so as to prevent the noncommunist classes getting economic power which would again threaten the political power of the communists. "Food, clothing, and other necessities are enormously dear. A pair of shoes same boat as the costs $225. A Georgian traveler who left Batun on tile American was able to sell an ordinary second-hand suit for $180. Thb impression left by the general economic and political conditions of the country was that this system of minority rule was making straight for a crash." The most authentic information we have on this subject is front Mr. David Mdivanl, who is a cousin of Mir. Polycarpe (B, udoui Mdlvanl, an imported Georgian communist front Mosco.w. who was sent. ainong others, to head the 1921, who is now attached Georgit ill Russian Cheka Army of o'vtutti in ill to the embassy of Soviet Itus ia in Paris (see Appendix No. S. list of members of Diplomatic Corps). and with whom Mr. David Mdivani and his family are In friendly relationship and constant communication." In an interview given in Houston, Tex., on November 13, 1924, Mr. David Mdivanl made the following statement: "Determined to force the little State. of such strategic and economic value. Into submission to its rule. (lie red government is resorting to methods of cold-blooded butchery. At lea'4 20.(0( Georgians have been slaughtered without trials. A shipload of native- was taken oat on the ('aspian Sea and tile vessel sunk. with none rescued. Others are called to their doors and shot down. Rigorous censorship Is in effect." ir. Karl Kautsky. in his honk oi Georgia already mentioned above (p. 9. Appendix No. 11). says. "Tile small country was hedged In by a Itusslan red army, which numbered 120.04) nien. and plundered to the utmost extent; as a subjugated territory. Georgia suffered more severely fromi the dominant ion of bolchevism than unhappy Russia Itself." And Prof. Gilbert Murray, the British delegate. in his speech before tle fifth assembly of the Leagiie of Nations on September 25. 1921. very accurately sumnued up tie characteristic of Cheka rule in Georgia by two words. "wholesale slaughter." In spite of Georgia's content invasion by- Soviet Russia, however, ani the almost complete suppression of her self-determination, the authority of the Government of Soviet Russia as regards Georgia was never recognized by tile great powers of Europe. In the pamphlet. "Georgia. Russia, and the League of Nations" (see Appendix No. 11) under a subheading called "The recogidtion of the Soviets and the reservations made in favor of Georgia" (p. 12). Prof. Edgard Milhaud. of the University of Geneva, says: "lhere is tlp very text of the recognition of Great Britain. In February. 1924. Mr. Ramsey MacDonald, Prine Minister of Great Britain. in hi. note transmitted to the government of Moscow. says. among other things. that tile Government of llts Brittanie 3Majesty-theve are the very words of this document---' Recognizes the Union of Soclalls't Soviet Republics, as being the de Jure government of those territories (if Ce ancient Russian Fmpire which recognize its authority.' 'To which Maj. Henry G. Opdycke can testify having investigated this matter In Parts



"It is clear that in February, 1924. Georgia did not recognize the authority of Soviet Russia, since, a short time later, took place the uprising to which I have just referred. "As to France, it was at the end of the year 1924 that she accorded her recognition. To state precisely, it would not be amiss to call attention to the fact that Mr. Herriot, who was to sign the act of recognition had, three years before, questioned the head of the Government at that time as to the attitude of France relative to the recognition of Georgia. Addressing himself to Mr. Poincar6, he had said: "'The precise question which I set is the following: The sovereignty of Georgia has been formally recognized by the Russian Government itself by virtue of a very precise treaty. I ask Mr. President of the council to be good enough to declare that his Government remains attached to the cause of this independence. Speaking in the name of France, who has asked for the independence of Poland and the Czechs, he will permit us to send forth a hope to an oppressed, unhappy people.' "And Mr. Poincard replied: "' The Hoji. Mr. Herriot has but expressed the thought of the government Itself, such as it has already many times been expressed to the State of Georgia. This government possesses besides a representative in Paris, and this representative has access to the ministry of foreign affairs.' "It is essential to remember that today, in its relations with the representative of the Government of Georgia, the French Government acts in exactly the same manner as with the representative, -f any other of the powers whose political situation is the most completely stable. To-day the representa. tive of Georgia enters the Elysge o- t."e Qual d'Orsay on a footing of equality with the juridically recognized representative of the Republic of the Soviets. Therefore, was it not natural that Mr. Herriot, in recognizing the Russian Government, should make a reservation of :htch the terms are as follows: "'* * * the Government of the Republic * * * recognizes de jure, from this day, the Government of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics as the government of those territories of the ancient Russian Empire, where Its authority is accepted by the inhabitants * * *.' "We read also in this document these words: 'In notifying you of this 'recognition, which would not affect any of the engagements undertaken or treaties signed by France * * *.' It is evident that the words 'engagements undertaken' refer to the recognition of Georgia by the French Government. "A, to Belgium. she has not yet recognized Soviet Russia, and she has not recognized her for a reason which is about to be indicated, because her policy consists in making of the recognition not the point of departure of negotiations with this country but the point of arrival. Negotiations first: recognition afterwards. Here are the words that Vandervelde, minister of foreign affairss of the Belgians, pronounced on this question July 17, 1925, at the House of Representatives: "' I wish to make a reply immediately to what Mr. Brunfait has just said, when he thinks to find a contradiction between my previous attitude and the speech which. as Minister of Foreign Affairs. I made in a preceding debate. I have for a long time advocated the recognition of the Republic of the Soviets, because I consider that it is Impossible for Belgium to remain indefinitely apart from the governments which have recognized this republic. I have added and(1 maintain that, to express the thought of the government, I this recognition should not be the preface, but should be the termination of an accord from the economic and political point of view. I have indicated, further, that this termination is possible only in consideration of certain conditions "sine qua non." I "Which were these conditions? One, cf economic order, concerned the restitution of the property belonging to Belgians in Russia; the other, m1nentioned in the first place, was thus formulated: "'Firstly, the reservation of the rights 'if governments, like Armenia and Georgia, which have been recognized de Jure by Belgium. This is what France did when she recognized the Republic of the Soviets.' "Thus it can be seen that we find ourselves in the presence of a concurrence of evidence and international juridical documents of an exceptional value, establishing the Intangible right of Georgia." The situation of the Georgian Republic is analogous to that of Belgium during the great war. Georgia Is overrun by a foreign military force which

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA it is not yet strong enough to eject. Its government is compelled to take refuge In France, as was the Belgian Government, and as other governments in times of duress have been obliged to seek temporary hospitality in foreign friendly countries. But this exigency did not impair its constitutional rights or its international status. The Georgian Government, sitting in Paris, continues to fulfill the authority which it holds from the constituent assembly and the pledge which it took toward its people, in defending the interests of this people before the great powers of the world. The Government of independent Georgia in Paris maintains absolute authority over that part of Georgia in the Caucasus Mountains which has never yet been invaded by the Soviets and is not and never was under their physical control, and receives frequent and regular communications from those Georgians. The Georgian Government constantly and consistently protests internationally every detrimental political act of the Soviet Government against Georgia-and pronounces to the world her determination to refuse to recognize the acts of the Soviet Government in granting concessions to foreign persons for the exploitation of its natural resources, including oil, manganese, etc. In this connection your attention is respectfully invited to the protest against the Soviet concessions for Georgian manganese, granted to Harriman & Co., which was sent to United States Ambassador Herrick December 5, 1925, with the request that it be forwarded to the United States Government, and in which protest they in no uncertain terms declare these concessions null and void. (See Appendix No. 12; see also Appendix No. 17, protest to State Department at Washington.) The Georgian Government likewise is in constant communication with its people throughout the entire area of Georgia, encouraging them to await patiently their hour of deliverance, and strengthening the hope of their people that a time will come when their freedom will be restored by peaceful means, as promised them by great powers of Europe, in a resolution passed and repassed by the League of Nations on September 212, 19*22, and September 25. 1924, respectively, as follows (see Appendix No. 13. "Verbatim report of the fifth assembly of the League of Nations. September 25. 1924) : "The assembly invites the council to follow attentively the course of events in this part of the world, so that it may be able to seize any opportunity which may occur to help in the restoration of this country to normal conditions by any peaceful means In accordance with the rules of international law." To-day the torch of liberty flickers in Georgia, but the soul of nationality and the reverence for religion survive. The people of Georgia are implacable foes of Bolshevism, and its twin fury, Communism, but the arm of the murderous Cheka holds them in bondage. As long as the bayonet of Soviet tussia is pressed against their hearts they must bow to the dictatorship of Moscow. and submit to the impositions of a military terrorism, or become the victims of the ,torture chamber or death. But all constitutional parties of the Georgian people are represented in a "committee of independence" in Paris, to demonstrate their rejection of the Soviet rule in their country and to signalize their support of the exiled government. Karl Kautsky, In his book already mentioned above, very aptly expresses the firm belief of the Georgian National Government and the hope with which it constantly heartens its people. when he says: "The dictatorship of the Moscow tyrant, cian not become permanent In Georgia any more than In Russia itself. The Georgian people have survived many barbarous invasions; they will survive the devastation of the Red Army and the horrors of the extraordinary commissions. In Russia. and consequently in Georgia, too, democracy must eventually triumph again" (p. 0). In pleading with ithe people of the United States of America, through their Government at Washington, to sympathize with the right of the people of the Republic of Georgia to be free an independent and to enjoy themselves in "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," the people of Georgia are not striving to do a new thing; for no people fighting for freedom from tyranny for the last 140 years has failed to lay their case before the people the the United States and to seek from them sympathy and support. Precedents in this respect are so numerous in the history of the American Congress as to need only a casual reference to the attitude of the people of the United States of America, expressed through their government, towards, for instance, Greece, Mexico, and the South and Central American Republics. Hence in the face of these illustrious precedents, It is but natural that the people of Georgia should lay their case before the American people and their



representatives In the Congress and plead with both for a formal, authorltive expression of sympathy and good will. As to the mention made by the Hon. Mr. Connally of the speech of the Hon. Edward C. Little, of Kansas, In the House of Representatives, December 17, 1921 (Appendix No. 16), on the situation of Armenia, the status of the transcaucasian isthmus is so inextricably intertw!ned among the countries of Georgia, Azerbaidjan, North Caucasus, and Armenia, that it may be pertinent in considering this speech, to qi'ote from that masterly address in elucidation of this general situation: "America should now definitely inform Russia that before our republic opens up negotiations of friendly relations, Russia should show her respect for the rights of other nations by withdrawing her Invading troops from Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaidjan, and Daghestan (North Caucasia). Then, those peoples will reestablish their local governments and law and order will be maintained there." In order to explain the connection which exists between the republics of the Caucasus, it would, perhaps, be well to say a few words about these Republics, Azerbaidjan and North Caucasia, which, with Georgia, are combined in a confederation, functioning in Paris. While the people of the Caucasus are ethnologically of different races, they are bound by economic and political interests and geographical isolation. The Christian population of Georgia and Armenia had long ceased to be antagonistic to the Mohammedan peoples of Azerbatdjan and North Caucasia. The Republic of Azerbaidjan has an area of approximately the same size as that of Georgia and a population of some four and a half millions, of which one million are Christians. Azerbaidjan was the first country in the world of Mohammedan faith to have established a democratic form of government. Azerbaidjan, during the Middle Ages, was the battle field of Turks, Arabs, Persians, and nomadic tribes from the east. The new nation that has developed from the intermingling of all these different elements, with a preponderance of Mongols and Turks, Is known as the Tatars. "They have," says the Italian historian, VUlarl, in his Fire and Sword in the Caucasus, "a dignity of bearing and a charm of mariner which endear them to all who come in contact with them." After a period of some hundred years of Turkish, and later, Persian, domination, the Tatars, having definitely settled at the southwestern shores of the Caspain Sea and along the Caucasian River Kura, came under the rule of Russia, which by the treaty of 1813 acquired the territory from Persia. More than a hundred years of Russian overlordship, however, did not suffice to extinguish the strong tendency for national self-determination that was revealed after the outbreak of the revolution of 1917, and led to the union with the other Transcaucasian States. On May 28, 1918, Azerbaidjan declared her independence and on January 12, 1920, her Independence was recognized de facto by the supreme council of the great powers. Azerbaidjan, of course, is best known to Americans for its Immense oil fields at Baku, second only to the United States in world oil production. As to that which concerns the Republic of North Caucasla, its area Is approximately 150,000 square kilometers, and it has a population of some 4,000,000 inhabitants, of which about 1,000,000 are Christians. Their system of government is the ielvetian. This people had for nearly 55 years fought fiercely for their independence when at the beginning of the nineteenth century Russia tried to include the Caucasus in its domains. Toward the middle of the century these mountaineers of North Caucasus were conquered by the Russians. The conquest was made possible only by the fact that Russia had previously established a strategic basis in Georgia through its annexation. Their form of government, according to the accounts of British and other travelers who in the middle of the last century visited the Caucasu.;, waR a 'species of aristocratic republic, composed of chiefs, nobles, and clansmen, In whom rank Is only recognized in their public and patriarchal capacity, as chieftains, law-givers, and elders," while otherwise a perfect equality existed in ail the relations of social and domestic life. The mountaineers were never assimilated by the Russian conquerors, but preserved their nationality iII the face of all attempts of Russiflention. In May, 1917, they availed themselves of the opportunity which the revolution offered to regain their sovereignty. They set up the independent "Union of the Peoples of the Northern Caucasus" at Viadikavkaz, which was supplanted in December of that year by the "Union

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA of Mountaineers." Their sympnthles for the Transcaucaslans did not lead to a formal union. Internal difficulties with Bolshevik elements and General Denikin',i attack, which finally in March, 1919, destroyed the Union of the Mountaireers, prevented It from effective cooperation with the Transcaucasian Republics. Later, however, In Paris, in a Joint declaration of June 10, 1921, the exIsting high officials and delegates of the four Caucasian Republics, Including the heads of the delegations from Armenia, Azerbaidjan, northern Caucasus, and the minister to France for Georgia in Paris, entered into a defensive and economic union. The declaration was sent to all the great powers and the League of Nations, which body protested against Soviet Russia's oppression of these small nations. The full text of this declaration Is given in Appendix No. 14. For fuller details of the situation of these Republics with relation to each
other see "The Caucasian Republics" (Appendix oo. 13).

Mr. MooRE.. of Virginia. You have stated about these being highly educated people. Have they had a university in operation a long time?

Mr. MooRE of Virginia. At Tiflis? Mr. OPDYCKE. Yes; and several colleges and a great number of grammer schools and public schools throughout the country. Mr. MOORE of Virginia. The student body at Tiflis was about what? Mr. DUMBADZE. 1920 to 1921 more than 2,000 in Tiflis. There were several high "schools of university type, and a Georgia State University of more than 2,000 students. Mr. MOORE of Virginia. I am talking about this university. Mr. DumBADZE. Two thousand. Mr. MOORE of Virginia. A high-class university. Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes. Mr. MOORE of Vi.rg:.ilia. Among other things they were conducting explorations into prehistoric Georgia? Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes. A professor of our university, Professor Djavakhoff, just discovered a so-called palympsest, of 2,000 pages, of the fifth century, containing parts of the Holy Scriptures which were formerly attributed to the ninth century. Mr. STEWART. That relates to Biblical texts which date back to the fifth and sixth centuries, and that is being translated slowly. There is a very eminent and wealthy man in New York who is considering the matter of furnishing the funds for a complete translation. Enough of the text has teen translated, however, to show there is some differentiation from the accepted text in our own Bible. The scholars of Georgia, who stand very high in the estimation of German, French, and England scholarship, believe that the translation of these documents will mean the reaching of an understanding of the Scriptures that we do not have to-day. Mr. MOORE of Virginia. Have those leading professors been re tained by the Soviet Government at the university, or are they in exile? Mr. SIMWART. That is one phase of Georgian life the Soviet Government has not interfered with. They have permitted the university to continue its work. Mr: CooPER. What was the name of that professor you mentioned? Mr. DuiMADZE. Professor Djavakoff.


Mr. COOPER. When did he discover that?

Mr. DUMBADZE. Last two years: 1923. Mr. CooPz. Under the present government? Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes. Mr. CooPER. The present government has not interfered at all with his work? Mr. DUMBADZE. The present government does not interfere, neither do they help or provide funds for this important work. Mr. COOPER. When was this university created or organized? Mr. DUMBIADZE. During our independence from 1918. Mr. COOPER. It was begun in 1918? Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes. During the czaristie Russian regime, we were not permitted to haVe our university or high schools in Tiflis. Mr. COOPER. When was the University of Tiflis founded? Mr. DUMBADZE. 1918. The policy of the old Russian r 6 ginie was to not allow in Tiflis a university,'and the Georgian students were distributed among the Russian universities at Moscow, Kiev, etc: e Mr. Fisir. Under the soviet r6gie they permitted the university. Mr. DUMBADZE. Not with the kind permission of the soviet but by the parliament of the Georgian people. Mr. Fisit. It is going on now. Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes. The soviet needs engineers and technicians, highly educated and professional people who can help them. Mr. FisH. Soviet Russia lets a university operate in Georgia today and in the last four years they have been in power, whereas a number of years prior to the war the old imperial government would not let them operate any kind of a university. Mr. DU.MBADZE. I will explain the policy of Russia, old Russia and new Russia. The Czar did not permit any university in Tiflis, fearing concentration of educated patriotic youth, but our independent government now sitting in Paris. in pairliament created this university. I will 'tell you two or three professors who are in exile, namely, Profs. MI. Saretelli and A2valloff. Many may be killed to-night or to-morrow: because there is no court or'justice, and how can I give statistics about people there? They abolished the churches and turned them into dance halls, and the university is staying there; but how long? I don't know. Mr. FisH. It is there ?
Mr. DumB.%DZE.. It is still there.

The CHAIRIAN. After Georgia became a Republic and was recognized as such by Russia, the (eorgian Republic built this university? Mr: DUM.BADZE. Yes. The CHAIRM.A.N. When the Bolsheviks camie in four years ago they allowed the university to continue, with certain restrictions, which you have mentioned; is that correct? Mr. DUM.BIADZ,. Yes; wvith restrictions. I can not tell you how manv of them were killed. The soviet Russian policy is to have people who can not read and write: no support is given to the university by the soviet regilne, so a professor wrote me. lie also wrote they have not enough money to translate the 2,000 page palynipsest.


The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Stewart, I notice the name of John Hays Hammond on the board of directors of this Caucasian Society. Is that the John Hays Hammond who was active in the Transvaal prior to the Boer War? Mr. SmzwArr. Yes; he lives here in Washington. The CHAIRMAN. You have in Georgia oil, copper, and manganese Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes; and tremendous water power. The CHAIRMAN. Oil has been developed at Baku? Mr. DUMBADZE. A big source of oil has been developed in Baku, in Azerbaidjan, and is well known on the market, but this oil does not belong to Georgia; one pipe line from Baku runs through Georgia to the shipping point on the Black Sea-Batoum. The CHAIRMAN. Where are the oil dep6sits in Georgia? Mr. DutMDADZE. In the district of Tiflis and also near the Black Sea coast of Georgia. The CHAIRMAN. Is that near where the Garden of Eden was supposed to be? Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes; that is the place, but the oil has not been developed as yet. The CnAIR31AN. Old Adam was lucky oil was not discovered in the Garden of Eden, or he would have been evicted by exploiters. Mr. FMRcmLD. You stated that there were Georgians in the mountains who had never been conquered and who are still maintaining their independence on Georgia's soil. Has anyone connected with the Government of Georgia at Paris ever succeeded in getting any communication through to those men? Mr. DU31BADZE. Yes; we get communications continually. Mr. FAIRCHILD. So there is this situation, that there are Georgians who have never been conquered who are in possession of part of the soil of Georgia and who are in communication with the Government of Georgia in Paris?


Mr. MARTt.. They are not organized in any way? Mr. DUMBADZE. They are natural soldiers; in these mountains they are always organized. Mr. FAIRCIILD. Their government is in Paris?

Mr. Fisit. They have not been conquered for over 125 years. They
are the same people who have been opposing Russia for 125 years up in the mountains. They live on the tops of these mountains, these Georgians who have not been conquered? Mr. .) U BADZE. Georgia never was conquered by Russia. The Georgian Government lcft Georgia when betrayed and invaded by the soviets and Tuikcs. Mr. Fisu. You and I differ about the wording. Mr. Du.JILN.,zr. That is the legal side of this matter. Georgia never had war with old Russia. 1801.signed a treaty with Russia in We 1783, which was violated later in Mr. Fisii. For 125 years the Russian Imperial Government had control through their representatives, but these mountaineers have always been in rebellion all the time?




Mr. DUMBADZZE. Yes. Many protests were made during that time.
Mr. FISH. Your biggest industry is oilI Mr. DUM1BADZE. No. Oil is not a big industry in Georgia. Manganese tobacco, silk cocoons, copper, etc. Mr. FAIRCHILD. These unconquered soldiers in the mountains have a military organization? Do they have their own officers? Mr. DU BADZE. They are natural soldiers, organized, taking action against Soviet Russia. When really out of patience, in 1924, they were patient, but when the soviet Tcheka killed hundreds and thousands of our people, the best people of Georgia, women and children, many of them, they had to take action. Mr. FAIRCHILD. Do they have officers who give them orders?



Mr. Mr.

to send a communication to them, there are leaders they pick out to send communications to?

DUmBADZE. Officers of regiments? MOORE of Virginia. They have leaders? DUMBADZE. Yes; chief men. FAIRCHILD. When the Government of Georgia

in Paris wants


Mr. CooPER. The witness ought to testify what he knows himself, because he does know it. Mr. VAILE. It is difficult for the witness to understand. Mr. COOPR. I do not think it is proper while he is testifying for others to make side remarks; if he does not understand, let him say so. He ought to be allowed to express his own ideas in his own way. While he was answering a question he thinks he understands, this other witness was prompting him. Mr. VAILE. We are talking with the gentleman and want him to give his honest opinions. Mr. FAIRCHILD. I asked a question for information; and if he does not know or understand my question, if that information occurs to any of the other witnesses, I will be very glad to have it. He represents the Georgians here. Mr. CooPER. What Mr. Fairchild said puts me in an unfair attitude. I want the facts-the truth. Mr. Fairchild asked a question, and he says he wants the truth. The witness proceeds to answer. He knows this witness knows more about matters than anyone else in the room, and while he is answering and talking the man at his side is all of the time whispering and prompting him. That is not fair, and Mr. Fairchild, endeavoring to elicit truth, would not get it first-hand from this witness; he would get it from the promptings of another man; and while they may do this innocently, I do not think it the best way for a witness to testify. Mr. FIsIr. Is there any army in the field to-day in Georgia against the Soviet GovernmentT Mr. DUMBADZE. The whole population of Georgia is against Soviet Russia. That is my answer. Mr. MOORE of Virginia. I will follow up Mr. Fairchild's question with one question to make a point clear. I understood you or some. body to say that these mountaineers, while they are not organized in


the sense that armies are organized in other countries, do have their leaders or chieftains. Is that correct? Mr. DuMsBADZE. Correct. Mr. MooRa of Virginia. And your Government does have means of getting in communication with these leaders or chieftains? Mr. DUMBADZE. Correct. Mr. Ews. Do they maintain schools up there in the mountains, these unconquered 10 per cent? Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes; they maintain schools. Mr. Euis. They maintain public schools of their own appointment and support them? Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes. Mr. ELLis. Have they an organization for that purpose? Mr. DUwBADZE. Yes. Mr. MARTIN. Who pays for the support of the schools? Mr. DUMBADZE. The peasants, the population. Mr. MAWFIN. Do they pay it direct or into the Soviet Government and they later disburse'if? Mr. DUMBADZE. NO. How much anybody pays to the soviet? The Soviet Government is taking from our people everything they have. The CHAIRMAN. The inquiry is about schools in the mountain fastnesses where they still preserve their liberty. Who supports the schools in the mountains occupied by that 10 per cent who still resist the Soviet Government? Mr. DU.1BADZE. Tile population in the mountains. Mr. Fisn. Might not this develop into a serious thing for the Georgians? There is no fighting to-day against the soviet r~gim6 in Georgia, between the mouintaineers and soviet troops, if there are soviet troops there now. The louse Committee on Foreign Affairs, undertaking to hold hearings on this question, and you come before it and have made the statement that there are leaders there of armed forces, would it be possible that the Soviet Government would go out . and destroy those forces? Mr. Dt'MBAZ)z. They are trying to destroy them, anyhow. Mr. Fisir. There is no war going on to-day. Mr. DUMBADZE. It is not war but the action of the Soviet Government. The CITAlItM1AN. Russia has been trying to conquer these mountaineers for two or three centuries, a war on during all that entire time. M|r. EATON . It will not start because we are having these committee meetings. The CHAIrurA-. -NO. These people are up in the mountains. Mr. Fisit. There is a sort of armistice now; no actual warfare. lMr. DUMfBADZE. There is no real declai'ed war, but systematic resistance of people; whoever can resist is resisting. Mr. CooPEit. I see in this pamphlet, "Georgia at the end of the eighteenth century allied herself with Russia with the stipulation that the latter shotl protect her against enemies from without." Those enemies from without were the Turks?



Mr. IUMBADZE. Turks and Persians; and as Georgia felt helpless against these enemies at that time she allied herself with Russia for a term of 100 years for protection, and that protection was not accorded her during the Czar's regime, up to the revolution in 1917. Mr. VAILE. Not helpless, but needing help. Mr. COOPER. Did not Russia protect her from enemies from without? If so, there was no attempt by Russia during 100 years to conouer Georgia, because they were in alliance under the condition that Russia should protect her from the Turks. That being so, were these men in the mountains fighting anybody during that time? Mr. Du.iBADZE. No; the Turks and Persians invaded Georgia periodically when at war with each other, and Georgia fought always with Russia against the Turks. Mr. COOrR. But not the Russians. Mr. DUMBADZE. Since the Greeks fell in the hands of the Turks in 1483, Georgia was cut off from the Christian world, therefore it was necessary for them to ally themselves with Russia, a nation of the same religion as Georgia. They were Russians. When Russia signed the agreement of mutual friendship with Georgian Government, they assumed certain obligations and pledged themselves to keep such and such regiments in Georgia, but whathappened? How Russia violated this treaty is wonderfully shown in Dr. E. J. Dillon's book, "The Eclipse of Russia," if Mr. Stewart will quote this. Mr. STEWART.

It is on page 225 of this book:

Bulgaria was not methodically " protected "'in the special sense of the term. Frank Russian diplomats were wo-it to explain that chapter of Russian history thus: "We have only two ways of dealing with weaker nations, and they are exemplified in our treatment of Georgia and Bulgaria."

And further:
The Kingdom of Georgia came to us and asked for an alliance. We made it. Some time afterwards the Georgians fell upon evil days. Being attacked by Persia, they claimed our active help as equals and allies. But we answered that we were too busy elsewhere and left them to their fate. Thereupon the Persians fell upon them and killed two men out of every three, so that the nation was literally bleeding to death. Then the Georgians came to us a second time, now no longer as equals and allies, but as humble suppliants. "Help us," they said, "Not as friends aid friends, but as masters rescue their slaves." And this time we helped them effectually and absorbed their country over and aboiL-.

Mr. Fis. A while ago you implied, at least, that Georgia was a republic under the Czar, or was a sovereign government under the Czar. Mr. STEWART. Not sovereign government. Georgia was violated. Mr. FIsH. Over 100 years ago. Mr. DUMBADZE. 1801. Mr. Fisif. It has been under Russia for 125 years. Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes; but always under protest. Even England and France have protested many times, but in vain. Mr. COOPER. Do you think England and France-their capitalists--were after the manganese and other natural resources in Georgia? 3r. DUMBADZE. No; a pure humanitarian proposition, objecting against violation of a treaty.



Mr. FiSu. I have a wrong impression from what the witness said. I understood the witness to say under the Czar's government that Georgia was practically independent I

Mr. FisH. It now turns out that for 125 years they were under the government of the old Imperial Russian Government; they were a subject nation. Wr. OPDyci. Except, Mr. Fish, the Government was operating under a vice-royalty, gut always objecting to physical control. Mr. Fisu. It was brought out they could not even operate a university in their own city. Mr. OPDncrx. No, sir; that is not a fact. The fact is the Russian Government would not permit the university to be there in that place and it was not until the Georgians got their independence and the moment they did, they established this university which is working nowi because it is a well known fact that the Soviet try by every means possible to get technicians into Russia. Mr. FIsH. I have been in Russia several times, and I know -t was the policy of the Russian Government under the Czir not to permit education, whether in Georgia or Russia. As I see it the Georgian people have had this alliance with Russia for a long time, and when the war occurred like Poland, Czechoslovakia and others, they secured their independence, or that is what they attempted to do. The militia of the Bolshevist Government came in later and took possession. Mr. Coorr.a I will ask you this question: The government which was, after the Russian revolution, established in Georgia was what was called the menshevist government? Mr. DUMBADZE. Yes. Mr. CooPER. That was socialistic, too? Mr. DubBAuZE. Social democratic, with all politial parties except communists cooperating. Mr. CooPER. And they were opposed by the Bolshevists. During the years that the Menshevists or Social Democratic Party was in control there were six revolutions-fighting among themselves? Mr. DUMBADZE. Six revolutions where? Mr. CooPEn. Six outbreaks, and killing among themselves. Mr. DUMBAwzE. No, sir; that is not a fact. I object to that; it was not so. Mr. Coonn. I mean in Georgia. Mr. DUMBADZE. No; not at all. In Georgia there was an invasion by Bolshevists and Turks, and then in 1924 Georgia again rebelled against Soviet Russia; that is two. Mr. CooPFm. Do you say that there were no revolutions and no violence, no factional quarrels, between the various people and against the Governmentl Mr. DUxiBADZE. Not in Georgia. The Bolshevist invasion and the 1924 rebellion were the only ones. What we are doing is to escape from the Bolshevist terror. Mr. CooPER. About the men up in the hills, Judge Moore said they have leaders, but they are not organized as we know organiza-


tion when applied to armies, not organized into regiments and brigades; it is a XA of men fighting, to use the American expression, on their own hook. I do not want to say anything unkind, because I have deep sympathy for the Georgian people; but while considering their situation I owe a duty also to my own Government. I want to do what I think is right after all the ?acts are before us. In this country if a lot of men in the mountains were fighting in that way, they would be called "guerillas" and their warfare a "guerilla warfare." They are unorganized. Is that not so? Mr. DuMBADZE. It is not quite so, because those mountaineers are natural fighters, and are organized under chiefs. Mr. COOPER. They are natural soldiers. I do not doubt their bravery. Mr. DuiMRADZE.. They are natural fighters. Mr. Fisn. They have been fighting for 125 years. Mr. Du.tMBADZE. One thousand seven hundred years or more. Mr. EATON. They have not been fighting against their own government. Mr. Fisti. Naturally, I think everybody sympathizes with the Georgians, but there'are other countries involved. Mr. Stewart would you have any objection if I should offer an amendment, iU this resolution ever comes to a vote, to include recognition of Montenegro, which has maintained its independence for 500 years? I am asking a very proper question. It maintained its independence 500 years and fought with the Allies. Mr. VALE. What has this witness to say about that? It is for the committee. Mr.. Fisu. I want to bring out that point. Mr. STEWART. I am here as a friend of the Georgians. For 18 or 19 years my spare time has been engaged in such work as this, which has been given to the public, and I receive no emoluments or pay from it. Nobody has ever paid me for any work of this kind. I have no object other than that of service. I am interested as everybody must be in the fight for existence of little countries. I think they have their rights and great countries should support, them in the possession of their rights. So far as any amendment to this resolution offered by Mr. Moore is concerned, I will say only that I sympathize with all little countries fighting to gain or maintain their liberties. Mr. COOPER. You are an engineer? Mr. OPDYCKE. Yes. Mr. COOPER. How long were you in Russia? Mr. 0PDYcKiE. I was in Russia several times; probably several months altogether. Mr. COOPER. When were you last in Russia? Mr. OPDYCKE. 1914. Mr. COOPER. For what purpose? Were you in the Caucasus? Mr. OPDYCKE. No; in the Crimea. Mr. COOPER. You have never been in Georgia?
Mr. OPDYCKE. No. 90153-26--5



Mr. COOPER. What were you doing in Russia? Mr. OPDYCKE. I was in Russia furthering the organization of Oni American-Russian Bank, behind which was a company of engineers, for the development of the region's natural resources. Mr. CooPEa. You say that you saw dispatches received-where? Mr. OPDYCKE. In Paris. That is where the conversation referred to took place regarding the communication between the Government in Paris and these people in Georgia. Mr. COOPER. Did you receive any of the communications? Mr. OPDYCKE. I was not representing the Georgians. Mr. CooPER. When was this? Mr. OPDYCKE. In 1924 the last time referred to particularly. (Thereupon, at 12.05 o'clock p. m., the committee adjourned to meet again at the call of the chairman.)

APPENDIXES No. 1. Mineral Resources of Georgia and Caucasla, by D. Ghambashldze, F. R. G. S. 2. Treaty concluded 1783 between Catherine I, Empress of Russia, and Irakly II, King of Georgia. (Collection of Russian Laws, Vol. XXI, No. i&35.) With preface by Mr. Paul Morinud, professor of the faculty of law of the University of Geneva, and comments by Mr. A. Okoumelt-Geneva, 1919. (Translation from the French.) 3. The Autocephaly of the Orthodox Church of Georgia, by Prince Ilamaz Dadeshkeliani. Article published in The Christian East. (July, 1922, Vol. IIIN. 2, and October, 1922, Vol. III N. 3; Loudon.) 1922. 4. Constitution of Georgia, adopted by the Constituent Assembly February 22, 1921. (Translation from the French.) Russian Socialist Soviet Federative Republic. 0. Excerpts from "Documents Relative to the Question of Georgia Before the League of Nations." Edition of the Georgian Legation in France. Paris, 1025. (Translation from the French.) Also "Note from the Delegate of the National Government of Georgia to the Council of the League of Nations "-relevant to the above. 7. The Constitution of the Union of Socialist Soviet Ro-publics. Published by the Russian Information Bureau, Washington, D. C. 1924. 8. List of Members of the Diplomatic Corps In the Order of Delivery or Credentials. December 25, 1925. (Translation from the French.) 9. Georgia, Russia, and the League of Nations, by Prof. Edgard 3lilhaud. Published under the auspices of the International Committee for

5. Treaty May 7, 1920, between the Democratic Republic of Georgia and the

dinary envoy and plenipotentiary minister of Georgia In France, to Hon. Myron T. Herrick, extraordinary and plenipotentiary ambassador of the United States of America. 11. Georgla-Impresslons and Observations. by Karl I'nblislhed In Lof(lon. 1921. 12. Alliance Between the Republics (if Armenia, Azerbaidjan. North Caucasla, and Georgia, June 10, 1921. 13. The Caucasian Republicz. by Vasill 10. Dunibadzw. general diplomatic and economic representative of the Republics of Georgia, Azerbaidjan. and North Caucasla. (These Republics entered Into a defensive nnd econoile unl,,n with the North Caucasian Republic and Armenia in 1921.) 14. Chronology of Important Events of Georgia. 15. Copy of telegram from lion. Vasili D. Dumnbadze, general diplomatic aiid economic representative of the Republics of Georgia. Azerbaljan. and North Caucasla, to Hon. Frank M. Kellogg, Secretary of State, WashIngton, D. C., dated June 13. 1925. 16. Excerpts from the Speech by lion. Edward C. Little. of Kansas. in the llonso of Representative:. Wedensday, December 17. 1921, on The Situation of Armenia. (Congressional Record. Vol. LXII. Pt. 13.) 17. Sketch map of the Caucasian Republics, showing part of Georgia ceded to Turkey by Bolsheviks. 17a. Also Map of Georgia and Surrounding Territory. 18. The Case of Georgia and Internntionnl Law. and Sunnary of the Situation in Greece, Th21-1829 in Light ofthe Webster lesollion of December 8, 1923. (Reference: flistorlans' history of the World. Vol. 24.) 19. Reproduction newspaper artile.. New York Times. September 20. 1924. 20. General Ifarhiordfs report: American Military Mission to Armenia. (On board U. S. S. Martha W1'a*hington, October 16. 1919.1

Georgia, Geneva, 1920. (Translation from the French.) 10. Copy of letter dated December 5, 1925, from Hon. A. Tchenkeli, extraor-



No. 21. The British Trade-Union Delegation and Georgia. (Publishedl by the Foreign Bitreati of the Social-Democratic Labor Party of Georgia.) 22. Certification of Documents. 23. Ikon of the Archangel Gabriel. An Example of Ancient Georgian Byzantine Enameli!fg of the Eleventh Century. 24. Holy Gospels encased in covers of gold. 25. Tamara, Queen of Georgia A. D. 1184-1212, The Golden Age of Georgia. 28. Sho t'ha Rust'havell, twelfth century Georgian poet. 27. Irakly II, King of Georgia, A. D. 1762-1798. 28. Ketevan, Queen of Gorga in 1624. 29. Nino, the Patron Saint of Georgia. 30. City of Tiflis, Capital of Georgia. 31. First University of Georgia founded by the 'New Independent Georgian Republic; a theater, a street in Tiflis, city ball of Tiflis, and the Peoples House. 32. Svanetla. 33. Mzkhet. 34. The Darlel Pass. 35. Cathedral at Ananur. 36. Borjom, the Hot Springs of Georgia. 37. A Tea Plantat'on in Georgia. 38. Kutais. 39. The River Rion. 40. Certified copy certificate of incorporation of the Caucasian Society of America (Inc.). (Davis, Wagner, Heater & Holton, Equitable Building, New York. 11. Membership list Caucasian Society of America (Inc.), and supplementary statements of endorsement. Respectfully submitted by the Caucasian Society of America (Inc.).




GEORGIA (By D. Ghambashidze, F. R. G. S., delegate of the Georgian Government)


The Georgians are an ancient civilized race with 3,000 years of existence, but in spite of that very little known, as Georgia since 1801 ceased to be an independent kingdom, was forcibly annexed by the Russian Empire in violation of the treaty of 1783, and was never allowed to make herself known to the outside world. Geography.-Georgia is situated in Transcaucasia, between the Black and the Caspian Seas (400-49 * northern latitude, and 390-47 each of Greenwich). She is separated from the North Caucasus by the celebrated Caucasion mountain chain, which stretches for a distance of a thousand miles from the Black Sea to the Caspian, and has an average height of 10,000 feet and in some places, as In the peaks of the Elbruz and the Kasbek, even 18,000 feet. Georgia comprises the following provinces and districts: Tiflis, Zakathal, Kutais, Sukhum, the narthern part of the Black Sea Province toward Tuapse, Ardahan and Olti districts, provinces of Batum and Lazistan up to Trebizond. The total area of this territory is 43.000 square miles. The frontiers of Georgia are: In the north. the Caucasian mouutain chain; in the east, Aderbeijan; in the south, Armenia: and in the southwest, Turkey. Among the rivers the most prominent are: Kura, 310 miles long; Ingur, 95 miles; Rion, 140 miles; Chorokh, 100 miles; Terek, 210 miles. The climate of Georgia is very similar to that of Italy and Spain. Under the protection of the Caucasian Mountains and with plenty of moisture, there is a rich vegetation, and at a height of 4,000 feet there grow vast forests of oak, beech, chestnut, pines, boxwood, etc. All along the Black Sea shore orange and lemon trees are plentiful; wonderful rhododendrons luxuriate up to a height of $9.400 feet and alpine grasses are met with even at 11,500 feet. On the high mountains there are still to be found bisons, wild goats, hogs. reindeer, antelopes, etc. There are also 400 varieties of birds. The climate and beautiful seenery make Georgia very attractive, the Riviera on the Black Sea. Population.-The total population of Georgia is about 4,000,000, of whom 3,650,000 are of the Christian Greek Orthodox faith and 350.000 Mohammedans. The capital of Georgia Is Titlis. which was founded by the Georgian King, Vakhtang, in thie fifth century. The town has 450,000 inhabitants. Railways and ports.-The total length of railway lines in Georgia is 970 mile.. The trunk line, leading from Batuin through Tifits to Baku on the Caspian Sea, is 550 miles long. The coast line of Georgia along the Black Sea measures 345 miles. The principal ports are: Batum. Poti, Anaklla. Sukhum. Goudaut, and Rlzeh. The port of Batum is the terminus of the Transcaucasian railway line and also of the petroleum pipe-line front Baku to Batum. Batuni is the transit port for the whole of Georgia. Transcaucasia, Turkestan, and Persia. Agrieulture.-The agricultural resources of Georgia are considerable. The following products are grown: Wheat, barley, maize, cotton, rice, tobacco, tea, etc. Wine Is grown very extensively, and its quality is equal to the superior F'ench and Italian varieties. There is also fruit growing on a large scale; specially of oranges, lemons, olives, peaches, plums, pears, apples, and all kinds of vegetables. Among other branches of agriculture silk production and ihekeeping are ancient occupations.


The country contains about 12.000,000 heads of domestic animals, and has vast possibilities for cattle breeding. Trade and industry.-The principal ports for the foreign trade of Georgia are Batum and Poti. From 1884 to 1914 the following products were exported to the countries of western Europe from the port of Batum: Petroleum, 22,661,532 tons; manganese ore, 1,676,824 tons (the bulk of this ore was exported from the port of Potl); wool, 99,832 tons; liquorice root, 309,563 tons; grains, 406,265 tons; silk cocoons, 23,451 tons; oil cake, 76,100 tons; tobacco, 2,769 tons; albumen, 7,520 tons; hides, 5.363 tons; lucerne seed, 9,460 tons; salt. 3,50 tons; almonds, 5,692 tons; cotton seed, 40,661 tons; walnut logs and boxwood. 65,053 tons; carpets, 23,800 tons; other articles, 331,998 tons. During the same period the following articles were imported from western Europe into the port of Batum: Tin plate, 526,065 tons; timber, 50,118 tons; bricks and tiles, 113,639 tons; sulphur, 52,857 tons; metals, 106,537 tons; machinery, 45.315 tons; chemicals, 30,392 tons; silkworm eggs. 55 tons; hardware, 58,518 tons; cement, 19,215 tons; tea, 14,986 tons: other articles. 195,066 tons. From 1884 to 1900. 75 per cent of both the export and import trades of this port were controlled by Great Britain, but she was overtaken by Germany, who for the last 10 years before the war controlled 65 per cent, Great Britain only participating with 7 per cent, the other countries being Austro-Hungary, France, Italy, and Turkey. The returns of shipping of all nationalities which entered and cleared in the foreign trade of the port of Batuni from 1893 to 1914 are: Vessels British ............................................................................ 4,287 Tonnage 7,Y2, 320

7.375 4,487,480 Russian............................................................ French ......................................................... 2,02 3. 324, 4S0 1,914 2,271,220 Austro-Ilhingary .................................................................. German ........................................................................... 1,760,250 21,074 Greek ............................................................................ , 272 1,225,345

Belgian ........................................................... Itfli .............................................................

531 C04,720 110 158,80 Norwegian ........................................................................ Dutch ............................................................................ r8 14$, 600 Danish ......................................................................... 125 143,540



The traffic of the port of Batum is therefore conlsiderable. It must also be noted that for the 10 pre-wair years the bulk of the German trade with this port was carried in British bottoms. The rettiris of the shipping of all nationalities which entered and cleared in the foreign trade of the port of l'oti (during the same period) are: Vessels
Britsh ... 183

2, 4C0,800

133 24O 0 British ............................................................. Austro-llungarian.......................................... .......... 215 420 000 German ........................................................................... 132 240,820

French ................................................................... 10 2;0,470 Greek .............................................................. . 135 1 , 830 Dutch ................................................................ 40 96,3c0 Italian ................................................................... O 94,400 Norwegian ......................................................... 5 94.820 2e1ian,80,120
20,30 Belgian ............................................................. Spanish ........................................................................... V 20,30

This shipping was exclusively devoted to the export of manganese ore. The industry of Georgia is very small at present, with the exception of that of manganese, petroleum. and copper smelters-one of which belongs to the Caucasus Copper Co. (Ltd.) (British property) ; but there are vast opportunities for building up a huge industry, as raw materials are available in abundance.



Rducation--The seat of the Georgian University is Tiflis: it has 35 professore and 1,000 students.' There are also two colleges of the nobility, one in Tiflls and another in Kutais; two theological colleges, 25 grammar schools, 3,000 so-called people's schools, 15 agricultural schools, 18 technical schools, and 28 ladies' needlework and carpet-weaving schools. A considerable number of students receive education annually at the universities and colleges in France, Italy, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany and Austria. Lieraturean4 the prc8s.--Georgia possesses a ancient and modern literature, and there are translations of the modern classics of all countries. Nearly all of Shakespeare's dramas are translated Into Georgian. There are about 24 daily papers and weeklies, and about 350 books are published every year in half-million copies. Ninety per cent of the total population of Georgia can read and write, and the many schools and libraries satisfy the eagerness of the people for education. Church.-The Georgian Church Is one of the ancient Eastern Christian churches of the world. It Is second to the Greek Orthodox Church in antiquity. The head of the church is the Catholikos-Patriarch, who is elected by the entire nation. The present Catholikos-Patriarch is Ills Holiness Leonide. The hierarchy includes three metropolitatis--tlie first of Tiflis, the second of Kutals, the third of Chkondidl-and twelve bishops. The Georgian church Is independent from the State and its funds and properties are administered by the laymen's committee, and the clergy is elected by the parishes. Socitic8.-The capital of Georgia-Titits-is the educational, literary, com. inercial, and social center of the country. Many Georgian societies have their bead offices in that city, the most important ones amongst them being: the Georgian Literary Society, withi 35 branches and 20,000 members, this society being chiefly engaged in distributing popular literature amongst the peasants and in establishing schools; the Georgian Charitable Society, with 24 branches, was started in 1914 in connection with the war. and has done great work in helping the families of the soldiers and the poor in general, the Georgian Agricultural Society; Georgian Historical and Etbnograiphlcal Society; Georgian Geographical Society; Georgian Journalists'. Society; Georgian Teachers' Society; Georgian Artists' Society; Georgian Technical Society; Georgian Mining Engineers' Society; Georgian Pharmaceutical Society; Georgian Medical and Naturalist Society, etc. There are also various cooperative unions; the cooperative movement Is very strong In the country. There are about four hundred sooperative societies--85 per cent of the Georgian peasantry are organized cooperators. Constitution of Gcorgia.-Georgla has been an independent Republic since November 22, 1917. At the head of it Is an elected President, and cabinet ministers are elected from among the members of Parliament. The seat of Parliament Is Tiflls. Georgian Voluntary Army has a force of 40,000 men, comprising all arms, and a fine corps of officers and experienced generals, amongst them 120 staff officers; one staff college, and two Military Schools for officers. Political 1fe.-The different political parties are: the National Democratic, Radical, National Socialistic, and Social Democratic. All parties are strongly democratic in their attitude and the population takes a lively interest in their conduct. The election system is based on the broadest franchise for both men and women.

The Caucasian mountain chain extends from the Sea of Azoff In a straight and uninterrupted line to the Apcheron Peninsula on the Caspian Sea in the direction west-nor~hwest to east-southeast and has a length of about 1,000 miles. Its western part mostly forms a single chain, while the eastern half expands in places Into three or four parallel ridges and forms the mountainous region of the Daghestan. Geologically the land between the two seas belongs to the tertiary and upper secondary orders, and was at an epoch after the deposit of the former pushed upwards by some gigantic subterraneous pressure and broken through by the Igneous matter which now forms the axis and crest of the main chain, in the shape of crystalline rocks, granite, gneiss, porphyry, diorite, traehytes, etc. I During the year 1920-21 this number was increased to practically double this amount, and one other university and several high schools were established.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA This intrusion left the originally horizontal strata in a nearly vertical podition, with outcropa on both sides of, and parallel with, the ws!n -Pidge, their tops slightly Inclined towards the south. This inclination explains why the mountains forming the main chain are generally steep on the south side, while their northern slopes cover . large area. At a later epoch a second similar disturbance lifted the land south of the main chain, where the Lesser Caucasus was formed, also with the Intrusion of the granite, porphyry, basalt, etc., which we now find In the Pontlc Ridge and towards Erivan. The upright position and the direction of the strata are approximately the same as In the main chain.

Considering that all these strata were originally more or less horizontal and formed part of the bottom of a sea which then covered most of Europe, and from which the Caspian was cut off by these upheavals, It will readily be understood how fossils and minerals of undoubted marine origin are to-day found on many mountain tops. At the same time the age of the original strata, as shown by their fossils, proves that the two great earth movements must have taken place in the tertiary period, that is to say, at a comparatively late date of the earth's history, so that these mountains may be called young and have not yet been destroyed or considerably altered by the Inevitable erosion. As to the formations which to-day constitute the surface of the Caucasus, It must be mentioned in the first instance that the main ridge formed at the

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA Jurassic epoch a barrier between two sea basins of quite different nature. The tertiary deposits from these waters therefore also vary considerably, accord. Ing to their position north or south of the main chain. The lower Lias, which represents the oldest bedded formations in the Caucasus and is not found anywhere else In southeastern Europe, exists here on both slopes and in contact with the central intrusive rocks. In the northern Caucasus it is found in the shape of schists and limestones containing vegetable imprints and the characteristic marine fossils. The latter are missing on the south side of the ridge, but the vegetable traces remain, and lead in several places to underlying coal measures. The oolitic system is represented on both sides of the main chain by evclusively marine formations, which, however, are not yet sufficiently explored In the central and western parts. But in the Daghestan the formation appears as a powerful series of black schists containing the characteristic fossils, and as ferruginous limestones and marls very rich iii remains of a great number of animal forms, specially ammonites. North of the central massif of the main chain the oolitic formation crops up as sandstone covered by dolomitic limestone and tertiary sediments, while south of It in Georgia, near Kutals, limestone and marls with corals appear. The Cretaceous formation shows important outcrops on both slopes in the shape of Senonian grey and white limestones, which are largely represented in the Daghestan to a thickness of about 1,000 meters. Eocene nummulitic limestone and calcareous sandstone are widely known on the south slopes and contain numerous nummulites and other fossils; especially In Georgia along the R04m River this formation is well developed. But oiu the north side of the main chain the nummulites are entirely missing in the corresponding strata. During the glacial period which followed the described formations the Cau. casus wag also covered with ice, and while the gig;ntie Ice sheets which had crept down from Scandinavia and covered the whole of northern Europe to the Urals did not quite reach the Cauca.ian chain, the great height of the latter favored the formation of glaciers, which radiated in all directions, covering mountains and lowlands alike, and joined in the south those descending from Mount Ararat. This period of extreme cold left its indications in numerous moraines found all over the country. and in many places on rocks marked and polished by the grinding action of the ice. Besides the two principal earth movements which produced the main chain and the Le.sser Caucasus, which run practically from cast to west, later disturbances must have effected a transversal pressure and undulatory movements, resulting lit depressions and elevatons. A depression occurred in the basin of the Sea of Azoff. severing the Caucasus front the Carpathians, of which it was originally the continuation, while an elevation produced the Suram Ridge, running north to south, which forms a connection between the main and the Lesser Caucasus and div:des eastern and western Georgia. This ridge constitutes to-day the watershed between the Black and the Caspian Seas, cutting the territory south of the main chain into two principal valleys, one of the Kura River, which falls into the Caspian, and the othei of the Pion River, which is much shorter anld forms a basin open toward the Black Sea. Similar conditions prevail in the northern Caucasus, where one of the two principal rivers, the Kuban, flows into the Sea of Azoff, and the other, the Terek, into the Caspian, both taking their sources in the central mountain stocks. The present orographic aspect of the country is due to yet two further factors which acted upon it in recent geological tmes, the first one being constituted by the intrusion of eruptive rocks, which occurred independently in many places on a smaller scale. Granite and porphyry In the Erivan district have already been mentioned, while in the Daghestan mountains diabase and melaphyres are more common. These igneous Intrusions often include or are accompanied by nietalliferous deposits or veins, and are therefore of the highest importance; their frequency Is, in fact, the principal cause of the richness of the country in certain minerals. Rather remarkable intrusions In the shape of two dykes of rhyolite exist in the northern Caucasus. The principal one forms the Beshtau Mountain, which reaches up to 4,200 feet above sea level, and the Kuma Mountain, which stands almost vertically like a needle to a height of 350 feet above 96153-2-----0



the plain, proof that at least this thickness of tertiary deposits has been washed away. These dykes are not accompanied by any metallic deposits, but their presence is undoubtedly connected with the many mineral sources which spring up around them. The second factor which to a certain degree influenced the present aspect of the country are the numerous volcanoes which were yet actice after the great movements had taken place and whose craters are still unmistakable, principally In the eastern main chain and the Erivan district. To-day they are extinct, and the only manifestation of seismic action are the so-called mud volcanoes, which are specially numerous in the Caucasus. They are small hills from which a dark, somewhat saline mud flows in a more or less continuous manner, driven out bw subterranean gases which escape in bubbles bursting on the surface. These flows exist mostly near both ends of the main Caucasian chain, on the Taman and Kertch Peninsulas and near Baku. The latter have in the course of time formed quite considerable hills, one of them being over 1,250 feet high. The mud is in places saturated with combustible gas and also naptha. This flow Is situated at some distance from Baka and near the sea, which itself Is also often agitated by subterranean gases which eject mud and stones. In view of the volcanic nature of the Apcheron Peninsula this is not surprising. In the Taman region the flows of mud vary considerably and have occasionally volcanic force. Similar muds, half liquid and more or less saturated with gases and of various temperatures, are also found in many other places, forming ponds without movement or apparent Inlet or outlet. Volcanic action of another kind is yet visible at the extinct volcano of Demavend, Daghestan, which appears to-day as a solfatara. It is 14,000 feet high and snow-topped, while all round it small cones have been formed from which sulphurous fumes escape. As further secondary manifestations of volcanic activity occurring to-day In the Caucasus there are to be mentioned the numerous hot mineral sources and gaseous emanations, described In Part III, and also the frequent earthquakes. The following descriptions of mines and mineral deposits do not claim to be a complete enumeration of all the occurrences of ores and other useful minerals existing in Georgia and the Caucasus, principally because a systematic geological survey of the country has not yet been made, In consequence of the absolute neglect by the Russian Government. The only serious investigations have been carried out by English, German, French, and Georgian geologists and engineers, who, however, mostly examined only certain mines or separate districts. Much has to be done yet to produce a complete and detailed geological survey of this country abounding In mineral riches. PART I. METALS mo The Caucasus contains several deposits of excellent iron ores, but It has so far been impossible to smelt them In the country on account of the absence or Inadequacy of the necessary fuel, and their export has been hindered by the difficulties and the cost of transport. The application of naphtha residues, which are the only carbonaceous material really available In quantities in the country, has apparently never been tried yet for the reduction of ores, but might be of use in connection with the electric furnace. As they are not of Immediate use, most of these deposits have not been closely examined, and in many instances only the outcrops are known. The total quantity of ore contained In them Is estimated at about 13,000.000 tons, as far as ascertained until now. This ore would contain about 7,000,000 tons of metallic Iron. The only deposit where a regular, though very small, exploitation is kept going occurs at Kiamull, in the Province of Kutais (Georgia). Ore has also been extracted at Ubissi and Shrosha In the same district. Hematite ore is found at Tchatakh. southwest of Tiius (Georgia). in a mass of porphyry of 72 feet thickness. The ore is disseminated in it in irregular proportions, the central part containing from 23 to 05 per cent metallic iron.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA A considerable outcrop having a length of 600 to 700 yards is visible along the River Bztbi, north of Sukhum (Georgia). It consists of brown hematite of good quality, produced probably by the oxidation of iron pyrites, a bed of which continues into the Apshrl Mountain. In the southwestern part of the country there are several good outcrops, as for instance near Artvin (Georgia), where rich red hematite Is found in Senonlan limestone, the samples from it containing from 50 to 63 per cent of metallic iron. Similar hematite exists also at Nadarbazar, and two deposits of it crop out near Batchinsk, at the contact of limestone and melaphyres; this ore body is of eruptive origin. In the northern Caucasus, in the Malkop district, there are several deposits of red hematite and magnetite, but they have never been properly investigated, although samples taken from the outcrops proved to be of remarkably high tenour, the hematite running up to 65.6 per cent of metallic iron and the magnetite even to 70.91 per cent. This ore seems therefore to be purer than that produced in the Donetz Basin and will undoubtedly in time be exploited. Another rather famous deposit of iron ore occurs in the Terek Provinde, near the old fortress of Vedenoff. It was used by the celebrated Shamil for the manufacture of cannons, although the quality i not very good, analyses of samples having given the following results: Per 73 Iron oxide-----------------------------------------------.......41. cent 27.10 Silica --------------------------------------------------------------15. 26 Alumina -----------------------------------------------------------1.04 Copper ------------------------------------------------------------0.87 -----------------------------------------Manganous oxide 3.27 ------------------------------------------------Moisture 9. 14 ----------------------------------------Loss on calcination 98.41 Total ----------------------------------------------------------Near Lenkoran, omi the Caspian Sea, there are also large deposits of sands mixed with chome Iron and magnetite, but not rich enough for treatment. Similar magnetic-iron sands cover also part of the shore near Poti, on the Black Sea (Georgia). In the Province of Elizabetpol, near Dashkesan, another large deposit occurs. The ore body consists of magnetite at the contact of diorite and limestone and has a thickness varying between a few feet and 20 yards. It is estimated to contain 2,000,000 tons, averaging 60 per cent of metal, and running in parts up to 65 per cent, but no work has been done on it. The quantities of ore extracted in the whole Caucasus during recent years were:


5T2 1910 -----------------------------------------------------------------655 ----------------------------------------------------1911 924 ------------------1912 ---------------------------------------------357 1913 -----------------------------------------------------------------532 1914 -----------------------------------------------------------------This ore was used locally, mostly for making paints, but there is no doubt that means will be found to exploit on a commercial scale specially the Georgian are easier of access and near deposits, which contain tihe bulk of the ore andt the sea.

Manganese ore is one of tie three most important mineral products exist lIng in Georgia, the other two being oil and copper. The largest and worl-known deposits of this ore occur in the valleys of the Kvirlla River and Its affluents In the Province of Kutals. Georgia. and cover an area of 400 square miles. The available ore is estimated at 200,000,000 tons. This deposit and the industry springing from it have been separately and exhaustively dealt with in my paper on "The Georgian Manganese Industry and its World Importance." forming Part V of the present book, amid the following description therefore only refers to the other occurrences of Dianganese ore In Georgia, which are. however. not exploited. The most important of these deposits exists near Akstafa (Georgia). whence samples of exceedingly rich pyrolusite have bt en forthcoming. contalnng up to



95 per cent of manganese peroxide (60 per cent manganese metal) and only front 0.027 to 0.035 per cent of phosphorus. The geological formation is similar to that of Tehliaturi, the ore existing in horizontal beds Interstratified with sand, which continue at the same level through three adjacent hills, the gullies between them having been caused by erosiQn. This deposit has not been further explored, but is worthy of attention in view of the quality of its ore and its favorable position only a few miles from the main line of the Transcaucaslan Railway. In the Tchorokh Valley (Georgia). manganese ore occurs in another interesting deposit near Kartla, on the left bank of the river and not far from it and the high road, at about 35 miles front Battun. The ore is pyrolusite of good texture and not very friable. It exists in three layers, having a total thickness of about 3 yards. The beds are horizontal and their natural outcrops make extraction easy, no expensive or complicated operations being required. Assays of samples gave 53.00 and 54.40 iKer cent of manganese metal, from 0.07 to 0.09 per cent of phosphorus. and from 6.10 to 8.52 per cent of silica, without other objectionable elements, so that the ore seems of superior quality. An AngloFrench syndicate took an interest In this deposit some years ago, but only exploration work has so far been done in it. and the exploitation of this and other mineral occurrences in the Tchorokh Valley depends probably on the building of the projected railway through it. Manganese ore also crops out in the valley of the Itchkhala River (Georgia), a tributary of the Tchorokli from the western side. about 20 miles from Batunt. The ore is also pyrolusite. in places mixed with iron ore and contnlng tip to 27 ptr cent of iron. Only superficial exploration work has been done. eitherr highly interesting deposits also oeur in Georgian Lazistan. near the sea coast southwest of ilta. This district forms the continuation of the mineralized zone of the Tehorokhi Valley across the Ilemshtn mountain range, and most of the valleys running front the latter northwards to the sea between Rizeh ail Surnieneh contain minerals, as malganese, Iron, copper, or zinc. In the Karadereh Valley, near Surmeneh. large occurrences of manganese ore have been travel oer a distance of 6 miles along the n'suntaht side. The outcrops. where expo.M'd. have a width of from 4 to 10 feet and consist of high-grade pyrolusite. The nearest point of the deposit is only about 2 miles front the sea. Similar formations exist in the Treeboll Valley. The outcrop stands out prominently and has a thickness of about 12 feet; the lode strikes east-west with a dilp to the northwest. and is composed of limestone showing nodules ill] heavy im11lregraations of mangantse ore. The (center of tile lode carries a Veht of good ore. samples of whih contain 49.60 per tent of manganese metal. This outcrop is about ; miles front the sea and easily accessible. Other deposits of the same nature occur at Gooshak. where the quantity of available ore is esthnited at 1,000.00 touts; at liharltik, 2 tiles from the coast. where at least live beds of rich ore are exposed; at Slaradek, Khraklabek-tcha. ikadaheltree anl (Iovanyak, all lying In the same district and within a few miles from the sea. where loading stag(-e can easily be bIilt. Water is available in every valley for washing aind cone 1 rtting the ore, if necessary, i and the transport to the loading places would only require short train lines. The cost of the ore delivered on ioard ship would therefore be very low. The following analyses show the excellent quality of the ore found Ill this region:

Per cent

Ptr tat Manganese metal ..................................... 47. 06 iron metal .. ....................................... 64 Sulphur ............................................ . 121 Phosnborus-----------------------------------------.0.9 Silica ............................................... 4.18 Moisture ............................................ 1.33

Per cent Per cent 55.68 5& 69 2.44 .49 .4 00.. 10)3 :01.54 3.16 3.30 .8

41.0 22 .103 W 174 2.08

.70 .17 .064 2.70 Dried.

The presence of manganese ore In the large mineralized zone near Batum (Georgia) will be mentioned with the copper deposits of that region.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA COPPER Copper is, after petroleum and manganese, the most Important mineral products of Georgia and Caucasia. Its ores occur in a great number of places which were well known to the ancients and worked specially by the Georgians. The traces of their old workings and their slag heaps were in most instances the guides for the present exploitations, and as they could work only near the surface, the ore bodies are practically untouched in depth. 'he copper ores are generally found in fissure veins, and consist principally of chalcopyrite, mixed sometimes with malachite and other modifications, besides different noncupreous ores. Of the latter the most common are iron pyrites, which in many places predominate, while composite zinc ores containing blende and galena form the bulk of other veins, the copper forming only an accessory part. Generally speaking, copper ores occur almost everywhere in Georgia and form the richest inheritance of the country. If their actual exploitations are comparatively few in number and their output so far not very considerable, the reason lies principally in the absence of easy means of access to the mines, mostly situated in the mountains, and the difficulties of transporting the necessary fuel to them, while the latter itself may have to be imported by sea. These difficulties make it imperative for new concerns to provide means for large preliminary outlays for roads and means of transport, so that small companies have less scope of increasing their production of metal, however plentiful their ore reserves may be. The drawback of the fuel question might be avoided by exporting the ore to foreign smelters, but this policy has not been encouraged, because Russia herself was a great consumer of copper and did not produce enough for her needs. From the point of view of their position the copper ore deposits of Georgia may be divided into three zones, situated (1) south of Tiflis, east and west of the Tiflis-Kars Railway; (2) in the Tchorokh district, in the southwest corner of Georgia; (3) in the 5iangesur district, in the southeastern part. The best known mine of the first zone Is that of Kedabek, which formerly and for many years ranked first in the country. It is situated southeast of Tiflis, in Georgia, about 25 miles from the station Dalliar of the Tiflis-Kars Railway, and belongs to Siemens Bros. The ore deposit lies at Mis-Dag (Copper Hill), near the works, and consists of a succession of lenticular ore bodies of considerable dimensions, being up to 160 feet thick and 820 feet long In one Instance, while the intervening spaces sometimes narrow down to a- thickness of 6 feet. These lenses, of which 17 were discovered and worked out, were filled with quartzose rock and porphyry, containing chatcopyrite and oxidized black copper, mixed with iron pyrites, also zinc blende and galena, pertly with barytic gangue. The country rock consists of quartziferous andesites which are almost completely covered by a flow of lava. When worked by the old miners before Siemens acquired it, the mine was celebrated for its great tenour in silver, but the ores produced in recent times were almost sterile of precious metals and the principal product was copper, with some lead and zinc. The work In the mines was taken up again In 1864, when Siemens acquired it, but for a long time its operations were not very successful, principally on account of difficulties with the fuel, until they laid a pipe line enabling them to get fuel oil from Baku for use in the smelting and refining of the copper. Other improvements were introduced at the same time, and its modern methods and labor-saving appliances made of Kedabek the most renowned metallurgical establishment of the time in the country, representing a capital outlay of 'about half a million pounds sterling. In 1890 their output exceeded 1,000 tons of copper per year, which increased to about 1,750 tons p. a. between 100 and 1912. But after that period the ore at Mis-Dag began to get exhausted, and In 1914 only 14,400 tons were mined, producing 794 tons of metal. Since then only low-grade ores are being leached, and the production of metal amounts now to only 100 tons p. a. The days of this establishment seem therefore numbered, and its owners have already attacked another mine In the Tchorokh Valley, as will be described later. The second copper producer of this zone is situated at Alaverdi (Georgia). near the station Akhtala of the Tiflis-Kars Railway. The mines were worked



160 years ago by the Georgian kingdom. and are exploited since 1897 by a French company-Socit4 Industrielle et Mtallurgique du Caucase--on a lease expiring in 1944. As at Mls-Dag, the vein here also forms a succession of lenses, which vary considerably in thickness and frequently branch out sideways. Their'ai ?rage thickness is about 42 feet, but the largest ne-encountered so far was 30 leet thick, 120 feet wide, and 00 feet long. The ore Is 1halcopyrite some purple ore, mixed with iron pyrites, and its tenor varies between 3.6 and about 10 per ce:t; it also contains about 4 shillings' worth of gold and silver per ton. The capacity of the smelter is 160 tons of 5 per cent ore per day. The mine produced in 1908, 1,871 tons, and in 1913, 3,735 tons of copper, the average cost being about 5% pence per pound. Besides Alaverdi the French company exploits yet several other mines, two of which are situated In the same district. Tchamluk, which they hold on lease, lies about 9 miles northeast of their smelter and is of analogous geological formation to the Alaverdi deposit, consisting of a series of pockets or widenings of the vein in gypsum and barytine. The ore produced here is treated at Alaverdl. A similar mode of exploitation is carried on at Shagall, situated east of Alaverdi in the upper valley of the Bortehalo River, in Georgia. A quartz vein containing chaleopyrite is being worked here, and the ore extracted Is also carried to Alaverdl for treatment, although a small smelter existed on the spot in connection with this mine. The establishments of Kedabek and Alaverdi possess the only large smelters in this district, but there are several veins in the neighborhood either being explored only or worked in a small way, their production going to the said smelters. One of them occurs in the Kasakh district (Georgia) and is worthy of notice. as tlhe work done in it seems to promise well. It was known to the ancient miners, as there are many indications of old workings on the property and large slag heaps, proof that at that time the ore was smelted on the spot. Before the war small quantities of ore were extracted, but the principal work consisted in preparing the mine for more intensive extraction, and resulted in the opening uip of six galleries and two shafts of an aggregate length of about 500 feet and a depth of 60 feet respectively. The ore found during these operations Is mostly chalcopyrite and also copper glance (covelline), or a mixture of both. Copper glance occurs in a vein about 14 Inches wide and assaying .30 per cent of copper, which has been followed over a length of 50 feet. About a dozen other veins were met with during the investigations, consisting mostly of chalcopyrite. There are also outcrops in the higher part of the property; one of them. about 2 feet wide and carrying copper glance and chalcopyrite, can be traced over a distance of about 150 feet. hut none of these outcrops have been fully examined yet. The situation of this deposit is advantageous. and only sufficient capital seems required to make it into an important producer. The western part of this copper belt is not les rich In metalliferous ores. but being more remote and mountainous, has apparently attracted less attention. Two contiguous old mining, fields have here to be mentioned in the first instance. situated at Djaralor and Tc.han-I3akhtcla, in Georgia. southwest of Tifll at about 40 miles from the railway. Up to about 50 years ago they were worked by Georgian miners, and the many old workings and slag-heaps show that In more ancle;,t times this must have bee;, a most Important center of midng activity. This may partly have been caused by the alleged riehness of the ore in sliver and gold. which Is said to have been considerable. but no recent confirmation of this fact is4 available. The country rock is of volcanic origin, and the mountains In the western part of the field consist largely of basalt and lava, In which not only the old mines were excavated. bit alqo human habitations. In the eastern portion diorite and porphyry predominate, and the metalliferous veins are usually located at the contact of tbese rocks in the fissures caused by volcanic eruptions. They are of uniform direction and inclination, approximately from west to east. and can be traced over considerable distances; in fact, there are veins and outcrops, partly revealed by old workings, all the way between the two villages named above. The ore is largely copper glance and cuprite, also malachite, while chalcopyrite, which predominates In most of the other copper zones, is compara-

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA tively rare. This fact accounts for the average higher percentage of copper contained In the ores extracted' here, and probably also for the great proportion of metal still contained In the slogs which the old miners could afford to lose. As some work is always going on in different parts of this large field by the inhabitants, who are the descendants of the old miners, it is possible to examine it also to a certain depth, and there is no doubt of the continuity of the veins in that direction. Thirteen of them are known and have been worked or opened up, and the old and more recent underground workings are very considerable. The principal vein has been followed in depth by a shaft of 210 feet and worked by galleries extending about 300 feet, while its total length is ascertained over 3.850 feet. Its thickne.;s at the outcrops is only from 6 to 9 inches, but it widens out quickly to 40 inches and attains 43 inches at the deepest point, 24 inches of which consist of compact copper ore in quartz gangue. The analysis gave 22.40 per cent copper. In depth the center of the vein consists of pure chalcopyrite, while the edges toward both walls are converted into iron ore, the copper which was originally combined with the latter being found again as a secondary formation in the fine Joints, fissures, and cavities of the vein in the form of beautiful needles and small crystals of malachite, blue and green. Iron pyrites are missing in these veins, while the upper levels, besides chalcopyrite, also contain copper-glance and purple ore. All the other veins are of similar nature: the average thickness of those which have beetn worked or well explored is 32. 18, 28, 4, 8, 23, and 15 inches, respectively. Deailed calculations of the ore available above the water level amount to about 1,750.000 tons, the average contents in copper varying from 18 to 22 per cent, and this richness will, without any doubt, sooner or later brbg this mining field to life again. To the southeast of DJraior, in the direction of Erivan, several other depob.ts of copper ores are known, but no proper exploitation exists in this district. The following occurrences may be mentioned: At Delijan there are considerable outcr4ps of a vein widening out into lenses or pockets In altered porphyry. Their ore is said to contain from 6 to 7 per cent copper. At Karavan-Saral in the same region a very promising vein about 24 inches thick is known in porphyritic rock. Further south. near Novo Bayazid, on the western shore of the Gokcha Lake, copper veins occur in many places, but are not explored. Near Alexandropol the Sisimadan mines are worked in a small way and have a smelter attached to them, which Is, however, not of great importance. The vein is said to be about 4 feet thick, lying at the contact of diabase with limestone and gypsum, and to contain from 12 to 15 per cent of copper. Other mines are being explored at Shakar-Dara and Tamir-Magara, and small quantities of ore are extracted from them. Other Interesting occurrences of copper ores exist east of the Tifiis-Kars railway in the Kazakh district of Georgia at Vartikegh and Avessi-Tehal. They lie opposite one another on two hills, separated by the River IndJa-Su, an affluent of the Kura, but are of identical formation with paralldl veins. The country rock is diorite, much decomposed, specially at the former place. There are four outcrops of copper ores at Vartlkegh and three at Avessi-Tehal, in the shape of important veins, two of whieh are over 3 feet wide. They consist of quartz with chalcopyrite, also decomposed in places and containing there copper glance and green malachite. Only superficial exploration work has been done In this field by small galleries and open trenches along the veins, but their result leaves no doubt that we are in presence of a highly important deposit, which deserves fuller investigation. . Its environs represent a zone of remarkable mineralization. Immediately north of the copper there are outcrops of magnetic iron ore with a great number of old workings, and west of them we find important deposits of hematite, consisting of more than 40 veins, some of which are over 3 feet thick at the outcrops. In the northeast manganese ores crop out, and other deposits of copper again are being worked east and south of this field. Further east, abodt 30 miles from Kedabek and 20 miles from the railway, another Important deposit of copper and sulphur ores occurs at Djiraki.dscr. near the village Tchaikent. The ore bodies crop out in quartzite, partly coveted by clay schists, at the bottom of a ravine.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEOROIA They were in the first Instance worked for iron pyrites, as an outcrop of this mineral, about 190 feet long, was lying opdn at sight along the side of the hill. It forms an enormous and compact stock, whose depth into the hillside has not yet been ascertained and must be considerable. At present it is being worked In open cast and also by galleries and sent to Baku to the sulphurlcacid factories, where it replaces the. brimstone formerly imported from Sicily. It is of remarkable purity, showing a tenour of sulphur of between 50.51 and 51.73 per cent in cargoes without objectionable elements, which Is considerably superior to the Spanish ore. In the course of this exploration chalcopyrite was found and roughly sorted out from the iron pyrites; from time to time a few wagonloads of it were sent to the Alaverdi smelter, the bulk containing from 20 to 25 per cent of copper. In aces the iron pyrites also contain metallic copper in the shape of small specks disseminated through them, and also lentils of pure copper glance have met, weighing as much as 5 to 6 tons and containing from 61.45 to 65 per cent of copper. This metal, therefore. became interesting, and following some indications, a cross gallery was driven from the pyrites works, which at 40 feet cut an important vein of chalcopyrite, of a thickness between 3 and 7 feet and containing from 12 to 20 per cent of copper. An outcrop at the contact of granite about 400 yards from the mine was also examined and found to contain chalcopyrite and copper glance and to continue in deptb. These minerals also contain gold, analyses having proved up to 3.9 deadweight tons per ton. The work and further intended explorations in these mines were stopped by the war, but will in due time be taken up again. The Tchorokh Valley in Georgia, containing the second group of copper mines now to be considered, begins a few miles south of Batum and extends southward for about 60 miles to Lazisian (Georgia). The river receives many tributaries from both sides and is of fair size, sufficient for navigation at all seasons, if it could be tamed. But its fall is considerable, making its flow rapid and dangerous in places, on account of sudden windings and other obstacles. Transport is carried on at present In long. flat-bottomed boats, but only downstream, and the empty boats have then to be dragged up again by the boatmen. Also they can not go right down to the sea, but must discharge at a spot about 8 miles from Batum, where their cargoes have to be carried by road. The river can, therefore, not be relied upon as a regllar means of communication, but for power purposes it affords every opportunity. A. fine macadamized road runs along it, suitable for motor traffic, but the valley will really only be opened up when the long-projected railway is built. The Tchorokh district is eminently mineralized, chiefly with copper ores, and there is scarcely a side valley in it in which copper or other ore outcrops do not exist. The valley of the Mourgul River alone, one of the tributaries, and its immediate environs contain, according to the estimation of the best geologists, between 50.000,000 and 100,000,000 tons of ore containing about 8 per cent of copper. These occurrences were known and worked in antiquity by the Georgians and Romans, and also in the Middle Ages by the Genoese. The veins are generally in porphyry and cretaceous sandstone, and the ores appear in the state of sulphides. The most important exploitation of this district, and of all Georgia, !9 that of Dzansul, belonging to the Caucasus Copper Co. (Ltd.), a British-American concern with the highest financial backing in both countries (Morgan group), Their mine is situated at the top of the valley of the Mourgul River, which flows into the Tchorokh from the western side. It is reached from Batum by the highroad leading to Bortchka ( ". miles), crossing the Tchorokh River by a wire-rope ferry, which will be replaced by an iron bridge to be built by the government, and skirting the river southward for 2 miles to the entrance of the Mourgul Valley. From this point the company had to build its own road to Dzansul, a distance of about 10 miles, where there was formerly only a precarious horse track. This road now leads to the smelting works on the banks of the river, but the mines themselves are situated about 3,000 feet above them (and at 4,500 feet above sea level), so that a further zigzag road about 6 miles long and adapted for wheel traffic had to be constructed. The transport of the ore from the mine down to the works is, however, etfected by an aerial ropeway of about 2% miles in length. The mine is said to have been worked in prehistoric times, at all events under the Roman-Byzantine domination, and before the beginning of the present ex-



ploltation the old slag heaps had been surrounded and partly hidden again by secular forests, while one of the outcrops formed an easily visible wide yellow band across a vertical cliff. Serious exploration work was started in the year 1000, when the present company was formed, and it resulted in the opening up of probably the largest connected ore body known In eastern Europe, measuring some 160 feet by 330, an4 1,000 feet in length. This is covered by an overburden of clay and alluvium of between 50 and 100 feet in thickness, which is removed by mechanical and hydraulic means. so that the ore can be worked In open cast at very small expense. The ore consists of chalcopyrite and some bornite, mixed with iron pyrites In quartzite gangue and a9says approximately 3 per cent of copper in the average; but its quantity is very considerable indeed; in 1914 there were some 4,000,000 tons of it actually in sight. The mine and the works are provided with the most modern appliances, ample power being available in the Mourgul River, which supplies the electric current for the mines and the concentration and smelting works. The latter are situate'd near the river and are able to produce about 1,000 tons of concentrates per day, which are then smelted and refined. The workmen and the staff connected with the works are housed near the river, while a great number of buildings have tlso been erected near the mines for offices, stores, shops, dwellinv'!, etc. All these installations, and the making of roads, the fleet of motor transports for connection with Bntum, etc., cost an enormous amount of money, but it was forthcoming, because, without any doubt, the mine possesses all the elements of success. Unfortunately, the treatment of the ore proved a serious problem and the methods adopted at the beginning of the 'exploitation were found to be unprofitable. The Initial plant was therefore scrapped in 1905 and the wet concentration method introduced, which gave satisfactory results and was afterwards Increased to a daily capacity of 1,000 tons. For saving the former losses in the slimes and tailings a minerals separation plant was also added in 1913, dealing with about 400 tons per day, so that all the difficulties seemed solved when the war broke out. The first consequence was that the Laze workmen returned across their frontier, which is only a few miles distant from Dzansul. Nevertheless, the exploitation continued until November, 1914, when a Turkish force invaded the valley, and the works had to be shut down. The Turks were driven out again in March, 1915. without having done much damage, but the mine has been Idle ever since. Nevertheless it has all the elements for becoming in the course of time one of the largest copper producers In eastern Europe. Its production during the last few years was: To-n030 1911-12-----------------------------2, 2,992 1912-13 ------------------------------------------------3,936 1913-14 ------------------------------------------------About 6 miles above Dzansul, on the Murvan River, an affluent of the Mourgul River, another copper deposit has been located and to a certain extent explored. Its nature is the same as that of Dzansul, and the explorations, carried out by means of galleries and drill holes, disclosed so far in three different places stocks of sulphide ores existing at the contact between sedimentary rocks and quartzites. The drilling, without reaching bottom, has proved the existence of at least 100,000 tons of ore, and this only in a small part of the deposits, which are cetainly highly interesting. The following is a typical analysis of the ores coming from this region: Per cent 19.80 Copper ------------------------------------------------25.70 Iron --------------------------------------------------28.40 Sulphur ------------------------------------------------3.50 Alumina ------------------------------------------------1.10 Magnesia -----------------------------------------------1.00 Lime ---------------------------------------------------20.60 Silica ------------------------------------------------Traces. Gold and silver ----------------------------------------Total --------------------------------------------100.0)

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA The second mine now in exploitation and likely to acquire importance in the Tchorokh district is situated at Kvartzkhana, about 37 miles from Batum, and only 10 miles from Dzansul, as the crow flies. It has the advantage of being situated on the right bank of the Tchorokh and only a short distance from the highroad, so that no extensive road-making was necessary. The original outcrops occur on a high, and in places very steep hill situated between the gorges of the Betauli and Kvartzkhana River, which unite below the hill and flow into the Tchorokh. The mountains in this part of the Tchoroklk Valley form a part of the Pontie Ridge, which extends westward toward Lazistan and eastward to the sources of the Kura River. The central portion is formed of granite, which crops out near the town of Artvin, and which lower down along the river is replaced by porphyry, and then by clay slate and schists, traversed by quartz-like sandstone. The gorges of Betauli and Kvartzkana which open out on the Tchorokh River, and the lower slopes of the latter Itself, consist of clearly defined formations of these clay schists and sandstones, while in the upper parts of the gorges chiefly porphyry formations crop up. Among the latter a large mass of quartz is noticeable, which is probably connected with a large similar outcrop occurring opposite Artvin. This mass is in niany places more or less metallized, and contains chalcopyrite, copper-glance, green and blue malachite, and also galena and zinc blends. The original exploration work was executed in the clay schists containing the beds of quartzose sandstone in which the metalliferous veins are found. These strata of sandstone occur in succession at varying distances within a lode from 200 to 2W0 feet wide, and although the outcrops were not of great width, it was evident from their formation that they were connected with larger ore bodies. These deposits attracted the attention of Messrs. Siemens Bros., of Kedabek, who began some preliminary explotation work in them, and as it proved satisfactory, they secured the mines In 1906 and prepared them for exploit. dion on a large scale. They had soon proved a considerable ore body containIng about 500,000 tons of ore with a tenour of about 4% per cent of copper, in the shape of chalcopyrite mixed with iron pyrites, and also about 8 shillings worth of gold per ton. An aerial ropeway was therefore built from the mine down to the highroad and to the river near Bortchka, where the smelter and refining works were erected, the smelter being able to deal with about 200 tons of ore per day. A considerable part of the staff.from the dwindling Kedabek mines was brought over here, as mentioned elsewhere, and the whole installation had only been fully equipped and a considerable quantity of ore was ready for the smelter, when the war broke out and the works had to be closed. . On the next hill north of the above deposits, near the village Irsa, more large outcrops are known, in similar geological formations, and a great deal of exploration work done on them has proved their value, but they are not yet being exploited. The western bank of the Tchorokh River south of the Mourgul Valley is equally rich in copper ores, Judging by the numerous outcrops known everywhere. For many of them preliminary permits were obtained by local parties at one time or other, but no work was done, so that the claims lapsed again. Anyhow, according to the geology of the country, these deposits, when opened up, may turn out fully as valuable as the above large exploitations. Mention may be m :de here of the valley of the Katila River, which falls into the Tchorokh below Artvin. Within 5 miles from the Tchorokh there are at least nine very promising outcrops of chaicopyrite of the usual formation In this zone. They are at Nadjvia, Tzild Deressi, where a vein of about 12 inches crops out in yellow sandstone, at Satovo Deressi. about 1 mile from the river, at Kepketa-Kepri, Elel Ogli, Sholab Ogli, Degir Bandi, etc., all also near the Katila and Tchorokh Rivers, so that they could very easily be made accessible. Higher up in the valley sim'hr conditions prevail at Porosseti, Nirvana, and Nakerav, which latter village is surrounded by mountains over 9,000 and 10,000 feet high. Copper must have been actually produced by the ancients on the Kuapta mountain, about 2 miles southwest of the town of Artvin (Georgha), where the usual remains of old workings,. slag heaps, etc.. altoul. In the highest and most remote part of the Tchorokh Valley, near the Turkish frontier and about 90 mles from Batum, we have the mines of



Khod-Eli, narrowly enclosed by steep mountains of volcanic origin and partly consisting of columnar basalt. They must be of very ancient origin, judging from the slag heaps and antiquities found there. The vein Is about 30 Inches w:de, consists of quartz with chalcopyrite through porphyry, and contains about 5 per cent of copper. The mine had of recent years a smelter attached to it, the ore being first roasted in heaps in the open. The matte produced was then carried on horseback to the Tchorokh River, and on it by boats, when the conditions allowed It, to a small refinery at Erghi, near the mouth of the river and about 8 miles from Batum, where the matte was finally treated. Principally on account of the difficulties of transport the mine had to be shut down, but it has lately been taken up again by new capital and a new plant has been erected, which produced between 450 and 700 tons of copper per annum.before the war. The lower parts of the Tchorokh Valley below Dzansul are not less favored with metalliferous riches than those described above, although no large exploitations exist yet in this district. One of the most interesting deposits occurs about 6 miles below Bortchka, and only 24 miles from Batum, easily accessible. The outcrops cover an area of about I square mile. Some of them were worked in a small way about 20 years ago, and the ore was sent to the smelter at Erghi, mentioned above. But the owners of the concession could not provide an exploitation on a sufficient scale, and therefQre continued with exploration work only in order to test the outcrops. For this reason this deposit is now well known and merits attention. During the Investigations 17 different outcrops were followed by galleries of various lengths, the most important one being of about 150 feet. They disclosed at least 13 separate veins, their thickness varying between 6 inches and up to 7 feet in places, but averaging mostly about 20 inches. The ore is generally chalcopyrite in quartz, in places also malachite, and the average tenor of the ore extracted from the different galleries was 8.70 per cent of copper. All the veins in the center of the field run in the direction of a mountain forming its northwest corner and rising to about 1,000 feet above the level of the valley. Outcrops of the same nature are found also near the top of this mountain, and all the experts who have visited the place therefore assume that the veins converge and form an important ore body in the center of the mountain. So far no work has been done to test this diory, but some enterprise in this direction seems indicated, as its success Is almost certain, and In this case the mine has the further advantage of being more accessible and nearer the pert of Batum than almost any other in the Tchorokh Valley. About three-quarters of a mile northeast of this field there Is another large outcrop of copper ores, and its direction and general geological condition make it very probable that it is connected with the central mountain described above. The width of this lode between salbands is 10 yards, and It consists of a vein of 1 yard of quartz containing chalcopyrite, marcasite, and zinc blende at the roof. The floor is formed by a vein more than 3 yards thick of quartz impregnated with chaloepyrite. In the center between these two veins there is a third one about 40 inches thick, also of quartz with chalcopyrite. This large lode, which Is visible at the bottom of a creek and again at a considerable height above it, has been explored only at the surface, but should be more closely Investigated, as it seems to contain large ore bodies. In the same valley another vein is known in which zinc predominates, at least near the surface. It is about 28 inches wide and consists of zinc blende with incrustations of chalcopyrite. and the gangue. consisting of quartz, is also impregnated with the same minerals. Analyses of samples showed 42 per cent zinc and 1 per cent copper. No exploration work has been done on this vein either, but it has been superficially traced at the bottom of a creek, and again 500 feet further on and 175 feet above the first outcrop, and Is therefore undoubtedly interesting. The valleys containing these deposits as well as that of the Tchalt River ending at Bortchka are all commanded by the Kara-Shalvar Mountain, 5,000 feet high, whose western slopes extend into Lazstan c'own to the Black Sea, near Khopa, Arkhavl, and Veronet. As might be expected, the geological formation in the valleys of Lazistan Is the same as in the Tchorokh Basin, and the mineral veins continue across the mountain chain, cropping out again in the same profusion. Prospecting was therefore also going on before the war near Khopa and Arkhavi, and copper and zinc outcrops are known to exist In

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA Lazista.. -s far as Rize and Surmene, besides the manganese ore already mention, but no exploitations exist yet In this d:strlct. Returning to the eastern bank of the lower Tchorokh Basin and specially to the upper valleys of its tributaries, we find there another important copper belt between the Imerkhevl and Akrla Rivers In Georgia. This must formerly also have been a busy mining center, as most of the outcrops have been laid bare by old workings and slag heaps abount In most places near them. The principal ore found everywhere is chalcopyrite, sometimes also malchite, and the outcrops are in the Jurassic formation. In several places great numbers of veins run In parallel direction and may be followed over hundreds of yards, their widths varying between a few Inches and 0 feet. Samples taken from them gave everywhere rich assays, also some gold. As only superficial investigations have been made of recent years, full details of all the occurences are not available, but enough is known to show the desirability of closer Investigation. The valley of the Adjara River, which falls Into the Tchorokh about 10 miles from Batum, contains the deposits nearest to the sea. Two mines were worked there, near Agara and Merissi, and the ore was brought down to the smelter at Erghl. The next valleys to the south are those of the Chaklls River, with its tributary the Akria River, and conta':: copper outcrops and o(d mines at the villages, Sindlethl, Aghmarthl, Tskhemalana, Tchikunethl,. Akria, and Ephrat, all In Georgia, the nearest being 13 miles and the farthest about 30 miles from Batum. Southeast of this district and in the territory drained by the Imerkhevl River and its tributaries most of the villages within a radius of 10 miles can show old mines or outcrops more recently discovered. Mention may be made here only of Inkhreul, Dioban, Koklethi, Ivethl, Zeklethl, Badsghlrethi, Daba, Surevan. Ube, and Andrlatsminda in the north, and Tchlkhor, DzIos, Sinkot, Dovlethl, Dzetlethl, and Dzkaltzimor in the south. Some of these mines contain also znc and lead, and, for instance, Badsghirethl is known to have been worked for silver by the Turkish Government when the district was under their rule, and there are still many villagers livIng who worked there. A more recent analysis of samples drawn from there gave: Per cent Copper --------------------------------------------------------------19.02 Zinc ---------------------------------------------------13.02 Lead ---------------------------------------------------------------10.35 At Ardala, on the Imerkhevl River, near its fall into the Tchorokh, there also exists a quartz vein with feldspatic rocks traversing porphyry, and containing about 6 per cent of copper. In the same neighborhood, almost opposite Artvin (Georgia), a powerful quartz vein crops out at the contact of metamorphic sandstone and porphyry; It a about 2 meters thick and contains iron pyrites mixed with a good proportion of chalcopyrite, but no analysis is available. Although these numerous deposits situated on both slopes of the Kartchkhal Mountain, which rises to 11,248 feet above sea level, formed once a most Important copper smelting center they are not -worked now and not even well known, because they are not situated on the usual highroads. Nevertheless they could easily be made accessible for modern traffic and connected with the highroad in the Tchorokh valley, and, being situated near the sea and in a well-populated district, they will undoubtedly sooner or later be brought to life again. The Zangesour District, which forms the third copper mining area of Caucasia, is less important than the two former ones. It Is situated in the southeastern part of the country, toward the Persian frontier, and its position is rather unfavorable for transport as the nearest railway station, Evlakh, on the Tiflis-Baku line, is about 130 miles distant. This is the pincipal reason why the exploitation of this zone is less intensive, but It will undoubtedly expand as well when better means of transport are available. Several mines are being worked at present in a comparatively small radius; they were also known to the ancients who left the usual workings and slag heaps, and even their tools have been found. The ore of this zone Is also principally chalcopyrife, also copper glance, with admixture in places, of zinc blende and galena.


The name of the district, "Zangesour," proves Its old notoriety, as It means "sounding brass." The old exploitation was taken up again in 1845 when a small smelter was erected; two more followed in 1851 and a further one In 1857. But the working remained In a very primitive state until 1904, when the first modern installation arose at Barabatum. The Synik mine is situated at a distance of 2 miles only from the latter place, and belongs now to the Socldt( Industrielle et Mbtallurglque du Caucase which also works Alaverdi. The mine contains some 20 different veins, from 7 inches to 4 feet wide, containing chalcopyrite and some purple ore in quartz gangue, also a small proportion of precious metals. A great"deal of money has been spent on this mitie and the smelting works which, as mentioned, are installed on modern lines, but their production has still to be developed; it was 721 tons of metal in 1909 and 939 tons in 1913. The neighboring Barabatum mine, although under different ownership, is worked in connection with the Synik smelter and also receives the required electric current from it. It contains several veins of the same character, of a thickness varying between 6 inches and 2 feet and widening out in places even to 7 feet. The ore is hand-picked and then contains an average of 10-18 per cent of copper. The small ore is washed In the river and concentrated by primitive means, and the roasting also only takes place in heaps In the open, whereupon the product goes to the Synik smelter. The production of ore is not considerable, some 2,000 or 3,000 tons per year, as the owners are mostly doing exploration work. The mine also contains an old dump heap of some 40,000 tons of slag containing between 2 and 3 per cent of copper and altogether deserves to be more energetically exploited. The Ugurtehal mine is worked by Tiflis owners on a fairly wide lode, but also in a primitive fashion. They also have a small smelter which in recent years produced from 500 to 80 tons of copper p. a. Other copper mines in this district occur at the villages Agarak, Katara, and Baihkent, the first one possessing a -ein about 2 feet wide between diorite and syenite, and containing about 10 per cent of copper and some molybdenite. The Gnlisur mines, which formerly were well known, have not been worked of later years. On the other hand, new exploration work has been started near Byelokan, where an ore body of apparently considerable size has been discovered. The district contains several other small producing properties whose only drawback lies in the transport difficulty. Although the railway from Tiflis to Persia runs at a distance from 30 to 54) miles west of the mines, there is, at present at least, no connection possible in this direction, on account of the intervening mountain chain rising to more than 10,000 feet, and the only hope of improvement lies in the building of the projected branch railway from the Iaku line to the town of Shusha, from which the mines are easily accessible. The three mining areas described above do not cover all the Caucasian copper-bearing fields, and separate deposits occur also in many other places, specially In Georgia along the main mountain chain. The eastern part of it between Telaw and Zakatali is fairly rich in quartzose veins containing chalcopyrite and iron pyrites, notably at Pshavell, Zakatall, and other laces. They vary in width between a few inches and several feet," but in general seem too poor or too difficult of access for successful working and have not been touched. The Kasbek group of mountains in Georgia contains at least two considerable deposits of copper ores. The first one lies on its northern slope oti the left bank of the River Terek, and, although situated at a high altitude, it presents no special difficulty to the extraction of the ore. The country rock is formed of nearly vertical strata of grey granites and porphyries and almost black schistose diorites, and the metalliferous veins run along the latter. Their gangue consists of quartz or calcite impregnated with chalcopyrite. Considerable exploration work has been d6ne on the deposit, and seven veins have been fully traced at different levels. Their width varies between 8 inches and 7 feet, widening in one place even to 14 feet. The extension of at least two of them has been exactly determined over a length of 04, and 700 yards, respectively, and at levels Olffering by 700 feet. The ore existing in them is estimated at 1,000,000 tons, containing an average of t1 per cent of copper. The quantities contained in the other veins have so far not been ascertained, but all of them extend much further in depth and crop out again about 4,000 feet lower down on the mountain side.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA The extraction of the ore will be easy by means of adits at different levels, and there Is no difficulty in building an aerial ropeway for Its transport to a smelter to be erected at the foot of the mountain. Fuel can easily be brought from Vladlcaucase, a distance of 27 miles, and In this regard this mine is much better placed than those In the south of the country and Is altogether fully prepared for an undoubtedly profitable exploitation. 'The second deposit on the Kasbek (Georgia) occurs at a few miles distance from the above In a side valley on the eastern bank of the River Terek and at about the same altitude. The geological conditions are also similar; the metalliferous veins consist of quartz embedded in clay schists, and contain chalcopyrite with much malachite. Seven or eight of them are known and crop out at different heights, but there is not enough exploitation work done to estimate their contents. However, they extend over such a wide area that there can be no doubt of their richness In ore. This property Is partly covered with forests wlitt,', might be used for the purposes of a mine, and considerable water power could be supplied by a stream flowing through It. In the vicinity of Viadicaucase there are four more deposits of copper ores known, although not explored. Copper .ores exist also at lower altitudes In the Province of Kutals, Georgia, near the River Rion, and two groups of outcrops may be specially mentioned. The country rock is generally dioritic, crossed by thick veins of basalt, quartz. and baryta. The quartz and baryta are mostly mineralized with chulcopyrlte and malachite, also copper glance, and in many places the deposits resemble those of the Alaverdi mines. They extend over a wide area on both banks of the river, and old slag heaps prove that they were formerly worked, but In recent times they have been lying entirely idle. Further west a most interesting mineral district lies near the Black Sea, In Georgia, only about 25 miles from Batum. It covers an area of about 40 square miles and contains, besides copper, also zinc and lead, as well as manganese and Iron. and it seems surprising that in spite of their favorable position these deposits were never worked and are even scarcely known. The surface formation consists mostly of grey or white clays, the products of the decomposition of porphyrytic rocks which on washing give galena. blende, and chalcopyrite. Quartz which in other parts forms the usual gangue of the veins, is here almost entirely absent and Iron pyrites form only a very small proportion. One of the outcrops consists of two parallel veins, the upper one about 9 inches wide, the lower one from 3 to 28 inches; they are divided by a bed of Kaolin and can be worked together. The mineral extracted from them Is solid, and all analysis gave 8 per cent copper, 40 pur cent zinc, and 20 per cent lead. Other samples contained from 7 to 16 per cent copper; In some there was more lead than zinc, even up to 60 per cent of the former In the metallic state. The veins from which these minerals derive, as it is clearly shown in other outcrops, can be reached by a gallery of about 140 feet driven through the kaolin ;'its cost would easily be paid by the ores recovered. A further vein crops out directly about a mile from the above: It is a pure vein in porphyry of more than 15 Inches In width and contains 7 per cent "copper, 48 per cent zinc, and 8.5 per cent Iron pyrites, practically without any silica. The conditions for working it are also very favorable. Several other outcrops of similar nature are known, but have not been explored. Manganese ores are also found in this district, either In the shape of rocky outcrops, or weathered In grains mixed with the surface earth over large areas. The pyrolusite taken from the outcrops was found to contain also some iron, but Its tenour In depth is not known and would be interesting, specially in view of the fact that at a distance of about half a mile from the manganese there are very considerable outcrops of magnetic iron ore of great purity and remarkable magnetic properties. These two deposits might together form the center of a metallurgical industry for the production of ferro-manganese, zinc, and lead. In view of their proximity to the sea, only 20 and 25 miles from two ports, the fuel question would here not make any difference whatever, and there is no doubt about the presence of large quantities of ore, while several rivers could supply power. Many other outcrops of copper veins are known between the Black Sea and the western part of the Caucarsian main chain, but they are not explored. A very considerable one Is said to exist above the monastery of Novo Aphon

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA near Sukhum, Georgia, and samples received from there proved very rich, consisting of copper glance which contained 50.25 per cent of copper. The following statistics give a general aspect of the copper industry In Georgia and Caucasla in recent years:
1911 1912 1913 1914

copper minesNumber of

Having their own smelters ........................................ Without saielters ..................................................

15 17

15 14

16 21

14 14

Copper ores extracted by the totality of the mines


1910 1911 1912 1913 1914

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Total production of refined copper in Caucasia


237,415 324,098 319,469 359.674 238,954


1901 -----------------------1902 -----------------------1903 -----------------------1904 -----------------------1905 -----------------------19t, ----------------------1907------------------------

3,99 3,440 4,240 4,785 3,707 3,829 5,003

1908 ------------------------ 4,820 1909 ------------------------ 6,311 1910 ------------------------ 7,695 ------------------- 8,346 1911 1912 ------------------------ 9,657 1913 ----------------------- 10,136 1914 ------------------------ 8,259

Largest producers 1911 1 1912

T4, 5
I 3,00 1,435

1913 3 12

1914 4,071

To Sociftf Industrielle et Mdtallurgique du Caucase ...............90

('auclus Copper Co. (Ltd.) ................................. Siemens Bros ............................................... .. .2 1,551

3,32 1,272 1

2,892 794


These ores are plentiful in Georgia and Caueasia, but in most instances the zinc blende, which predominates, is mixed with galena, chalcopyrite, Iron pyrites, and other elements which make the treatment difficult and expensive. Lead ores, as such, have so far not been found, but the compounds usually contain some silver. Probably for this reason there is at present only one mine producing zito! and lead in Caucasla; it is owned 'ty the Socit6 Minitre et Chimilue Alagir, a Russo-Belgian company managed by Belgians. Their mine is situated at Sadon in the northern Caucasus about 50 miles west of Vladicaucase. while the smelter is near the latter town. The yelps are of quartz In granite rock and contain zinc blonde, argentiferous galena, and Iron pyrites. Before the war about 100 tons of this ore were extracted per day, containing about 16 per cent zinc, 0 per cent lead, 12 per cent iron, and 5 ounces silver per ton. This ore is hand-sorted and treated, and produces a concentrate containing about 63 per cent lead and 45 per cent zinc, but In the refilling only about 60 per cent of these contents are recovered. In 1910 the ore reserve,: were estimated at 100,000 tons in the vein which is now being worked, bu,. at short distances from it there are about 15 others of varying thickness, running up to 6 feet, but in general not very rich. Alagir is the only establishment producing also silver in Caucasia, about half a ton per year, while its yearly productii of zinc amounted to about 3,000 tons before the war, and that of lead to 1.000 tons. Deposits of similar ores are known in many other places on the northern slopes of the Caucasian main chain, mostly in the district of Batalpash, near



Takhtaul-Tchalgan, where a company formed in recent years has extracted small but increasing quantities of ore. At Khostinsk, in the same zone, exploration work In a small way has been going on for several years in a deposit of the same nature. On the southern side of the mountain chain near the Black Sea in Georgia two other small exploitations exist, one on the Akhista-Akara mountain near Sukhum, and the other on the Dzisbra.Abakhu mountain in the district of Gudaut. The former shows a very good outcrop over a considerable length, and contains principally rich galena, with zinc, but no silver. Both places deserve to be closely examined, because, if they come up to expectations, their position near two seaports will greatly facilitate their exploitation. The Tzkhinval Valley, near Gorl, in Georgia, also contains outcrops of rather rich lead and zinc ore, as surface samples assayed up to 62 per cent of lead and 25 per cent of zinc, but no work has been done on them. South of Tiflis a zinc mine was formerly worked at Akhtala, on the Bortehala River, In Georgia, but it was not very successful as the ore Is very complex, as the following analyses show: Per cent Per cent Copper--------------. 3.80- 5. 800 Zinc ------------------ 33. 70-41. 680 Lead ... ----15.30-11.000 Iron -----------------8.40- 5.380 Silver --------------0.04- 0.015 Sulphur-------------- 29.56-31.000 Gold ------------------Trace. Silica---------------7.50- 4.400 No work has been done here of late years. In the same neighborhood, about 40 miles southwest of Tiflis. a rather Interesting occurrence is known near Tchatakh (Georgia). A quartz vein 4 .2 feet wide traversing dioritic porphyry is richly impregnated with different ores which have been ascertained to be composed of 23 per cent of galena, 34 per cent of zinc blende, 33 per cent of chalcopyrite, and 0.026 per cent of silver. This place was formerly worked and Is said to have produced also much gold. The deposit which, although not worked and not much known, seems to be most suitable for a future profitable exploitation, is situated in the Province of Elizahetpol, about 30 miles from the Tiflis-Baku Railway and easily accessible. It covers about 2 square miles in the upper part of a valley partly covered with great forests. It must at one time have been an important center of activity, judging from the old workings and slag heaps, of which over 100 are visible. A great number of veins are also disclosed by outcrops, all running west to east, lut only four veins have been really tested by the present owners of the property, who have driven galleries along them, one of 9) yards and three of about 2"25 yards each. The veins are well defined in quartz and from 7 to 22 inches thick, widening out in places to 40 inches. The ore is an unusually pure blende, partly brownish caramel blende, containing according to an analysis made iti Belgium: Per cent Per cent Zinc --------------------59.6S Fluorine --------------------0. 05 Lead ------------------- traces. Iron oxide and alumimna ----3 opper. antimony -----------nil. Lime and magnesia ----------2 Cadilum --------------------. 15 Slia --------------------3.40 Arsenic-------------------.02 Silver (grains per ton) ------- 13 Sulphur -----------------30.76 These samples, taken from the galleries near the bottom of the valley, are therefore of a remarkable purity and the mines undoubtedly deserve closer attention, specially also because they might form time basis of spelter works in thi. region. There are no such works in southeastern Europe and in installation in this district would have an enormous field of activity extendIng eastward to Siberia. Transcaslia and Persia. Another outcrop of zinc-lead ores exists In the same province of l,1zael'tpl near Tjegam. It is not explored, but samples taken from it have been analyzed and are said to have given the following results: Per cent Per cent Zinc -----------------48. to 53 Manganese ---------------0.42 Lead ---------------------13.40 Sulphur ----------------14..40 Iron ---------------------2.50 Silver ---------------------. 007 1Estimated.



As this outcrop is only 5 miles from the railway, it should also be followed up. The southwestern region of Georgia also contains zinc and lead ores in many places, but mostly mixed with copper, and several occurrences have already been mentioned under the latter heading. In those now to be described the zinc predominates, but only one of them has been actually worked in our time. It is situated at Khod Ell, at the farthest point of the Tchorokh Valley near the Turkish frontier. Originally it contained two contact veins about 14 and 18 inches average thickness, composed of blonde and iron and copper pyrites. Their composition near the surface was as follows: Per cent Per cent Zinc---------------- 50. 3847.26 Sulphur--------------. 32.85-31.95 Copper ---------------. 6.82- 6.45 Silica -------------0.85- 1.36 Iron --------------2.95-- 2.84 But in depth the zinc was found to diminish to such azi extent that the extraction of this metal became unprofitable and had to be given up. Copper alone is now produced in this mine, as mentioned in the precedent chapter. In the neighborhood of Artvlu two more similar deposits occur which are, however, not worked. One of them borders on the river Imc-rkhevi (Georgia), and crops out as a quartz vein containing blende, accompanied, as usual here, by chalcopyrite, and assaying 48.50 per cent of zinc, with 2.86 per cent of copper. The outcrop which can be followed for sone distance, is 14 inches thick. The other outcrop occurs at quite a short distance above the town of Artvin on the Kuapta Mountain. Only surface work has been done on it, revealing the presence of a well-formed lode, about 4 feet thick, which was followed over a length of 24 feet and continues. d!pplng northeast. The ore from the surface workings is rather complex and contains, besides the blende, also galena and copper and iron pyrites. An average sample gave the following results: Per cent I Per cent Zinc --------------------31.47 Copper -------------------3.90 Lead --------------------12.16 Cadmium -----------------4.04 Iron --------------------tO. 76 Sulphur -----------------23.78 Copper may predominate at lower depths, as it has happened in other mines of this district. This seems all the more possible as the lower levels of the Kuapta Mountain have indeed been worked for copper in ancient times, as the o0( slag-heaps and traces of galleries show. The tributary valleys on the east side of the Tchorokh also contain ores of zinc and silver-lead, which. although not worked now, were at one time famous. The best-known exploitation was at Badsghirethi, where silver was extracted by the former Turkish rulers of the district, as already mentioned. Farther east at Gumush.Khan6, in the Zangesur district, at about 20 miles from the railway running from Tiflis to Persia, there is a deposit of very rich galena containing silver in which an English company had dene a certain amount of preparatory work which promised well, but was stopped before the war. The total output of argentiferous lead and zinc ores in Caucasia during recent years was: Tons Tons 1910 -----------------------. 28,805 1913 ---------------------- 25,517 1911 -------------------. 20,060 1914 ------------------13,773 1912 -----------------------. 28,495 About 93 per cent of these ores were mined by the Alagir Co. To this company is also due the extraction of the following metals, which form the total of the Caucasion production: 191t
Zic ................. c............................









NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA Oz. Troy 67,240 135,276 127,454 71,735 time as Tons 6,207 --------------------------------Sulphurlc acid 70 ------------------------------------------------Nitric acid 280 ------------------------------------------Hydrochloric reld 54 --------------------------------------------Sulphate of Iron 356 -------------------------------------------Sulphate of lead The exploitation of some of the other zinc and lead mines in Caucasia would be most desirable, as, besides the local and eastern markets, Russia alone is a large buyer of these metals, and imported, for instance, In 1913, 58,000 tons of lead and 26,000 tons of zinc. 1911 ----------------------------------------------1912 ----------------------------------------------1913 ----------------------------------------------1914 While producing these metals the Alagir Co. obtained at the same by-products:


The Caucasian Mountains, with their great tertiary movements and numerous intrusions of granitic, dioritic, and diabasic rocks might be expected to contain also gold. According to the old legends one would look for the precious metal in the first Instance in Georgia, as being the ancient Colchis where the Argonauts came from far to collect the gold In the rivers by means of sheepskins placed Into them. If we are to believe these tales, what must have happened there is only what has been repeated in many places since then; there must have been a slow enrichment of placers from poor veins, and the placers, when discovered, were quickly worked out. Nothing then remained, except the veins which are too poor for us to work. Traces of gold in the iron and copper pyrites of the zone have been mentioned before, but their extraction would not pay and there is therefore no production of the precious metal in the country at present. Occurrences of free gold in veins are rare. One of them is known near Tchkha'ndror, in Svanetla, Georgia, consisting of veins or pockets of corroded quartz containing incrustations of small grains of gold. The sands from the rivers in this neighborhood usually contain some gold In flakes and seem to Indicate the presence of other similar veins. On the Akstafa River another quartz vein crops out, about 14 Inches thick and running through porphyry. The quartz is spongy and contains native gold, mixed with iron oxide and copper, and the river sands below it, as well as those of the DJaglrtcbsi and other affluents of the Akstafa River, contain placer gold in many places, but only from 1 to 8 grammes per ton-too little to be worked. A similar slightly auriferous zone exists also in the northeastern Caucasus on the river Malka, near Mosdok. All along the banks (if this river there are small outcrops of gold-bearing quartz to be found, but they assay only about 0.3 grammes of gold per ton. The placers formed t ,r them are generally covered by only a foot or two of alluvial, and are them elves up to about 2 yards thick. They consist of greyish-yellow sand overlying a bed of blue clay, below which follows a second layer of gold-bearing sands, and finally porphyry. Unfortunately these placers are not sufficiently rich to pay for their working, nor are the quartz veins at their outcrops, but they have never been touched in depth aLd might there give better results.

Cinnabar exists only in two districts of the northern Caucasus, both situated at high altitudes. The first one contains the mines of Ganal-Vadz and Khpeker-Vadz, near Ku. rush in southern Daghestan. These deposits have been known from ancient times and were formerly worked, but their veins are poor and a regular exploitation has not been maintained In late years.



The other occurrence of this mineral exists in the Kuban Province at Fikhot, near Maikop, at an altitude of more than 9,000 feet. It is not worked, although the owner of another similar mine is said to have acquired it with a view to exploitation.

Molybdenite is known to exist in three places in southern Caucasia. In the Province of Erivan near the village of Bash-Abaran several quartzite veins crop out on the bank of an affluent of the Bambak River. The country rock is syenite, and the veins are partly decomposed and contain molybdenite, besides iron and copper pyrites. A somewhat similar occurrence exists near Novo-Bayazid, near Lake Goktcha. On the Agarak-tchal In the Zangesur district a copper vein was formerly worked lying at the contact between diorite and syenite; it contains the usual iron and copper pyrites, besides a fair percentage of molybdenite, which latter was, however, thrown away as useless. None of these deposltt is worked now, although the more recent demand for molybdenum in connection with the steel industry should now give them the necessary start.

There are several deposits of these metals, chiefly cobalt, in the Province of Elizabetpol in the neighborhood of the Kedabek copper mines. The most important one les at Dashkesan, and belongs, like the adjoining iron mines, to Siemens Bros. The cobalt ore forms irregular nests with epidote, garnet and hornblende in a porphyritic rock, which encloses at the same time magnetic iron ore and occasionally galena and zinc blende. The walls of these nests are themselves colored Iby the cobaltine. Analyses of the mineral gave the following results:

Cobalt ........................ Nickel ........................

Copper .......................

Percent 17.90 0.22

0.21 ,...........Rock

Per cent 17.55 0. 26

Iron .......................... ArSeIc....................


Pff cent 1.44 97


Percent 9.85 31.63


The Siemens works formerly extracted the cobalt from these ores, and produced in 1887, 1 ton 7 hundredwelght of ore; in IS&S, 18 hundredweight; in 1889. 12 tons; in the last year they also produced about 2 tons 18 hundredweight of cobaltiferous copper matte. In recent years the extraction has been almost stationary, amounting to about 12 or 15 tons ier year.

Antimony ores are not of frequent occurrence in Caucasia and the deposits known are not worked; all of them are found in the higher parts of the main mountain chain iii Georgia. One occurs near the Gorbalo Mountains, northeast of Tiflls, and shows two veints of stibnite in clay schists, samples containing over 6O per cent of anctalllc antimony. The -ame kind of ore exists also near the Kaslk Mountain, where It was accidentally uncovered by a landslip which happened some years ago. Samples taken from it contained 63.66 per cent of metallic antimony, no arsenic, nor lead, nor any gold. Small quantities of ore were then extracted by tile pea-4ant owners of the land, but no proper working ever took place, and an examination of the place by experts is certainly indicated. The third deposit is known il Svanctia, near Outzerl, northwest of Kutais, Georgia. The veins here also lie In clay schists, and were formerly worked in a smIai way, but have now been Idle for many years, probably on account of the general low prices obtained for antimony ores before the war. Stibnite occurs also in the northern Caucasus, in the village Kholondol, near Grozny. Samples from there contained 61.6 per cent of metal, but further details about the deposit are not available.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEOIRGIA As the value of antimony ores has enormously risen and is likely to remain at a high level in future, the exploitation of these mines could now be taken up or restarted on a very profitable basis.

Iron pyrites accompany almost all the other metalliferous deposits of Caucasia and are specially found in connection with the sulphides of copper and zinc, where they are not desired. The large copper works, like Alaverdl, Kedabeg. and the Tchorokh establishments, have installations for separating them from the copper ores during the concentration process. Between 3.000 and 4,000 tons of sulphur ores were thus saved per year by the two former concerns and sent to the sulphuric acid factories in Baku. But In most other cases the sulphur contents of the sulphide ores are lost, as they are roasted in heaps in the open. The occurrence of iron pyrites in connection with chalcopyrite at DjirakiDsor has already been mentioned with the copper mines. A somewhat similar and probably the largest deposit of pure iron pyrites suitable for the regular manufacture of sulphuric acid exists at Tanzout, about o miles from the station Karaklls of the Tiflis-Kars Railway. The ore body crops out on the side of a hill on a length of about 500 yards and a height of 80 yards above the water level of the creek. This enormous outcrop is formed of distinctly separated horizontal beds varying In thickness between 5 and 20 yards, but without the intercalation of any other mineral or foreign element. The only impurity to be found here and there between the surface beds are slight streaks of kaolin, produced by the alteration of the porphyry in contact with the pyrites. The depth to which this enormous stock may advance into the hill has not been ascertained; a trial gallery of 20 yards driven across it did not reach the back wall. Tnking this distance us its utverage thickness, the deposit represents a quantity of two and a half million tons of ore, but in view of the enormous other dimensions the total thickness is probably many times more tlin the length of this small gallery. The ore consists of very small grains or crystals of iron pyrites, cemented together by serpentinous material, and does not present the brilliant appearance of the Spanish ore consisting of larger crystals. Without selection it contains from 39 to 40 per cent of sulphur, bui it is easy to bring the average of cargoes up to 45 per cent and more by throwing out the streaks of kaolin or of less mineralized serpentine which occur at certain distances. Samples analyzed at Tiflis give the following results: Per cent Percent Sulphur ----------------4.334 Magnesia ----------------.012 Iron -------------------40.530 Silica -----------------11.441 Copper --------------------. 028 Arsenic -------------------.0186 Cobalt --------------------. 017 Gold -------------------Trace. Nickel --------------------. 014 Moisture ----------------1.405 Zinc ----------------------. 007 Lead---------------------.015 99.0166 Lime .095 As the ore Is practically everywhere uncovered, except in a few places where there is an overburden of 13 feet 6 inches. it can be quarried and loaded directly into carts. When fresh from the mine it forms compact lumps, but after being exposed to the atmosphere for some time it becomes very friable and falls into sand-like grains. This is an advantage as pyrites have usually to be pulverized for burning;. also this ore does not explode when fired. This deposit has been worked for several years, the whole of its production going to Baku, where there are several factories; producing together about 25,000 tons of sulphuric acid, mostly used in the refining of petroleum. In spite of its position near the railway and cheap extraction the ore has not yet been able to compete with Spanish and Scandinavian pyrites on the western markets on account of high freights, but it can keep its own in southeastern Europe. While the stock of iron pyrites Is practically free from other metals, the porphyrite in contact with it is impregnated with ehalcopyrite and zinc blende which are visible at the outcrops, covered with Iron oxide, partly In the form of red ochre. Compact lodes of copper ore have also been discovered In the



porphyrite; one of them between 20 and 24 inches wide has been followed by a small gallery and leads toward the center of the hill, which undoubtedly contains copper. This is the more certain as the opposite side ot the hill was formerly worked as a copper mine and is still called "Miskhana," meaning "copper works" in Tartar language. Anatolian Greeks worked there until driven away by the invasion of Agha Mahomed Khan, Shah of Persia, in 1795. A number of old Asiatic smelting furnaces have been found there, besides extensive old workings and many veins of chalcopyrite which in time may again become interesting. In the south of the same Province of Erivan iron pyrites have also been extracted in the Nakhitchevan district, but no regular exploitation can be recorded. Iron pyrites occur also in many places in Georgia, especially in tile Rion Valley leading toward the main chain. About 3 miles above Kutais large beds of bituminous shale begin and are visible over considerable distances along the river and in places up to 160 feet thick. In numberless spots they show streaks and thick outcrops of pyrites in large crystals forming compact masses. They are especially numerous and powerful at Ossunella, about 10 miles from Kutals, where the ore could be mined in large blocks, as there are beds of It cropping out with a thickness of 7 feet and more, and composed of practically pure crystals. A similar occurrence exists again higher up in the valley about 14 mile from Kutais and quite near the road leading toward 8vanitla (Georgia). Samples from these p!aces contained 50 to 51 per cent of sulphur and 41 per cent of iron. In fact, this mineral, partly mixed with chalcopyrite, may be found in all the mountain spurs descending from the central Caucasus. In the lower part of the Kasbek Mountain large deposits are known of exceptionally fine crystallization, and the boys sell large specimen crystals to the travelers on the Georgian military road. All this richness is so far unexploited, even scarcely known. However, the deposits in this district might probably be made available for the western consumption, as they are within easy reach of the Transcaucasian Railway and the Black Sea ports. The total production of Iron pyrites in Caucasla was in-s Tons 4,900 1910 -------------------------------------------------------------6,428 1911 -------------------------------------------------------------14,988 1912 ---------------------------------------------------------------7,654 1013 -------------------------------------------------------------8,066 1914 ---------------------------------------------------------------Besides the Iron pyrites there is also a deposit of realgar and arsenical pyrites known and being worked. It is situated at Semi, In the Kagisman district near Kars, and during 1913 and 1914 the extraction amounted to respectively 80 and 50 tons. PART II. NOxNtrITALS COPAL Coal, which forms the lifeblood of most industries, is unfortunately almost absent in Caucasa. It may be sn;d that in Its stead the country possesses its enormous riches in naphtha, which may be used as fuel, and an abundance of water power or "white coal," to be utilized for power purposes, but still, specially for metallurgical purposes, coal or coke are required and must be Imported. The imports, which In former years came mostly from Great Britain, consist now exclusively in coal from the Donetz Basin, which is of good quality, and, besides, protected by an import duty of 7s. Gd. per ton. The former foreign Imports dwindled away, as the following figures show: Tons 2,381 1891 --------------------------------------------------------------1,208 1893 --------------------------------------------------------------1,185 1894 --------------------------------------------------------------1 After this book was published, several large coal beds were discovered in Georgia.

1805 189 897..-...

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA -----------------------------------------------------40 -------------------------------------------------55 . . . . ..------------------------------------------------59




1899 -------------------------------------------------80 1900 ---------------------------------------------------------------55 1903 .---------------50 The only deposit of coal worked In Caucasla occurs at TkvlbuI (Georgia), about 25 miles from Kutals, with which town the collieries are connected by a railway built by the Government. The thickness of the coal seams varies between 1 and 5 feet, and their total thickness amounts in places to as much as 80 feet; they are worked by adits driven into the mountainside. The quq'lty of the coal is inferior, it crumbles on exposure to the air, so that it can not be transported without being briquetted. In this shape it Is used locally for domestic purposes, but is useless for steam raising. On account of these difficulties the exploitation has never been prosperous and has even been shut down at times, until the Government advanced the enterprise about 0.000 in order to Improve the working plant and to erect the patent fuel factory. Nevertheless, these collieries are quite insufficient for supplying the needs of Georgia alone, and several times there has been great scarcity of coal, with exorbitant prices, when the supply from the Don district was interrupted by ice in the Sea of Azoff. The output of Tkvibul during recent years was the following: Tons 1911 --------------------------------------------------------------0.3,032 1912 --------------------------------------------------------------60,647 1913 --------------------------------------------------------------67,027 1914 ---------------------------------------------------------------62,827 1915 --------------------------------------------------------------51252 Another deposit of coal which has attracted some attention occurs at Tkvartcheli (Georgia), about 30 mile from the open bay of Otehemtchliri on the Black Sea. It is said to extend over a rather large area, something like 20 square miles, and to contain an enormous quantity of coal, as the principal scam which has been oqp(.ned up is 14 feet thick. The quality is very good, according to an English expert equal to Monmoulhshire black band. giving from 68 to 70 per cent of coke, and coitalinting only 0.90 per cent of sulphur. The deposits are situnied in a mountainous district and not very accessible, but the railway which was built front Novo Senaki. on the PottTiflis line, to Sukhum, on the Black Sea, was expected to help in overcoming this difficulty. An exploitation comlmny was then formed some years ago, but so far no results are to be recorded. Two more deposits may be mentioned in the Black Sea district of Georgia, one at Khartalt4 In the neighborhood of Poti, and the other near Sukhum. The product of both has more the character of igigte, and at the latter place It lies in very thin seams separated by clay, and contains about 30 per cent of ashes; about 100 tons of it have lately been extracted per year and used on the spot. At Motzamethi (Georgia), near the Tkvilbul colliulres, there is another occurrence of similar. low-grade coal. Four seams crop out in Jurassic sandstone, but their total thickness Is not more than 4 feet. The coal Is very friable and contains 25 per cent of ashes attd I per cent of sulphur, and is only sporadically worked. In the southwestern part of Georgia coal has so far been discovered In one place only, namely, at Olti, near the Turkish frontier. It is said to be of very rich quality, somewhat like Welsh coal, but there are no efficient means of communications in those mountains, although the distance to Batura Is only about 100 miles. Investigations were made during 1913 and 1914, and the small quantities of coal extracted seem to justify the high hopes entertained about this occurrence. In the northern Caucasus in the Kuban district coal is also found at Georgievsk and at Khumarinsk, and between 1,000 and 2,000 tons are extracted In these two places per year for local use; staall quautitles also occur near Vladicaucase and at Naltehlk, samples from the latter place giving 50 per cent of coke, with 1.08 per cent of sulphur.




(By far the most important oil fields are those of Baku, which have been fully described in my paper, "The Caucasian petroleum industry and its importance for eastern Europe and Asia.") Besides Baku, Caucasia contains yet several other oil fields which, while having smaller outputs, are still of great importance. All of them lie in the belt formed by the slopes of the main Caucasian chain to the north as well as to the south, while no sources of oil are known in the farther district and in the Lesser Caucasus. The principal field after Baku occurs at Grorny, in northern Caucasin, about 40 miles fiom the crest of the main chain and 50 miles from the Caspian Sea. It Is connected by railway with Vladicaucase in the west, and in the east with Derbent on the Caspian Sea, to which port also a pipe line has been laid. outflows of naphtha were known in this district from antiquity, but the oil was only used for greasing cart wheels. The first exploitation was started in 1855 by a Greek, Tehikaloff., who paid a yearly rent of about 1,250 and produced about 800 tons of oil per annum, which production gradually increased and reached 7,500 tons in 1891. In that year a Tartar barrister formed a company with Belgian capital under the name J. Akhverdoff & Co., and rented plots from the Cossak military administration, paying a rental of about 7 per acre and a royalty of Is. 4d. per ton up to 30,000 tons and 8d. per ton of excess. In 1890 there was a public auction of oil lands and other firms also entered the field. Leases were granted for 24 years at a rental of about 0 per acre, but the royalty rose to 79. 4d. per ton, and In 1899 even to 8s. 10d. per ton. Nevertheless, the industry increased rapidly, and while Akhverdoff's company still produces between 40 and 50 per cent of the total output of the field, other companies have also come Into prominence lately, notably those connected with Colonel Tchermoeff, the President of the Daghestan-Terek Mahomedan Republic. His estate, situated at 5 miles distance from Grozny, has been found to be i very successful field of production. In the beginning of 1914 there were 15 lirms engaged in the exploitation, working 107 plots of a total area of 2,80) acres. They had 278 boreholes, the deepest of which reached the enormous depth of 4,290 feet. This is, in fact, the drawback of this field that boring has to be carried to great depths, but on the other hand the chemical composition of the oil obtained from it is more advantageous than in Baku. as it contains more of the valuable benzene and is easy to distil. About 20 per cent of the production is used for fuel on the spot, the Vladlcaucase Railway Co. being the largest consumer, using the mazout in its engines. This company also possesses the largest refinery in the fiel, able to treat 2,000 tons of naphtha per d(ty. Nobel Bros. have erected another large establishment of a capacity of about 80,000 tons per annum. The lighting oil produced Is mostly used In Russia, while the beazene is exported via Novorossisk. The oil belt of which (troz y forms the center extends for a rather considerable distance, principally westward, and borings have also been started at Tehir-Urt, Belik Tchermoeff, and SundJa, about 25 miles west, and Novi Aldi. and Vossnessensk, about 50 miles northwest of Grozny, mostly with satisfactory results, while some of the operators had not reached oil yet; but soon ifter the outbreak of the war the work had to be stopped everywhere. The conditions of the leases in these new places are more liberal than at Crozny. The second oil zone north of the Caucasian chain occurs near its western end, drawing eastward from the Taman Peninsula over a distance of about 120 miles in the Kuban Province. Simill flows of nnphthat were known in many places, specially along the rivers, and borings were therefore tried in 1880 near the river Gudako, where a fountain was struck at a depth of 183 feet only, producing about 10,000 to 13,000 gallons of naphliba per flay. 'But it soon subsided again, and nothing further was done until about 10 years ago, when fresh borings were started at Maikop, near the Byelaya River. They resulted in 1909 in the sudder outburst of a fountain throwing out boat 50,000 tons of oil during the first fortnight, so that the whole district was flooded with it and great damage done. Only after two months' work was it possible to close the fountain down. This unexpected event caused great excitement; speculators rushed to the spot from all parts, and between 1910 mind 1912 about 30,000 claims were taken up from Cossk administration, ail In London alone over 30 companies were formed to work Malkop oil.



Unfortunately the results of the later boiring did not confirm these great expectations, and the present output is a poor remuneration for the great amount of money apent on the field and also on two pipe lines hurriedly laid to the port of Tuapse on the Black Sea. The area under boring Is 60 square miles and the number of bore holes was: Yards 2,012 In 1910, 38 bore holes, with a total depth of -------------------------10,246 In 1911, 80 bore holes, with a total depth of -------------------------In 1912, 195 bore holes, with a total depth of ------------------------38, 539 5.355 In 1913, 331 bore holes, with a total depth of --------------------Anyhow, boring to greater depths, as it is proposed, may yet bring prosperity to this field. Several other oil fields have been opened up in the Kuban Province, apparently with better success. One of them lies at Souvorov-Tcherkess, Temrluk District, about 10 miles from the Black Sea port of Anapa. Three wells had been bored there, two to producing depths, when the war stopped further operations. Another occurs near Krimskaya Station, about 30 miles from Novorossisk, where two British companies are operating and have proved three distinct oilbearing horizons. There were four wells producing and others in boring at the outbreak of the war. Similar borings with good prospects had also been started near Kapustina Balka in the same zone. Naphtha also tccurs in Dagliestan, hiear the Caspian Sea, where small quaititles had been extracted for local purpo es in various laces. Before the war some of the powerful Baku firms started boring at the village of Berekel, o:ily 4 miles from the seashore. The results were excellent, as several fountains began to flow frcm comparatively shallow depths, producing oil of the highest quality, which contains more kerosene than the Baku product. This field will probably justify the high expectations placed upon it. On the south side of the main Caucasus chain there aie also indications oi naphtha in many places, in several of which borings have been begun, but the producing stage has nowhere been reached yet. Such outflows, which indicate a possible oil field, exist near the Station Gheran, on the Tiflis-11aku line, in the Province of lE;lizabetpol. BCsides the small wells dug by the inhabitants for tbtaining oil for their own uses, no work has been done on them. In Kakhetia (Georgia), east of Tiflis, a low chain of mountains rises between the Alazan and Iora Rivers, parallel with th 3 main ridge, and consisting of slate and schists, with sandstone in depth. In these hills naphtha oozes out in a great number of places, and was aiso formerly obtained by the inhabitants from hand-dug wells. The attention of foreign operators was attracted to this field only when the Kakhetlan Railway, which runs along three sides of this mountain spur, was built. To wells were then begun there near Chatma by a British company, but daring the Tartar-Armenian riots they were destroyed, and work remained in abeyance until 1910, when boring was taken up again and pushed to 660 feet, where the oil was met. Another British company hs taken up oil lands in Ildokani, in the same neighborhood. Two wells were sunk, and oil was struck shortly before tile outbreak of the war, when, however, further operations had to be stopped. In both these places boring is easy, as there are no floating sans nor any influx of water, and the naphlha Is very pure and light. specific gravity. 0.8,50. The borings are at about 4,3S0 feet above the sea, anw bo-ing and pumping are done on the American system, which is cheaper than that which must be used in Baku. This field seems, therefore, to have all the elements of success when normal circumstances are restored in the contry. Further west in Georgia we meet another interesting occurrence of napitha on tile Khanis-Tzkall River, south of Kulais. The outlows have always been known, as they partly occur in the middle of the river, but they were clearly confirmed over a con-.iderable distance in the coursne of Fome public works executed a few years ago. The shores of the river con,4ist of thick bieds of -anl( and Eocene s allstones which in the place where the naphtha breaks out most abundalttly. are bent into the shape of an arch. This anticlinal formation of the beds in the Eocene proves, as in other fields, the presence of naphthla deposits. and tlie outflows


are caused by the pressure of water filtering through from the surface and displacing the oil upwards. The sandstone which, as it Is visible in the lower parts of the valley, consists of several beds of varying composition divided by beds of sand, is quite impregnated with naphtha, as well as the sands. The naphtha in its natural state has a brown color with ollve-green reflection and is very fluid. By distillation it gives a high percentage of light oils, benezene, petrol, and kerosene; it does not contain any paraffin nor any acids, and would, therefore, be a highly valuable material. For all these reasons it seems highly desirable that this place should be thoroughly tested; it is easily accessible and not far from the railway. Another interesting oil field, which has not yet reached the producing stage, occurs near Ozurgethi, in Gouria (Georgia), about 25 miles from Batum, and only 5 miles from the Black Sea. Naphtha is here found superficially in gray sands and marls of the Sarmatian formation which occupies the central and western parts of the field and is partly covered by the Miocene in the south. The eastern part Is formed by the upper Eosenw, while the northeast alone shows crystalline rocks. The district is hilly and extends from west to east between the Soupsa and Sepa Rivers; the heights reached in the west toward the sea are not considerable, but In the east the mountains increase sensibly and are covered with forests and bushes. The abundant rains in this zone have cut many ravines between the hills, and the naphtha appears in many places on the banks of these streams, oozing out from gray clay and marl schists or from dark-gray soft sandstones. Although the outflows oZ,oll had been known for a long time, boring was 1egun only in 1911 by a Bukq firm, and at a depth of 63 feet oil was struck. This event gave a great Impetus to the field, and several British and other companies were formed to take up plots In the most promising places. Drilling was started on three spots during 1913, but the war interrupted the work before any results were obtained. The exceptionally favorable position of these fields in the neighborhood of 'the Black Sea makes them specially interesting, and the work in them will undoubtedly be continued as soon as circumstances permit. The following table gives the comparativ- outputs of crude naphtha in the principal Caucasian fields:
1911 Tons
1912 191311914

Baku ................................................... 1 7.471,017 7,770,844 Grozny ................................................. 1,214.011 1,011,485 Malkop ................................................ 126,407 149,207 Pagbestan ............................................. I 593 560 Eliabetpo ...................................... .-------. 20 279 Tifis -----------------------------------------------------------700


7,4S2,3i8 1,1 5, 775 -,239 614 173 724


6,921,878 1,5,,824 71, , -4 1,22 5 75 .581


Asphalt, or bitumen, occurs Ini many place. in Ceorgia, as it uswdly aCompants the outflows of naphtha, with (tie formation of which It is closely (.onnected, forming nests or impregnating the tertiary formations which were Inecutioned in connection with petroleum. There iN an important zrJe of asphailic outflows in thxe district of Notanei4, in the neighborhood of the Gourla oil borings, where these hydrocarbons exist in different modifications in the fluid, semiflufd, and solid state. In several places enormous beds or alluvial sands are permeated and tlggliotll. crated by a soewhat ilid asphalt, the composition Ielng front 13 to AS per cent of asphalt, combined with about 80 per cent of sandI. It sctis lit list sight to tie a natural road material, but, unfortunately, can not be lllr1rdened suf ciently for that purpose by heat without destroying its lihidint qualitles. However, the asphalt contained in It could easily be extracted by boiling the material in water. when the rand falls to the bottom while the wsplmlt float., and Is then, according to the experiments of a specialist, equal to the best Syrian bitumen. The same neighborhood contains two other bitumninous materials. one being the mineral called gilsonite, resembling anthracite, or jet, but very light, being 96153-26-----7


in fat natural hardened' petroleum, and containing 84.66 per cent of carbon. It Is found in numerous veins up to more than 1 foot thick, and In nests, but it ha's only sporadically been exploited, although it is a valuable product for making black varnish. The other material is visibly of the same family as the gilsonite, but in a semfluid condition, and of such tenacious nature that it can be drawn out in threads many yards in length. In this condition the material would also be useful for varnishes, but the difficulty of handling it makes it commercially Impossible. The mountains along the Goakwara River, which falls into the Black Sea near Gagri, Ga., are formed of enormous beds of limestone, the lower onm of which are also impregnated with bitumen. The bitumenous outcrops are visible along the valley over a distance of about 2 miles, and, although not continuous, reach everywhere to the same height, and therefore seem to derive their impregnation from a common source or reservoir inside of the mountains, Samples contained from 15 to 20 per cent of bitumen, but were found too had far grinding and using as paving material. They had, however, been taken from pieces lying in the open, and probably do not represent the rock to be found in the interior of the mountain; and in view of the excellent position of the deposition near the seashore it should certainly be fully examined. Bitumen in the state of a heavy liquid oozes out in several places from these outcrops and has been found to contain ichthyol, a moqt valuable oil used medl. ally against rheumatism, etc.. An analysis of the liquid bitumen, made In Petrograd. gave the following result:
Per cen t

Hydrogenouq matter containing lchtbyol -----------------------Hydrogenous matter not containing ichthyol --------------------Water --------------------------------------------------------------Sulphur -------------------------------------------------------------Lime ---------------------------------------------------Alumina -----------------------------------------------------------

20.34 52.80 21.50 2..50 1.87 0.W,

99.97 This oil could probably also be extracted from the impreg-nated limestone, as it Is distilled out of some shale in the only other place where it is known t occur, in Seefeld, in the Austrian Tyro). In view of its great value and scarcity (the Austrian company sells it as a monopt)ly), it should be an additional incentive to test thu. whole deposit, in which, according to the experts, the presence of naphtl s also probable. The o.,, y district where asphalt is really being -xtracted for paving purposes, although in small quantities, is that of Signaklh. in Georgia, where now also borittgs for oil are being made. The exploitations exist at Murzani, Kodurnia, Eldar, and near Chatma. and the products are used locally and in the neighboring Tifis, niiie olherwise all the asphalt employed for public works is brotoght from other districts.

This product, which, like asphalt, is usually also connected with petroliferous districts, is of much rarer occurrence In Ceucasia than in the American and Canadian oil fields. While there are more or less important escapes of gas from every borehole, specially in their initial stages of production, natural gas without petroleum has so far been struck only in sonic places In northern Caucasia, specially at Stavropol. In 1909, during boring operations for water in the center of the town, gas was discovered at a depth of 190 yards; It was found to be a natural hydrocarbon, fit for all heating and lighting purposes, as it breaks out in many places in the United States and Canada. Other boreholes were therefore made, and the flows of gas connected with thr exlsing canalization, with such good success that all firing and lighting in the whole tawn has since then been done with the aid of this gas, dispensing entirely with coal and other fuels. As the natural gas is mostly an Indication of the presence of naphtha in depth, a company was formed in 1912 for trying to reach the latter. It was -stimated that this might be possible at a depth of about 700 yards, and in 1913 638 yards had been bored and the familiar signs of the presence of naphtiha were observed when the war stopped the completion of the trials.






' 16 -. 6 e. t 4


NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA In the district of Labinsky in the same neighborhood another company was formed before the war for boring for gas and oil and acquired full rights from the Cossack village for five years for the sum of about 32,000, but no results have been arrived at yet. At Grozny natural gas from the oil wells Is now also used to a certain extent.

The most important deposit of native sulphur known in Caucasia occurs in the Province of Erivan, about 30 miles from the railway line running to Persia. It Is comparatively easy of access, the greater part of the road from the railway passing through a well-cultivated plain, whence the mountains rise gradually. The deposit has been opened up only superficially, and beds of sulphur have been disclosed in two adjacent creeks through which small rivers have cut rather deep winding courses. The sulphur occurs either in the shape of crystals in beds of gypsum or as amorphous masses in metamorphic limestone. Many of the crystals are well developed, almost transparent, and up to 1 inch long, while the amorphous minerals permeate the cavities and pores of the limestone. The deposits are confined to the more recent sedimentary strata and are specially associated with the gypsum and marls of the saliferous deposits and with similar rocks of the "Tertiary period. In the first valley there is an outcrop only about 100 yards from the main road and showing on both sides of the creek; it dips vertically and forms a bed of 8 feet in thickness, carrying 40 per cent of sulphur. At a short distance up the valley another outcrop Is seen, 2 feet width of practically pure sulphur. Further up in the valley three more outcrops occur, of widths ranging between 2 feet and 5 feet; t'ey contain about 40 per cent sulphur, except the last one, which sents very rich indeed, as clean sulphur was exposed on opening up the outcrops. Altogether in this valley there are five distinct outcrops, all of good workab.e width, with the same strike and dip, and carrying values from 40 per cent ul-wards. In the second valley we have at the bott-m a very fine outcrop which strikes into the mountain with a width of over 10 feet. and carries over it wbole Width a value of at least 65 per cent of sulphur. Higher up In the valley there are two more outcrops, 2 feet and 5 feet wide, respectively, and-containing from "35to 10 per cent of sulphur. East of them. in a deep cutting, there occurs what is probably the richest deposit of all. It has a width of 8 feet and contains pure sulphur over its whole width; on being uncovered it even irproved. It strikes into the mountain, and from its appearance should give a very large output. Within 100 feet from it there are two more outcrops of got1 workable widths and carrying high valut-a. As all these outcrops have been examined only superficially, it is impossible to calculate their total contents with any degree of certitude, but from what has been ascertained so far about 800,000 tons of sulphur are assured at the surface. The total is undoubtedly very much higher, and other beds will probably also be found yet. These deposits are undoubtedly much richer than thoe of Sicily, where ore with as little aN 25 per cent of sulphur is being extracted under great difficultie.s. A sulphur refitiery established in connection with them could therefore easily compete with Sicily and produce all the different qualities of refined sulphu.- which are now belug imported in southeastern Europe and Traioztenpin.. ','be quantites r,ccived in the ports of Batum and Tuapse alone amount to about 5.00 tons (of raw brimstone per year. and to about double that quantity of refined sulphur, mostly in the shape of flowers of sulphur used in thi vineyards of Georgia. The raw brimstone is required for the manufacture of pure sulphuric acid, as the product obtained front iron pyrites, although cheaper. Is unsuitable f9r many purposes of the chemical industry on account of its usual tenour of ars.enic. The u. of refined mine sulphur will. therefore, increase with the e.xpaision of the chemical industry. and specially te manufacture of wood pull) by the sulphite process, which was projected in the country before ihe var. Sulphur also exists in Daghestan. in the Samaur district, but it is diflicult of access: and the same may al' be said of tihe deposits known in the Askbalad district of the Transcaspian territory, which are situated fnr from any means of tra:-jtrt.



Salt Is produced, mostly under government admininstraton, as rock salt, and also its sea salt on the Azoff and Caspian Seas. The production was as follows In 1909: Rock salt: Ton Kulpa mines, Province of Erivan ----------------------------12,350 Nakhitchevan mines, Province of Erivan ----------------------3,322 Kagisinan mines, Province of Kars ---------------------------4, 425 Olti mines, Province of Mars -----------------------------------436 Sea salt: Ijaku Province -----------------------------------------------11,123 Stavropol Province --------------------------------------------1,024 Daghestan and Terek Provinces --------------------------------304 Total ------------------------------------------------------32,984 The total production from these sources in recent years amount toTons

1911 --------------------------------------------------------37,830 1912 --------------------------------------------------------------31,980 1913 -------------------------------------------------------------23,484 1914 -------------------------------------------------------------27,497 Glaubersalt, sulphate of sodf, is extracted from the lakes in the Batalpaabinsk district in northern Cautasia. In 11)11 about 800 tons were l)roduced, and used by the glass works near the Station Mineralnala Voda. This mineral also occurs near Mukhravani, in Georgia, but is not worked.

The Caucasian cement factories are mostly situated on the Black Sea shore near Novoro.sisk, where inexhaustible quantities of suitable limestones are available in the mountains bordering immediately on the sea, while the latter affords every facility for transport. Ti first factory was built in 1890, and in 1896 a Pranco-Russ an company erected another at Guelendjlk, soon to be followed by a third, the three having a total producing capacity of about 300,000 tons per year. These three companies held the field until 1912 when the Black Sea Kuban Cement Co. "Beton" erected a factory near the station Donelny, on the north side of the mountain chain, where soon afterwards yet several others were being laid down. At the outbreak of the war there were therefore nine factories working, or in working order, 4 on the Black Sea shore, and 5 inland in the Kuban utstrict. The latter factories also have at their di.piosal huge deposits of cement stone of superior quality: its formation and composition is quite regular with scarcely any undesirable ingredients, which makes the extraction and calclna. tion easy. The analysis of this raw material shows it to be similar to that used for the manufacture of the celebrated hydraulic cement of Le Theli, near Marseille, which was used for the construction of the Suez Canal and for a great number of hydraulic work, in the Mediterranean, as it re.4,4ts the action of sea water. All thse advantages. combinil with (heap tranport, make it therefore probable that this part of the Caucasus will become the most Important center of the cement industry for the whole of the Black Sea and 'iranscasplan districts. In the noriheatern part of Cauca.-ian, near Naltchi, the manufacture of cement would als4, be Possible, as the raw materials are also available in the shpe of marl and of clay of the requisite composition-.

Fireclay is found In many places in Georgia, anl is worked into refractory trlcks, specially near Shrn,,, in the P-.uvince of Kutais, where a company of the same nale has been established for some tine. It produced, In 1914, 954 tons of fire bricks, aud two othr sniall concerns working at Tseva In the same zone inanufactured in the same year 291 tons.



As one of the largest consumers of fire bricks in Its smelters the Soci td Industrielle et MWtallurglque also has a plant for making them near Alaverdl and produced: 1911 1912
I 1913 1914

ToW. 4 Tons Tons Tons Fire bricks ..................................................... 1,655 1,817 1,938 1 2,305 Silica brick.... .................................... 4,781 1 804 8S 2382 Siemens Bros. also made their own fire-bricks at Kedabeck i considerable quantities. Nevertheless, there is still a certain amount of fire clay and of finished fireproof articles imported every year for special purposes.

Caucasla, which contains so many metalliferous minerals, can also supply this rare marble which is of purely ornamental use. It is a pure carbonate of lime which was slowly deposited from hot or acid springs containing lime in solution. Such springs, saturated with carbonic acid from the depth.3 of the earth, are most frequent in the southern parts of the country, and the deposits of onyx marble occur in the same zone. The most important one of them lies near the village of DJardji, about 10 miles north of the Station Bash-Kadiklar on the Tiflis-Kars Railway. It forms the bottom of a dry creek and can be worked as an open quarry, containing apparently about 60,000 cubic meters of material. The stone itself is transparent, with wavy lines or bands of all sides of gray, green, blue, pink, and brown, producing very pretty effects. Blocks (an be extracted up to 5 feet in length and 3 feet wide; large slabs are used for mural decoration, smaller ones are cut up for clock cases, paper weights, etc., but there is no work done in the quarry at present. Another deposit of onyx marble is found in tile same district soutl of Erivan, it the village Agbash. on a spur descending from Mount Ararat. Here the stone is not banded, but of a more uniforI bluish or whitish color, and large blocks are rare. A similar stone exists in the Potzkhoff district near Aklaltezlk, It Georgia. The quarry is now covered by a landslip, but it was formerly worked by the Turks, and the former mosque of Akliltzik is paved with slabs extracted from It. The smaller stones and chips have also been ised li Georgia by he manufacturers of carbonic acid and mineral waters, for the production of varbonle acid gas, as the material Is absolutely plure, and for this purpo.-e the stole Is usually ground.

Infusorial, or diatomaceous earth, or kieselguhr, is being worked In two places in Georgia, nmely, oil the Suram Mountain, near the town of the sae name, and at Kissatib, about 6 miles south of Akhaltzik. The Kissatib deposit crops out on three sldes of a mountain spur descending from a high peak, in one part its a long witte band 4,n the steep side of a sandstone cliff. The beds are horizontal, and the principal one has a length of about 1,100 yards and an ascertained width of 770 yards, which probably extends farther into tlhe mountain. The depth is not known yet. as ill the central workings, which are all in open cast, the bottoln baes not been reached at 90 feet. A -uri,,us feature of this delosit is that while it was formed at the bottom of a lake it i:; now situated about 440 yarl, above tlhe valley. overlaid and protected by a huge bed of green sandstone. The whole region has, been thisturbed by voleati,, eruptions. and the bottorn of tile lake was, formed by a How of porous lava whieh, where accessible, is alioit 30 feet thick amid repo-es itself on gray The infusorial carth is then covered ly :t bed of standstole of 11 thlekiie;t of frm !'0 to 100 yards, on top of which there are again several sirlaller layers ,if infnorial earlith. the whole being cverih lIy to-riitry tllil~mn.



The infus oral earth found in these upper beds forms a quite unique material, being intersected by bands of gray and brownish colors formed by clay and ferruginous impurities and giving it a very pretty appearance. But the principal bed below the sandstone Is of a pure white color and consists of almost pure silica, with not more than from 2 to 4 per cent of Impurities, mostly alumina and lime, iron oxide being less than 1 per cent. This purity is undoubtedly due 0o the protection of the overlying sandstone, which at the same time has also had the effect of compressing the naturally soft and light deposit. The specific gravity of the material is therefore about 0.65, while that of the earth from the Scotch and Norwegian deposits, which lie on the surface or in water. Is usually about 0.3 to 0.4. The general lightness of this earth is connected with its production, as it consists of the siliceous shells of minute diatoms living in the water, which under the inicro.eolie reveal the most wonderful shapes and ornamentallons; remains of fossilized fishes are also sometimes found between them. OIn account of Its uansual compactness the Kisatib earth can be quarrjed in large blocks and sawed up into brick-shaped irces. but the greater part of it I. delivered in inmps and pwder. At present it is prinellally used for Insulating puriKoses in .teana and heating installations, either powdered and applied like mortar or in the shape of the above-mentioned bricks, most of it going to lHak for .meb purposes. The export to oth, r parts and to western Europe. where the purity of the material would make it useful also In the chemical and otl,er influtries, cani only be undertlakn when the railway to Akhaltzik has been built. TJhe exploitation. in which a l)utch company was at one time interested, is now carried on in a small way by the original owners, but will without doubt expand when better means of transport are available. The whole prodvtlon of the two mines Is used in Caucasla. and amounted to: Tolls 1911 ----------------------------------------------------590 1912 ----------------------------------------------------839 1913 ----------------------------------------------------411 1914 ----------------------------------------------------3S7

T1'lae natural baritnti sulplhate or heavy spar occurs in many places ini titorghl. special. in ti 'rovine of Kutais, where the veins or bds of the mineral acconipany baalts traversing the diorites. Such deposits are known at Lekverethi, icar Kutalis, at Pull, in the Shlaropan district, and at Ontehelshi, O.sunelf, Dertehi, Bali, Mekhveni, Gabiethi, and Tchashlethi, in the Letchk-hum district. Small exploitations exist in all these places, whose combined outputs during recent years were as follows: Ton. 19 10 -. ---------------- ------------- ----- ---- ---------- 1,763 1911 -...--------------------------------------------------1,255 1912 ------------------------------------------------------1,229 191: --------------------------------------------------1,824 1.14 .------------------- ----------------------------------890 Only one grinding mill exists in the neighborhood for reducing the mineral to powder suitable for paint manufacturers : it is situated at Shanethi and had the following productions: 742 1I1 .....................------------------------------------863 ..---------------------------------------------------1911 .. 779 191--------------------------------------------------782 --------------------------------------.-19l% 51 ll ..---------------------------------------------------Alt this material was used locally, but as tie mineral is everywhere quite white and pure and available i huge quantities. these exploitations could tdvantagouxly be very much extended. Ul-t'o-date grinding machinery is the only retq remnent for producing the powder also for the western markets at a competitive price. Similar beds of Itaryta are also known at Buskhanr., )asaaltl, and Tchovdar lin the Pirovince of Elizabetpol, but no work whatever has been done on them.




Asbestos occurs in several places in Transcaucasia, principally at Vshinevl in the SRropan district of Georgia, where small quantities are being extracted. The mineral is there found in veins which cross the talcose schists forming the steep banks of the Bshineula River and crops out in various places at about 400 to 500 yards above the water. The veins are from I to 3 inches wide, and as the asbestos fibers are disposed transversly across them, their length usually varies between the same limits. Their color is green or greenish white and they can easily be separated, but are unfortunately often brittle. Other deposits of asbestos also exist in the Letchkum district of Georgia, In the super parts of the Tskhenis-Tskall valley; the veins a9o lie in schists of Devonian formation and are similar to the above, but no extraction has so far been tried. Samples of acbestos have also been brought from the village Mysogorosk. near Shusha. in the Province of Elizabetpol. The product of all these places, although sometimes of long fiber, is mostly rather stiff, like bristles, and can not be twisted or woven. For this reason there is not much use for it. except as a binding material in connection with infusorial earth for manufacturing insulating plaster for steam pipes, etc. But, as so far only surface work has been done, it is quite possible that the nature of the fiber may change in depth and become softer, like the product of the Urals and Siberia, and further exploration is therefore desirable.

Limestones fine and uniform enough for lithographic purposes are know to -xist only in a very few places, in southern France, Poland, Ada Minor, etc., but they have nowhere been able to replace those coming from Solenhofen, In Bavaria. which have been almost exclusively employed by the lithographers of the whole world. The discovery of a stone which really equals the Bavarian and can perfectly replace it is, therefore, of the highest importance. A very extensive deposit of such stone exists at Amlivi, about 24 miles from Tiflis and 8 miles from the railway. The beds are clearly visible on the niantain side from its foot to a height of about 7T) feet, and represent an enormous stock of superposed layers of limestone. Most of it would be suitable for lithographic purposes, as it is of the futest texture without In. clusions of crystals or other admixtures, and of equal density all through without waviness. The colors vary between light yellow, gray, grayish blue, and green, and large slabs can be extracted of any of these colors, although the light ones are the most desirable, as the contrast between their color and the transfer ink makes the work of the lithographer easier. 'erfect stones of large size, 4 by 6 fei-t. 11d correslmonding thickness, have been extracted. while the smaller sizes, of 2 by 3 fet and 5 or 6 inche. thick, are inexhaustible. These stones have le t'ractially em tel ly 1i11.vartagraphic e.stabll'lnent of the former Russian general staff at Tiilis, which declared thln equd to the be-it promlu.ts of the Solenilofen qutarrie., whit.h hitherto had no rivals n the world. Similar trials were also made In Paris by an expert professional lithograjlher who also deiared thtit th -e stones can tidvatitageously.replace those from Bavaria and are even superior to then with regard to density. The fact fint large-sized stones suitable for heavy printing machines can be obtained Is also highly important, as such sizes do not exist any sore at Solenhofen. This quarry has therefore a great future, and will undoubtedly become the center of a new export imlustry for Georgia.

In view of the great vlai(c activity which characterIze.4 lhe Cucasian region, it may seem surprising that pumice stone Is almost tilssing in the great variety of mineral protlucts thrown tip by the volcanoes. So far it hiss bien discovered only in one Ilace. namely at Malaya-Kutnia, near Kars. Thi.s deposit Is only partially opened up, mid ,cons,ists of several superposed beds of pumice divided lby detser valesinic proihtels and covered by a thin layer of earth, so that the extraetion Is casy. Thie lpnice is of grayish-white color and of the uoual spongy ve.-i(utr -ostsisten, \%hi.h. however, vtries and ini parts becomes



P.lmost as dense as a sandstone. The porous layers form an excellent abrasive for all the usual purposes, as it "bites" well and is resisting. Small quantities of It have beed Pent to this country, but the cost of transport made a regtilar business difficult. Before the war a small exploitation took place for Causasia and Russia, the product being sold in lumps and also In powder for abrasives, polishing Materials, soaps, etc.

Soapstone or tale accompanies in several places in Georgia the intrusions of serpentine, and being soft when freshly extracted is sometimes carved into kitchen uten.-ils. etc. A curious mineral of similar description is found near Akhaltzlk, in southern Georgia. It is of grayish-white color, and soft and unctuous to the touch. With water It forms an emulsion somewhat resembling soap water. and it can also be made into a kind of paste which the local shoemakers use in their work Instead of glue.

Mica exists In several places of the central Caucasian chain, but only samples have so far been extracted from then.

Deposits of graphite are known to exist in several places in Georgia, specially on the Suram Mountain, near the station Kharagouli, and at the village Tchumathelethi, near Gori. Neither of these deposits is worked. The one on the Suram Is very extensive, but the graphite is of a very fine consistency and a dull aspect, like soot. It does not form flakes, and can therefore not be used for crucibles or similar purposes. Its analysis produced:
Per cvynt

50.59 Graphite ----------------------------------------------. 47. 57 Ashes -------------------------------------------------1.1 Moisture ----------------------------------------------The earthy impurities are therefore considerable, but more useful material might possibly be found by exploring the deposits in depth. A similar mineral is found near DJlmara, in the northern Caucasus, where a bed crops out over a length of about a mile. and contains apparently very large quantities. The quality seems about the same as on the Suram, the carbon contents being from 50 to CO per cent. It Is uscd locally in foundries cnd also for paints.

As Russia herself forms an enormous market, most of the mineral and metallurgical products of Caucasia were, before the war, sold in that country, the exports beng principally confined to manganese ore and part, of petroleum produce ion. Copper, to begir with, was in great demand in Russia, and the production of the country could not cope with it; before the war about one-third of the consumption had to be imported. mostly in electrolytic copper for electrical purposes. During the war tiese import.4 rose as follows:

4,576 1914 --------------------------------------------------10,778 1915 --------------------------------------------1916_-------------------------------------------------23.548 the latter chiefly from the United States and Japan. In order to keep the copper Industry In the country the former Government Imposed a duty of about S33 per ton on imported copper, and in consequence of this protection the Rugsifin price of the metal was. before the war, always from 25 to 30 above the London quotations. On the other hand the export



of copper ores was charged with a duty of 68s. per ton, and in view of these inducements the copper smelting and refining was entirely kept in the country. Most of the Caucasian producers belonged to the Foreign Copper Syndicate, which was formed in 1907, andl controlled about 94 per cent of the total Russian production. For similar reasons lead and zinc were also protected by heavy duties, the former being charged with about 8 and the latter with 11 per ton, and the export of their ores was prevented by the same export duty of 6 s. per ton. These metals were also easily absorbed by the Russian market, which, besides, bad to import large quantities, as the following figures show: 1914 Imports ofled ..........................................................
Imports of linc ...........................................................


23 23,118

T ,6913,1123.59 2405 ,
14.328 14.137

The various other nonmetallic minerals, including coal are all consumed in the country, or almost in the area of their production, although with proper transport facilities several of them, like baryta, Infusorial earth, pumice stone, iron pyrite, etc., might advantageously be brought on the western markets. As to the minerals which are being exported, manganese ore stands first in Importance, by far the greatest part being shipped to foreign countries, not only in Europe, but also largely to the United States. The portion used in Russia is quite inconsiderable, and only goes to the I)onetz Basin in the Ukraine, the steelworks in the Urals using local ores. The following figures show the proportion of Georgian manganese ores used in the Ukraine: 1005 To
Total production ....................................



1911 -TonsW,013



To r
911 699


Sent to Ukraine ..................................... . 44,C.20

34623 r


9363 18:69


Most of the foreign trade in the 'ore was before the war done by export firms established in Poti and Datum. which In some easen owned and exploited their own mines, but mostly bought the ore from the small producers and made contracts with the smelters. Tile decrease of the consumption of Georgian manganese ore in the Ukraine during recent years was Citu ed by the sieial favors enjoyed by the Nikopo mnanganese mines, in which the Russian Randd dukes wece largely Interested. In tile petroleum industry the proportions between export 1mid hone consumflption are to-day entirely different. In the beginning the export trade was also largely preponderating, and was be:ng fostered by the Russian Govern1meat, but Since the beginning of this century it has dwindled down considerably, partly on account of the increasing foreign conlietitill and new sources of supply, partly ill con-equelce of the eatirnimsly inerea ed consumption In ltu~sia. In faiet. of the enormious quantities of petroleuni products which are every ycar extracted ill Baku, only a snlall percentage is now expor ed, tile great bulk being used for home consumption. Thus, during the yer 1912, Baku exported abroad only about 500,000 tons, or 5.5 per cent, of Its production of kerosene; 210,000 tons, or 2.3 per cent of its production of lubricating oil; and 10.000 tons, or 1.9 per cent. of its production of benzine, while tile remaining 90 per cent were u.sed parly on the spot aid in Caucasia, but mostly in the interior of ltul. ia, with which ltaku has excellent coulncctions by neals of the Volga River. The products of tile Malkop atid Grozny petroleum fields are also mostly used in their own districts and in Russia. except the benzene and kerosene extracted from the Grozny naptlia. of which lbout 200,000 tons l'r annum were exported before the war through the port of Novorossisk. 90153- -24 --- S



miners, and' laborers employed in the different mine .fields are of different nationalities. While the Georgians predominate in Georgia, and specially in the manganese mines, we find In the southwestern districts and the Tehorokh Valey mostly Mohamedan Georgians or Lazes, and In the southeast many'Tartars, Persians, etc. Generally speaking, their economic conditions are satisfactory, and, if we except Baku, strikes have ben rare. In the small mines which work only spasmodically, a primitive state of things exists yet, the men dividing their labor between the mines and the fields, but the large mining companies have in late years made enormous improvements of ery description for the welfare of their men. The Association of Manganese Producers of Tehlaturi wits one of the pioneers in this direction, and provided not only a hospital with 40 beds for the use of its workers, with a school, public library, etc., but also organized the public services of the district, supplying water, light, etc. The money thus spent came from the tax levied on the manganese export under Government control, but on the other hand the sums spent by the private mining companies came out of their own pockets. In order to accommodate large numbers of miners the companies had in most cases to build houses for them; for instance, in Dzansul there are several large buildings, each with lodgings for 60 workmen, besides house es for the staff. In the neighboring Kvartzkhana a similar building was being erected before the war. The necessities of life were provided every week from Batum and sold in the companies' shops at prices fixed by a committee of workmen. The Soclt6 ilndustrielle et Mftallurgique has also made great improvements in Its various establishments, almost regardless of'expense. in Alaverdi the houses of the workmen have been vastly improved, and a publle bath was installed. At the smelter at NManess dwellings were erected for over 40 families; a school for 100 children was also maintained, as well as a savings bank, and when the war broke out a hospital with 28 beds for woundol soldiers was installed and maintained by contributions of the company and the workmen, amounting to about 1,500 rubles per month. Hospitals arc attached to almost every mine, with competent men for rendering first aid. and doctors within call, if rot permanently engaged. Such hospitals besides those already mentioned, exist also at Kulabeg, Zangemur, Beshaul, %kvlbulI. and Alagir. The latter establishment is also much concerned wih the economic welfare of its workment. who have also established a savings bank, which in the beginning of 1915 had 110 members and deposits amounting to 70,203 rubles.

1911 Total number of workmen in Georgia and Caucsia .............

Employed in the p~rinc'ipal inints:

1 c12 19.125

1513 26.345

1914 12.911 C, A G 3, 07 ,.f09 o f SC, I 1.244 652 24 C3, o 270

12 651

12, 508

('opp r---------- --............. ............................. 7, X .0 . .1.414 Sil ,er, Ic.sul, and zinc ....................... t. , 1 00 0............... x75 M anganese ................................................. 2, !3 3, 27 3. 2, CU J ....................................................... 655 , 710 Sulphur ores ...............................................0 ' 112 Bar.ta (mi n s t.nd indi)--, gr ............................. -- . 143 l fti r,rii earth ............................................ 114 15 , 9uarries ................................................... 1,574 , I. 2"1 (ement stone. ......... .. ..................................... - 7 2 1 072 Number of mining a cients ................................ ' 490 795 Ofwbich Ofh e wcre fital ..................................27 32 40 Compo-nsations 10M] ........................................ -r ,0--1 .0. Lle,

The petroleum Industry, which in Caucasia overshadows all the' other mining enterprises, being mostly concentrated in Baku, where racial dilllculties are very pronuneed, has been much more disturbed by labor questions than the mineral ore mine,;, and has been seriously affected by the strikes and excesses of 1905 and 1913, as it was mentioned In the special monograph on this industry. The figure.,4 ililable oi page SO give an appr, xinate Idca of the numbers of men employed in the different Iilnes during iu-emt years. They do not include the oil Industry, nor die Pnt-, engaged in trawport work.



Concerning the petroleum industry we give here only the following statistics:
__ _ _ _ _I


1912 .

... 1913



Number caworkmen engaged: In Baku district .......... ..................... .......... .......... .......... In Terek Province ............................ 4,720 ! 4,O0 7,105 In Dabestan Province ............................... 35 33 (A In Kuban Province .................................. I1,199 1.2-52 1,079 In Tils Province .......................................... .......... 32 57 1 Elizabetlpol... ............................... 101 108 17 Number of accidents ............................... 512 886 977 Number of deaths ............................................. 24 14 6 Compensations .................................. roubles..i 41,7581 38,284 43,314 PARTICIPATION OF FOREIGN CAPITAL

40.385 8,158 32 982 811 312 18 120.062

All the large mining enterprises of Caucasia, in which boring for oil must, of course, be included, have almost exclusively been started and maintained by foreign capital. The total tum invested in these enterprises can not be given, but may be approximately guessed at by the fact that over 22,000,000 have been actually spent by British companies in the petroleum industry alone., Belgian, and German firms were more interested in metal mining, and some of the best-known exploitations of this kind are In their bands. The reason for this investment of foreign capita' lies in the fact that mining in general requires great capitals and strong financial support in emergencies, and this was not sufficiently available in Caucasta, nor in Russia, so that foreign help was welcome. Nevertheless, outside of the petroleum and manganese industries, large mining enterprises are comparatively few in number, although, as we have shown, there. is almost no limit to untouched, or barely scratched ore deposits in the country. Specially for copper mining there are eaeo'inous possibilities, and Georgia might well b'ome a second Montana in this regard. The Lesser Caucasus was the principal source of the copper supply for the Mediterranean ccointries in the antiquity and the middle ages, and to judge from the traces left by the old exploitations in scores of places, their proditction may at times have equalled the present-day one. The cause of the slow progress of the mining industry in modern times was in the first instance the lack ui. native capital for large enterprises. The only mining operations which could be executed practically without capital, namely, the digging for manganese ore, were in fact all coramenced by tile Georgian landowners, which proves that they are not lacking lit enterprise. But for large undertakings on a modern scale foreign capital had to be called in. Outcrops were examined by the experts of the capitalists, more or less at hazard. as they had been offered, but mostly did not satisfy them, either because thcy were not sufficiently opened up, or too far from the meantis of communication, or the pretensions of the owners were found too hig':, etc. Only those companies or syndicates suceed which went beyond these apparent obstacles and inade their own fuller examinations. Thus both the Dzansul and the Kvartzkhana mines, hose enormous is to-day clearly proved, had been offered in London for years and "turned down" by several experts before the prescat owners startod their own prospecting works and made successes of them. Similar opportunities abound in the country and will no doubt, be taken advantage of after the return of normal conditions. It was remarked that just before the war, and already in 1913. a much greater ikumber of prospecting and exploitation licenses had been claimed from the Caucasian ining administration, which Indicated an awakening of the mining activities in tie c.untry. The possibilities offered by the exploitation of tile mineral springs and tile hydraulic energy of the country have been mentioned elsewhere, and altogether Caucasia, and specially Georgia, present to-day to foreign enterprie an almost virgin and most Inviting fle!d of activity.

PART Ill. MiNK.I. ,1'iRlNfG

The origin of by far the grealtesl 1art if tll' sprilg- i :nilig ;roi I ilt crth is r.ainwater. or inelt lag :noV. which s.'r4'lates tlit, soil a|ld rocks I iloitigh crack.4 or ere.s. and danlcells ililt;l it is arre-ted by a ii i ilriols stralltiiii. 'he

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA overlying porous beds will then act as a reservoir to be filled until the water finds another natural vent and Issues forth as a spring. The atmosphere slightly impregnates rainwater with ammonia, nitric, and especially carbonic acids, and thus charged the water has a considerable solvent action upon the rocks and soils which it encounters, and when finally coming again to the surface it will hold in solution a certain quantity of the mineral constituents of the formations through which it has passed. Thus, lime or magnesium salts will have been taken up from limEstone and other sedimentary formations, while the primary rocks, like granite and gneiss, will have given up sodium and potassium carbonates, or the water circulating nefr marine beds of salt will form a saline spring. According to the nature of the minerals encountered complex chemical reactions take place, so that many ;prings may finally contain twenty and more different compounds, whose quantity in a given volume of water may also considerably vary, according to the distance and time of the underground circulation of tht waters. Every Latural drinking water. therefore, contains some mineral constituents. but what Is specifically called a " mineral water" is a natural water proposed for consumption or use on account of Its special therapeutic or hygienic propertles. As to the hot or thermal springs, of which Caucasia has a great number, their temperature may in some Instances be due to their flow through or near rocks heated by the enormous strains set up by the movements and fracturing of the earth's rata. That such movements are still at work is proved by the frequent earthquakes, which sometimes shake the whole continent between the Black Cssplan Seas. But there Is no doubt that many of the Caucasian hot springs draw their water from the hot magma or molten lava existing In the deeper parts of the earth's crust. It is well known that such magmas contain gases and water which would rise as steam throuilb the Issures of the earth. condense. and take up in solution whatever elemL.ts they may meet In their further upward cour.e. This origin must probably be attributed to most of the hot mineral waters springing from the eastern part of the Caucasian main chain, where hot magmas are actually flowing yet in'their vicinity, forming the mud volcanoes and hot mud lakes previously described. Besides containing a great variety of mineral compounds the Caucasian springs are also very often impregnated with gages, especially carbonic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen. Emanations of the former are very frequent in all parts of the country, an% often bubble up In streams, impregnating the water, which thus becomes -apable of dissolving a certain quantity of chalk. WVhen the gas evaporates, 'he chalk is deposited again, often in crystalline form, and this is in fact the origin of the onyx marble found in the ErIvan district, and of other sta lagmi .es. Wadioactivity has also been observed in several soui.ces, but so far only a few of them in Georgia have been examined in this regard. According to their chief constituents the mineral waters are usually clan3sifled as follows : 1. Alkaline, in which sodium carbonate or bicarbonate predominate, also bicarbonate of lime. 2. Alkaline-saline, containing the precedent compounds, together with chloride of sodium and magnesium. 3. Saline, where the chlorides of sodium, magnesium, and calcium form the principal constituents. 4. Acid, containing sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, mostly found in volcanic neighborhoods. According to their secordary contents the sources may further be subdividet) into-Carbonated, containing carbonic acid. Sulphuroui, containing sulphuretted hydrogen. Ferruginous oe, ehalybeate, containing bicarbonate of iron, etc. Although the number of known mineral springs in Caucasla exceeds 400, as the appended table will show, only a small proportion of them is used for curative purposes, and most of the others have not been analyzed or tested as to their value.



Thb. following details concern the principal sources of which any use is made at present: In the northern Caucasus mineral sources are most frequent in the Terek district, where there are nearly one hundred of them known within an area of less than 40 miles in diameter, principally In or round the four centres of Piatigorsk, Shelesnovodsk, l&,.sntuki, and Kislovodsk. These places are situated in a very picturesque valley, through which a branch line of the North Caucasian Railway has been built, so that they are easily accessible. They are surrounded by mountain spurs descending from the high peak of the Elbrus, and the waters springing from them must, according to the great variety of their composition, concentration, and temperature, have passed through many different strata. The principal elements contained in them are iron and carbonic acid, with alkaline and sulphur compounds, and some Iodine and bromine. Their medicinal properties have been known from ancient times, and the Russian Government had them examined already in 1773, and tha first bathing season was opened in Kislovodsk in 1798. Numerous futhcr investigat.ons were then made, mostly by German doctors and scientists, who unanimously confirmed the high therapeutical value of the various solirces. But the Government departments of the domains, and afterwards of the interior, in whose hands their administration lay, did practically nothing to exploit them, and only in 1822 about 55,000 were advanced for building bathing establishments. In 1846 a special board for watering places was appointed, and more expert reports had to be obtained, one being made in 1874-75 by the French specialist Jules Frangois, who brought the baths into great prominence. In the latter year the branch Une ending at Kislovodsk, and connecting the four places with the Rostov Railway, was completed, thus making it possible for visitors to reach the baths easily. In 1882 another French engineer, Movn Dru, was engaged to work out a project for a larger exploitation, and in the execution of it 40,000 were spent between 1887 and 180, an(: f,,rthcr 65,000 between 1891 and 1895. Since 1905 the management has been in the hands of a special water board, under the aus ices of the ministry of -)mmerce and industry, but it has not succeeded in establishing and advertising these springs in a manner to compete with the German and French sorts. Platlgorsk is situated in the lower part of the valley. Its original name was Beshtau, which means "Five Mountains," from the five peaks surrounding It, the principal one being 4,593 feet high. The environs of the town are very pretty, and the climate is dry. It contains a number of sulphurous hot springs, of temperatures v.rylng between 280 and 480 C., partly used for drinking, partly for bthing. The principal ones of them have the following deliveries per 24 hours: Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons at at at at 46' C -------------------------------------------------48' C -------------------------------------------------40.70 C -----------------------------------------------35.5* C -----------------------------------------------175,000 7,000 140,000 30,000

Essentuki lies 10 miles west of Platigorsk, and possesses only cold springs, mostly'of alkaline, also alkaline-saline nature, some being slightly sulphuretted. Sodium Iodide and bromide have also been detected In some of the springs, whose totl number Is about 30. Some of them are u.ed for bathing, for which purpose there exists good accommodation, others for drinking, and much of the alkaline-saline water is bottled and shipped as table water, ns it is very useful against dyspepsia, gout, and rheumatism. The mineral contents of one o_ the sources are also made up In tablets and sold as Essentukl Salts. Shelesnovodsk is situated at 2,100 feet above the sea, and Its springs are, as the name impiles, mostly of ferruginous nature, also alkaline. Their temperature varies between 180 and 500 C., and they are used for drinking as well as for bathing. There are eight establishments for the accommodation of visitors, of which there were about 0,000 in 1911. Kislovodsk Is the terminus of the branch railway, and lies 2,500 feet above sea level, entirely surrounded by mountains, and with a bracing climate. It is specially celebrated through its source ' Narzan," which was first capted In 1894, and produces about 350,000 gallons In 24 hours. This water ts not only used externally, but also as a medicinal and table water. On account of its cool temperature It contains much carbonic acid, and is therefore highly esteemed as a sparkling digestive of pleasant taste, which does not lose these



desirable qualities even after being bottled for a long time. Besides carbonic acid, this water also contains sulphates of sodium, potassium, and magnesium, carbonates of sodium and calcium, also chlorides, with traces of iodide and bromide of sodium, etc. It is specially useful for diseases of the nervous system and the heart. Other sources of this resort are used for baths. In Georgia the best-known and most frequented mineral springs are those o" the upper Kura Valley round Borjom. This town is situated 90 miles southwest of Tflls, in about the same latitude as Rome, and at 2,600 feet above the sea. It is connected with the Transcaucasian Railway by a branch line running through the highly picturesque Kura Valley between the Imerethian and Trialethian Mountain ridges, which are covered with big forests of pines, beeches, and numerous other trees. The climate of the valley is warm and very mild in winter. BorJom, with its surroundings covering nearly 300 square iles, was formerly a State property of the Kingdom of Georgia, and was illegally confiscated by the Russian Government and given to the Grand Duke Nicholas Michaelovich in entail. To-day it is again a State property of Georgia. BorJom Is celebrated not only as a watering place which attracts every season tens of thousands of visitors, but also through the export of larje quantities of the water from one of its sources which rivals with Vichy, aad is sent to Russia, France, the Mediterranean, and even as far as the United States. In 1913, 9,000,000 bottles were exported, the bottles themselves being made on the spot in a glass factory, which uses a very suitable sand and basalt also found In the vicinity. The sources of the district are characterized by the fact that they are mostly radioactive. They may be divided into the five following groups: 1. At BorJom itself the springs flow from the bottom of a small side valley, which seems to ba. only a cleft in the limestone rocks towering vertically on both sides of it. The two most Important ones have a delivery of about 19,000 and 8,000 gallons per 24 hours respectively, much of which is bottled, the surplus being used in the bathing establishments. The water Is very rich In carbonic acid, therefore its popularity its a table water. It has also been examined as to its radioactivity, which was found to be 0.800 Mache. and it was then also discovered that the radium and thorium salts contained in It continued to give off emanation, so that water bottled for nearly a year still showed the same radioactivity, while It usually disappears it a few weeks or days. This unusual behaviour merits further investigation. The medicinal effects of these waters are very remarkable against inflammations of the mucous membrane and catarrhs, against which inhalations are used; also against rheumatism, gravel. etc. 2. The second group of sources springs up at Tsagvery, about 8 miles above Borjoin, near the mountain railway !ending to Bakuriaui. TierO are nine cold springs, but only two of them have so far been capped. They are very ferruginous, and much charged with carbonic acid, avd generally of the nature of those of Schwalbach and Pyrmont in Germany, but contain even more bicarbonate of iron. Their radioativity is 0.60 Mache, and this fact may partly account for their efficacy against aniamia and neurasthenia. They are used for baths and for drinking, and before the war they were also bottled and shipped abroad with such good success that the bottling establish ient had to be enlarged. 3. Near the village Libani, about 6 miles from Borjom, at approximate altitude 4.000 feet. another group of 12 cold mineral springs comes up, characterized by the large quantity of chalk dissolved in them, which Is deposited as tufa In the same manner as at Carlsbad. The waters also contain sodium chloride and Iron bicarbonate, and have a radioactivity of 1.2" ,Machl-. The daily outflow is about 22.000 gallons, but until to-day no arrangements have been made for utilizing them. 4. A group of warm sulphurous springs giving a considerable delivery of over 100,000 gallons per day exists at Tsikhis-Djvary, a village situated about 5,000 feet above the sea and near the Bakurlani railway. Its radioactivity Is high. 1.22 Mache, and this, combined with the sulphur, makes the water highly curative in cases of rheumatism and skin affections. The populations of the neighborhood use it against these kind of troubles, and a small bathing establishment exists, which has been enlarged in 1913. 5. At Kvajarl, near the village Thimotis-Ubani, more mineral springs are known. bnt of a different nature, as they contain sulphur salts of magnesia,



calcium, and sodium, and therefore have a purgative effect. They-are very tasty to drink, and effective against constipation, and. could eailly rival with the world-known purgative waters. From BorJom a small mountain railway ascends to the village Bakurlani, through most enchanting scenery. Near the Station Tsemi L sltucted the sanatorium of Dr. W. (Ghambashidze, established in 1103, chiefly for children and young people. As these details show, the district of BorJom produces an abundance of mineral waters of great variety and curative properties, which only require modern installations and management in order to make this valley a center of attraction for the sick and also the tourists of Russia and the east Mediterranean countries. Besides the amenities of nature this neighborhood also contains a great numlr of highly interesting antiquities, and the remains of about 100 old monasteries and of 14 fortresses, and crchieological discoveries from the bronze and even the stone age are frequent, a proof that the healing springs wvtre known and used from the oldest times. Of quite modern date are a botanical garden and an Alpine garden on the Tskra-Tskaro Mountain, at an altitude of 8,000 feet, which is much visited by tourists. There are also meteorological and seismographic stations, besides ,-xplotations of forestry and dairy and poultry farming un the most modern lines. But with all this, the resources of this fortunate and delightful spot are scarcely touched, and present enormous opportunities for further enterprise. A different kind of mineral springs appears at Abastuman, about 30 miles west of Boriom, in Georgin, on the Imerethian Mountains, at an altitude of 4,170 feet. They are more celebrated for their physical properties than for their mineral contents, as they spring at a high temperature, the principal ones at 48.2", 43". rand 40 C., respectively, and are also radioactive. The daily capacity of the hottest spring is about 220,00 galloms. Two large basins have been installed for general lathing, besides a number of cabli in which baths at temperatures between 31' and 47' C. can be taken, if neceszmry, with the addition of sea salt or pine extract, which hitter Is manufactured on the spot from the products of the surrounding pine forests. On account of their thermal properties these waters are specially used for hydrotherapeutical and hydroelectrlcal treatments, for which up-to-date installations exist, and which are highly effective against nervous diseases, rheumatism, and general debility. The climate and surroundings of Abastuman are beautiful; cures can also be continued during winter, when the place Is much visited by consumptive patients. T'Ais, the capital of Georgia, also contains warm sulphurous springs, which were known from the beginning of the Christian era; the name of the town, in Georgian "Thbillssl." means, In faict, " warm." There are eight different sources, containing principally sodium chloride, carbonate, sulphides, and iodides; calelum sulphate and carbonate, and magnesium sulphate and chloride, also traces of bromides. Their temperatures vary between 29 and 470 C., and their radioactivity averages 1.410 Mache, maxiumu 2.770. The quantity of water is considerable, and all the municipal baths are supplied from it, partly for medicinal purposes, against rheumnatism, skin diseases, etc. Some of the springs have the same composition as those of Cauterets and Bareges In Francea, Baden near Vienna, and there are great possibilities of making Tiflis Into a similarly attractive balneatory center. A further interesting Georgian health resort Is Tsklhaltubo, situated about 8 miles northwest of Kutai., at an altitude of 810 feet above the, sea. It possesses nine warm springs of alkaline and sulphurous nature, issulng at tem peratures between 28 and 35' C. Their delivery is very considerable, over 950,000 gallons per day, which are estimated to come from a depth of abogt 2,500 feet. The most remarkable quality of these waters is their high radioactivity, which varies between 3.28 and 6.70' Macbe on the daily averages; but it differs according to the hours of the day, being highest between noon and 2 p. m., when one source showed a maximum of 8.060. The water of the Tskhaltubo River is also radioactive, the examination proving from 1.350 to 1.70', and even the air in the building Erected over one group of sources shows up to 0.120. This radioactivity closely follows that of the different springs of TeplitzReboenau in Bohemia, which vary between 3.13 and 0.56 , and exceptionally



Moalount up t6 8.70 Mache: while It exceeds the activity of Wiidbad in Wfirtem. berg, with Whleh the Tekhaltubo waters are Identical, but whose radioactivity extends only between 1.6 and 3.3 Mache. These springs, therefore, have a great future before them, and may replace the above-mentioned baths which used to attract great numbers of gouty and rheftmatic patients from all parts. At present Tskhaltubo is already favorably known In Georgia, and is visited by some 45,000 to 50,000 guests during 'the summer season. Besides the described better-known bathing establishments there is a number hf smaller places which are only visited by the inhabitants of their neighborhood, and have usually not sufficient accommodation to attract visitors from a distance. ,Georgia, and especially the Province of Kutals, possess many such baths, some of whieh may be mentioned here. Zekarl, near Kutais, Georgia; a warm sulphurous spring of 350 C., used against rheumatism. Choklani, also a thermal spring of 310 C. Was known in antiquity, as a bath hewn In the rock has been discovered, dating from the time of the Argonauts. Kursebl, 8 miles from Kutais, Georgia, on the railway to Tkvibuli, posvses a cold alkaline sulpurous source, used locally against rheumatism and skin diseases. Khressill, in the neighborhood of Kursebl, and with a similar spring, used In the same manner. Utsera, 24 miles from Kutais, on the left bank of the River Rion, and 8,420 feet above sea leval; contains 11 alkaline sources, also ferruginous, within a small diameter. There is also a bathing establishment and some sceommodation for visitors. Sharopan has four sources near the River Kvirlla. In the Black Sea Province of Georgia mineral spriligs are not lrss abundant. Five are known around Ozurgetli, one at Zugdldl, another of sulphurous nature at Kvrrtchell, and many more near Sukhum, one of them also supplying sulphurous and strongly radioactive water. In the Kuban Province and the Taman Peninsula many mineral sources spring up which were known from old times. Some of them are of sulphurous nature, and contain also salts of bromine and iodine. They are used for rheumatic and neuralgic diseases, especially one floiN-lug near Ekaterinodar. Similar conditions prevail also In the Province of Elizabetpol, and In Daghestan. The latter district contains especially also a number of very hot springs, rising at nearly boiling point, but they are not used, and, in fact, scarcely known. In the appended list 415 places are mentioned, which contain between 800 and 900 separate springs of different nature, but in the absence of detailed analyses it Is not possible to give more than an approximate classification of them. About half of the total number are of sulphurous nature, containing sulphuretted hydrogen, which gas is also observed In about 45 alkaline springs, and a few containing In addition carbonic acid and carbonate of iron. The carbonated waters are. as explained, also very frequent, and carbonic aeld Is mentioned as the most noticeable gas permeating some 85 springs, while it also occurs In about 70 more ferruginous and 25 alkaline sources. It is often present in unusually large quantities, and none of the sparkling waters which are being bottled require to be strengthened by the addition of artificial carbonie acid, as it Is usually the case elsewhere. Ferruginous or chalybeate waters containing bicarbonate of Iron spring from about 40 sources, and the Iron compound forms also a valuable addition In a great number of the other spring.s. As to the alkaline and alkaline-sallne sources, they number about 150, while saline and bitter waters are produced by about 20 sources. Concerning their temperature It may be added that about one-fourth of all these springs pi;oduce thermal waters, that Is to say, they Issue from the ground at a temperature above 18" 0. About 80 of them have a temperature between 15 and 300 C., and 125 are even hotter, between 30 and 900 C.



According to the great variety of composition of the Caucasian springs their medical uses also extend in many directions, an,] are of the highest value for combating numerous Ills. The waters containing sulphuretted hydrogen are mostly used externally as baths against chronic rheumatism, gout, and skin diseases and for healing wounds. The ferruginous or chelybeate waters find their principal application internally in all forms of debility associated with ansemla, as they provide the blood with iron In its most agreeable and assimilable form. Alkaline and alkaline-saline springs are the most extensively used as medicinal table waters, being a world-wide remedy against digestive derangements, and also catarrial affections of the mucous membrane, etc. Saline waters act as aperients, and have a general stimulating effect on the digestion; many of them also act as purgatives. In view of the great number and usefulness of the Caucasian mineral springs It is surprising that they have not been developed to a greater degree. Their number Is three or four times as great as that of all the mineral sources existing in central and western Europe combined, and yet more than nine. tenths of them are allowed to run to waste, while In Germany, France, or Italy they would be of considerable value. The reason liei'partly in the comparative remoteness of the country, but principally in the apathy of the former Government, which entirely neglected this part of the natural wealth of the Caucasus. The altered European conditions make it opportune to draw attention to the possibilities of development of this industry. That this development Is even a necessity Is proved by the fact that at the outbreak of the war several hundred thousand Russians who formerly had been in the habit of taking the waters at some German or French spa, found themselves reduced to the resources of the Caucasus, which proved utterly unprepared. Mineral springs may be developed In two directions, either by bottling and shipping the waters suitable for table use, or by erecting bathing establishments and sanatoria and attracting visitois to them. At BorJom and Kislovodsk some springs are already being bottled, but their names are scarcely known outside of Russia, while those of "'i French and German waters, like Vichy, St. Galmler, Apollinarls, Selters, etc., are worldfamed. There can not be any doubt that out of the great number of Caucasian waters some will be found to be of similar nature, if they are carefully examined and analysed. That there is an enormous demand for such table and aperient waters all over the world is proved by the sales of the principal kinds; for Instance, the Apollinarls Co. In Germany sold 37,000,000 bottles In 1912, while Vichy exceeds this number; the latter establishment is under the control of the French Government. As to bathing establishments in Caucasla, very few of the existing ones are known outside of their Immediate neighborhood, or Installed In such a manner as to attract visitors from a distance, or even from foreign countries. This in spite of the fact that many useful waters spring up in most delightful places as far as natural surroundings and climate are concerned, and if wellequipped hotels, baths, and sanatoria, and the usual artificial attractions were provided, and the fact well advertised, visitors would not be wanting. Just before the outbreak af the war a movement had been started to utilize some other springs in Georgia In this direction, and it is to be hoped that the project will be executed as soon as normal circumstances prevail again. The central European resorts will undoubtedly lose a great part of their former regular visitors from the allied countries, who will have to go further afield. And there Is no country In Europe which can offer such a variety of healthgiving springs, combined with grand natural beauties and an interesting population as the Caucasus. The climate. specially in western Georgia, Is also very mild In winter, and suitable for pulmonary patients; the old Romans, who had the whole Mediterranean at their disposal, placed their wf 'tar colonies on the shores of the Black Sea, near Gagri and Sukhum, etc. All the natural conditions, therefore, exist for making the country a center of attraction for the tourist as well as for the seeker after health, and it remains for the human effort to realize this.desirable and useful end.






1. Abadsekby, in Kuban Government, Maikop district, near the station of the same name; not investigated. 2. Abano, Province of Kutals, Georgia, 30 miles from Kutals on the right bank of the River Rion; sulphurou waters. 8. Abanoekhet-, Province of Batum, Artvln district, Georgia, 5,053 feet above sea level; warm, sulphurous sources, temperature 310 V., and near them at the village. Mikhelethi, another warm source containing carbonic acid and Iron, temperature 280 C. 4. Abanos-Chala, 2 miles from Zekarl, Province of Kutais, Georgia; warm sulphurous source, temperature 3 2 - 3 5 * c. 5. Abarani, near Tkvartchell, Sukhutm district. Georgia: warm sulphurous source, temperature 86* 0. 0. Abastuman, Province of '1ifls, Akhaltzik district, Georgia, 60 miles front station Khashuri on the Transcaucasian Railway; hot springs and climatic

7. Agara, Province of Batum, Georgia; warm sulphurous spring, temperature 25* C. 8. Agbuda, Province of Elizabetpol, district of Kasakhi: cold ferrugiuous spring. 9. Aguran. Black Sea Province, district of Sotehi. Georgia. Pnd 8 miles from that town; warm sulphurous spring, temperature 280 C. 10. Agidun, Province of Tiflis, district of Akholtvik. Georgia; warm sulphurous spring, temperature 200 0. 11. Azoff, Kuban Province, Taman district; saline source rich in carbonic acid. 12. Aishkho, Black Sea Province, Sotchi district. Georgia, 4.150 feet above sea level; cold ferruginous and gaseous source; temperature 110 C. 13. Algridjkar, Province of Erivan, 26 miles from Bayaatd; ferruglnoums source with carbonic acid. 14. Iriehak, Province of Elizabetpol. district of Sangesur. 1 mile from village of Dastglr; carbonated source. 15. Alaghesi, Province of Erivan. on Alaghes Mountain. 3.600 feet above sea level; hot sulphurous spring. 16. Al igir, Province of Terek. 10 miles from town of same name on Ardon River; sulphurous and carbonated spring, temperature 16.20 C. 17. Aladjin, Province of Erivan, district of NakhidJevan*; carbonated source. 18. Alashin, Province of Baku, 20 miles from Lenkoran; cold sulphurous A spring. 19. Alpbanls-Abano, Province of Kutals, District of Letchkum), Georgia, 33 miles from Kutais on the right bank of the Ilion River; cold sulphurous source. 20. Amaglebi, Province of Kutais. district of Ozurgetl. near Station Sajchebakho, Georgia; 6 sources of sulphurous waters, temperature 240 0. 21. Anapa, Province of Kuban. district of Teemriuk; sea and medicinal mud baths, special hospital for electrical and therapeutical treatment; source containing chloride of sodium and lodides. 22. Apnia, Province of Tiflls, district of Akhalkalaki. Georgia; on the right bank of the Kura River, opposite the ancient monastery of Vardsla, a sulphur23. Apsheron, near Baku; slphurous and calcareous springs, temperature C. 24. Apsho, Province of Tiflis, district of Thioneti. Georgia: cold spring strongly carbonized. 25. Arvethl, Province of Batum, district of Artvin, Georgia; 4 miles from the village Ardanutch, a sulphur spring. 20. Arsni, Province of Erivan, 8 miles northeast from the town; cold saline sing. 27. Arkevan, Province of Baku, district of Lenkoran, 6 mlles from Arkevan. hot sulphurous spring. 28. Arsoen, Province of Baku, district of Sbemakha a, 1 40 miles southeast from the latter town: a warm spring containing Galubersalt, temperature, 100 C. 29. Arthkhmosy, Province of Tifis, district of Dushet, Georgia, near station Kasbek, about 6,430 feet above sea level: c-old carbonated spring, temperature 6" 0. 24
ovs source.



30. Artvln, Province of Batum, Georgia; ferruginous spring. 31. Askana. Province of Kutals, district of Ozurgeti, Georgia; sulphurous :springs. 32. Aspindza, district of Akhaltzik, Georgia, and 10 miles from tme latter town, on the left bank of the Kura River; hot sulphurous springs, temperature 32.2' C. 33. Astara, Province of Baku, district of Lenkoran, 5 miles from the Caspian Sea shore near the Persian frontier; a hot sulphurous spring, temperature 46 C. 34. Atabety, Province of Tiflis. kierit of Tioneti. Georgia; cold carbonated spring. , 35. Atheni, Province of Tiflis, district of Gorl, Georgia, and about 4 miles southeast of Gori; a cold sulphurous spring. 30. Athly-Boyun, Province of Daghestan, district of Temir-Khan-Shur, 8 miles southwest of Ptctravsk; a hot sulphurous source, temperature 350 C. 37. Akhaltzik, Province of Tiflis, Georgia, on the left bank of Potzkhov River; a carbonated source, temperature 20" C.; and 2 miles south of Akh'altzik, in the village. Uraveli, Georgia ; a warm sulphurous spring, temperature 210 C. 38. Akblatiu, Province of ElIlzabetpol, district of Sangesur; a carbonated spring. 39. Akhtala, Province of Tiflis, district of Signakh, Georgia; medicinal muds of temperature of 180 C.; and also on the right bank of the Alazan River near the village Gurdanl, a carbonated source. 40. Akhtim, Province of Daghestan, district of Samur; 5 hot sulphurous sources. 41. Akhgel, Province of Daghestan, near Petrovsk; medicinal mud from the dried-up lake of the same name. 42. Atsgara, Province of Sukhum, Georgia, on the right bank of the river of the same name; a cold sulphurous spring. 43. Atskhury, Province of Tiflis, dI3trIct of Akhaltzik, Georgia on the left bank of the Kura River; a hot sulphur spring. 44. Achipse. Black Sea Province, district of Sotchi, Georgia, 2,370 feet above sea level; cold carbonated source, temperature 11.250 C. 45. Achuluk, Ter. Province. 17 miles from Viadicauvase: sulphurous spring. 46. Ayar, Province of Erivan; sulphur springs. 47. Aphon, Black Sea Province, near Novorossisk; sea bath. 48. Bughiani, Province of Baku, 4 miles from Salyani; saline springs. 49. Baba-Zanan, Province of Baku, also near Salyani; a warm saline mud source, temperature 330 C. 50. Bagdadi, Province of and near Town of Kutais, Georgia, In Sekar valley; sulphurous source, temperature 190 C. 51. Badamlu, Province of Erivan, district of Naklichevan; carbonated spring. 52. Baksan, Province of Ter.; cold ferruginous and carbonated source. 53. Batalin, Province of Ter., 4 miles from Platigorsk ;- source of bitter water, temperature 110 C. 54. Batalpashin Kuban Province; mineral mud and bitter salt lake water. 55. Batmak, Province of Daghestan, on Caspian Sea; medicinal mud from the dried-up lake Batmak. 56. Batum, Georgia, in neighborhood of sea baths and hy;lropathtc Institutions, climatic station, May to October. 57. Bashin, Province of Terek; cold sulphurous spring. 58. Baindnr, Province of Erivan, district of Alexandropol; cold carbonated spring. 50. Besobdal, Province of Erivan, district of Alexandropol; cold carbonated spring. 60. Beslobi, Province of Erivan, district of Nakhichevan; ferruginous source. 81. Bergusheti, Province of Eiz1abetpol, district of Zangesur; carbonated and sulphurous spring. 62. Berssoff. Province of Terek, 5 miles from Kislovodsk; cold carbonated source. 63. Besla. Province of Sukhum, Georgia, 3 miles east of Sukhum; sulphurous source, 16.2' C. 64. Beshkllis, Province of Kars, district of Kegisman, 30 miles4 from Kars; a cold carbonated ferruginous source, and also a warm sulphurous spring of 26 C.


66. Bishenessl, Province of Tiflis, district of Gori, Georgia; cold sulphurous spring. 67. Bolsbol-Tambukan Lake, Province of Terek, district of Platigorsk; medicinal mud. 68. BorJom, Province of Tiflis, district of Akhaltzlk, Georgia; 2,636 feet above sea, cold and warm carbonated sources, the "Hkaterin" source, 29.90 C. and the "Eugenie" source, 23.6 C. containing also iodide and bromide of sodium. In the vicinity, warm sulphurous sources at Tskhisdjvari and for. ruginous ones at Tsagveri. 09. Barlsakho, Province of Tiflis. district of Thionethl, Georgia; carbonated source containing much chalk. 70. Bragun, Province of Terek, district of Grozny; two groups of sources: (a) two hot'sulphurous sources, temperature 40 to 60 and 900 C. used for bath. ing with some primitive arrangements; (b) on the right bank of the zlver Sunja also hot sulphurous sources. 71. Bristati, Province of Tiflis, district of Gor, Georgia, on the upper rn+aches of the River Didiliaklivi, 5,900 feet above sea; cold carbonated source springing from andesite beds, 80 C. 72. Bugas, Kuban Province, Tamriuk district; medicinal muds on the Bugas salt lake. 73. Bugeull, Province of Kutais, district of Ratcha. Georgia, on the left bank of the Rion River; a sulphurous spring. 74. Budugh, Province of Baku, in the Tengin valley, difficult of access; two sulphurous sources, temperature 48.1 and 46.250 C. 75. Bum, Province of Baku, district of Nukhn, two groups of sources: (a) 3 miles from the village there are two warm sulphurous sources, temperature 39.2 and 23.750 C.; (b) 12 miles from the latter, on the Kara-tchai River, another cold sulphurous source. 76. Burdus, Province of Kars, district of Olti, one-half mile from the frontier; a hot source of unknown composition. 77. Bulk Hill source, Province of Terek, 10 miles from Shelesnovodsk; alkaline sulphurous source. 78. Beloretchensk, Province of Kuban, district of Maikop; summer resort. 79. Barbare, near Sukhum, Georgia, on the Eris-tskali River; a cold carbonated source, temperature 160 C.. and 3 miles from it the "Claudi" source, slightly carbonated, temperature 120 C. 80. Vartsikhe, near Kutals, Georgia, on the left bank of the Kvlria River; a hot source of unknown composition. 81. Vedza-Amalo, Province of Tiflis, district of Thionethl, Georgia, 2 miles from the village Amalo on the right bank of the River Alazan; a cold carbonated source. 82. Vedza-Makartho, Province of Tiflis, district of Dushethi, Georgia, 5 miles from the Station Pasanauri on the Georgian Military Road and on the left bank of the River Aragul; a cold alkaline and carbonated source, temperature 110 C. 83. Vedl, near Erivan; a warm source used by the natives, composition unknown. 84. Gagri, Prqvlnce of Black Sea, district of Sotchi, Georgia; sea baths and climatic station open all the year round, mild climate, sun baths, light and electric baths. Alkaline source 6 miles from Gagri. 85. HadAi Samlak Muradin, Province of Elizabetpol. district of Snugesur, 16 miles from Shusha. difficult of access, 7,443 feet above the sea; the "Tur" source, cold, ferrgnous and carbonated. 86. Gamsatcheman, Province of Erivan, district of Alexandropol, 4,090 feet above the sea; a cold source with ferrous and alkaline salts. 87. Garula, Province of Kutais, district of Ratcha, Georgia, near the village Gard; a mineral source of unknown composition. 88. Gnebl, Province of Kutais, district of Ratcha, Georgia, two groups of sources: (a) In the Teheshura and Khvartchuli valleys several carbonated sources of unknown analysis; (b) at the confluence of the Gnebi and Rion Rivers several sources containing alkaline and ferrous sulphides and sulphates. 89. Guelendjik, on the Black Sea shore, Georgia, 25 miles from Novorossisk; sea baths, public baths of sea water and medicinal muds, hotels and boarding houses. 90. Guel source, Province of Kars, district of Ardahan, near village Rheva, Georgia; warm mineral source of unknown composition.


65. Blsso, Province of Tifls, district of Thlonethi, Georgia; cold carbonated



91. Guenal-Don, Province of Terek, district of Vladicaucase, two sources: (a) 5 miles from village Tmeni-kau at altitude 7,140 feet, a cold slightly saline source; (b) 1 miles from same village at altitude 5,432 feet, a hot mineral source, temperature 310 C. 92. Guerguethi, Province of Tiflis, district of Dushet, Georgia, on the upper Terek River, 5,595 feet above the sea; a cold spring of carbonated ferruglnous water, temperature 90 0. 93. Guerussi, Province of Elizabetpol, district of Sangesur; a carbonated source tasting like Selters water, but not analysed. 94. Gueyuk, Province of Erivan; a carbonated source. 95. Guedikal, Province of Erivan, district of Novo-Bayazid, at altitude 6,350 feet; a cold ferruginous and alkaline source. 90. Guilar, Province of Daghestan, district of Karin, on the Samur River; a slightly saline warm spring of temperature 350 0., and near it a cold sulphurous one. 97. Glasnol. Black Sea Province, Sotchi district, Georgia; a cold alkaline source on the seashore. 98. Glasnol, Province of Terek, near Kislovodsk, altitude 2,700 feet; a cold sulphurous spring of 9* C. 09. Glola, Province of Kutals, district of Ratcha, Georgia; several ferruginous and carbonated springs at altitudes 4,572 and 3,886 feet, temperature 110 C.; and at the confluence of the Glola and Rion Rivers another source of similar nature, temperature 12 C. 100. Goktcha, Province of Erivan, district of Novo.Bayazid; two springs on the Sanga River, one ferrous and carbonated, and the other at the mouth of the rivei, sulphurous. 101. Galubit, Province of Kuban, Taman Peninsula; baths in lake of medicinal mud; sea baths might also be organized. 102. Goma, Province of Tiflis, district of Akhaltzik, Georgia, near village Shurdo; a warm mineral source of 22.50 0. 103. Gomura, Province of Kutais, district of Ratcha, Georgia; carbonated source springing under great pressure. 104. Gorassu, Province of Terek, district of Nalchik; a carbonated source is',ing on the shore of a pond of ferruginous mineral water. 105. Gorassu-tchlran, same district, near the Elbrus, at altitude 9,700 feet below the glacier of the same name; a cold sulphurous source. 106. Gorl, near Tiflis, Georgia, at altitude 1,790 feet; a cold sulphurous source. 107. Gag-djur, Province of Erivan, district of Echimladzin, on the left bank of the Abaran River, at 6,000 feet above the sea; a cold alkaline source, 100 C. ,f Temryuk, on the 108. Garelol-Sopki source, Province of Kuban, dist, Taman Peninsula; cold sulphurous. 109. Goriatche Vodski, Province of Terek. 650 feet above sea; two groups of hot sulphurous sources; the eastern group consisting of 18 sources produce. ing 95,000 gallons per day, at temperature 73-750 C.; the western of 3 sources at 80-88 C. Two bathing establishments, used by the neighboring populations. 110. Gubden, Province of Daghestan, district of Temir-Khan Shura; cold sulphurous spring with odor of sulphuretted hydrogen, 190 C. 111. Gudau, Province of Tiflis, district of Thionethi, Georgia; cold car bonated spring. 112. Gudarakh, same district; a cold carbonated alkaline spring. 113. Gudauthi, Black Sea Province, district of Sukhum, Georgia; sea baths and climate station, best bathing of the whole shore. -114. GudJarethi, Province of Tiflis near BorJom, Georgia; a warm sulphurous source. 115. Gudamakarl, Province of Tiflis, district of Dushet, Georgia; three alkaline carbonated sources at 2 miles distance, temperature 120 C. Primitive accommodations for cures. 110. Gulachala, Province of Kutais, district of Letchkum, Georgia; a cold carbonated and ferrugiuous source. 117. Giumur, Province of Erivan, district of Nakh!chevan; cold carbonated spring. 118. Davalo, Province and district of Erivan; a warm carbonated source, temperature 24" C., forming a pond used as a bath against skin diseases.


119. Darachi-tchas, Province of ErIvan, district of Novo.Bayazld; 3 cold sources on the right bank of the Zatiga River, carbonated, one rich In lime, ,called the "milk source," another tasting like Solter's water, the third ferruginous. 120. Dargavs, Province of Terek, district of Viadicaucase, right bank of Guisal River; a hot sulphuroua spring. 121. Dash-kent, Province of Elizabeipol, district of Sangesur; several small carbonated sources. 122. Dvalishvilebl, near Kutais, Georgia, on the River Isrethi; 3 groups of hot sulphurous springs, temperature 35 and 220 C., respectively. Visited by Georgians living in malarial districts. 123. Dvirl, Province of Tiffis, district of Akhaltzlk, Georgia; two hot slightlyalkaline springs, temperature 35* C. 124. Derbent Stanitza, Province of Kuban; bitter and saline sources. 125. Derbent Sources, on shore of the Caspian Sea, 30 miles from Derbent, in hot district; hot sulphurous sources of which three have been capted, temperature 490, 480, and 37 C. respectively, used In a bathing establishment. Five miles north of them there are splendid sea baths on shallow sandy shores and two lakes of mineral mud, one of 380 C. containing 50 per cent of* water, some naphtha, sulphurous and traces of phosphoric acid; the other of 270 C. has the same physical properties, but its chemical composition is different. There are no facilities for using the muds. 126. Derbent, Daghestau; saa baths, water very saline on this shore. 127. Djabani, Province of Baku, district of Shemakha: ('ld .1uiphurons spring. 128. DJavi, Province of Tiflis, district of Gorl, Georgia; alkaline source. 129. Djadjira, Province of Ellzabetpol. near Slavyanska: cold carbonated

130. DJelans, Province of and district of K'ars, altitude 6.200 feet; 3. sources, one sulphurous and ferruginous for bathing, two sulphut-ous for drinking; frequently visited by the natives. 131. DJamurl, Prqvince of Tiflis, district of Dushethi, Georgia, near the viilarge Bathini; 2 alhnline carbonated sources, temperature 0.25* C. 132. Djarishtlo, Province of Terek, district of Nalchik: cold, carbonated source. 133. DJakvell, Province of Kutais, district of Sharopan; cold, abundant sulphurous and alkaline source, temperature 12" C. 134. DJelan-kol, Province of Kuban. district of liatalpash: alkaline carbonated source. 135. DJelae, Province and district of Kars, 5,600 feet above the sea; several sulphurous and alkaline sources, temperature 8.5 to 13 and 250 C. 136. DJodJora, Province of Kutais. district of Ratcha, Georgia, near Oni;. 0 cold carbonated and ferruginous sources, flowing from sandstone beds, tenperature 11-130 C. The water is clear, agreeable to drink. with a slightly acid and ferrous taste. 137. Djuma, Province of Kutals, district of Zugdtdl, Georgia, near monastery of Tsalshl, a warm sulphurous source giving off sulphurated hydrogen abundantly, temperature 270 C. .138. Djumukhl, Province'of Terek, district of Platigorst; three bitter salinesources, temperature 17.50 C. 139. Djurauli, Province of Erivan, diqtriet of Surmalin, at altitude of 5.710' feet; a cold alkaline carbonated source, temperature 150 C. 140. Dzlcheksh, Province of Kuban, district of 'Mnilop, at altitude of 8,195. feet; a cold ferruginous source. 141. Dzishra-Azego, Black Sea Province, district of Sukhum. Georgia: a sulphurous spring. 142. Doll, Province of Kutals, district of Letchkum, Georgia; cold sulphurous spring. 143. Dugun, Province and district of Erivan: a warm alkaline and saline source of 180 C. 144. Ebgenlev, In Daghestan Province and district of Temlr-khan Shuna;sulphurous source. 145. Edis, Province of Tiflis, district of Gorl, Georgia; a carbonated and ferruginou. source. 148. Elsk, Province of Kuban, port on Sea of Azoff; cold sulphurous! source giving 100,000 gallons per day. Sea baths, also medicinal muds near the salt lake of Khan.



147. Ekaterinefeld,. Province of Tiflis, district of Bortchaloj Georgia; a carbonated source depositing chalk on the River Mashaverl. 148. Fisou, Provinc of ,akatali .district of Kakhi, Georgia, at altitude of 6,800 feet; several sulphurous sources giving off slight smell of sulphurated hydrogen, temperature from 24 to 420 0. 149. Eilisu-Nukha, Province of Elizabethpol, district of Nukha; alkaline, and saline source, of temperature 37.5* 0. 150. Essentuki, Province of Terek. district of Platigorsk, altitude 2,000 feet; a number of saline, alkaline, and sulphurous springs. For internal use are employed: Alkaline No. 17 and 18, 11.250 C. Alkaline, saline, and ferrugineus No. 6, at 20.380 0., containing sodium iodide and bromide, No. 4 at 10.G C., and No. 19 at 10.0 C. For-baths there reused No. 20, alkaline saline at 10.6 C., and No. 26, sulphurous alkaline at 1L.8 C. The Essentuki Salts are extracted from source No. 17. 151. Shelesnovodsk, 10 miles from Essentuki (150), altitude 2,300 feet; numerous hot and cold ferro-alkaline sources used for drinking, temperature 18.75 to 44.4 0., and for bathing from 17 to 500 C. Well-known watering place. 152. Zaparosh, Province of Kuban, district of Taman, near the Vladicaucase railway; a number of sources springing up from a small area, but of different composition, some alkaline-saline, others carbonated and ferruginous, while another smells of sulphuretted hydrogen. 153. Zargeran, Province of Baku, district of Shemakha; a cold sulphurous source. 154. Zatsira, Province of Kutaits, Georgia, 8 miles from the town; a sulphurous source much used by the natives, although the accommodation is primitive; the place is very healthy and protected from the cart winds. 155. Zvare. Province of Kutats, district of Sharopan, Georgia. 2 miles from Station Mollthi; a warm sulphurous source, temperature 31.250 C.. 156. Zekari, Province and district of Kutals, Georgia; warm sulphurous sources of 35-6O C., much used against rheumatism, with three bthing places, and 6 miles from them another cold, slightly sulphurous source, temperature 160 C. 157. Zemo-Khvedurethi, Province of Tiflis, district of Gori, Georgia; cold sulphurous sptlig. 158. Zmeevski Source, Province of Terek, 2 miles from Shelesnovodsk; a ferro-sulphurous source, temperature 120 C. 159. Zor, Province of Erivan, district of Surmalln; a ferro-alkaline source, temperature 160 C. 160. Zromag, Province of Terek, district of Vladicaucase; a slightly saline source. 161. Ilsk, Province of Kuban, district of Taman; a sulphurous source. 162. Imirlu, Province of Erivan, district of Fechmiadzin, at altitude of 5,800 feet; a cold alkaline and carbonated source of 11.20 C., used by the natives who consider it as the surest cure against consumption. There is some accommodation for the summer season. 16.3. Ingushli, Prowince of Terek, district of Nalchik, near the Elbrus Mountain, at altitude 7,000 to 8,000 feet; a cold alkaline carbonated spring. 164. IndJir-Su, Province of Balm, district of Lenkoran, near the Persian frontier; a carbonated source. 105. Indish, Province of K~uban, district of Batalpash, at altitude of 3,800 feet; several warm saline.atkalikne and carbonated springs, one of 30 C. has been capped; its water is effervescent like Narzan. 166. Inja-tchal, Province of Elizabetpol, district of Kazakh; a carbonated spring. 167. Iris-tchala, Province of Tiflis, district of Akhalkalaki, Georgia; cold carbonated spring. 168. Istisu, Province of Terek, district of Grozny; two group of sulphurous sources, hot, one giving 20,000 gallons per day, used for baths, the other emitting sulphuretted hydrogen abundantly and having a temperature of 75 0. 169. Istisu-NakhidJevan, Province of Erivan, district of Shnrurs-Daralagez; several cold and hot sulphurous sources with temperatures up to 41' 0. 170. Ishkarti, Province of Daghestan, district of Temlr-khan Sbura; many small sulphurous sources, temperature 12' 0.; healthy climate. 171. Kasbek, Province of Tiflis, dLstrict of Dusbet, Georgia, at altitude 12,000 feet; a warm sulphurous source, 290 0. 172. Kasikoparl, Province of Erivan, district of Surmal,. at altitude 5,720' ;c- t I! cold alkaline and carbonated source of temperature 16' C.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF *GEORGIA 173. Kalntma, Province of Zakatali, Georgia, near village Allbeglu; a cold sulphurous and alkaline source. 174. KalatelW, Province of ErIvan, district of Suramll; cold ferro-alkaline source of 13* 0. 175. Kalmikaev, Province of Terek, district of Platlgorek; sulphurous alkaline source. 176. KalvadJar, Province of Erivan; hot sulphurous water, used by the natives. 177. Kantsbavetbi, Province of Tiflls, district of Dushet, Georgia; sulphurous source. 178. Karabulak, Province and district of Tiflis, Georgia; carbonated spring. 179. KaradJoran, Province and district of Surmall; carbonated spring. 180. Karmen, Province of Tflis, District of Thlonethl, Georgia; cold ferruginous source. 181. Kastala, Province of Terek, district of Khassav-Yurt; cold carbonated ferruginous source. 182. Katsal-Khev, Province of Tiflis, district of Thlonethi, Georgia; a cold carbonated and ferruginous source. 183. Kayakent, Province of Daghestan, district of Kaitago-Tabassaran, on the Caspian Sea; hot sulphurous source of 320 C., and near It sulphurous mud. Hot and dry climate, sea baths and accommodation for the sick. Georgia, on the left bank 184. Kvalithi, Province of and district of Kutais. of the Kvirila River; a cold sulphurous spring of 8 C. Sea, Georgia; cold carbonated 185. Kvanl, dltilct of Sukhum on the Black source. 186. Kvareli, Province of Tiflis, district of Telaw, Georgia; cold sulphurous source. 187. Kvishe' hi, Province of Tiflis, district of .Dushet, Georgia; a cold carbonated and ferreginous source with primitive accommodation for bathers. 188 Kert-mall, Province of Kuban, district of Batalpash; carbonated spring. 189. Kivlschvllebt, Provinsa of Kutpls, district of Sharopan, Georgia, cold sulphurous source, of 15 C. 190. Kisel.tchakb, Province and district of Kars; cold ferruginoui source. 191. Kiriklli, Province of Terek, district of Platigorsk; saline-alkaline source. 192. Kislovodsk, Province of Terek, district of Platigorsk, contains the celebrated "Narsan" source which gives about 570,000 gallons per day of carbonated mineral water at temperature 13.750 C., a large part of which is used for drinking and bottling purposes, and exported to Russia and other countries. There are also other sources used for baths. 193. Kitch-Malka, Province of Terek, district of Nalchik; carbonated spring. 194. Klavdi Source, Black Sea Province, district of Sukhum, Georgia, on the Tskhlrl Mountain; carbonated source, temperature 100 C. 195. Mlitch Valley, Black Sea Province, district of Sukhum, Georgia; a cold ferruginous source. 196. Kmosti, Province of Tiflis, district of Thlonethi, Georgia; a cold carbonated source. 197. Kobi, Province of Tiflis, district of Dushet. Georgia, at altitude 6,500 feet, a cold ferro-alkaline source of temperature 9 C., used for baths. and 6 other ferrugnous and ferro-alkeline sources of temperature 0 to 8 C., one of which is capted in a stone basin. 198.. Kobulethl, near Batum, Georgia; sea baths and sanatorium for i;ervous and heart diseases. 199. Kodlani, Province of TJflis, district of Gori, Georgia; a cold sulphurous source, temperature 190 C. 200. Kodlassan, Province of Tiflis, district of Gori, Georgia; a cold sulphurcus source, temperature 99 C. 201. Kodora, Blaek Sea Province, district of Sukhum, Georgia; a sulphurous source. Z2. Konstantine, Province of Terok, a sulphurous source, containing also some naphtha and sulpheretted hydrogen, temperature 27.5 C. 2M3. Konkbideti, Province of Daghestan, district of Andl, 3,900 feet above the sea, in a wild and malarlous couidry; a great number (said to he about 200) aiphurous sources, temperature 17.5* 0. 204. Koronls-Tskall, 3 miles from Batum, Georgia; a health station, famed for its beautiful climate.



205. Kotell, Provhe of Tiflis, district of Bortshalo, Georgia; a cold slightly saine source, temperature 7.50 C. 206. Kotur, Province of Tiflis, district of Bortahalo, Georgia; a carbonated source. 207. Kotur-Gumush, Province of Erivan, district of Novo-Baya~id; cold ferruginous source. 208. Kotr-Istisu, Province of -Elizabetpoi, district of Sangesur; a warm mineral spring, composition unknown. 209. Krasna Polians, on the River Mzimta, near Sotchi, Black Sea Province, Georgia; mountain resort, with some hotels and accommodation for special cures. Alkaline-saline and ferruginous carbonated springs, some of them tasting like Vichy water. 210. Kuapta, near Artvln, Georgia; a ferruginous carbonated spring of bitter taste. 211. Kudara, Province of Kutals, district of Radja, GOorgia; several warm sources of carbonated water. 212. Kulash, Province of Kutais, district of Samtredl, Georgia; a cold ferruginous source. 213. Kulkl-Bossi, Province of Terek, district of SundJen; a cold sulphurous spring. 214. Kulpl, Province of Erivan, district of Surmall; a carbonated source. 215. Kumogor, Province of Stavropod, district of Alexandrovsk;. 1,800 feet above the sea; 6 warm alkaline sulphurous sources. 216. Kurmukh, Province of Zakatali, Georgia; a cold carbont.ted spring. 217. Kunakhkent, Province of Baku, at altitude 2,300 feet; hot sulphurous springs; temperature 47-390 0., used for bathing. Dry and healthy climate. 218. KurdJani, Province of Tiflis, district of Signakh, near Akhtala, Georgia; alkaline source. 219. Kursebi, Province and district of Kutals, Georgia, on the Tkvibuli railway; a cold alkaline sulphurous source producing about 1,00W gallons per day. Baths and other accommodations for visitors have been installed. 220. Kushtchevska, Province of Kuban; a ferruginous sulphurous source, of a delivery of about 8,000 gallons per day. 221. Kushtchl, Province of Erivan, district of Sharko-Daralagel; four hot carbonated springs, temperature 400 0. 222. Kiuliutl, Province of Daghestan, district of Samur; an abundant carbonated source. 223. Lakhamull, Province of Kutais, district of Letchkhum, Georgia, on the River Ingurl; a cold carbonated source. 224. Latchta, Province of Kutais, district of Radja, Georgia; carbonated spring. 225. Lashe, Province of Kutais, district of Ozurgheti, Georgia; a saline spring. 228. Lashe.Mkrala, same district; a warm sulphurous spring. 227. Lashketi, Province of Kutals, district of Letchkhum, Georgia; a cold ferruglnouG and carbonated spring, temperature 13.25" C. 228. Lashkhevi, ProvInce of Tiflis, district of Akhaltzik, Georgia; a cold carbonated source. 229. Legvanl, Province and dist'iet of Kutais, Georgia; two sources, one alkaline, the other sulphurous; thy have been capped and are used locally. 230. Lenkoran, on the southwest shore of the Caspian Sea; sea baths, and 8 miles from them eight hot and one cold sulphurous springs, some of wht(h are beifg used by the natives. 231. Ilhan, Province of Tiflis, district of Gorl, Georgia, at altitude 3,900 feet, 2 miles from the Sadger Lake; 12 cold springs, ferruginous and strongly carbonated 232. Likoki, Province of Tiflis, district of Thionethl, Georgia; a cold carbonated source. 233. Lonjin, Province of Terek, district of Sunja; a cold ferruginous spring, 234. Lopota, Province of Tiflis, district of Telaw, Georgia; a cold mineral spring of unkown composition. 235. I,u'pek, Province of Kars, district of Kagisman; a ferru3inoils spring. 230. Lissogorsk, Province of Terek, district of Platigorsk; a bitter saline source which has been capped nnd is being used in the establishments of Piatigorsk.



.237.Llsgorki Province of Elizabetpoil, district of Shashat altitude 5,100 feet; several cold ferruginous sources, one.'6parkling-4nd. resembling- Seltets ,water. This place is a health resort, and enjoy. an excellent climate in which the patients can live In tents. .'28. ifatchara, Province of Tiflis, district of Gori, Georgia; three cold ferruginous and carbonated sources, temperature 160 U. 239. Malka, Provinee of Terek, district or Nalchlk; a c0ld carbonated spring, . and near It another alkaline.-carbouated source. Higher temperature 80 up on the RiVer jalki, at altitude 7,8W0 feet and 6 miles from the Elbrus ,Mountain, a Warm marbonated ferruginouo spring, temperature 20.750 0. and called "Warm Nartrn." Near the latter yet anothsce nonferruginous source. 240. Makaev sources, Province of Terek, 2 miles from Grolmy; several hot springss slightly sulphuretted, temperature from 82" to 46* C. and primitive installations for bathing. 241. Makat-Yurt, Province of Terek, 12 miles northwest of Groxny; hot temperature -72 to 79 C., and, other warm springs near sulphurous springs, , . -i -them . 242. Marinska, Province of Kuban, district of Batalpash; an alkaline carbonated trce. 243. Makhindjurt, Province of Batum, Georgia; several alkaline, ferruginous, and uinphurbu sources. 244.'Matesfa, Black Sea Province, near Sotchl, Georgia; warm source of strongly sulphuretted watet, considerable outflow, temperature 22.20 C.; also aulphurois 'muds near the source. 1 245. Msimte, Black Sea Province, 25 miles from Sotchi, Georgia; In the valley of the River Mslmta, at altitude 2,950 feet there are 17 sources, and others at'3,070 -and 4,200 feet, all cold carbonated and ferruginous. On the affluents of the Msimta: at 2,220 feet on the Pslukh River a cold alkaline and carbonated source, temperature 10.5' 0.,. and on the Osmltchu River, at 5,481) feet, an alkaline ferruginous spring, temperature 7.20 0. 248. Mikhallov, Black Sea ProvInce, district of Novorossisk, near GuelendJik; -a strongly Waline spring, temperature 21.80 0. 247. Mikhailov-Slepteov, Province of Terek, district of Sunja; between these -two places, about 850 feet above the sea, there are several groups of warm and hot sources; (1) Three warm sulphurous sources, temperature 850 to 36 0., uced for bathing; (2) several alkaline-saline*sources, sulphuretted, temperature 310 to 69* J. used for bathing and one for drinking; (3) several alkaline-Mmlne springs of lower temperature, down to 200 C. used for drinking. The hotter the waters the more they are impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen. -One source, temperature 17* 0., also contains Glauber salt. 248. Miatli, Province of Terek, district of Khassav-Yurt, in a wild valley on the Sulak River, in hot climate; 5 hot sulphurous sources, temperature 440 to '00 C. Also alkaline ferruginous sources, temperature 37* to 40 C., ani hot .aulphurouq muds. 240. Mokhbulag, Province of Zakatall,. Georgia; severdl alkaline And sat. phuretted sources, temp. 16 to 200 C. 250. Muganlo: Province and District of Tiflis, Georgia, on the right bank temp. 80 C. of 251. River Iorl; Province . the Murdukh, a cold alkaline saline spring, of Batalpash; an alkaline carof Kuban, district bonattd source. 252. Murakvali, Province of Tiflis, district of Akhaltzlk, Georgia, on the 2 , t right bank of the River Kura; a hot mineral spring. 253. Mukbravani, Province and district of Tiflis, Georgia; a sulphurous -source,Nagrakhan, also some of 1 254. containing Province naphtha. district of Novo-Bayazld, on Arkhashln Erlvan, River; a cold alkaline carbonated source, tasting like Selters water. 255. Nadjikho, Province of Zakatall, 64orgia; a cold sulphurous source. 256. Nakslakevi, Province of Kutals, district of Senak; a bathing resort -with several warm sources, temperature'32 to 330 C. Between it and Akhalkalaki a warm alkaline sulphurous spring. 257. Nakurdevi, Province of Tifils, district of Akhaltzik, Georgia; a cold -sulphuroUs spring. 258. Naichik, Province of Terek; altitude 1,700 feet; a climatic station. '259. Holy Island, hear Baku; Lontains cold sulphurous sources, temperature 110 to 12' 0. 260. Nar, Province of Terek, district of Vladicaucase, at altitude 5,810 feet; 4i cold mineral spring, temperature 10.30 C.


201. Natzarull. Province of Kutals. district of Ratcha, Georgia; a ferruginous carbonated spring. 262. Neut-Kutan, Province of Daghestan. of Kaltago-Tabassaran; a cold sulphurous spring. 263. Noa-Kal, Province of Terek, district of Viadicaucase; a cold ferruginous spring. 284. Novorosslsk, on Black Sea; sea baths from June to October, also medieinal mud baths. 265. Norkao, Province of Terek; a cold ferruginous spring. 266. Nophti, Province and district of Baku; cold sulphurous sources. 267. Odokhara, Black Sea Province, near Sukhum, Georgia; cold sulphurous sources. 268. Olssungur, Province of Terek, near Grozny; a hot sulphurous source. 269. Okiz, Province of Tiflts, lqtrict of Akhaltzik. Georgia; a mineral .source of unknown composition. 270. Okribi, Province and district of Kutais. Georgia, near the village Dzungurl, at altitude 1,470 feet; a cold sulphurous and two alkaline sources, which have been capped and are used in a bathing establishment. 271. Oloda, Province of Tiflis, district of Akhalkalaki, - Georgia; a slightly saline source. 272. Onissi, Province of Kutais. district of Ratcha, Georgia, at altitude .8,220 feet, in good climate and picturesque surroundings; 2 groups of cold sources, alkaline-saline and alkali ne.ferruginous. 273. Otingo, Province of Batum, district of Artvin, Georgia, at altitude 6,250 feet; a chemically neutral spring, temperature 330 0. 274. Oshora, Province of Tiflis, district of Akhaltzik, Georgia; a carbonated spring. 275. Panakethi, same district, on the left batik of the Kuia River; a mineral source of unknown composition. 276. Panjurethl, Province of Kars. district of Olti; a carbonated source. 277. Parsma, Province of Tiflis, district of Thionethi, Georgia; a cold carbonated source. 278. Peklo, Province of Kuban, on the shore of the Sea of Azoff; a cold ant. phurous source. 219. Penlak, Province of Kars, district of Olti; a sulphurous source. 280. Petrovsk, Province of Daghestan; sea baths, sulphurous sources and mud. 281. Plate, Province of Tiflis, district of Akhaltzlk, Georgia, at altitude of -5,720 feet, In good climate; many cold ferruginous and carbonated sources, some tasting bitter, others depositing oxide of iron. 282. Podkumok, Province of Terek, district of Platlgorsk; saline dd bitter sources. 283. Polkovnitchle, Black Sea Province, near Tuapse; a cold sulphurous spring In a beautiful valley, and 4 nilles from it the Morosoff sources, cold saline-alkaline, rich in iodine; the latter have been capped and are being used. 284. Prishibinski, Province of Baku, district of Leakoran; 4 groups of sources spring up in an old forest in a healthy district. They are rich in alkaline salts and sulphuretted hydrogen and have high temperatures, between 55 and 90* C., and are used for bathing. 285. Promis-Abano, Province of Tiflis, district of Gori, Georgia; a warm sulphurous source, temperature 250 C. 286. 0se!upsa, Province of Kuban, district of Ekaterinodar; several groups of sources, sulphurous, saline, and ferruginous, cold, and near the station Kentchevol there are 10 hot sulphurous, temperature between 410 and 52.5" C., which are being used for baths. 287. Pslukh, Black Sea Province, near Sotchl, Georgia, at altitude 2,340 feet; an alkaline carbonated source containing much bicarbonate of iron; used for drinking. 288. Pshavell, Province of Tiflis, district of Telaw, Georgia; a hot sulphurous and carbonated source, temperature .37.50 C., depositing chalk. 289. Platigorsk, Province of Terek; contains a number of warm and hot sulphurous springs which are used for bathing, and partly also for drinking. Their temperatures vary between 28.51 and 46.80 C. A well-known health resort. 290. Rashtchupin, Province of Terek, district of Sunja; a bitter salne spring. 291. Roki, Province of Tiflis, district of God, Georgia, at altitude 4,430 feet; sources. two cold ferruginous and carbonated




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292. Rua, Province of Ktals, Georgia; several cold sulphurous sources. 293. Rustavi, Province of Tiflis, district of Akhaltsik; two mineral springs of unknown composition. 294. Rutil-Goddos, Province of Daghestan, district o Gunlb; a warm neutral source, temperature 35' C.; very popular with the natives. 295. Rikal-Kam, Province of Daghestan, district of Kurin, at altitude 1,750 feet; two groups of alkallue-saline springs, temperature 320 to 36.54 C., and a third group of hot sulphurous springs. Some of the former are used by the natives for baths, others for drinking, and are also bottled and exported to Tiflis, etc. 296. Sabeka, Province of Kutais, Georgia; a warm sulphurous spring. 297. Sadgherl, Province of Tiflis, district of Gorl, Georgia, 1,180 feet above sea level; a slightly sulphuretted source, temperature 210 C. 298. SadJavakho, Province of Kutals, distrit of Ozurghetl, Georgia; a ferruginous carbonated source. 299. Sallan Muds, at Baba-Zanan, Province of Baku, district of Djevat; conMst of greenish.gray salt water mixed with slimes and semiliquid muds of a temperature of 440 C., through which combustible gases bubble up; their froth also contains naphtha. The muds are used by the natives foi baths against rheumatism, etc. About 10 miles from them a stream of cold alkaline-saline water springs from a hill. 300. Sanib, Province of Tclrek, district of Vladicaucase. at altitude 7,29 feet; several saline springs of temperature 35" to 55* C. 301. Sarikamish, Province and district of Kars; a carbonated ferruginous 302. Saro, Pr-n7'nce of Tiflis. district of Akhaltzlk, Georgia; a warm spring of 210 C. 303. Sasasbe, Province of Kutais, district of Letehkhum. Georgia; an alkaline ferruginous spring containing Glauber salt and strongly carbonated, temperature 13.80 C. 304. Sasitl, Province of Dagbestan, district of Andi; two ferruginous and carbonated springs. 305. Slnak, Province of Erivan, district of Suramll; a cold ferruginousspring and several hot sulphurous ones, temperature 37.5' C. 308. Simonethi, Province and district of Kutals, Georgia; a cold ferruginous source. 307. Siaku, Province of Baku, district of Lenkoran: a cold bitter salile source. 308. Sion, Province of Tiflis, district of Dushet, Georgia. near Mount Kasbek; a cold ferruginous and carbonated source. 309. Sleptsov, Province of Terek, district of Sunja; a bitter saline spring. 310. 8mada, Province of Tiflis, district of Akhaltzlk, Georgia; a bitter saline spring. 311. Soleno-Yar, Province of Kuban; a saline spring containing Iodides and bromides. 312. Sotchl, Black Sea Province, Georgia; sea and mud baths, climatic health resort. 313. Senaki, Province of Kutals. Georgia; several sulphurous springs probably running through the neighboring beds of sulphide ores. 314. Stir-Khokh, Province of Terek, district of at altitude 8,440 feet; a cold sulphurous source, temper, Are 20 C. 315. SadJuk Lake, Black Sea Province, Georgia; a lake about half a mile long and not more than 7 feet deep, the bottom being formed of black mud with a strong smell of petroleum and ammonia. No accommodation. 316. SunJa, Province of Terek; a warm sulphurous sources, temperature 250 C. 317. Supsa, ProviLce of Kutais, district of Ozurghetl, Georgia; a ferruginous spring. 318. Surab, Province of ErIvan, district of Nakhidjevan; carbonated springs. 319. Suram, Province of Tiflis, district of Gori, Georgia; a summer mountain resort; In the vicinity mineral sources. 320. Surmushl, Province of Kutais, district of Letchkum, Georgia; a sulphurous source, very healthy neighborhood. 321. Sukhum, Black Sea Province, Georgia; sea baths and very mild climate which makes it one of the best health resorts on the Black Sea; 6 miles from the town a sanatorium for tuberculous patients; season October to May. 322. Sip. Province of Erivan, district of Alexandropol; a carbonated spring.




823. Senna Stanltza, Province of Kuban, district of Temrluk; a'cold sulphurous spring. 324. Tabassaran, Province of Terek, near Derbent; a ferruginous carbonated spring. 325. Talght, Province of Daghestan, district of Temir, at altitude 810 feet; several warm sulphurous sources, temperature 20 to 350 C. with abundant sulphuretted hydrogen, and a flow of 270,000 gallons per day. 326. Tambukan Lake, Province of Terek, district of Platigorsk, at 1,830 feet above sea level, nearly 1% miles long, but only between 2 and 3 feet deep; the mud at the bottom is extracted for medicinal purposes. On the south shore of the lake a ferruginous source springs up. 327. Tarikhoni, Province of Kutats. district of Letchkium, Georgia; several sulphurous source. 328. Tars-tchai, Province of Elizabetpol. district of Kasakh; a cold carbonated spring. 329. Teberda. Province of Kuban. district of Batalpash; a mountain resort at 4,280 feet above sea level, with very mild and uniform climate; season May to September. Near it the Djemaget sources of ferruginous and carbonated waters. 330. Tedelethl., Province of Kutais, district of Sharopan. Georgia; a cold carbonated source, of temperature 80 C. Near it outflows of naphtha. 331. Tezeri, Province of Tiflis, district of Gorl, Georgia; a c!.ebonated spring. 332. Teikhtengen. Province of Terek. district of Nalch-L; a carbonated source tasting like the "Narzan " water. 333. Teklati, Province of THIs, district of Senaki. Georgia; a cold sulphurous source, temperature 120 C. 334. Teml-Goev, Province of Daghestan: h,-t sulphurous sources, temperature 430 C. 335. lemriuk. Province of Kuban. on Ttiman Peninsula; 5 groups of mud volcanoes, from 20 to 30 in each group; much frequeated Fea baths, but the muds are not used. 330. Terter, Province of Elizabetpol, district of Yevanshir, at altitude 12,450 feet; hot, slightly sulphurous sources, temperature 490 C. 337. Tiflis, at altitude 1,450 feet; several warm and hot sources of abundant sulphurous waters used in the municipal bath; temperature from 80' to 470 0. 338. Trusso, Province of Tiflls, district of Dushet, Georgia. near Kasbek Mountain; several cold springs, one carbonated, temperature 100 C.; at 7,000 feet a similar one. temperature 50 C., and a suphurous one, temperature 120 C.; also others carbonated with ferruginous taste. temperature 100 C. 339. Tuap~e, Black Sea Province, good sea baths and winter climatic station. 340. Tusllan, Province of Kuban, district of Temruk; 5 mud lakes, one of which is used for medicinal purposes; it contains Iodine and ammonia. 341. Turtcbiliaz, Prorince of Elizabetpol, district of Zangesour. at altitude 6,000 feet; several cold ferruginous sources, temperature 110 to 170 0. 342. Ubln. Province of Kuban, district of Ekaterinodar; a saline-alkaline spring, similar to Essentuki and Borjorn waters; also several cold sulphurous sources, temperature 90 C. 343. Umakhan-Yurt. Province of Terek. district of Kislar: several hot sulphurous sources, temperature 400 to 600 C. 344. Umpir. Province of Kuban, district of Maikop; a bitter saline spring. 345. Uraveli. Province of Tiflis, district of Akhaltzlk, Georgia. at 4,870 feet above the seea: several ferruginous and carbonate springs which have been capted for bathing purposes. 340. Uravi. Province of Kutals, district of Ratcha, Georgia; a carbonated spring. 347. Utsera, Province 'of Kutais, district of Ratcha, Georgia, at altitude 3,250 feet; three groups of cold alkaline and ferruginous springs, which are being used for bathing and drinking. Good accommodation for visitors; season July to October. 348. Trafa-tehal, Province of Daghestan, district of Kinrin; several cold' sulphurous sources, temperature 12' C. 349. Delijan, Provinces of Elizabetpol, district of Kasakh; 6 miles from the town there are several ferruginous and carbonated springs, of 160 C., producing about 18,000 gallons per day. 350. Khalkal, Province of Elizabetpol, district of Nukha; a hot sulphurous spring.



851. Kliarves, Province of Terek, district of Vladicaucase, at altitude 8,(00 fe t; a ferruginous spring. 852. Kbasantl, Province of Terek, district of Naltehik, altitude 5,900 feet; a carbonated ferruginous spring, resembling Narzan. 353. Khas.Tchiftik, Province of Kars; a mineral spring. 854. Khakbabo, Province of Tiflis, district of Thionethi, Georgia; a cold ferruginous and carbonated spring. 855. Khakhamati, same district; a hot sulphurous spring. 856. Kheledula, Kutais Province, district of Letchkhum, Georgia; a cold carbonated spring. 357. Khertvissi, Province of Tiflis, district of Akhalkalaki, Georgia; two sulphurous sources, temperature 250 0. 358. Khibesblu, Province of Daghestan, (Ustrict of Kiurin; a sold ferxuginous source, temperature 6" 0. 359. Khidirzinde, Province of Baku; a cold sulphurous source. 860. Khinalug, Province of Baku, district of Kuba, altitude 7,100 feet; a mineral source. 361. Khipedj, Province of Daghestan, district of Kiurin, at altitude 5,200 feet; a ferruginous spring, temperature 60 C. 362. Khlsso, Province of Tiflis, district of Thionethi, Georgia; a hot alkaline and sulphuretted spring. 363. Kbikhats, Province of Kutats, district of Sharopan, Georgia; cold ferruginous carbonated and sulphuretted springs. 364. Khnou, Province of Daghestan, district of Samur, altitude 3,000 feet; an alkaline carbonated spring, temperature 450 4. 305. Khoble, Province of Tiflis, district of Gori, Georgia; a warm sulphurous source. 366. Khozapin, Province of Tiflis, district of Akhalkalakl. Georgia; a cold sulphurous spring. 367. Khomur, Province of Tiflis, district of Akhaltzik, Georgia; a cold ferruginous and carb6nated spring, temperature 160 C. 368. Khonok, province of Daghestan, district of Andi; a carbonated spring. 369. Khosta, Black Sea Province, near Sotchi, Georgia; Ua baths. 870. Khudes-Su, Province of Kuban, district of Gatalpash; an alkaline carbonated spring, temperatxi.t: 180 C. 371. Tsagverl, Province of Tiflis, district of Gori, Georgia; several cold ferruginous and carbonated sources, temperature 9.60 to 110 C. Health resort, In a very picturesque position. 372. Tsalshi, Province of K'tals, district of Zugdidi, Georgia; warm alkaline and sulphurous sources, containing abundant sulphuretted hydrogen, temperature 260 C. 378. Tzismta, Black Sea Province, near Sotchi, Georgia. 4.000 feet above thesea; 2 cold carbonated sources, temperature 7" C. 374. Tsemi, Province of Tiflis, district of Gori, Georgia; a bathing estabUshment for tuberculosis patients. 875. Tsessl, Province of Kutais, district of Ratcha, Georgia; a sulphurous. spring. 376. Taina-Ubani, Province of Tiflis, district of Akhaltzik, Georgia; several hot neutral sources, temperature 27' to 350 C., In very healthy climate. 377. Tsikkls.DJvarl, Province of Tiflis, district of Gori, Georgia; several warm sulphurous sources, temperature 340 C., in a healthy picturesque spot, 7,200 feet above the sea. 378. Tsorkh, Province of Terek, district of Sunjen; cold sulphurous sources. 379. Tsotskheba, Province of Batum, Georgia; an alkaline carbonated spring. 380. Tsrla, Province of Batum, district of Artvin, Georgia; several ferruginous sources. 381. Tskhalthblla, Province of Tiflis, district of Akbaikalaki, Georgia; warm mineral sources, temperature 22.50 C. 382. Tskhaltubo, Province and district of Kutals, Georgia, at altitude 830 feet; warm alkaline and sulphurous sources, temperature 28 to 35' C.: total daily outflow nearly 1,000,000 gallons; used for bathing and drinking; great affluence of visitors during the summer and autumn season. 383. Tskhmorl, Province of Kutais, district of Ratcha, Georgia; a sulphurous source.



, 384. Tchagan-Mamet, Province of Baku, district of Shemakha a hot Sulphurous spring. 385. Tchals, Province of Kars, district of Ardahan; a sulphurous spring. 380. Lessevi, Province of Kutais, Georgia, altitude 3,200 feet; several alkaline ferruginous sources, in a healthy wooded spot. 387. Tehamarda, Province of Kars, district of Ardahan; a mineral spring of unknown composition. 388. Tchassavall, Province of Kutais, district of Ratcha, Georgia; a mineral source. 389. Tchvishipse, Black Sea Province, district of Sotchi, Georgia; a cold alkaline and carbonated source. 30. Tchemgakhuar, Black Sea Province, near Sukhum, Geoiga; a salphurous source. 891. Tcherek, Province of Terek, district of Nalchik; a cold carbonated source. 392. Tchermuk, Province of Kars, district of Olti; a hot sulphurous spring, temperature 350 C. 393. Telfermialiur, Province of Kuban, Temriuk district; a warm sulphurous source. 394. Tchirakh, Province of Daghestan, district of Kiurin; a ferruginous spring. 395. Tchir-Yurt, Province of Terek, district of Khassav-Yurt; several hot springs, alkaline sulphurous, temperature 44* to 69* C., and alkaline ferraginous, temperature 370 to 400 0. 396. Tchlkha, Province of Kutais, district of Sharopan, Georgia; a sulphurous spring. 397. Tebokianl, Province and district of Kutals; several sulphurous sources of temperature 810 C., which are used for bathiDg; also sulphurous saline muds. 398. Tchotchort, Province of Kars, district of Ardahan, Georgia, on the-left bank of the River Kura; a sulphurous source. 399. Tchtbill-Tskhali, Province of Kutals, district of Slharopan, Georgia; two warm sulphurous sources near the villages Beshathubani and Zvarl. 400. Tchumathelethi, Province of Tiflis, district of Gori, Georgia, near the town Suram; a cold sulphurous source used by the Inhabitants. 401. Tchakhriant, Province of Tiflts, district of Telaw, Georgia; two sulphurous springs. 402. Sharmlant, Province of Tiflis, district of 'bushethi, Georgia, on River Aragvi, near the Station Miethi of the Georgian Military Road; a sulphurous spring. 403. Shatili, Province of Tiflis, district of Thionethl, Georgia; a cold carbonated source. 404. Shirvan, district of Maikop, in Kuban Province; cold ferruginous carbonated and sulphurous sources. 405. Shir-Shrl, near Salyani, on the Caspian Sea; a saline spring. 406. Shistapi, Province of Erivan, district of Alexandropol, at altitude 4,590 feet; a carbonated spring. 407. Shtkhliar, Province of Elizabetpol, district of Zangesour; a carbonated spring. 408. Shovy, Province of Kutais, district of Ratcha, Georgia, near the village Gloli; cold ferruginous and carbonated sources; a sanatorium has been opened here surrounded by pine forests and In beautiful climate. 409. Dzegoba, Black Sea Province, near Sukhum, Georgia; a saline spring on the left bank of the River Bzip. 410. Stavler, Province of Kutais, district of Letchkhum, Georgia, on the right bank of the River Inguri; a cold carbonated spring. 411. Shurdini, Province of Tiflis, district of Akhaltzlk, Georgia; a ferruginous carbonated source. 412. Edissi, Province of Tiflis, district of Gorl, Georgia, at altitude 6,360 fet on the right bank of the River Liakhvi; a cold carbonated spring, tempera. ture 8* 0. 413. Elssu, Province of Baku, district of Lenkoran; a carbonated spring. 414. Erimani, Province of Tflls, district of Gori, Georgia; a ferruginous carbonated source. 415. Yatag-Tchal, Province of Daghestan, district of Samur; a carbonated spring.



,Out of 415 springs enumerated above and registered in the whole of Caucasla more than half are on the Georgian territory, and if further sclent8.e Investigations are carried out, the number of springs will undoubtedly yet Increase. All the mineral springs on the Georgian territory are State property, and theror their development and organization will undoubtedly be a considerable source of revenue for Georgia and profitable for foreign capital which may be employed In that direction. PART IV. WATER POWER As Caucasia Is divided by one of the highest mountain chains of the globe, at several points covered by eternal snows, its great number of rivers and streams, shown by the map, might only be expected, and if nature hss dealt parsimoniously with the country with regard to coal, it has lavishly made up this deficiency by substituting water power as an inexhaustible source of energy. Through the position of the country between the two seas the length of its rivers Is somewhat limited, the longest one, the Kura, attaining 825 miles, while the Kuban and Teick run for about 300 and 400 miles, respectively. But their fall is considerable, amounting in many places to rapids, and waterfalls of the smaller streams are also very numerous. Occasions for the erection of hydraulic power stations are therefore to be found in almost every part of the country. The River Kura, between Tiflis and Piras, in Georgia, has a fall of about 300 meters and could give 300,000 the horsepower by using only 100 cubic meters of its water per second. It, northern Caucasus the River Kuban could produce 175,000 horsepower on 350 meters fall between Batalpash and Kavkas Statiop, and a further 45,000 horsepower between the latter station and Ekaterinodar.1 These figures result from superficial and incomplete investigations only and do not consider the many other smaller rivers and affluents which in their higher reaches have considerable falls and abidance of water all the year round. Unfortunately this natural store of energy has scarcely been tapped, principally through the lethargy of the former Russian Government, which did not initiate a single h3'draulic enterprise either for private or public purposes. The power and light installations now existing in the country are all due to private capital, which Is insufficient for the proper development of this kind of industry. Hydraulic establishments generating electric current for light and power exist now at the following places: In the northern Caucasus near the station "Mineral Waters," a power station of 1,000 horsepower. In Georgia: Tiflis the capital, possesses 18 electric stations and substations, the largest ones belonging to the Belgian Tramway Co. a.,d to the Georgian nobility. Gori electric station belongs to Prince 1. G. Amilakvari. Kutais has two stations on the Rion River, for power and ight. Adjamethi, near Kutais, Borjom, Akhaltzik, and Akbalkalaki have local statons for lighting. Batum is provided with current from a station built about 10 miles distant in the Tchorokh valley. Of the Georgian coast towns, Sukhum possesses a station of 600 horsepower about 4 miles inland; New Athos and the climatic station Gagri are also provided with current, the latter from the River Jokvara.Considering the strenuous efforts made in other countries possessing water power to utilize it for modern industrial purposes, the above enumeration makes a poor comparison, which must be laid at the door of the former Russian Government.
I These figures were compiled in 1919. Th best Information available is from Reginald Aubrey Fessenden'3 The Deluged Civilization of the Caucasus Isthmus, publised in 1923, the writer of which was the the englnering commissioner for Ontario Niagara Falls Powr Commission. On page 84 Lathe kil lowing statement: "The Caucasus Is better provided with power than any other place in the world. The principal sources

hersepiwer. " . Hydraulic, from the melting of the glaciers and rainfal, 120,0000o 12. Hydraulic, from flow equal to evaporation, frvm Black Sea to Casplan Basin, 6.00O,OObarsepower."






HION1AI, xmpuBTalo op GO(ROIA


A more ambitious project was worked out a few years ago by an English engineer who proposed to supply the greater part of Caucasia with electrical current from two generating stations of large dimensions, one of them situated near the Kasbek Mountain and the other in the south, near Lake Gokeha, fot which purpose concessions were granted to him in 1912. The Kasbek power plant was to utilize the upper Terek River near the Georgan Military Road, where abundant water and a considerable fall were to product 40,000 kilowatts, while the water from the lake was to be conducted to the second plant by means of a pipe of 4 miles in length and producing a fall of 2,400 feet; By means of these two Installations and a network of conductors covering the whole country high-tension current for light and power was to be supplied " the railways, tramways, ports, factories, mines, municipalities, etc. Unfortunately the execution of this great plan could not be started within the stipulated time, and the concession lapsed; but in view of the general search for cheap power and current, specially also for the electrochemical industry, it is quite certain that some similar project will soon be taken up again. Many chemical and metallurgical industries have in recent years made enormous strides with the aid of electricity, and the countries where current can b produced cheaply, like 8candinavia, Switzerland, French Alps, etc., have greatly profited by the modern exploitations erected on their rapid rivers. There is no doubt that the unmeasured possibilities of Caucasia will be utilized in a similar manner, specially for the manufacture of ferro-manganese, calcium carbide, and nitrogen compounds for fertilizers, etc., for which the raw materials are ready in the country. It has also been found elsewhere that, where cheap electric current is available, all sorts of small local industries spring up, and this will undoubtedly also be the case in Georgia, which hitherto h&R been more ant agricultural than an industrial country. Cheap power will also be of particular importance for the southeastern lowlying parts of Caucasia, where large tracts of otherwise suitable lands can not be cultivated for lack of water, and where irrigation will bring forth fertile crops of cereals, rice, cotton, etc. Situated in a region quite mountainous, where the summits are covered with snow and glaciers, Georgia possesses torrents and waterfalls which at their lowest flow in winter can produce nearly 2,500,000 horsepower and in summer over 4,000,000 horsepower. A special State hydraulic department exists in Tiflis (capital of Georgia), which supervises the whole utilization of water power on Georgian territory. PART V. TiE GEORGIAN MANGANESE INDUSTRY

Manganese is a metal closely related to iron and resembling it in aspect, texture, and specific weight. In nature it does not exist in the metallic state, but mostly as oxidized ores, hydrated or containing also other elements. The principal ones are the following: 1. Polianite is the pure peroxide of manganese, containing 63.2 per cent of the metal. 2. Pyrolusite, a crystalline peroxide of manganese containing more or less water, and from 60 to 63.2 per cent of metallic manganese in its pure state. 3. Psilomelane, also a hydrated peroxide of manganese, amorphous, partly combined with potassium or barium, and containing from 45 to 60 per cent of metallic manganese. 4. .langanite is a hydrated sesquioxide of manganese, containing in its pure state ,12.4 per cent of metallic manganese. 5. Braunite is a combination of the monoxide and sesquioxide of manganese with some silica, and contains up to 69 per cent of metallic manganese. All these ores are black or dark brown, or grayish and often crystalline. They are found in many places, but only in a few of them do they exist in quantities large enough for commercial exploitation. Manganiferous iron ores are of great importance in the United States, but the world's consumption of manganese ores, which before the war had risen to between one and one-half and two million tons per year, is almost exclusively covered by three countries--Georgia, India, and Birazil, the first one of which interests us specially here.



The Georgian manganese deposits are situated in the Caucasus, near Tchiaturi, in the valley of the River Kvirila, an affluent of the Rion, about 40 miles east of Kutais in the Province of the same name. The kvirila River divides the deposits into two principal parts, which are again crossed by the numerous tributaries of the river, forming seven plateaux, viz, Rgani, rgani, Mvenievi, and Darkveti on the right bank, and Perevisi, Shucruti, and Itkhrvisi on the left bank. The total area of ore-bearing lands is about 400 square miles, of which one-half contains good ore; and the quantity of ore available for exploitation is estimated at about 200,000,000 tons, so that at the present rate of extraction there is enough material in the deposits for more than a century. The outcrops of the ore are situated at about 1,000 feet above the Kvirlla River, and are visible on the steep, almost vertical sides of the hills, as well as in the nar. row and tortuous side valleys. The deposits are of a sedimentary formation. The ore is stratified in successive layers of a thickness varying between 6 inches and about 30 inches, making a total thickness of from 2 to 3 yards. These strata of ore are separated by beds of eocene sands. The whole formation is horizontal, with a slight inclination toward northeast. It reposes on limestone, while the roof is formed by sandstone. The lowest layers of ore lying directly on the limestone and having usually a thickness of from 8 to 12 inches, consists of the purest peroxide of mangancse, while the highest strata are often of a reddish-brown color near contact with the overlying sandstone, and give the lowest assays; but in general about one-third of the ore, as it comes from the mines, is directly suitable for the market. Geologically, the formation of the ore beds must have taken place by precipitation from running waters, the thinner strata being deposited by quickly moving water, while the thicker ones would have been formed more quietly, while the sands were brought along during the intervening periods. At all events, the incrustations found in the beds prove that the deposition of the minerals must have taken place in a sea or lake of somewhat brackish water, probably on the shore of a shallow bay, where the currents often changed. The ore is pyrolusite, partly of crystalline fibrous structure of somewhat grayish-black metallic luster, partly amorphous of dull black or brownish-black aspect. It forms compact and rather hard masses in the continuous beds, and also occurs in granular (oolitic) form mixed with the sandstone, or in more friable masses mixed with the strata of sand and clay. The following analyses show the great purity of the ore and the almost total absence of obnoxious elements.

I.-Complete analyses of tchiaturiore samples

Per cent

jPer cent iPer cent

6.871 2.141i 2.88 2.34

Moisture ---------------------------------------------------------------Silica ..................................................................... Alumina ..................................................................

4.49 1.68


Ironoside ..........................................................------- ........ Manganese peroxide ..............................................

Manganese protoxile .....................................................

0. 0.03 38.607 957 1 0.76 20

0.88 - --1.93 0.80 0.&s

84. 90 0.33 8.32

2.50 1.19

Lime ..................................................................... Magnesia .......................................................... .

Baryt ............................................................. Salihuric a id ........................................................... i.acidPbospboricadd...................................................0.4 Or

0.87 .24 '




Ma er ......................................................... Phoslohorus ............................................................... EXTRACTION 33.70 0.18

54.83 0.17

99.12 50.60 0.15

As might be expected from the description of the deposits, the extraction of the ore contained in them does not present any difficulties, as it is only a question of d-iving horizontal galleries along the ore beds in the comparatively soft country rock. This work can be done with picks and shovels only, no complicated mining installations being required for hoisitng the ore, which is mostly carried to the pit's mouth in wheelbarrows or small trucks on rails. The mines are also quite dry and free from noxious gases, so that no better conditions could be desired in a mine. The galleries are usually from 60 to 120 yards long, some



of them reach even 250 yards. The roof is mostly kept up by pillars of ore of some 2 yards in diameter, and little timbering is done as pit props are very expensive on account of high railway freight. As mentioned, the richest ore beds are found near the Kvirila River, in the plateaux of Mgvemevi, Zeda,-Rgani, and Shucruti, while in the further fields the veins get gradually thinner. This fact accounts for the great differences in the output of the various fields according to the following statistics, showing the individual outputs during the years mentioned:

lI.-Produdionin tons of the different fields

1885-1899M 1904-1913


1. Mgvemevi ...................................................... 664, 835 1,910,073 372,70 2. Zeda-Rgeni ..................................................... 638,042 033,092 157,080 3. Shucruti ........................................................ I 451,60 799,137 97, 758 4. Perevisi ......................................................... 267.08 546,351 101,984 5. Rgani ........................................... 157,680 51,425 65,161 6. Itkbrvlsi ......................................... 3::.665 70. 623 0.113 7. Darkvetl ........................................................ I 38,66O 388,758 97,614 S.ialipauri ......................................... 9,823 17,473 ............ 9. Tabagredi ............................................ 5,068 50.177 13,145 10. Navarzeti .................................................... 3, 77 2. 742 ............ 11. Barkvelat-Ubanl ............................................. . 0 126,85 4060O Total ......................................................... 2, 275,971j 5,363,708 95,645

About three-fourths of the whole production, therefore, comes from the villages situated on the right bank of the river, which contain the most important exploitations. The number of mines worked in 1895 was 181, containing 379 galleries, and the average production per mine was 545 tons. In 1899 the number of mines had increased to 429, containing 820 galleries and belonging to 290 producers. The record quantity of 550,000 tons mined during that year, therefore, represented an average yearly production of only 1,900 tons per producer, and about two-thirds of the actual number of mines produced even less than this average. In 1906 the number of mines in exploitation was 443, of which there were 106 in Mgvemevi, 92 in Zeda-Rgani, 68 in Shucruti, 68 in Perevisi, 50 in Rgani, and the rest in the other villages mentioned above. The following tables show the number of mines existing at various times in the district, and the number of galleries in them (generally only one or two), and further details of the light mining railways working in 1913 for the transport of the ore in the galleries and from the mines to the railheadTABLE III.-Number of mines and galleries

... ;_1891900 J I 1902t10 . _ 19011

Mines.. 439 1 '49 Galemes:.:::6 20 715


I i1912 1905 iq 1907 1908 109 1910 19111 I 1913 !1914 190IS 443 39'5 1114 688 M 5 C 268 1191 150 3 230 174 200 303 281 437 192 228

- ---

225 277 251I12iI1 202 5121470 41513021343

TABLE IV.-Light railways in the Tehiaturi mining fields in 1913.

Column A. NumNr of mints containing railways. Column B. Length cf railways inside the galleries, in ysrds. Column C. Length of railways in the open, In yards. Column D. IA ngth ofrailways Ldid dunng 1913, in lards. Column E. Number of wsgern. Column F. Capacity c-f wagons In hundrcdweigbt. the A
Tabagrebi ................................. 5





F 74
32 397 59 11-23

Zeda-Rgan ............................ Pereviss Shucrut...............................

Sark-egat .............................. 4 Sgvimevi ................................49 Darkveti .............................. 8


8 r/8
3,2-0 19,938 3,493


4 817 3,57 17 1,577


Itkhvisi ................................I

14 4.............................. ,S073 2,126 3,372 367 7 1 962 62 1 701 ... 68

1,773 4,5676 1,620

18-23 10-28 16

13-18 7-28





The natural position of the ore beds between layers of sand and clay make it In most places Impossible to extract the ore alone without admixtures of the latter. The lump ore is picked out by hand, mostly in the open, but the smaller granules must be separated by water concentration in washing plants. Primitive appliances for the purpose had been used for many years, as the washed ore easily commanded a higher price in view of its containing much less silica. In the year 1910 about one-fourth of the whole exportation consisted of washed ore, and this quality was mostly exported via Batum. By washing, the mixed granular ore can be concentrated up to about 90 per cent of pure pyrolusite, containing nearly 60 per cent of metallic manganese, but these percentages are above the average of actual cargo deliveries, which will usually assay about ,53 per cent in the dry state. As with the increasing demand for ore the more remote mines had also to be drawn upon, the washing of ore on a larger scale became equally necessary, and plants for the purpose were enlarged and erected in various places along the River Kvirila and its tributaries. This increase of the washing soon became the cause of bitter complaints by the inhabitants of the Kvirila Valley, who also used the river for domestic purposes, for whih the water now became impossible, as it was polluted by the slices of the washeries. Petitions were addressed to the viceroy of the Caucasus, who first made an order to locate the washeries in the higher reaches of the river, and later forbidding to allow the slimes to run into the river on more than one day per week. But this regulation could not well be followed, and another idea was brought forward to place all the washeries near the river below Tchiaturi, and to form

there a large basin for receiving all the Fimes.

of the basin would be used for generating electrical power for a ferromanganese factory on the spot, etc. This project, unfortunately, was not realized, but the question of finding some other solution became so urgent that the Association of Manganese Producers offered prizes for better proposals. Several projects were submitted, but not accepted, principally because their application would have exceeded the maximum cost of the treatment, which had been stipulated at one-fourth kopek per pood (about 4d. per ton). In 1913 the viceroy appointed a special commission to study the matter again, and the res, lt was an order that manganese slimes must only be discharged into the river once a week during the winter months and once every three weeks during the summer months, and that after September 1, 1914, no slimes whatever would be allowed to run into the river. These measures seemed too drastic to be enforced at such comparatively short notice, and it was expected that further time wold he granted. The outbreak of the war and the cessation of work left, of course, the question in status quo, and it will have to be taken up again later on. In the meantime several further large washing plants had been finished between 1912-1914, and about two-thirds of all the ore extracte! was then washel. At aggregate capacity of all installations being sufficient, when terminated, for washing nearly th6 whole output. The washing itself, even by the be3t apparatus, cause3 a not inconsiderable loss of ore. The slimes from the washing amount to about .50 or 60 per cent of the ore treated, and consist of about 30 per cent of fine manganese ore and 70 per cent of sand and clay, so that the actual loss of manganese ore amounts to about 15 or 18 per cent of the original weight of the ore treated.

At the same time the overflow

the same time a niunher of a-lditional washeries were in course of erection, the

The question of transport has, perhaps with the exception of the last few years, always been the greatest difficulty with which the Georgian manganese industry had to contend. The extraction and dressing of the ore are comparatively easy and cheap, but the transport from the mines to the seaports, which was under the control of the state, was by the latter made into a source of great and excessive profit, while a less rapacious policy was the obvious duty of the former Russian Government, in order to foster this most important industry of the Caucasus, second only to that of petroleum. The exploitation of the Tchiaturi mines began in 1878, but remained on a very limited scale until after the Russo-Turkish war, when the Transcaucasian Rail-way line between Batum and Tiflis was opened in June, 1883. The station



Kvirfli of this line is situated at the lower end of the manganese mining field, near the junction of the Kvirila and Rion Rivers. It formed at the time the first real improvement making a large export trade possible, but it was far from sufficient, as the ore had still to be transported for some 25 miles from the mines to the railway, for which pu.pose no proper roads existed then on the steep sides of the ravines and in the narrow side valleys. The ore had to be carried down on horseback or two-wheeled ox carts; a horse would carry about 360 pounds in two baskets, while a cart spanned with oxen or buffaloes would take between 1 and IV tons. The cost of this cumbersome system was very high, and, besides, It could never be calculated beforehand, as it varied considerably according to the weather and seasons, and sometimes had to be suspended altogether. The construction of a branch railway line along the Kvirila River and in the imrnedhte vicinity of the principal mines could therefore only be a question of time, and in 1890 a project to this effect was ratified by the Government. It was to be a narrow-gauge line running from Sharopan Station to Tchiaturi, a distance of 26 miles. The line was to he consti icted and worked by the Government, and was begun in 1891. The official opening took place in May, 1893, running on a single track, with wagons carrying from 2 to 22 tons of ore each. The cost of the line was about 150,000. In view of later developments of the trade the narrow gauge was a mistake under which the industry still labors to-day, as it necessitates the transshipment of the ore at Sharopan from the narrow-gauge trucks of the branch line to the broad-gauge ones of the Transcaucasian Railway, which operation calists part of the lump ore to break up into undesirable dust. While constructing the railway the Government also took measures for the improvement of the existing horse tracks and for constructing macadanaized roads. These improvements were expected to cause a saving of about 25s. per ton on the cost of transport from the. mines to Kvirili; but such expectations were doomed to d-appointment, anl for various reasons the economy only amount.d to about 13s. per ton, the tariff on the branch line being fixed at 15 kopek per pood, or about 19s. per ton, for a distance of 23 miles. This rate is about 15 times as high as the charges on the other Transcaucasian railways for the same di.stance. Besides, the new line did its work in a very unsatisfactory manner; it was badly constructed, and certain portions of it were continually being washed away by floods. The rolling stock was insufficient, so that a considerable part of the ore had still to le brought down on horseback, ard Sharopan Station was used in preference to those situated higher up in the valley. In consequence of these difficulties and of the general crisis in the trade, partly caused by the competition of Chile, and also of India and Japan, partly by the high tariff charged by the railway, the exporters applied to the Government for a diminution of the excessive rate, as many hld iade forward contracts and were in face of heavy losses; hut their demand was not acceded to. The general dissatisfaction with the service of the railway continued during several years, specially as it was found that the Government made a net profit of at least 10s. per ton of ore carried, which was much more than the producers or exporters could usually expect. In fact, the whole cost of the railtuay was actually repaid by the profits made during the first to years of its existence. Only in 1897 a diminution of Is. 4d. per ton was granted'by the Government, and later the rate was fixed at 13s. 3d. per ton, but frequent stoppage and isufficient rolling stock still hampered the trade. With the extension of the export another difficulty made itself more and more felt, viz, the insufficient accommodation in the port of l'oti. There were only three berths for steamers loading from the quay, and almost always a number of others had to wait for their turn, lying out in the open roadstead, which in stormy weather is unsafe, so that damage by stranding, etc., often occurred. The delays frequently amounted to as much as three weeks and more, causing very heavy expense for demurrage and also stiffer freights, as the shipowners did not like the port. The loading of the steamers was effected by workmen carrying the ore in small baskets containing about 140 pounds. In this annmer froint 400 to 800 tons could be loaded per day, at a cost of 8d. per ton if carried directly from the railway cars to the ship, or Is. per ton if the ore had first been discharged in the docks. In order to overcome this difficulty some shippers erected accommodation in the port of Batum for shipping the ore from that port, and several steamers were dispatched during 1899 in good time. But there is not much room in this port for ore shipping on a large scale, and Poti still obtained the bulk of the business.





, On the repeated petitions of the shippers the rate of transport from Tehiaturi to Sharopan was lowered to 9s. 3d. per ton in the beginning of 1899, but on the other hand the sea freights rose against considerably on account of the shortage of tonnage. This acted unfavorably on the export trade, so that the Meeting of Manganese Producers decided in 1901 to petition the Government again for a further diminution of the railway tariff, but this demand was refused. The accommodation in the port of Poti had in the meantime been improved and the number of berths for steamers loading alongside quay was increased from thee to five, and as the railway also gave a better service most of the steamers could now be loadd directly from the wagons coming from Sharopan, n stocks or deposits being required in Poti. Nevertheless, profits of the producers were low, and in 1903 they again tried to obtain a diminution of the railway tariff from the Government, but with no better success than before. On the other hand, further improvements were introduced on the railway, and three new sidings were added on the Tchiaturi branch which made it possible to bring down 3,000 tons of ore per day to Sharop an, to be transferred to the broad-gauge trucks. Larger ore cars were also bought into use, carrying about 12 tons, and being more economical. Unfortunately, the strikes of 1905 greatly impeded the transport for some months, but after their cessation the demand from abroad increased in such proportions that the railway facilities could again not with them. In 1907 this flowing tide suddently turned, and the traffic on the railway diminished to such an extent that the shippers could obtain as many wagons as they wished, while formerly, in the busy years, they had to wait their turn and obtained wagons only in proportion to the stocks held by them at the railway platforms, viz, one wagon holding 12 tons for every 320 tons of stock. This system could now be abandoned, at least for the time being. In view of the poor condition of the trade the Government at last in 1909 reduced the railway tariff on the branch line to 7s. 4d. per ton, but in order to compete with the Indian manganese the shippers could only petition the Government again for a further diminution. This was (lone in 1909 and again in 1910, bu. the demands fell on deaf ears, as so often before. Many exporters had made contracts for 1911, based on an expected greater reduction, and were now hard hit, and the general cry was that the export trade could only be kept up by a diminution of the transport charges. The question was considered by the Tariff Commission in 1912, but as in the meantime the trade had again revived, and was apparently prosperous, the demand was refused, although the exporters tried to prove that the high ocean freights swallowed up all the profits. However, in order to give some satisfaction to the shippers the question of rebuilding the Tehiaturi branch line on i broad gauge was again ventilated; its necessity is recognized by everybody, but the execution of the project still remains in abeyance. The railway authorities also decided definitely to build branch lines to the mines in the side valleys. A fall in the sea freights to Europe caused a fre.-a spurt in the export business in 1913, and the available rolling stock on the l'' line became suddenly insuflicient, so that the old method of distributing ,%agons to tjie exporters in turn and according to their stocks on the platforms ha6 again to be resorted to. This forced many exporters who had only small stocks tn !-uy ore on trucks at heavy sacrifices from more fortunate holders. In order to avoid sudden rushes, as had now happened several times on quick improvements of the markets, the railway authorities no. offered to unload the ore on platforms at Poti and to reload it on wagons for transport to the steamers when the latter were ready at the quay. By this mearis it was expected that more ore would be kept in stock at Poti, thus giving the railway a more regular traffic. The year 1914 opened well with low rates of ocean freights, and the trade of the first six months beat all records, but the declaration of war interrupted this favorable outlook; the goods traffic was stopped on the railway, and the beasts of burden used in the nines were mostly requisitioned, so that the work had to be stopped. Some firms continued it spasmodically, and the railway al9o announced an increase of Is. 4d. per ton on its tariff, but the impossibility of exporting any ore rendered all further activities in the mines useless. Through all the fluctuations of the manganese trade during the last 30 years runs the continuous claim of the producers and exporters for cheaper railway freight. lle Government could have easily granted it, as it was making enormous profits on the small branch line of 26 miles; but it preferred its own immediate gain to the welfare of the community inLerested in this industry. Another reason of this







unfair treatment was the fact that several grand dukes were shareholders in,the manganese enterprises working in Nikopol, which district was highly patronized by the Government to the detriment of the vast deposits of Georgia. Thus the transport of ore from Tchlaturi to Poti, and thence by sea to Rotterdam, cost 30per centv more than that of Nikopol ore by railway to Germany. One improvement may yet be mentioned, although it is not due to the Government. In 1912 the muntcipality of Poti erected a very elaborate elevator for loading the ore, and after some breakdowns it came into proper working order and was used up to be beginning of the war. The initiative in the erection of the elevator and in other improvements in the port of Poti belongs to the distinguished mayor of the town, Mr. N. Nikoladze, a Georgian gentleman with high European education and very greatly esteemed. The following tables show the stocks of ore lying at the railway platforms at Tchiaturi at various times (V), the quantities handled by the railway (VI), the charges paid on them (VII), the income resulting from the latter (VIII). Figures after 1914 are not always given, as in October of that year Turkey entered the war and the mainstay of the Georgian manganese industry, the exports through the Straits of the Dardanelles, was stopped until December, 1918.

V.-Stcks of manganese ore lying in Tchiaturi on January I of each year



129,032 1900-------------------300,355 1901 --------------------- 560,347 1902-------------------668, 177 1003-------------------454, 129 1904 -------------------- 412, 081 1905 --------------------- 315,774 1906 ------------------608,081 1907 ------------------1, 167, 371 1908 -------------------- 1,525,661


1909.................... 1910 _ 1911 -------------------1912 _ -1913 -------------------19 14 -------------------1915 ------------------1916 -1017-

1, 135, 161 1, 046, 161 1, 030, 774 1, 031, 919 71, 564 507, 403 590, 709 746,693 735, 611

TABLE VI.-Transporl of manganese ore (in tons)

From I To 8haropan Tcbaturl I SharoPan to Putt to Sharopanl otherwiLe by than by m:in.line by rail rail railway
I.o.............. i
1900 ............... 492,362 1901 ............... 345,941 1902 .............. 4&5,873 t 1903 ...............495,70) 1904 .............. 11.597 19W .............. 381,499 1906 .............. 520,2 1907 .............. 553, 48


eFrem ItoSharona
by rail Tchiaturl


otherwise thMn by main-lino rail railway

28.245 3K 794

From Sharopan to Pot



22 2l 423, 5% 0 4. 516, M4
2. 161 2.44 13, 742 21,871
2.849 4.402 1,909

1908.............. M, 64S


109 .............. C0, 339

1910 .............. 638,819 49, 275 191 ............... 633, 72 497,61n8 1912.............. 957, 556 1913 .............. 1,114.135 1914 ..............i 700,007 ......... 706,907 5!0, 3"Total ...... !8., -- ,49 1 117,61i 8, C79,167 575, 3.9

1, 067 017,308 1,611 640,430 2,618 036, 34 1,096 958, 652 1,912 1,11G, 47

TABLE VII.-ai!way charges in 1913

Miles Rate per ton

Freight Tchlaturl to Shropsn ...................................................... Freight Sharopan to Poti ............................................................ Freight Sharopan to Batum .......................................................... Total Tchlatudr to Poil ............................................................. Total Tchiaturl to Batur ........................................................... Station charge .................................................................... Unloading at hropges ............................................................ n

128 148 156 ...


7 2 2 9 10


4 2 10 6 2 8

Weighing ......................................................................... in .......... Tax for the Associatlon o7 Producers .......................... .............. .......... 1 8



TaiLE -VIII.-Icome of the railway line from T1chifuri to Sharopn-28 miles

Numbt of tons carried

Roybles 973,350

Taril, per ton

s. d. 13 3

e NNumber of Incom3 tons carried

19 ............ 381.499 RoUtble# 1,852.006

rul, per ton

. d. 9 3

16............ 168 ............ 300............ 1900............ 1901 .......... 192 ........... W ............ 1904............

149,514 2603 4(.082 492, 2 344.941 4M 498709 344,%7

6 3 ........... 149.952 1197...... ..... 172,000

976,15 1,119,720

1,632015 1,6 ,460 2 390,187 1,68,192 3201 Z87 2,476,470 2, 643, 799

13 3 13 3
13 9 9 9 9 9 9

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

52 w ............ 1907...........513488

190 ........... 3548 190 ............ 600,339 1910........... 63819 33.728 1911 ............ 1912........... 957,656 1913............1.114,135 1914 ............ 706,907

%686,960 Z,5M3,100

1,740,609 2421, 25 2,674,435 2,553,9 3 3,869,949 4.489,063 2, 835,446

9 3 9 3
9 7 7 7 7 7 7

3 4 4 4 4 4 4


of the country, and Italians were imported to start the work and teach the inhabitants. However, the primitive methods employed were easily learned, and now everybody works in the mines, so that the Council of the Association of Producers itself has called it a kind of cottage industry. The work is usually done by small associations of three or four men, who are aid b r'ecew ';at a fixed rate per cubic sashen (12.7 cubic yards) of ore extracted r : piled up on the floor of the mine. The number of actual miners varies between 3,000 to 4,000, but besides these the a great number of persons are engaged in carrying the ore from the mines toconrailway platforms. Many of them carry their own ore, while others are to and undertaking tractors owning numbers of horses, mules, and donkeys, carry the ore at fixed rates. As all this work is mostly done by the small landowners and the native population themselves, labor troubles seldom crop up in the industry. Besides, the workmen enjoy the facilities provided by the Association of Producers in the way by housing, schools, hospitals, etc. Nevertheless, the district was also affected by the general strikes and troubles in the Caucasus during 1905 and 1913 and especially in the latter year the in the industry was paralyzed by a strike of the workmen during seven weeksthe cost busiest summer time. The result of it was an increase of Is. per ton in Indian of production at the mines, and incidentally the trouble also helped the producers to increase their shipments in that year by some 40 per cent. dressThe following tables show the number of men engaged in the mining andmining ing of the ore at different times (IX), their distribution in the variousthe comfields during 1913 (X), the wages paid to them in different years (XI), paratively low number of accidents happening in these mines (XII):

In the beginning of the manganese industry there were no miners in this part

IX.-Number of men employed in the extradion and dressing of the ore

(excluding transport)
Men Men

1899 ----------------------1900----------------------1901 -----------------------1902 ----------------------................-----1903 1904 -------------------------------------------1905 1906----------------------1907 -----------------------

3,2.52 702 3, 1,975 2,212

995 2, 3,172 5, 085 4,004

1908 ------------------------ 671 1909 ----------------------- 3,123 1910 ----------------------- 3,212 1911 ------------------------ 2,072 1912----------------------- 2,380 1913----------------------- 3,477 1914------------------------- 3,095 1915------------------------ 1,222 1910 ------------------------ 1,059





X.-Labor employed in the different mining .fida and their production in 1918 Villages Laborers employed In Jnfng and auxJilary transport
319 20

Total Ttl

Production Pouto

Rganl ..................................... 140

ZedaRga ................................220 Tabagreb, ................................. 21

22, I

764 68


IOUA 33,1

SarkveletUban ........................... t 101

Mgvimevi ................................. 711 Darkveti................................... ISO Pereviss .................................. 120



874 98 1419

613 so 40

2,198 3M $39

372,790 97,613 1014 on

Shucruti ...................................176 Itkbvlsl ................................ I1 Total ................................ 1,680

170 18 1,797

129 19 1, 153

475 48 4,630

97,76 9,113 9K46

TABLE Xl.-Wages paid to laborers in the mines

1908 Shovelers .................... do 1910 1913

Miners............................ per day..J 3s. 10d ............ 6d........................ 2s. 3s. Td.

........................................ s. 2d. 8d.

Barrow men 3s. 2d.............. 2s. Id .............. is. 3s. Sorters ............................. 2s.6d .......... Is. Id. to Is. 8d............. do . 2s. 6d.

Taskwork ....................

per ton.................----2s. to 2s. 8d..........29.

TABLE XII.-Acidents in the mines

Number of Percentage I miners In-I miners in- of miners lured l per I
lured injured

Number of


ye Year

Number of Percentage miners Iminers In- of miners lured per


16,000 tons

16,000 tons IJured

L7 2 .$ 4.

1905 .......... Iwoo ........... .......... ! 1907

39 3 53

1 1.I[ 08 1.07

L9 108 ...... 1.1 !1910....... 1.3 909 ............ .

12 10 164

1.79 3O S.61 Mto


The consumption of Georgian manganese in Russia itself forms only a small percentage of the trade. It started with about 10,000 tons in 1894, which rose to about 30,000 tons in 1898, and has since that time fluctuated between this figure and double its quantity, as shown in Table XVII hereafter. All this ore is used in the Donetz Basin, which, besides, consumes about 80 per cent of the ore extracted at Nikopol, Province of Ekaterinoslav. The Georgian exporters do not scent to pay much attention to this trade, and, for instance, in 1906, when the demand from abroad was very pressing several Russian steelworks could not get any supplien at all from Tehiaturi, and had to send special people there to buy from stocks, which were then forwarded with great difficulty. The steelworks in the Urals use local inanganiferous iron ores. stay, and, in spite of the serious competition which arose in the course of time, andsometimes overwhelmed it, Georgia had before the war regained her position as the largest producer of manganese ore of the world. Internal difficulties had much to do with the temporary setbacks of the trade. The question o( transport and exorbitant railway charges by the Government, as set out in a previous chapter, gave rise to continuous complaints, and on the other hand fierce competition between the producers themselves and the entire absence, until more recent years, of any coordination in the export trade, made

From the beginning of the manganese industry the export trado was its main-

the business often enough a profitless tindertaking for the miners.


Much blame,




for this unsatisfactory state of things had at one time to be attached to some Greek exporters, who, being foreign to the interests of the country, tried to prevent the producers from combining and kept the prices in a most unsettled condition. - The United Kingdom was the first importer of Georgian manganese on a large scale, taking about 40 per cent of the whole quantity exported between 1885 and 1898 when in the latter year Germany took the lead in the purchases. Prices during that period were generally not very satisfactory for the producers, and more than once did not cover their cost, although there was then only competition from Chile. In 1898 a more successful period began, the demand for the European and American markets being brisk and at remunerative prices, which continued until 1900, when the export figures reached a record. But in the following year tLey took an unfavorable turn In consequence of the depression of the foreign markets, which continued for several years. In 1903 the Government was, therefore, again approached for help in view of the critic l position of the trade. Fortunately at the end of 1904 a brisk demand set in again; prices soared up to 3is. and even 36s. per ton of 50 per cent ore f. o. b. Poti, while, for instance, in 1897 only 24s. had been paid. The strikes of 1905 scarcely interrupted this prosperity, and in 1906 prices stood even at from 44s. to 46. 6d. per ton f. o. b. Poto--the highest figures obtained since the railway existed. But this unprecedented activity suddenly collapsed in the middle of 1907. The foreign demand fell off, and at the end of the year shipments had practically ceased. This stagnation continued until 1910, when the consumption rose again, even to record figures. But the Indian and Brazilian competition covered most of it, and the Georgian miners only obtained very low prices, which scarcely allowed them to make any profit at all. This was largely due to the unusually high sea freights, and lasted until the end of 1911, when the demands of the ferromanganese works suddenly arrived again and caused prices to rise. This favorable position was cxpectcd to continue, although the high rates of wages imposed by the strikes of the miners made things very difficult for the less favorably placed mines, but the war and the closing of the Dardanelles made an end to the prospects as well as to the difficulties. The ups and down of the export trade are reflected in the stocks of ore lying at Tchiaturi. While at the end of 1902 they amounted to 240,000 tons, they rose to 323,000 tons in 1903 and 1904; to 1,130,000 tons in 1906, being over 1,000,000 in 1907. The heavy shipments of 1912 reduced them to 645,000 tons, and in the following year even to about 400,000 tons. In 1914 the output of the mines fully covered the quantities shipped, and at the end of the year were rather higher than a year before. The average cost of this ore deposited at the railway platforms at Tchiaturi is approximately as follows: a. d. per ton.- 4 0 Extraction and dressing ---------------------------------4 do ..--Administration -------------------------------------------3 4 do ..--Transport to station ---------------------------------------Total ----------------------------------------------do..--7 8 The item of transport varies, of course, considerably according to the distance of the mines from the railhead and their facilities and means of transport. To the Pbove cost must be added Is. 4d. per ton for rent to the owner, if the ore-bearing land is held on lease. The values of the ore per ton at Tehiatiri platforms fluctuated between the the following limits during recent years: 1908: 1009: 1910: 1911: 6s. 6s. 6s. 6s. to 9s. 4d. 8d. to 9s. 4d. to 8s. to 7s. 4d. 1912: 6s. to 8s. 8d. 1913: 8s. to 10s. 8d. 1916: January to March, 1s. 8d. to 12s. 8d.; December,'26s. 8d. to 29s. 4d.

The selling price of manganese ore for metallurgical purposes is fixed according to its tenor in metallic manganese, In silica and phosphorus; the latter two elements being detrimental must not exceed a certain:maximum. For instance,



the American steel works made their contracts for Georgian ore before the war at a fixed and progressive price per unit of metallic manganese, and on that the ore should not contain more than 8 per cent of silica, nor more condition than per cent of phosphorus. In case of an excess the following penalties 0.25 were stipulated: For each I per cent in excess of 8 per cent of silica 15 cents (7%d.) per ton were deducted, and for each 0.02 per cent, or fraction thereof, in excess of per cent of phosphorus a deduction of 2 cents (id.) per unit of manganese 0.25 and per ton was made. Ore containing less than 40 per cent of metallic or more than 12 per cent silica, or 0.27 pet cent of phosphorus couldmanganese be refused by the buyers. Analyses to be made on samples dried at 2120 F., and all moisture found in the samples as taken to be deducted from the weight. For ore L'ought f. o. b. Poti the following, or approximate, conditions are usually adopted in British sale contracts: 1. The sellers will sell and undertake to deliver to the buyers who accept tons or 10 per cent more or less of merchantable Caucasian manganese ore of 48 per cent average tenor, to be delivered at the rate of about per month. 2. The price of this ore shall be - kopelkper pood of ore dry weight delivered f. o. b. steamer in Poti in bulk. 3. The ore shall contain 48 per cent. of metallic manganese 2120 F., and any shipment containing less than 46 per cent can when dried at be refused by purchasers, other tenors to be paid for proportionately. The normal silica shall be 10 per cent. with a scale of 3d. per unit and per ton above tenor of and below this tenor, the maximum allowed being 11 per cent. The maximum phosphorus shall be 0.18 per cent. All moisture shall be deducted from tenor of weight. 4. The buyers have to provide the steamers for transport to inform the sellers of the probable arrival of the same at leastof the ore and have The sellers do not guarantee the turn of loading in the port. 15 days in advance. The sellers undertake to load at the rate of ,100 tons per working-day, counting from the day of arrival of the steamer at the quay. 5. Sampling and weighing of the ore have to be effected at the port of discharge by/ the agents of the buyers and the sellers jointly, according to the and the samples have to be analyzed by the respective analysts of usual rules the parties anti at their cost. The average results of the two analyses shall Ie taken as basis for the invoice, except If there is a difference of more than tenors of manganese, in which ease a third analysis shall be made 1 per cent in the by ..... shall be used for the invoice and paid for by the party whose first result which difiered most from the umpire's. 6. The buyers shall pay in cash 80 per cent of the provisional invoice against the bill of lading in Poti, and shall to this effect open a confirmed batik credit with a bank in Poti of a sufficient amount and before the arrival of the steamers at that port. The provisional invoice shall be based upon the weight mentioned in the bill of lading, a supposed tenor of 48 per cent of metallic manganese and 10 per cent moisture. The balance of the shipment according to the invoice has to be settled in cash not later than 14 days front the reception final shipment and by check sent to the ---- Bank for account of the sellers. of the Each shipment is to be deemed and treated as a separate contract. 7. In case of strikes, blockades, breakdown of railway, interdict of shipping port, prohibition of export, quarantines, war, act of God, or any other unforeseen event whatever beyond the control of the sellers making it impossible to ship the ore, the deliveries and shipments shall be suspended until the cessation or removal of these obstacles, or for a period to be fixed, and the be responsible for any damage or otherwise resulting from such sellers shall not causej, 8. The execution of the present contract is by the ------ Bank in London, the sellers guaranteed on behalf of the sellers being responsible for any actual .damage or loss sustained by the buyers through nondelivery of the ore unless it is caused by an event or events mentioned in clause 7. 9. Any dispute concerning the execution or interpretation of the present contract shall be submitted to two arbitrators to be chosen by the parties, in case of their disagreement they will choose an umpire wlose decision and shall be final.

lie-1 Yerm e Mols--

NATIONAL REPUBUC OF OEORECA TAIBzZ XHII.-Typical analyses of cargoes

Mehl2. i Analysts Year
1nalys Ale1ysts



Pe" cePer Cent Per

1910 1910 1910 1910 1910


9.1659.265 Pattlason.

Watson & Gray. 1911 50.A2 & 54 1........

1911 51.24 1911 49. M 1912 49.94 1912 1912 49.98 50.6

Per cen Per cene Per etat 680 9.00 9. 9 9 F. 92 9.30

1910 5026
0.45 50.2

9.82 ........Watson & Gmy. 49.85 10.08 ........Fresenius. Do. 10.13 48.83

1O. 50
.25 1Q &7 7.40 7.34 .95

1912 50.64 1
1912 1913 1913 1913 50.83 4.94 50.30 50.34

1911 49.94 8
1911 51.50 1911 ,o0.O0 1911 50,39 1911 49.31

........ Waton & Gray. 1 .

8.29 , Pattinson. 9.32 Do. .. Watson & Gray. 10.425t Pearson.

9.464 M22-

Do. P1ar2on.

1912 50.37 9.464 ..

10.36 ........ 7.69 . 8.961 ....... 9.99 ....... 10.34 8.36 .. "..

I........ "54

Freseus. Pattlson. Watson & Gray

Do. Do.

Do. Do. Do. Do.

The selling price of the manganese ore depends, as mentioned, on its tenor In metallic manganese, and the quotations are noted per unit or percentage of such metal. For instance, an ore containing 50 per cent of manganese metal at 10d. per unit is worth 41s. 8d. per ton, lems the eventual deductions stipulated in the contract, as outlined above. The following figures give the highest and lowest prices per unit quoted in London in recent years for 50 per cent Indian ore, in pence:
1899: 10 to 12 d. 1900: 12 to 13d. 1901: 9 to 1l d. 1910: 9% to 8%d. 1911: 82 to 10d. 1912: 9 to 13Y d. 1913: 13 to 93jd. 1914: 94 to 11 d. 1915: 16 to 18d. 1916: 30 to 32d. 1917: April, 36d.; July, 38 to 39d; 0o tober, 40d.; December 41 rd. 1918: January, 42d.

1902: 8% to 9d.
1903: 8 to

1904: 7% to 8d. 1905: 9 to 10%d. 1906:13 to 17d. 1907: 17 to 10d. 1908: 9Y2 to 8d. 1909: 9 to 9 d.


Georgian ore, with its somewhat lower tenor of from 47 to 50 per cent, is paid from d .- 2d. less per unit, while the Brazilian ore is still less esteemed. For inistance, in the summer of 1913 Indian ore was quoted lid. to I I %d., Georgian 9d. to 9%d., and Brazilian 6%d. to 7 d. The war, of course, upset all these values, and while, for instance, Brazilian ore cost 9d. per unit c.i.f. U.S.A. in the beginning of 1914, it had to be paid 2s. 4d. per unit in 1915, and up to 4s. in May, 1917. A detailed picture of the Georgian export trade in manganese ore is given by the following Tables Nos. XIV to XVIII.
TABLE XIV.-Exporl.s of manganese ore from Poti and Batum according to British

consular reports

From Poti

From D tum Ton

Total Tons Value




'Pondq 18.......................... ............ 188 ........................... 73 110.133 2887 ........................... 19,519 10t. 701 188 ........................... 3.%.30 1 .,60 lw ......................... . 49.1061 90, 1690 ......................... 12(4 0M 24A .OC 1891 .......................... l0)16195000 1892 ........................... 1250 31,2= 1893 ....................... 12, 692 24. 336 18W ...................... 141,310 2.620 15 ........................... 159,6m3 :19.,272 189........................... 133,36-5 20,730 1897 ........................ 1%04(01 210,002

Pou nd8 Pounds 27.000 10000 27,000 41. 7 ......... 52,000 M000 &L3.750 1C0,133 11.60) 29,000 - 61,119 135.700 7.118 19.7589 4Z 984 100,389 38,730 60 .M 11,492 119,576 33,897 11,299 131,299 273,897 5.222 14,570 &% 238 209,570 7.730 14. 795 13A230 3A6,045 7.10 18. 167 130. fO 263,525 151,301 304,5.59 6, 91 4.324 0702 1013 96 325,974 4.27Z 137, 3 273,779 7,049 . 157 8.501 171,957 218,506 1X.000 18,.702 15.077


NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GWOROGA U autX XIV.-Eports of manganese ore from Poti ad Batm British consular reports-Continued
From Po

acoording fo
Total Tons


From Batum [ Tons 11,7861 106040 5Z.917 Value 19328 is. 6W 79,36

Tons 243


860 22

188 ........................... 26325


1900........................... 373,262 1101 ........................... 23,%3 1W ........................... 37,100 19 ........................... 38, 930 1904........ .............. 425,714 190 ..................... 297,025 M......................... 478,000 1907 .......................... 475,M terW ........................... 3%, 0D 191M ....................... 1910 ............ 1911........................ 1912 ................. 63 .

492, 387 32,963 483, 875 43, 557 527, 141 371,281 9A.5000 9 4A 2 250O .. .. .. ..

440, 0



443,40.......... 34 *............ 4,"8 ....


1913.............. 1915' ......... 1916'



18,000 91,321 59,927 27,395 18,070 1fW6 5%0759 .......... 2,150 ............ 8,160 ............ 374,760............ 238, 8............ 572,238 ............ 43,119 ............ 407,619............ 129,233 ............ 571,693 ............ 277,499 ...........911699 ............ 429,900 ........... 1,079,680 ............ 372,198 ............ 214 ............ 787,
8,750 ............

426.179 77 :101:73 279,963 1 900 597,113 478, 421 i13,238 75,031 440,857 54(5W 43, 100 8,054 31,813 19,927 39108 313,09 ............ 494,506............


1917' . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .

1918' ...................
'6 months.


.. ................... 9,769......... I . .... . ... ,oo........ ---- __------ ........... ............ ' No exports because of closing of the Dardanelles.

3 roll and Batum together.

XV.-Porls of destination of ore shipments and quantities, in tons



41,478 11,540

39,730 14,940

1.Middlesboro....................... 43,241 2. Garston ................................. 1,978

3. Fleetwood .........................


53,1241 28,932 18,051 7,950 3897' 17,639

49,210 9,210


4. Newport ............................... 12,257 11,.32 1,921 20,1'3 7,000 S. Liverpool ..............................75 197 .. . .1,.0 1,200 6. Plymouth .........................................................

7. Mostyn ................................ ,768 ............ 3,050 10. Birkenhead .....................

8. Glasgow ........................................................ 9. hull ...........................

1. ,4

14. Marport ....................... ......-................. ............ 15. London ...................................... 26. Rotterdam ............................. 146. 4 i4 9731 119,0 47 134,541 17. Amsterdam ............................. 2.0,0 .............. 4 .1 18.Antwerp ...............................90! 47,432 I 37,739 71,44, 85,604 19. lamburg.............................. 62,11 10,777 12,390 15,4971 12,788 20. Stettin ......................... .. 714 ........... 3oo 01 200 14,00 2 . Em de ........ n ....... ..... ...... ..... . ..... .. .. -------22. Mars lle................ , , 4,114 23. D~unkirk .. .. .. .. .. .. ...... ... 18610 ....... 6,282 24. Boulogne .................................. ... .......

11. Barrow .............. ... I......... 12. Gibraltar .............. .... ...................................... 13. Manchester ................... .... ...... ............................

24. ul g Ba ..............................

I ... ',' . 8. ............ ............ 28. Bayonne ..................................................... ....... Xiso 29. PautlIac' ... . .. . .. . . . . . . .:.. . . . . . . . . . .. 30. Triese ..................................... 2,200 I... ...... I 9I460'.I2,700 ")70 . . . . . . 3,607
27. St. Nazaire........................................ 31. Fiume

25. are ...............................


91 2---634 '

12,865 24,739

................ ......................... "..... ...... 32. Srsoi............................................ 0 ............ ., 17,645 33. Pola ....................................................... t .......... . 34. Livorno. .......................... . ..................... ......... ............ 33. Fimn ........................................................ ............ 38. Pombio ................................. ............. I I .......... - 4. Nolon ..... ol......................... ............ ............ ... :--3B. Li eo. ................................... . ......... . ............ ................... ............ . ....... 31. N ates ................................. ........ ..... . .. ..... . .. . 3. Syrd n .............................. ............ ....................... 7...... 4 3. olantea ........................... ........... ............ ........... .

ork.................. 45. New ..

44. altimore .............................. 22 , 47,

I ............ I

64,324 424 770

33,62 304.i..

3,141 t 443,370,

3,910 41,443



NATIONAL REPUBLIO OF GEORGIA XV.-Ports of destinationof ore shipments and quantities,in toa-Continued
10 1904 in 19wW

42,352 22,002 11,301 16,6001 1. Middlesboro ......................... 640 10, 20 27,43 12,00 15,80 2. Oerston ............................. 12, " 9WO 9, 2,5W 13,451 32.004 3. Fketwood ............................ 13,100 ......... 5,750 22,997: 4.-Newport ............................... 15.90 9, 919 33,545 10,098 2,478 4,400 , * 6.Liverpool .............................. . ...... ...... ....... ....... .. . Plymouth ................................ 7,480 7. Mostyn ................................ 1 ................................. .................. 8.Glasgow .............. ...................... ........................5.00. .................. 9. ......... 3,50....... 6,50 10. Birkenhead ................................. 9000 ........ It. Barrow ...................................................... 4, 45W 3,200 1. Gibraltar ...................................... .. ............ 3,5 ............ 9,902 .................... ........................ 13. Manchester ..... 13, 31,000 29,167 .......................................... .. 14. Mary port S ............................................. 15. Lendon ....................................... 157, 206,196 212,307 122,279 164,762, 18. Rotterdam ....................... ............................................. 17. Amsterdam ......................... 54. 6,787 4o 33,515 83,21 18. Antwerp ............................... 35, &58 iI, 15,407 14,016 14,614 --....................... 12,572 19. Hamburg ...... 4, 12,450 21,950 20. Stettin ................................. 6,00 ........... 3,010.................................. 21. Emden .......................... . 8, 7.098 9, 3 3 547 13,164 22. Marselle ............................. 2 900. . ODD 2,709 21,715 23.Pankirk ............................... 23, 14,C00 2,600 24. Boulogne ..................................................... ......... ............460....... Ilavre .................................... 25. 9,80 26. Calb ................................. 10,673'. .................. . .. ...... ...... ... ...... ....... . . ..... ire ......... 2 7. S t . N a .a ... 28. Pauillac ............................... 7, 10 70 2, 29. Bayonne .............................. ...... 37,W06 30. Triee ................................. . 6. ........ . ....... 1 ....... .... i- 31. Flum e --------------------------------- - -7 ........ 32. ol.............................. 33. Pola, 10 .................... 84. Leno .................................... !......... Plomblno ........................................... ............ W8. " .. .... ..................... ..... 37. Bologa.......................... 38. Nape 39. yra .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .3323.................. ............................... 40. Consantople 41, Galati .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 42. Philadel 5,3M'-................ 15,750 8,20 ........................ 43. Sydney..:.............. 8,430................ 8,809 5,5 f Baltimore .............................. 44. ........ 3,7491........................ 45. New York ............................. 388, 462 377,771 431,123 301,613 3"4 4*,



78,757 19,206 ,5, 627 22,120 37,069 1. Mildlesboro --------------------------65,410 35,496 64,703 30,225 21,005 2. Oarston ............................... 13,392 9,819 20, 920 1Z720 3. Fleetwood ............................. 9,450 4,870 4. Newport ............................ 4,59.. 9.00 7,458 5. Ll verpool ............................. 3,134 6. Plymouth.................................-- --------29,732 20 W 28,054 .................. ..... 7. 'ostyn ... 3,600 ............ 8. Glasgow ............................... ......... '.. --................................... 9. ull.. 9'52 ............ ... 10. Birkenbead .......................... ....... o..... 11. Barrow ................................. 8,109 ...... ..'... 12. Gibraltar .............................. --------------------18,002 33, 034 1& Manchester .................................................. 23,007 19,301 2 ,95 26,663 14. Maryport ............................. j ..... 273,65,5 4 583 -----------15. L on don ............................... 248, 578 &%4,634 256, 45 . 744 , ............... ........... 18. Rotterdam i 1,3. ............ ............ ........... ...... .... ...... 17. Amsterdam .................... K, 6M4 6,943 18. Antwerp -----------------------------51,389 44,.330 42, 213 28,795 19,892 19. Hamburg ............................. 20. Stettin ........................................................ .......... 21. Emden .......................... 13,978 1 13234 7.013 2,457 22. Marseille ............................ ' '. 27,678. I ........................ ......................... 23. Dunkirk.- ..... 30410 17,060 24. Boulogne ............................. j 2. Havre ................................. ............ ............

...... ...-.

....... ..


... . .. ...... ..........


TABLE, XV.-Porstof destination of ore shipment 1909


and quantities, inIons-Continued

1910 1911 1912 1913

26. ... -.. 27. St. Nazatre............................ . .... ...... X 2........ 31 28. Bayonne .......... . ..................................... 29. Paullac.... ............................ ... 221............ ... 30. rt' 5"..., 7..3 290M 24,728 ..2 .7
31. Flume .............................

32. Servoli ......................

33. rola .......................................................

34. Llvorno ............................. 10........................










12 35. Genoa ................................. 39. Syra ...............................

............ ........ 2.770 .......4,502


814............ ............
............ ............ 23 8 5,238.............

30. Plomblno ................................... 2,400 3,101 .... I 37. Bologna ................................................ ............... 38. Maple .........................................................


40. Constantinople..................................... 43. Phliladelphia .......................... 4,250

.......................:. ............ 41. Slatz .............................. 42. Sydney...................... ............... ............. .......... .. ...... ... 44. Baltimore............................ 12,100
45. New York ...... T__

18, 06


.000 6




of destinai639,1IM




XV!.-Countries of destination of ore shipments and quantities, in tons


Great Britain

124,975 148,706 119,350 153,976 134,581 164.762 122,279 212307 206,102 157,051

Germany I France ;
14,32 10,777 15,690 26.697 20.288 37,532 21,214 14,016 27,857 15.597 19.892 28o795 42, 213 44, 329 51.389 398,811 South Russia
42,579 I 38.110 44.974 69, -I0' 48,.59 75,333 44,620 67,198 63,04 9.653

132,430 7,900 199..........:............................ 47,422 116.831 1900 ....................................... 77,992 37, 729 1901 ........... oo...o............ 133,11 1 71,409 1902o...................................... 85, 04 113.121 * 19 .................................. 83,622 99,331 190 ............... ............. 71,232 35, 3. 1105............. ............... 125.423 I 33,515 190................ ................ 6,788 171,597 1907 ................................... S 64,933 111,714 1908 ......... .................... I 142,339 65, 943 1909 ....................................... 83,65 137,844 1910 ....................................... 124,023 &S, 198 1911 ....................................... 198, 914 190,701 1912 ....................................... 180,050 243,405 1913.................................


26655 248,578 273,655 354,634

7.086 18.610 10.,39 37,423 4, 344 44.685 13.944 17,401 24.59 29,690 19. 517 88.024 41.394 41.651 54,324 446,134 Grand total 409,085
349, 172 502,870 483, 107 35,727 348.233 498 321 540.817



United States

Other Total countries j-aroad

3,506 79,790 ............ 75,824 1900 ............ .................. 6,600 421,770 1901 ....................................... 9,460 33,582 304,198 13,807 443,370 1902 .......... .................... 6.797 1903............................... 22,99 434,448 5,535 1904 ............................ 12,613 480,394 17. 889 1905 ............................ 12,983 I 301,613 13, 730 1906 .......... ............. .... 14,681 431,123 1907.................................... 40,831 477.771 18,577 38, 462 1W8 ............................ 1 ........ oo........................... 28,650 59,185 o 1910 .......................................37,050 609,347 22,325 1911 .......................................43,907 15,837 581,150 1912 ....................................... 94,913 39.4W 88.3.655 1913 ...................................... 3,335 135,635 1,051,772



29938 23,883 16, 8

65,947 639.285 900. 6"4 1,081,731


9.959 601,093

I38, 5201



8, 29%85

It must be pointed ( t that all the manganese ore shipped to Holland is destined for Germany.



Great Britin ............................. a

u' ."..."................




I s















Gret B

x.r ";""..":''"".'G."





208, 73



o0o5 601,,89

282,311 I


193, 120,000 023 ,5


.................................... Gast (Ura ).............................

7. 000 180, 000 24,


150000 78,332

139,764 | 127,015 150,000 |147000 44,0 20




AMISria......................2, ta................ i Germany .................................. United state ............................. A ................................... eu--.............................

Orast Br

ON 334,133 181,054 16, 10, 000 , '.12 In.too

344,170 I330,690

44,970 384,445 1,10 ,14 176,610

44,,251 4,870 24,226 1822 04,033

482,209 [538,915

02,082 7,790 387,733 420,709 53^3125 200, o 300o601 9 63 i 4,48 249,2t 395,63O

Rusa (Ur27a) .......................... It .......................................... iy T___________ l__.__ Wo__d

76,26 482937I 23,821 3,915 209...5 7,No of0 226 1,502,433

3 1,8

T~~~iu XVII1,rl ~ ~

co2up4o of2nans 8105




1I98 154,346 Oret Britain ............................


1900 267.105 262.436 321,(20 191.020 149,7S2 30.283 6.014 2,6M0 126 946 1, 354,&. 5C(

1001 193,300 277,874 2%,847 131,510 116, 69 24,406 2,181 2,276 !15,031 1,161,094 1906

1002 234,611 21.33 390,568 174,440 ,8,165 22,405 2,477 2, 850 119,245 1, 30,09 19,07 52 733 1, 461,620 457, 58 120,120 305,482 83,258 3,65%4 362 240,050 2,10q6,676

2-8, 91? 28. 1%4 ................ 173, W54 Germsny ........ 232,701 1, ............................. 10 United states 162,120) 140,41 Belgium................ 132,178 146,527 ralce ................ ........... 21,504 24, Austria ................................. 83 4,356 3.002 taly................................. 2,622 2,358 90,A4~ 139,591 . , 1903 1, 2 26,7 1

1 0I.1.

Z;2. ...... ........................ (,A2 Great Britain

10,,50V4 Oeman................................... Oclelg S ................................ 253,335 .............................. United 10',000 1.m ........ ................ Une Z3,027 AustrLa............................... 1,6630 Italy ........................... 2.244 Swei .............................
RnUsst....oo.......................... o

21:, 01 02, 3(9 208,459 156,100 W'80,000 30,(00 436 22 IM Z -188,12 1,111,060 .

2.3, 174 n"09, &,8 357,033 165,0(00 146,018 35,50 5,339 2 0 1 02 !, ,4% 9

1, 084, M

3C,1,549 3S1olOS 391, 31 162,000 135, 0O 35,734 3,000 2, 148,43 1,031,537



383,902 40391 870,000

TAwLx XVIII.-World mownmpt"os of waganeeo ore, hk ton--Continued

Oreat Britain ..............................

M33502 4565,99 381,160 185.040 0 67,910
4,712 5,212 29,890 82,88

487,678 5,1919 396,226

1912 391.908


United 8tates ..............................

France .....................................

................................... luu

30 478 2042 I, 298


Italy ....................................... Swedw .................................... Russia .....................................


18.369 52,576
2,750 4.616 143,578

197.570 79.380
8,115 2,771 133,60



49, 661 231,2 78 615

242,496 97.756

359,430 261 1,120 17%367

10.725 4,448 20k 729


,m27.830 330 1,VA




Of the various countries producing manganese ore only India and Brazil have to be considered as serious competitors with Georgia for the world's supply of this ore. Chile which in the beginning of the Georgian trade ran it rather closely fell out of it altogether In the first years of this century, principally on account of the very onerous sea freights; and, besides, the exports from thacountry never reached 50,000 tons in their best years. Brazil is a more serious competitor. Its principal manganese mining fields are situated in the Provinc- of Minas Geraes, in the districts of Miguel Burnier and Queluz, about 300 miles northwest of Rio de Janeiro, which is the shipping port for all the ore from this region. The ore is usually pyrolusite, also manganite of good quality, containing an average of from 48 to 52 per cent of manganese metal, 3 per cent iron, 1 per cent silica, and very little phosphorus-in many cases only from 0.03 to 0.09 per cent; but its drawback is its great hardness, which makes it difficult to fuse and accounts for its usually lower value than the Georgian and Indian products. The district of Queluz contains the Morro de Mina deposit, which is estimated to contain an ore reserve of 10,000,000 tons and produced 200,000 tons in 1915. It is worked by Brazilian owners, while other mines belong to ielgian and other companies. The arrangements for the export of the ore are fairly satisfactory, and the trade is generally prosperous. In 1914 the mining costs amounted to 2s. 041. per ton, railway freight to Rio and export duty to 6s., sea freight from Rio to United States of America to 20s., making total cost of about 28s. 6d. per ton e. i. f. United States of Amer-ca. The American steel works are now the largest buyers of this ore; in 1914, 40 per cent of their imports came from this source, and in 1915 even 90 per cent despite the difficulties of freight. During the first 11 months of 1910 the total imports of the United States amounted to 526,525 tons, about 95 per cent of which came from Brazil. The country contains yet other deposits of manganese ore in the Provinces of Bahia and Matto Grosso. One of them is in exploitation in the former district and cost of mining, transport, export duty, and loading on steamers in the port of Bahia amount there to 11s. 3d. per ton. But probably the largest deposit in the world known at present occurs in Matto Grosso, near Corumba. It has the shape of a steep mountain, consisting of iron ore interstratified by several enormous horizontal manganese veins of pure quality and sufficient for the world's .requirements for several centuries. But the place is difficult of access, and so far from the sea or a railway that this occurrence will not have any influence on the world's trade as long as other deposits can give any supply. The most serious competition against which the Georgian ore has to contend comes from India. The good quality of its ores, combined with cheap labor and railway freights, have often brought the markets rrice down to a level which proved ruinous to the Georgian producers, and during the years 1910 and 1911 the Indian production even exceeded that of the Georgian mines, which formerly had always kept the first place. The mining of Indian manganese began in 1892 near Vizagapatam, in theMadras Presidency; but in 1900 the central Provinces also started exploitations and now supply the bulk of the exports. The greater part of the ore found is not



pyroluuite as In Geor but pallomelane -andbraunite--lt Is hard and compact, easily broken, but without forming dust, which Is an advantage in the handling and transport. The ore is mostly extracted by open-out methods with coolie labor, but later co boubt, deep mining will have to be resorted to. The deposits are scattered qver wide areas and their depths have not yet been ascertained, so that no estimate on be formed of the scaliable ore; but the reserves are not inexhaustible. At present larpe quantitiee of ore are lost and thrown upon the dumps because proper concentration plants do not.exist and it does not pay to ship the low-grade ore. ' The cost of mining varies between ?a. 9d. and Bs. Od. per ton; the railway charges to Vizagapatam (55 miles) are about 2s. per ton; to Bombay (500 miles) f. 6d. per ton, and to Calcutta (700 miles) 13s. per ton. The sea freight from India to Europe and the United States of America varies In normal times between I&e. and 18s. per ton, or about s. more than from the Black Sea; but as the railway charges are low, although the distances are four or six times longer than in the Caucasus, the cost price compares favorably with the Georgian and Brazilian ores. Besides, as the assays usually give higher averages of metal, the basis prices for Indian ore have in recent years always been about Id. or 2d. higher per unit than' those for ore from other sources. Nevertheless, the shipments generally tend to show an increasing percentage of phosphorus, which now averages 0.15 and even more per cent, as the high-grade ores, which were exclusively worked in the beginning are becoming scarce, and the preferential price may therefore in time disappear. A typical complete analysis of a sample of Indian ore gave the following results (by Pattinseon & Stead): Per cent Dried at 2120 F.: Peroxide of manganese ---------------------------------------66. 357 Protoxide of manganese --------------------------------11. 786 Peroxide of iron -----------------.-------------------------2.928 Alumina --------------------------------------------------2. 847 Lime --------------------------------------------------. 975 Magnesia ------------------------------------.036 Silica ----------------------------------------------------8. 100 Potash -----------------------------------------------------. 770 Soda -------------------------------------------------------. 610 Baryta ----------------------------------------------------1. 564 Sulphuric acid ----------------------------------------------. 021 Phosphoric acid --------------------------------------------. 375 Oxide of zinc ----------------------------------------------Trace. Oxide of copper ---------------------------------------------Trace. Oxide of nickel and cobalt ------------------------------------Trace. Oxide of lead ----------------------------------------------Nil. Arsenic ----------------------------------------------------. 010 Carbonic acid ------------------------------------------------. 900 Combined water -------------------------------------------2. 675 99. 954 Corresponding with: Manganese metal -------------------------------------------51. 08 Iron metal ..... . . . ..---------------------------------------2. 05 Phosphorus.... . . . ..-----------------------------------------. 164 Moisture ---------------------------------------------------. .35 In order to show the relative position of the three principal producing countries and of the other smaller producers we add Tables XIX to XXIV, which explain themselves. They show, at the same time, that the Georgian manganese industry has kept Its own in spite of the rapacious treatment it had to suffer from the former Russian Government. But if it had been under an orderly administration as the Indian industry enjoys its development would undoubtedly have been much more rapid and rational. Unfortunately, in this as in many other industries the old Russian regime was a great hindrance.




XIX.-Comparaive table of production of the three principal producing countries (in tons)


India 86964 127,814 171,804 150297 237, 767 898 332 674,315
162,087 144,007




India 642,075 800,907 672,762 423,464 674,315 815,047 82, 898

Brazil 4,3 254,177 173.941 154,88 122, 00 188,330 288, 71 ma, 130

1899........... 651.024 1900................ 389,428 1901 ................ 418,147 102................ 370, 10 ................S 1904........... 326,714 336,71? 1low.......... SOD, 106 ................ 193 107 ............... 858597 112,875 1908...........

.o.. .......

190 ........... 88.817 1910 ............ 545.242 105,710 1911 ............ 461.855 163.000 1912................ W89, 758 1913................ 1651,319 1914 ................ W54,645 28308 652.354 233.960 1915' ............... 201,500 19161 .............. 7,000 236,778 19171 .......... 201,380 18 509 1918'.......... 150,000

i Sharp decrease In production is due to closing of Dardanelles and stoppage of exports. TABLE XX.-'--Comparative table of exports of the three principalproducingcountries

(in tons)



India 92,000 130,654 133.170 144,037 171,804 154.,%0 282,334 310,446 641,692

Brazil 74,238 93,127 105,710 157,295 161,926 20 224,337 201,50 271,375





1899............. 1 404,410 1900 ............. 462,877 1901 ............. 349,170 1902 ............ .,869 1903 ............. 1904 .............. . ,727t 483,107 105................ 340,233 190 ................ 498,32 1907 ................ 540,817 I Estimated.

1908................ 39A115 509,246 182,50 )VM .... 5........... 467,274 MS.947 240,774 1910................ 639,285 687,327 2.52,.M4 1911 ................ 605,013 553.623 I173941 1912 ................ 1913 ........... :....1,061,731 0,. W 621,826 772,366 122,000 154.870 1914............ .787,214 .......... 183,630 1915................ 9,750 418,7331 26&671 1916 ................ 9,769. 580,328 '350,00

TABLE XXI.-Participaionof Georgia and Ukraine in the world's production of

manganese ore (in percentages)

Consumin$ coun Non Celltries



Ukra no



UkGeor- * raine gia

Contries 14.13 1 12.72 1 1&72 12.93 13.45 15.92 R&541

NonconCO ifl. tries 40.14 60.46 61.17 51.82 61.74 47.52 36.39

1M .........

30.13 1899...... 42.23 190 ........... 44.33 1901 ............. 80.25 1902 ............. 31.53 1903 ........... 33.39 1904 ........... 29.34 1905 .......... .25.14

7.48 .05 5.74 4.52 3.33 5.65 11.46


21.91 41.03 13.58 1 34.75 13M 36.02 20.02 43.99 21. 40 4155 1. 37 441.91 18.15 46.86 16.85 46.54

1906 ............. 38.21 7.52 1907 ............. 20.06 10.76 1908.......... 7.62 12.49 1909........... 31.56 3,69 1910 ............. 26.42 8 39 1911 .............29 S13.28 2 12.27 1912 ............. 31.79




TAzz XXlI.-World prodution of manganee ore (in tons)

188 188




omqat Bitain..............................
UW~ted State2 .............................. mny .................................. 51 A6



&% 38 6....7

131,127 61,448

1,4 , 7M
154, 99"7 49,812

e .....".". """......... .............. .... ""1 4

'taoy a* e l7en . 21,486 3,002 4.3M 14&OM 84,350 9,906 Aow4

18,776 4,388 2,62 138419 272 11,447

22949 8, 484 2,68 131, 20 2 1,028 1F 08,4

18,438 2181 271 112,879 1162,07 1,216 A15, 1

1% 6
21.408 2,477 88 46089 144,087 1400 0

Ini ................................. J a p a n Brazi .................................... .....................................

loft ...................................... r u. Cuba Ch ...................................... il.............

cub Colombia .................................. ' eountrfes ...........................

64,8-5 27,441 ............. 20,837

11,176 8,20

41 $7 1Z 74,238 I 001 40.,930 8000 10,160 8,306 I

12o14 I0M244 2,621 25,713

20, 582 8,610

12,57 1M710 " 7 l 31,477

28,183 700 2,3451



183000 3~ o 3,0 2 39,522 1,000


Go rgia .......................... ................................... .

6643 84418 K 4 23

72K,802 781,8381 65 10

782,413 418,147 59,747

Total ...............................
__ _ _ _ _ _

876,92 1,30068641 146k 512 1,221,3231 1808 1904


1,260 307
189,267 74,683 i8, 200

0sM 1906
100,000 I

Oral ta,.............................. 7M n 813 8, United States . ...................... IM,279 100,000

oermany................................. Belgium
Austria frtace ................................. I 4794 2320 .............................


16,0 10,000 1,930

51,43 15,000

14.474 170,621 212 A

52,495 11,180 21,053

2,100 3,684


6,o100 2.8W


Sweden .................................... 2,244 Spain ...................................... 26299 rtee .................................... ortet .................................. Turkey .... ......................... 49,100 India .............................. 171,804 Japan. .......................... 18,300 Brazil .............................. 163,319







2,297 2,580 Z ,680, 18,732 26,020 62,822 1,8,51 ............ &000 10340 , 000 6,80 / 10,40 50,000 28,600 30,00, 150,297 253,896, 49,729 18,000 15,000 1 11,000 208,260 233,9M01 201 ,00

5, 384

23,756 334 41,04

Cuba ............................ Colombia ..................

........... 1
13,997 . . .

11,140 14,000 88,333 10,410 "2A 778 .,1i


Other countries ........................ 20,000 702.282

.. 21,070 . ............

32,28 10,000 2 723.842

24,000 J 10,00 I.

no55,196 so

Georgia....................................440,857 326,714 Ukraine ......................... ........ 37,400 . 62,792

848,841 1,163,293 , 336,717 809,193

153,524 169,327


................................1,113,38 I1,8O, 53

1, , 082



Great Britain ............................... United States.............................. 156,242 Germany ............................ 67,241 812 5%467 4,967 100000 150,000 I 170,000 76,741 80,325 87,297 9,375 7,925 8,000 6,270 ,000 4,000 23,737 19,694 19,.54 4,700 4,2001 3,315 5,212 5,752 5,377 14,500 8,607 33,266 5,374.......................


France ................................... ,1800 Belgium ............................. , 7,130 Austria ....................................'. 23, Italy ................................ 2,750 Sweden. ............................. 4,616 Spain ...................................... 16,945 I Portugal ........................ 802 ............................... (Crecce arkey........................ 2........ 14,349 I India. ............................. 674,315 Japan ............................... 4,348 Brai.. ............................... 12,509 Cuba 1492 Other countries........................ 1,400 1, 16R,2-3 Georgi ..................................... 112,177 Ukraine ................................... 184,117

198,000 92,474 10,000 3.000 17,067 2,641 5,100 29,761 10,000

4, 170

7.700 ii'01 ...... ....

642,675 6p ,660 210.774 2,976 . 610 1,150,016 558,806 6S 341 800,907 5,496 254,177 1.. 0 673,762 ,000 173,941

P" iSS'

423,464 8,632 151,70 .... i6,664 15000 20,0 994,779 56 79,753 237,978

1,3G0,750 1 1,205,906W 545,241 461,.4 173,195 3 3,057

Total........................1,494,547 1,774,2631

079,1861 1,908171



tries (in percentages) Average of
10 years 1903-1912


TABLE XXll.-Comparative table of production of mangarse ore hy various coun-

During the
year 1912 0.24 11.041 6.161 &18 .55 .17 .95 .15 .281 1.6 .56 .261

Average of 10 years, 1UX-1912 Turkey............... India................. Japan ................ Brazil ................ Chile ................. Cuba ................ Colombia ............. OtJher countries ....... Oeorge ............... 27.491 9.14 Ukraine ..............

During the year 1912

-Great Britain. United Satea.. Germany ......... France ............... Belgium .............. Austria .............. Italy ................. -weden .......... Spain ................. Portugal ............. 4]reece ................

0.53 8.35 3.96 .65 *42 1.25 .20 .231 1.61 421 .39

1.22 0 30L.01 .67 .48 11.98 &64 .18 .......... oooo. .77 ............ :12 .62 1.71. 0 X 63 13.28! 6

TABLE XXIV.-World exports of manganese ore (in tons)

FromFrance .................................... Germany ............................... 12,2"29 i 4,809 12.289 7,;2 ! 0 1901 5.647 5, 53 2, !..

..... .... .


1902 1,948 4.528

Sweden ................................. Austria .....................................

Italy .............................................................. 2.470 Spain and Portugal ........................ 139, M4 140,816 110,716) Oree and Turkey ........................ 4,420 65,129 58,500 , 130,670 Indi...................................... 878 5225 Japan ..................................... 12,599 9 95 9,320 2,715 Chile .................................. 29.,51 40, W 93,127 Brazil ..................................... 27,441 74,238 20,582 Cuba_............................. ............ 1,0 700 Colombia............................... 11, 176 1 10.,160 8 ,220 1 6,300 Oiber countries ......................... 22,169 Total ......................... Georgia .................................. U'kraine .................................... Grand total ......................... 375.457 233.359 .4(6 614,284 477.869 361,830 20,107 M59,8W6

3,0 I . 1,967

8.392 2,721


52,26 5 133,170 8,811 31,477 105,710 23, 1 R 1400 2P, 783


. ~ *ii0& 67,720 14,037 2.625 2.000 157,295 39,522 12,038 20.000 443,370






549,2.'0 818



10 4 5.000 5,53m 2,400 5,000 . 18,732 59,000 154,880 1 3,109 4 04 , 5 A 2601 0 21,074 10,0001 5,000 5M,438 480,394 17,170 982,000

1905 M 5,000 4,116 .

1 3,635 2,510

1907 5.166 3,490 1,440 ,2

France .................................. 5.000' Germany .................................. 1,138 Swedene.................................. ...... ' Austria ...... . ......... ... . 878
Italy ..............................

. .....

Spain and Portugal ...................... Greece and Turkey ....................... India ...................................... 1 Japan ..................................... Chile ...................................... Braill.................................. Cuba ................................... :
Colombia .........................


Other countries ............................ Total ................................ coria............................... kraine ............................. Grand total........................


5,540 .5 440 171,80 i 3,258 10,000 161M 92 21,070 ,000

2,400 .

35,400 40:040 i 282,334 310,446 3,00 8,411 2.000. ............ 201,500 224337' 13,907 24,000 10,000 ...-----5,000, 15 639,104 301,613 8,042 , 431,123 68070

1, 193 641,692 65,00 271,375 35,123 15,882 1,68,131 377,769 87,949 ,63

523,354 434,448 12,760 970,562

948,75I 1,181,408 i


.N/ATIONAL REPUBLIC "OF GEORGIA XXIV.-World exports of manganese ore (intons)-Oontinued

1908 940 2,332 109 1, 149 4,487 1910 722 4,278 1911 900 9,815 1912 2,270' 7,117

Sweden ................................................. Austria...................................... 787 Italy:* Rerand PortugaL ....................... 25,447 14,737 . Greece and Turkey........................ 7,600 7.700 India ...................................... 507, 633 467,274 Japan..................................... 4,348 60

F..ance. . ermany.............................

285 ,321 12,200 587,327 5,49

28229 8 155 33,26 3,207


Chile ...................................... ' .... I ....i ii N


3,980 534 2,400 3A, 34 , 600 821,898 882 ia4'87O

Brazil .............................. 2 247 Cuba ............. Colombia ..................................................................... Other countries ........................ 10000.............1,000 Total ................................ 743,58 740,808 388, 463~ 539,1841 .............................. U a njeorgia .................................. 62,413 50,192 Grand total ......................... 1,179,463 1,345,165

796,229 8,4 48,190 1,425,668

870,763 8,5 76,52 1,830,938

6W,348t 89,472 1,50 53



Eighty per cent of the mines in the Tehiaturi district are owned by a large number of Georgians who, in the beginning of the industry, began to exploit them without having sufficient knowledge of rational mining and without regard to any loss of the apparently inexhaustible ore. As each owner worked for himself difficulties soon arose, specially with regard to the transport of the ore in the narrow and steep valleys, and some kind of organization became necessary. The Association of Manganese Producers and Dealers was therefore formed, under the guidance of the Government, and comprising all the producers extracting at least 1,600 tons of ore, and all dealers exporting a minimum of 5,000 tons per year. It elected a council which convoked meetings of the members from time to time, as required, at Kutais. The task of the conneil is to organize and supervise the following matter: 1. The transport facilities by road or mechanical means. 2. The hospital and ambulance provided for the workmen. 3. The insurance of the workmen against accidents. 4. The installation of electric light in the mines and neighboring villages. 5. The installation of the telephone between Tchiaturi and Kutais, Poti, and Batum, Several schools and the water supply in some villages were later added to this list. To defray the expenses of these services the council had neen authorized by the Government to levy a tax of is. per ton on all ore sent from Tchiaturi by rail. This tax was in 1913 increased to a maximum allowed of 2s. 8d. per ton, but the association decided to collect only is. 8d. per ton from January 1, 1914. The voting conditions at the annual meetings, at which the managing council had to be elected, were formerly such as to give the small producers and dealers an overwhelming majority, and they used it elect councils in sympathy with their to views and willing to spend the proceeds of the tax for the purpose of assistIng them to compete with the large producers. As some of the latter had installed mechanical means for transporting. their ore from the mines to the railway, the smaller men wanted to have similar facilities provided for themselves at the expense of the whole association. A demand was thus voted in 1910 that the council should spend 1,000,000 roubles for this purpose, and also for housing workmen, etc. The necessary authorization was obtained from the government to construct, in the first instance, an aerial railway to Metchkevi, one of the more remote mines, but its execution met with such difficulties concerning rights of way, etc., and became finally so expensive, that the transport of ore by its means cost more than by the old bullock carts. As this experiment had given such unsatisfactory results, it was then thought advisable that the government should, in future, give these additional facilities. In 1913 the association was also granted the right to contract loans, and new rules were established concerning the voting power of the different categories of members. Although the small producers were doomed to disappear In the course of time, as larger capital iswanted for deep mining and the preparation of the




Inferior ores, they are still numerous, and to counterbalance their number additional votes were given according to the output and export of the members for the possession of a washing p!ant, etc., so that a large producer can now have a maximum of seven votes, and smaller ones proportionately less. In this manner the principal firms expect to be in a better position to get their own proposals voted at tho meetings, and to avoid useless expenditures. The association did not hold its annual meeting in 1914, but it levied the tax of is. 8d. per ton agreed upon the previous year. Of this amount 4d. per ton was returned to those exporters who had concluded forward contracts for 1914 before the increased tax came into force, but this was only done during the first four months of the year. The number of the members of the association is 450, of whom 420 are Georgians and 30 foreigners. The president Bakradze. is Mr. G. Jouruli, the vice president S. Tseretheli, the secretary J.of the council The association has also a representative in of the council extend in many directions. It has constructed 23 The activities London, Mr. W. Tcherkesichvili. macadamized roads of a total length of 35 miles, and also five bridges; it installed water works supplyingstation with gallons of water, and a large public attendingthe workmen, an electric 11,000,000 36,600 kilowatt-hours, a hospital bath for to 0,137 out-patients during the year. It also keeps three schools for an average of 600 pupils, and spends 22,000 roubles per year for scholarships. A theater for workmen entertains somo 10,000 visitors per annum. The outbreak of the war and consequent absence of income stopped the further activities of the council, and expenditure was cut down to the unavoidable public services. But, as the above enumeration shows, the association has done very useful work for the manganese industry. PARTICIPATION OF FOREIGN

The Georgian manganese industry was principally financed by the foreign importers of ore, in the beginning specially British, German, and French. The mine owners, being mostly small peasan~ts, did not possess the necessary capital for paying the labor, railway and shipping expenses, and advances had, therefore, to be mnade to them. This was done by transferring money to Caucasian banks, or toalso theat Batum, Poti, or Tiflis, who had to pay for the ore as it was produced and agents charges. Some 80 or 00 per cent of the estimated value of the shipments was thus paid before their real weight and tenor could be ascertained. This system gave rise to many stood between the losses, chiefly because in many cses Greek iltermeliaries (disappoilttlents andproducer and the foreign In exporter, and did not fulfill their many importers,prices went against them. own order to exert a closer control contracts when therefore, opened their branch offices in the Caucasus. From thi position there was only one step to the lnsand hi fact extensive areas aetu'l purchase of mines and manganesebear bought, specially in 1910 and 1911, by various of unworked manganeseertase foreign firms, mostly Germans. An American syndicate also took options on many such properties, but after examination by its engineers gave them up again because they found them insufficient for the large scheme they had in view, and because the best lands were not for sale. The chief companies operating in Tehiaturi before the war were the Sehalker Gruben & Huettenverein of Geisenkirchen, which consumes its own ore, Forwood and the Soci~t6 Industrielle et tons of highBros. (English), Panassie (French), has a plant producing 100,000 Commerciale of Antwerp. The last-named firm grade washedand independent producers sell their ore, as before, to brokers, who The small ore per year. stock it at the railway platforms and sell it to the smaller consumers. When the war broke out the Russian Government sequestrated the properties belonging to the two German companies and tried to sell them by auction. Many banking interests were anxious to secure them, and were supported by the notorious Rasputin; but the attempt was frustrated by the interference of the Georgian nobility and the Association of Producers, who demanded that the properties shouldbe sold to them as being on their national territory. the matter dragged on until the revolution, when the properties were finally secured by wealthy Georgian petroleum magnates. The following table gives some details onthe number of export firms and their relative importance.



TABLZ XXV.-Number of export firms

tColumn A, establised InTeblatur; coumun B, ettblsbed in Poll and Batum; column U, nC.mber of

to firms of Poll and Batum exporting more than 16,000 tons per year; column D, prcentap of the shipments of the large Arms compared with The total exports]

19 00...... 25 1901 ............. 21 19W2............. 21 9............. 20 104.............21 1908 ------------29
19e ............. 28

17 25 25 27 2

C 11

8 9 9 9


29~ 25
i 21 1V 20 17 17

7 1 11

Per ent 588 190 .....7


88 190i ........ 8 791i909------------39 79 1910...........3-3M 33 7911911............. 77 1912 ............. 2 90

'Per cn 81 41 83

85 90 97



in the metallurgy of iron and steel, where manganese is looked upon as the principally with iron and some other elements. Such iron alloys containing up to 25 per cent of manganese are called Spiegeleisen, and those with more than 25 per cent are called ferromanganese. The
latter is now generally marketed with a tenor of about 80 per cent of manganese and is made by various processes, mostly in the blast furnace. It is added to the steel at the conclusion of the process just before casting. Its effects are: 1. The reduction of the small quantity of iron oxide remaining in the molten trusted remedy for improving the products of inferior iron ores. Pf About half of the manganese ore consumed in this industry is fed directly into the furnace, while the other *alf is used in the metallic state as an alloy,

More than 90 per cent of all the manganese ores produced in the world are used


2. The addition of the manganese needed in the finished steel, usually about

10.5 per cent. 3. It minimizes the formation of blowholes, neutralizes the sulphur contents,
aed produces a fluid slag. Somewhat similar effects are produced by the addition of silico-manganese, which contains from 25-30 per cent of manganese and 75-70 per cent of silicium and also acts as a disoxydizer. Silico-spiegel contains iron in addition. The usual quantity of ferronanganese added to ordinary steel is from 17 to 20 pounds per ton of steel produced, or a correspondingly higher percentage of spiegeleisen. according to its tenor in manganese. i For manganese-steel castings 312 pounds of ferromanganem of 80 per cent tenor are wanted to each ton of steel. The product then contains 124 per cent of manganese and has extraordinary properties of hardness and tensile strength. These alloys are being manufactured specially in the United Kingdom and in Germany in the blast furnace, while France makes them in the electric furnace, using the water power of the Alps. In America the United States Steel Corporation was the only regular producer until 1915, when int consequence of the diminution of the Imports five or six other companies started the manufacture, two of them by electric furnaces, the others in the older manner. Before the war the United States imported more than half of their consumption. Their imports for the last few years and the highest and lo'cst prices of ferromanganese delivered at the eastern ports were as follows:
Fmrrsrnanganese Spiegelcisen Pri -s per ton

TO=s 1912.................................................... 123,373

1913 ..................................................... 2.081 119.495 1

1914 .................................................... 100883 1915 ................................................... 14.542 1916 .................................................... 208.389

Tons 119, W6

Dollars 41-65

100,365 36-100 93.282 68-110 197,5181 *..............


In February, 1917, the price of ferromanganese in the United States of America was from $16"4 to $175, and that of spiegel from $60 to $65. In April and May, 1917, the ferromanganese rose to $325 and even $450, while in February, 1918, it stood again at $251).



In the United Kingdom the official piea was fixed at 25 per ton in 191817 for home consumption and at 35 to 45 for export. The high prices and increasing demand for ferromanganese have for many years attracted the attention of the Georgian manganese producers and others interested in the business and impressed upon them the desirability of manufacturing these products near the mines. The advantages of such a course were evident, as it would save half the freight and give higher profits than the mining business. A French group of financiers studied the matter first, but as they intended to work by the blast furnace they found themselves arrested by the difficulty of finding the necessary furnace coke in the neighborhood of the mines. The coal of the Kvibuli collieries, situated at a distance of about 40 miles, gives a very friable coke which easily falls into powder ald is therefore quite unsuitable for blast furnace practice. 'For this reason the matter was dropped. In 1902 another project was brought forward by Mr. Gustave Gin, engineer, of Paris. He proposal to use the electric furnace instead of the blast furnace, and by this mcans eliminated the principal obstacle for which the former project had failed. The fact is that in the electric furnace most of the heat is supplied by the current, so that the coke is only necessary for the reduction of the ores. This reduces the requirements in coke to less than a quarter of the quantity necessary in the blast furnace, which latter amount, to about three tons of coke perton of ferromanganese. Also, in the absence of any blast in the electric furnace the pulverulent nature of the Kvibuli coke is without consequence. The advantages of this plan were, therefore, according to Mr. Gin, to place his factory in the immediate neighborhood of the mines and to use the force of the Kvirila River for the generation of tie necessary current. Exact calculations of the available power were not made at the time, but the necessary 15,000 horsepower can at all seasons be obtained from the river and its tributaries as they drain a large mountainous area, having a high rainfall and considerable snow in winter. AMr. Gin proposed to use his own patented method for the reduction of the ore, which consists in smelting it with sea salt and iron pyrites, and the necessary coke and coal. The salt and the sulphur of the pyrites form together sodium sulphide, which dissolves the manganese ore at a comparatively low temperature, and the metal in the solution is then reduced in the presence of the carbon. The gaseous products of the reaction are sulphurous acid, which is oxidized to sulphuric acid in the usual manner and as such used again for converting the caustic soda produced into sodium sulphide ready for the next operation. As there is, however, a mall loss of sulphur, some iron pyrites are added to replace it. Hydrochloric acid is also produced by the decomposition of the sea salt. Therefore the production of I ton of ferromanganese of 80-83 per cent tenor in manganese requires 2,000 kilos manganese ore, 50 per cent; 450 kilos sea salt, 60 kilos iron pyrites, 700 kilos coke, maximum; 500 kilos coal for heating. The products will then be 1,000 kilos ferromanganese; 100 kilos silicospiegel; 225 kilos caustic soda; 500 kilos hydrochloric acid 220 B. The electric current required for obtaining these products would be 6,440 kilowatt-hours. Mr. Gin's project, of which the above is a bare outline, then went fully into all the details of an installation producing 10,000 tons of ferromanganese per year, including the hydraulic power plant, electric installation buildings, land, etc., which is estimated at a total cost of 155,300. The ton of ferromanganese was calculated to cost 5 8a., while the usual cost of production in the blast furnace is between 7 and 8. Including the value of the by-products, the yearly profit on a production of 10,000 tons was thus calculated at 80,000, while the enterprise would require a total capital of 280,000. Although this project was not executed, it is clear that sooner or later the manufacture of the metal will be undertaken in the vicinity of the ore deposits, as the necessary power exists on the spot, and the question of fuel can, no doubt, also be satisfactorily organized. In fact, the Government itself is reported to have also considered the question in 1910, but it is to be hoped that private initiative will take the matter in hand. Whether the process of Mr. Gin be adopted, as outlined above, or the electric furnaces of Beroult Girod, or others, as used in the Alps, the profits are always considerable and the works prosperous. The establishments using the blast furnace are also in a favorable position. For producing I ton of ferromanganese they use about 1.9 tons of ore, 2.6 tons of coke, and 1 ton of limestone, and the smelting charges do not usually exceed 2.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA pay to export can be used by a smelter in the vicinity, thus avoiding great loss and the difficulties caused by the washing plants established on the Kvila. Finally, ferromanganese made in Russia is at present protected by an import duty of 5 10s. per ton.

It Is also to be considered that much of the interior ore which it does not

In the foregoing pages we have tried to present as concise a picture as possible of the Georgian manganese industry, vastly supported with statistical material for reference purpose. We have demonstrated not only the utter inability of the old Russian Government to foster this vital industry, but also the methodical suppression on her part of every effort made by the Oeorgians to improve the condition of the trade. But in spite of all these difficulties the Georgian owners have succeeded in many ways. Sixty per cent of all the exploited mines were in their hands at the outbreak of the war, while powerful German and other foreign concerns owned 40 per cent. The Georgian National Bank of Tiflis had opened a branch In Tchiaturi for facilitating transactions on the spot; also, at the end of 1917, the Georgian miners had accumulated at Tehiaturi and at the ports of Poti and Batum stocks ef ore amounting to more than the average quantity exported in normal years, viz, about 1,100,000 tons at the mines and 80,000 tons at the ports. Concerning the future of this important industry we can to-day only give vague indications. There are many factors upon which its future depends. First and foremost among them is the future political position of Georgia, which at present is an independent State, as are her neighbors Armenia and Aberbeijan, and whose Independence will shortly be recognized by the peace conference. The manganese industry will be a very important source of revenue to the State of Georgia, and it is quite obvious that without the powerful assistance of foreign capital these vast deposits can not be brought to the state of efficiency which will secure for them a predominant p!aco compared with their Indian and Brazilian competitors. It may be that the State of Georgia will endeavor to obtain substantial loans for the future development of this business. In connection with the important untouched deposits of iron ore in the Caucasus a largo ferromanganese trade could be built up, and it is therefore necessary that the Allies should maintain a keen interest in this key industry, which wotld provide ample material for the shipbuilding and steel industries all along the shores of the Black Sea. In the beginning of 1915 the German papers mentioned the discovery of a substitute for manganese which would enable them to forego the importation of that ore. No details were given, and it is impossible at present to ascertain the exact value of such a substitute for the industry and its relative cost; but even if it should prove of real utility, it would only interfere with the export of the Georgian manganese ore and could not prevent the development of the steel industry on the spot. All tie mineral deposits on the Georgian territory are the property of the State, and a special mining board with seat at Tiflis is irccting the affairs connected with the mines. The State ownership is much more convenient for working the mines, by giving concessions to private companies and individuals, than would be the case if the mineral-bearing land were freehold, as in that case questions of titles would lead to numerous litigations in the courts and many other difficulties. The development of the huge mining resources of Georgia, as of the mining everywhere, would require the participation of foreign capital, which will have a rnt. very profitable field for its employ Since 1801, when Russia forcibly annexed the Kingdom of Georgia, in violation of the treaty of 1783, right up to 1917, when Georgia regained again her independence, Russia has done nothing at all to develop the mineral wealth of the country; what is more, Fhe prevented the foreign capital from entering this field, and the Caucasian Mlining Board, which under the old Russian Government was supposed to look after the mining developments in this vast area, had an annual budget of not more than 2,000. In addition to hundreds of other reasons as to why Russia has forfeited all her "claims" to Geoigia, this gross neglect of the

development of the mineral resources of Georgia stands against her as most damning evidence.


(Collection of Ru~slan Laws (Vol. XXI, No. 15M35), with preface by Mr. Paul Morlaud, professeur ft la faculty de drolt de l'Universitd de Geneve, and comments by Mr. A. Okoumeli).

The annals of Georgia antedate those of Greece and of Rome. Since the fourth century of our era she hats embraced Chrlstianism. In the middle ages, r'.th King David and Queen Thamar, she knew glory. Then came long centuries of murderous struggles against the Musselman, and we understand how, incessantly invaded and extorted by Turkey and Persia, she should make appeal to her big sister beyond Caucasia, professing the same religion. The Muscovite bear, alas, under pretext of protecting her, extends its paw on Georgia and crushes Its liberties. We can find in the Rusqian domination in Transcaucasia, a "historical" foundation, politicalca" reasons, but we can not give It a "lawful" base. This is plainly Aiown in the treaty published here. The Georgia original has disappeared, torn by ruse and violence from the hands of the Patriot Solomon L6onldz6. The text. fortunately. remains, in Russian In the Seod of Nicholas II, in German aind in French in the papers of the time. In 1783 Irakly II. King of Kartlille and of Kakhtie-Karthlie is the center and core of Georgia and Is also its real name, as Schwyz is the name of Switzerland-concluded with Katherine II, a treaty of friendship (preamble), of alliance (Articles IV and VI), and of establishment (Articles X and XI), and of protectorship at the same time. Knrithlie renounces only to its International sovereignty (Articles I and IV); its King to take an oath of fidelity to the Emperor, recognizing in him the supreme power (Article JII), and lie is to entertain no relation with neighboring sovereigns without the consent of INs. sla (Article IV) ; in return it Is assured the protection of the Itu.4ian Empire and tile guaranty of its territories (Articles II and III). Karthlle otherwise retains her entire independence. and ier Imperial Majesty pledges not to Interfere, in any way. with the Interior affairs of the country (Article VI); Karthlle even maintains an ambassador at the court of Russia. who shall be received "with the same honors as all other a ambassadors of the samne rank from other sovereign princes" (Article V). And this independence is assured for the future by the formal clause of Article XII, that no change In the treaty "can be made except by virtue of mutual consent." This treaty is the only one that was ever made between Karthhle and Russia. But Russia never respected it. During the 17 years until the death of King George XIII. son of Irakly, she does not protect her dependent; she leaves her to fight the Turks and Persians, irritated by this alliance, and allows the taking and destruction of Tiflis, capital of the Kingdom. Then the King, George, having died January 2'2, 1800, she took advantage of the favorable moment, and. profiting by the hesitations of David, son of George, in mounting the throne without having received the decree of Investiture provided by the treaty of 1783, Paul I. In a declaration dated January 28, 1801, decided to annex Georgia, and after some resistance, his successor, Alexander 1, September 12 of the same year, proclaimed the reunion of the two countries. The manifesto of Alexander. that we still see imprinted upon the walls of the nilitary museum at Tiflis, purely and simply decrees the annexation. Paul 1, ;n his project," attempted besides to justify it. He professes "the solicitude with which he has always been animated for the well-being of the

I See

the text In the "Recuell de Martens," 2d ed.. Vol. VII, pp. 313 and 314.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA people of Grusinie" (it Is the Rusian name for Georgia), and he pretends to. act according to its demands; "the Czar George Iraklievitsch," he says, "seeing the end of his days approaching, had recourse to our protection, by the consent of the first persons of his Empire and of the people themselves, and seeing no other means of salvation, to save themselves from an inevitable fall and to escape from the oppression of their enemies, they sent negotiators to beg us to adopt as immediate subjects of the Imperial Throne of Russia, 'Grusinle' and the provinces under its jurisdiction." Admitting that this step was other than an appeal to the protection promised and due, admitting even that it was of the character attributed to it by the Russian Sovereign, it was nothing more than a proposition made to Russia, and after the death of its author, the king, George, the negotiations should have been reopened with his successor David, to arrive at a treaty in good and due form, which alone could have taken the place of the regular treaty concluded "for always," by Katherine and by Irakly, and to which no change could be made "except by virtue of a mutual consent." The manifesto of 1801 is a purely one-sided act. It is not a treaty but an act of force. No more so than the consent of the king, whom Alexander I hastened to deport to Russia with all his family, had the annexation the consent of the Georgian people. They raised their immediate protestation. In 1802, in 1804, in 1810, In 1812, in 1813, insurrections burst forth. They recur at different times during the nineteenth century. And never have the Georgians ceased, since the fatal day, to hope for their independence. In solemnly proclaiming it on May 20. 1018, the National Council of Georgia only repaired the injustice committeed 100 years ago. No nation is more deserving of its freedom. Nothing unites it to the Russian people. Geographically even, Ru~sla ends at the Caucasian Range, formidable barrier, higher than the Alps. which separates European Russia from Georgia. an Asiatic land. The Georgians speak an original language, with no resemiance to the Slavish languages. They have their own culture, their songs and epopees, their art, their history, and their traditions. They do not desire to oppress their neighbors, as they do not claim the territories which they occupled in olden days, In the days of grandeur and power, they demand only the simple respect of their ethnographical frontiers, and while guaranteeing within their territory the same civil and political rights to all citizens, without distinction of race or of beliefs, the democratic Republic of Georgia has declared itself neutral in international conflicts. The thought could not for one instant be entertained of imposing upon it any union, any federation even, with its great northern neighbor. No one vill dare try to-day to revive the old treaty of alliance and of protectorship, which, in an hour of distress, lkakly I, son of Th~mourase, signed, and the rcp-ated violation of which, by Catherine II and by her successors, has rendered it forever valueless. GENEvA, October 10, 1919. Profcseur d la Facultd de drolt de lUnivcr i.


Since olden times, the Russian Empire, having the same religion as thepeople of Georgia, has served as the defense, support, and protection to the said people and their sovereigns against the oppression of their neighbors. The protection of the Russian Emperors accorded the Georgian Tsars, as well as to their family and subjects, has brought about that dependence which exists between these latter and the Emperors of Russia, and which is even a right included In the very title of the Russian Emperors. 11cr Majesty the Empress of Russia, who reigns for the happiness of all, has given proof in a satisfactory manner of her good will toward the Georgian people and of her magnanimous solicitude for their good by the great effort made by her for their liberty frout the ban of slavery, as well as for the suppression of the ignominious contribution demanded from some of these peoples consisting in the delivering of youths and maidens, and she remains well disposed toward their sovereigns. Showing proof of this favorable disposition by giving her acquiescence to the demands made upon her majesty by the Tsar Sdrdnissime of Karthlie and of Kakhdtie, Irakly, son of Theimourase, who solicits her acceptance together with all his. heirs and descendants, his kingdoms and domains under the sovereign protec-



tion of her majesty, as welt as of his eminent heirs and descendants in recog. nition of the supreme power of the Emperors of all Russia over the Tsars of Karthlie and bf Kak*ISte. Her majesty has graciously consented to prepare and conclude with the Tmar 86r6nissime above-mentioned "a treaty of friendship," by reason of which, on the one hand of his highness, the said Tsar, in his personal name and in the name of his descencints, recognizing the supreme power and protection of Her Majesty the Empress of Russia, and of her eminent heirs, over the aovereigns and peoples of the Kingdoms of Karthlie and Kekhdtie, ejnd all the other domains belonging to them, would determine In most complete and solemn fashion his obligations toward the Russian Empire, and, on the other hand, Her Majesty the Russian Empress would solemnly declare which are the advan(ages and privileges accorded by the generous and powerful hand of her majesty to the peoples above-mentioned and to their serene sovereigns. In order to conclude this treaty, her majesty has given full power to the serene prince of the Russian Empire, Gregoire Alexandrovitch Potemkine, authorizing him in his absence to remit his power to a nominee of his choice; be by reason of this power has chosen for this object his excellence Hieur Paul Potemkine. And his Serene Highness the Tsar of Karthlle and of Kakh~tle, Irakly, son of Theimourase, on his side has chosen. and nominated as representatives, their excellencies his leftenant, the Prince Ivan Constantinovitch Bagration, and the adjutant general of his serene highness, Prince Gars6van Tchavtchavadz6. The plenipotentiaries hereunder named, beginning with the help of God the preliminaries, have reciprocally valued their full powers, and have coneluded and signed the following articles:

Ills Highness the Tsar of Karthlie and of Kakhtle. in his nume as well as in the names of his heirs and descendents, forever solemnly renounces becoming vassal of anyone or to be dependent for anything from Persia or any other power, and by these presents he declares before all the world that he and his descendents recognize no other sovereignty than the supreme power ond protection of her imperial majesty and of her eminent heirs and descendents, and swears fealty to the representatives of that crown and gives his formal promise to give his aid to the Russlan State whenever required of him.

Her imperial majesty, taking into consideration this sinceree and solemn promise of his highness, equally gives a guaranty, confirmed by her imperial word, that she and her descendents obligate themselves never to retract tile good will and protection accorded to the T.strs of Karthlile and of Kakhlitie. As proof of this. her majesty gives her imperial guaranty for the complete preservation of the actual territories of His Highness Tsar Irakly, son of Thelmourase, with the further understanding to spread this guaranty also to cover the territories which may be acquired in the future according to circumstances, and which will be firmly conferred to him.

As proof of the sincerity with which Ills Highness the Tsar of Karthlile and of Kakhdtie recognizes the supreme power and protection of the Russlan Emperors, it is stated that the tsars mentioned in mounting their throne, by right of the law of succession, should immediately advise time Imperial court of Russia of this, asking, by the intermediary of their ambassadors, confirmation with the investiture, consisting of an Imperial decree, a banner with the arms of the Russian Empire, In the center of which will be the arms of the kingdoms mentioned, a sword, a scepter, and an ermine mantle; these signs to be given, either by the ambassadors, or through the medium of the'frontier authorities, to the tsar, who, on receipt of them in the presence of the Russian minister, shall solemnly swear fidelity and zeal toward the Russian Empire, as well as recognition of the supreme power and protection of the Emperor of all Rusida, conforming to the treaty herewith. This ceremony to be carried out now also by Ills Highness the Tsar Irakly, son of Theimourase.



As a proof that the intentlonts of his highness, in view of.a restraining alliance with the Russian Empire, are sincere and that he recognizes the supreme power and protection of the serene sovereigns of that empire, his highness "promises never to have any relations with neighboring sovereigns without first consulting the first chief of the frontier or the minister of her imperial highness accredited to him; and when these neighboring sovereigns send him messages or letters, he must, on receipt of them, consult the first chief of the frontier or the minister of her imperial majesty for the return of these messengers as well as for the answer to be sent to their sovereigns.

In order to facilitate relations and agreements with the Russian Imperlat court, His Highness the Tsar wishes to*have a minister or representative at that court, and her Imperial majesty, in acceding to this desire, promises that he will be received at her court with the samd honors as all other ambassadors of the same rank, of other sovereign princes, and besides, her majesty has consented to having her own Russian minister or representativeremain with His Highness the Tsar of Georgia.

Her imperial majesty, in accepting the supreme power and protection over the Kingdom of Karthile and of Kakhetie, promises in her name and in the name of her heirs: (1) To look upon the peoples of these kingdoms as forming a close alliance and perfect accord with the empire of her majesty and, in consequence, to treat the enemies of these peoples as her own enemies; therefore, a peace concluded with Turkey or Persia, or any other power or province would take effect also in connection with these peoples, protected by her majesty; (2) promises to keep always on the throne of Karthlie and of Kakhftle the Tsar Irakly, son of Thelmourase, and his heirs and descendants; (3) promIses not to interfere with the interior affairs of the country, to take no part in the executive power concerning the Interior government, or in the justice or imposition of taxes, which remain the complete property of that Tsar, and to forbid her chiefs, both military and civil, to prevent the execution of given orders.

HIs Highness the Tsar, in accepting with respect this demonstration of good will on the part of her imperial majesty, pledegs his name and In the name of his descendants: (1) To be at all times ready with his troops to enter the service of her majesty; (2) to remain in constant connection with the Russian authorities in satisfying their demands and In protecting. Russian citizens against all offense or oppression; (3) to appoint them in office and to elevate them In rank, showing regard for their merits In the same respect as the Russian Empire, upon whose protection depends the peace and proseprity of the Kingdoms of Karthlie and Kakhdtle.

As proof of her imperial and particular good will toward Ills Highness the Tsar and all his peoples, her imperial majesty orders, in an aim toward a close union of these peoples coreliglous with Russia, that the Catholics or the patriarch of Georgia shall have the eighth rank among archbishops of Russia; that is, after the archbishop of Tobolsk, by conferring upon him forever the title of membre du saint-synode. As to the administration of the Georgian Church and its relation with the saint-synode, this will be taken up in a separate treaty.

Alo in proof of her great good will toward the subjects of Ills Ilihness the Tsar of Georgia toward the princes and nobles of that kingdom, her imperial majesty decrees that these shall have the same privileges and advantages as the nobles of Russia; and so that Her Majesty the Empress of Russia may know to whom these titles belong, the Tsar of Georgia shall send to the court of her majesty lists concerning these personages.




It is decreed that, in general, all the natives of Karthlie and of Kakh~tie who wish to establish themselves with their families in Russia, or to go there und return, may do so freely; as to the freed prisoners of the Turks or Persians or other peoples, byarms or by negotiation, they shall be free to return to their country, reimbursing only the expense of their liberation; His Highness the Tsar promising to do the same for Russian subjects finding themselves prisoners in neighboring countries.

The merchants of Karthlte aud of Kakhtie have the same rights and privileges of commerce in Russia as aU other Rusian citizens; and, in return, the tsar pledges himself to the decree, in collaboration with the high chief of Russian merchants going to Georgia or elsewhere, in passing through his country, taking into consideration their commercial interests, for without such a decree there would be no consideration of the privileges mentioned for his merchants.

the frontier or the minister of her majesty, to grant all possible facilities to

The present treaty Is to remain forever in effect. However, it Is thoroughly understood that in the case of a necessity for any change whatsoever, this change can not be made except by virtue of a mutual consent. ARTICLE Im Confirmation of this treaty must be made within six months from the date of its signature, or sooner if possible. In witness of the authenticity of this treaty, the undersigned plenipotentisries, conformable to their writs, have signed these articles and affixed their seals, In the fortress of Georgievsk, the 24th day of July, 1783. PAUL POTEmKINE. Prince IVAN BAGP&TION. Prince GARS&VAN TCHTAVTCHAVADZE.


ARTICLE 1I In order to protect the domain of Karthlie and of Kakhdtie from all attack on the part of its neighbors and to give the rcessary reinforcement to the armies of his highness the tsar, her imperial majesty pledges the maintenance In the domains of his highness of "two complete battalions of Infantry with four cannons," which battalions shall be nourished conformably in accord between his highness and the high chief of the frontier according to a fixed tariff. 'The original of the separate agreement contains, aside from the above articles, the first and third of which the following is a summary: In Article I Tsar Irakly was counseled to retain the friendship and to remain in understanding with the Tsar of imrthle, Solomon II, so that their people, of like religion and Itommon origin, shall keep their friendship and their perfect accord to repel with their united forces all attempts against their liberty, their peace, and their prosperity ; her imperial majesty promises not only to concur to this profitable deeo but to give her guaranty to this peace and this entente. The Tsar Irakly declares, from then on. in his relations with the Tsar Solomon II, to take her Imperial majesty as supreme arbiter and pledges himself to submit the litigations and misunderstandings which might come up between the two monarchs against their will, to her sovereign decision. Article III says that In case of war the general chief of the frontier has always full power from her imperial majesty to come to an understanding with the Tsar of Karthile and of Kakhbtle and to take the necessary measure to assure the defense of the above. mentioned territories, and to determine the course of action to take against th, enemy which shall be considered their common enemy. At the same time it Is decided thai if a part of the army of Karthlie and Kakhotie is placed at the service of her Imperial majesty outside of the territories of Georgia, It shall be treated and maintained on the same footing as the other armies of her imperial majesty.




In case of war, her imperial majesty prol.rises to do everythWg possible by arm, and In times of peae-by perenasio--to obtain the return of all terri. tories which previously belonged to the Kingdom of Karthhle and KakhGtie

rid which 1sli remain In possession of the said kingdom based on this treaty. These separate articles have the same value as the principal treaty and must be ratified at the same time as the principal treaty.. In witness of the authenticity of this agreement, the id'lraigned plenipotentiaries, conformable to their writs, have signed these articles and affixed their seals, In the fortress of GMorglevsk, the 24the day of July, 1783

Prince IVAN BART51no.


On August 20 of the same year, 1783, the present treaty was solemnly made public at Tiflis, and in the month of November Of the same year, confirmations were mutually made. COMMENTS The preceeding treaty, concluded in 1783 between the Empress of Russia, Catherine II, and the King of Karthile and of Kakhetle (oriental Georgia), Jrakly II, Is the older', and in consequence, the most important of the anulogous treaties, concluded later between the Emperors of Russia and the King of Im0rthle (1804) and the sovereign princes of 31ingr~lie (1803), of Gourle (1810) of Abkhasle (1810), and of Svanethle (M3)-that Is, occidental Georgia. All these kingdoms and principalities, intimately joined together by unity of race, language, of Christian civilization, and national conscience, formed since ancient times a single Georgla, or Iberia. We find this fact eonfirmed, among others, by the very title of the EmperorA cf Russia who called themselves "Tsars of Georgia." The preamble to the rtaty of 1783 contains the reasons for its conclusion: After about 2,000 years of independent existence, filled with tihe most terrible trials and heroic actions, Georgia was finally obliged to yiehl to historic necessity and to look for protection from Russia who professed the same religion. Since the fall of Constantinople (1453), completely separated from occidental Europe, with which she endeavored always to preserve direct relation., little Georgia found itself like a sall linlud in the middle of a sea of mussulmen, whose tide threatened to swallow it up at any moment. This is the period whih alludes to the secular struggle of Georgia, a fight of life or death, against her largest and most cruel neighbors; Turkey and Persia,. who.e hordes again and again put the entire city afire and, in bloodshed, transformed the towns and villages into plies of ruins, and taken away each time with them some tens of thousands of women and men. It Is during this period also that occurred among other things, the parceIling of Georgia, until then united, into various kingdoms and principalities, as well as the separation and violent islamisation of the entire south occidental region: Meskhethle and Tehanethle. that is the Provinces of Akhaltzikh, Akhalkalaki, Batoum, Ardnghan, Olthy, of Lazistan-the ancient cradle of intellectual growth and of the formation of the State. Among the fatal results of these terrible trials we can cite the enormous decrease in the population which, from 7,000,000 Inhabitants in the fifteenth century, fell near the end of the eighteenth century to less than 500,000, while the territory of Georgia was lessened by a third. Submitting from all sides to the pressure of her neighbors, drained to the limit, terribly mutilated-such was Georgia at the time when she voluntarily renounced a part of her political sovereignty in favor of Russia, from whom she awaited the healing of her wounds. Let us go on to a brief analysis of the treaty of 17M. It is very useful to distinguish its form and Its contents. As to its form, the treaty satisfies all the exigencies of International law. In leaving out the clashing of phrases and the pompous style which characterize that period, we find before us a habitual bilateral act, passed between the legal representatives of the two contracting parties, lussia and oriental Georgia, who possess equal right, and ratified later by the sovereigns of both nations. The two parties establish certain reciprocal rights and



accept certain obligations one to the other without restriction as to duration, While Article XII declares formally that modification of the treaty "can not be made except by virtue of a mutual consent." As to that which concerns the contents. the treaty places in a general way Georgia under the protection of Russia. This dependence is mitigated by the formula given by Catherine II which defines it as a "close alliance" (Art. VI.) and names the act "a treaty of friendship" (see the preamble). In virtue of this state of protection, Georgia renounces to the independent management of her exterior policy. Conforming to Article IV of the treaty, the King Irakly II "promises never to have any relations with neighboring sovereigns without first consulting the first chief of the frontier or the minister of her Imperial highness accredited to him." In exchange, in the possession of interior administration, the treaty diminishes in no way the sovereignty of Georgia. By virtue of Article VI, Catherine II "promises not to interfere with the interior affairs of the country, to take no part In the executive power concerning the interior government, or in the justice, or imposition of taxes, which remain the complete property of that Tsar, and to forbid her chiefs, both military and civil, to prevent the execution of given orders." As a proof of the fact that the two states establish their relative rights on a basis of international law, Catherine II and Irakly II reciprocally appoint in their residences, at Peterbourg and at Tflls, respective diplomatic representatives (Art. V). The same character of international relations stands out In much greater relief in Articles X and XI, in which Catherine II and Irakly II promise mutually within the limits of their territories to exercise protection with regard to prisoners of war, merchants, and in a general way all those within the jurisdiction of the two states. But the aim of Georgia was to obtain from her patroness, Russia, a solid guaranty as to the defense of her frontiers against outside enemies. And, in fact, Catherine II in promising "to treat the enemies of these peoples (Georgians) as her own enemies" (Art. VI), "gives her imperial guaranty for the complete conservation of the actual territories of His Highness Tsar Irnkly, son of Theimourase, with the further understanding to spread this guarantee also to cover the territories which may be acquired in the future according to circumstances, and which will be firmly conferred to him" (Art. II). Particularly interesting is the last part of the guaranty, in which Catherine II promises to annex new territories to Georgia. Which territories could these be? Without doubt, those of south occidental Georgia (Akhaltzikh, Akholkalaki, Batoum, Ardaghan, Olthy, Lazistan) of which we have spoken above. This is evidenced plainly in Article IV of the separate treaty, concluded at the same time as the general treaty. "In case of war "-says this article--" her imperial majesty promises to do everything possible by arms, and in times of peace-by persuasion-to obtain the return of all territories which previously belonged to the kingdom of Karthlie and Kakhette and which shall remain in possession of the said kingdom based on this treaty." Thus it is evident that by territories "which may be acquired in future" with the help of .tussia, is meant the provinces which once belonged to Georgia and which were taken from her by Turkey at different periods. The question of knowing why these provinces were not mentioned expressly, answers itself, if one takes into consideration that to name them in a treaty destined to promulgation, would have been equivalent to a declaration of war on Turkey, which neither Russia nor Georgia at that time desired. Later Russia did effect a reattachment to Georgia of most of these provinces: In the first instance, those of Akhaltzikh and Akhalkalaki, by virtue of the treaty of Andrinople (1829), then those of Batoum, Ardaghan, and Olthy at the same time as Kars, in conformation with the treaty of Berlin (1878). As to Lazistan, it remained up to the late World War in the posgession of Turkey, being a part of the Trebizonde Empire. It is not possible to go into details here about these provinces. It is suffi. cient to remark that from an ethnical, historical, and economical point of view, they form un organic and inseparable part of the Georgian Republic, and that they should be recognized as such by the peace conference at Paris. In speaking of the separate agreement, it is impossible to pass Article II without comment, by virtue of which Catharine II "pledges the maintenance in the domains of his highness of two complete battalions of Infantry 96153-26-----11



with four cannons." This measure of precaution was very opportune, and was taken on the initiative of Irakly II himself, who could not lose sight of the fact that the alliance with Russia would result in a new invasion by his extremely Irritated neighbors. This invasion, In fact, took place soon after the conclusion of the treaty, and the old King, Irakly II, abandoned by Russia, fought his last and celebrated battle against Persia on the fields of Krtzanissy. This battle, while giving temporary victory to the arms of Georgia, resulted in the plunder and complete destruction by fire, 'f the capitol, Tiflis. (179-5.) . There remains but to say a few words about the fate of the treaty of 1783 and of Its present lawful value. It must first be stated that the above-mentioned treaty was destroyed with the most complete dishonesty by the manifesto of September 12, 1801, which was published by the Emperor, Alexander I, and which simply declared Georgia annexed to Russia. This act, as well as the analogous unilateral acts which followed it and which abolished all the rights and all the franchises of the Georgian people, were altogether contrary to the treaty, and particularly to Its Article XII which established the consentment of both parties as a necessary condition for any modification. The annexation of Geoigia, by Russia, did not pass unnoticed by the outside world; on the contrary, England and France raised formal protest against this act. Moreover, this act of violation was never approved by any International congress of nations, and In consequence it remained illegal until the dismemberment of Russia even, following the last World War. It Is besides not devoid of interest to call attention to the fact that the treaty of 1783 was never formally abolished by the Government of the Romanoffs and that It figures In every collection of Russian laws without exception. But, the events of these later days automatically annulled this treaty, which. at the present time, is nothing more than a purely historic document. We know that, since the Bolshevist stroke in November, 1017, Russian power ceased to exist in Georgia. It disappeared, not only because Georgia did not recognize the domination of the Bolsheviks, but more particularly because the entire Russian equipage, military, administrative, and judiciary, ceased to function on the Georgian territory; as to the functionaries themselves, they have, for the most part crossed the frontiers of Georgia to try to enter the service of the General Denikin and other "restorers" of czarist Russia. ;However, the disappearance of Russian bureaucracy by no means signified the disappearance of all power In Georgia. Already under the Lvof-Kereusky Government, all of Transcaucasia, and particularly Georgia, was being adminIstered In an altogether autonomous manner, having at its head, in place of the ex-vice king, the special Transcaucasian committee, whose members were recruited particularly from among the deputies of the Transcaucasian peoples, atthe fourth Douma. In the beginning, this committee was vested not only with the administrative powers of a vice king, but also with legislative powers. Using these vast powers, the peoples of Transcaucasia had already succeeded In organizing themselves into many distinct units and passed many reforms which laid the foundation of the complete nationalization of all the governmental and local Institutions. And It is Just at the height of this creative activity that, within the boundary of the federative Russia which was to be formed, exploded the Bolshevik bomb, following which the autonomous peoples of Transcaucasia declared their independence of Russia. Georgia, in particular, immediately after the stroke In question, in the morfIt of November, 1917, had its national congress, during which was elected the national council, which in fact concentrated within its hand the entire administration of the country. This first step was followed on May 26, 1918, by the formal declaration by the national council of the independence of the democratic Republic of Georgia, which fact was duly made known to the governments of all foreign states. The National Council of Georgia, which took the name of provisional parliament, gave way, March 12, 1919, to the constituent assembly, elected according to the proportional system based on universal, equal, direct, and secret voting of all citizens of both sexes having attained 20 years of age. The constituent assembly confirmed unanimously the act of Independence of Georgia and began the elaboration of the constitution of the Republic. Now, Georgia has her representatives at the peace conference in Paris, from which she expects her formal recognition.



Therefore, at the same time as the disappearance of Russian power In Georgia, there took its place a national power, absolutely supreme in exterior affairs as well as in interior affairs. This national power dnds its expression as the government responsible before the constitutent assembly for the army, justice, administration, the state budget, etc. On order to complete what has already been said, we must particularly note a fact which is of the greatest importance. The treaty of 1783, as we have seen, imposed on Russia the obligation of defending by all means possible the frontiers of Georgia against exterior enemies. Moreover, the separate treaty directly announced the obligation of Russia to maintain toward this end on the Georgian territory a certain number of duly equipped troops. But, in which way did Russia fulfill this obligation? The answer to this question is clear to all those who have followed the tragic events which took place in Caucasia in the beginning of 1918. Following on the conquest of the power in Russia by the Bolsheviks, the Caucasian front was completely destroyed and the Russian troops retreated precipitately to the north, abandoning to Turkey almost all its armament and all its munitions. A short time later the Bolshevist Government concluded the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, by virtue of which Batoum, Adraghan, and Kars, being the three fortresses of Georgia and of Transcaucasia, passed into the hands of the Turks. Thug Georgia was treacherously delivered to the mercy of that same Turkey against which Russia pledged itself to defend her. Georgia, therefore, found itself In the same situation as before the conclusion of the treaty of 1783, with a slight difference that this time she had to defend her Independence by arms not only against the Turkish invaders, amply provided with the materials of Russian warfare, but also against the Bolshevik detachments which, at three different times, attacked her from the north. The conclusion of all this can only be the following: Russia, in the person of the Bolshevik Government, of its own free will withdrew its armed forces from the Georgian territory, and, in giving up Georgia to her fate, renounced definitely to the rights-if they still have any value whatsoever-derived from the treaty of 1783. As to the attempts made by the Bolshevik Government to conquer Georgia, they were completely checked. It is important to call attention to the fact that Georgia was never conquered by Russia, that she voluntarily entered with her into certain stipulated relations of international character, and that it was also voluntarily that she was abandoned by Russia after the war and the revolution. Therefore, the International situation of Georgia, as a fact as well as by right, is altogether clear to those who are without prejudice. If there is a people having the right of independent political existence, certainly it is the Georgian people, which has not only manifested before the entire world its firm resolution to become free and independent, but also has given indisputable proof of its intention to defend its precious rights. At the historical moment when, after unheard of suffering, humanity has at last approached the realization of its fondest thought, especially of the creation of the League of Nations--the surest pledge of the Inviolability of nationalities small as well as large-the young democratic Republic of Georgia has no need to look for further protection than that of the League of Nations, in which she will enter, we firmly hope, in complete equality of rights. A. OKOUMELLo GENOA, September, 1919.

APPENDIX NO. 2 [Article published in The Christian East] THE AUTOCEPHALY OF THE ORTHODOX CHLwuCH or GEoRGIA (By Prince Ilamas Dadeshkellani) On March 12, 1917, the Georgian episcopate, clergy, and laity Issued a declaration, according to which the Orthodox Church of Georgia (or Iveria), after a hundred years' lapse, reentered Into the exercise of her most ancient autosephaly (or hierarchical independence of all other ecclesiastical authority). * Two weeks later (March 27, 1917) the Russian Provisional Government passed the Jaw "Concerning the regulation of the Juridical consequences relative to the reestablishment of the autocephaly of the ancient Orthodox Church of Georgia." By thiq act the Russian State power1. Noted, acknowledged, and sanctioned, as far as the Russian State was concerned, the declaration of March 12 regarding the reestablishment of the autocephaly of the Orthodox Church of Georgia; 2. Regulated the Juridical consequences which resulted, for the State, from this reestablishment, thus 3. Restoring to the Orthodox Church of Georgia the practical possibility of exercising the rights of autocephaly which have belonged to her from remote antiquity, and 4. Putting an end to that anticanonical order of things by which the Georgian Orthodox Church was, In the Russian State--from the time of the annexation of the Kingdom of Georgia to Russia (1801)-practically deprived of her ancient rights of autocephaly. We say practically because by right, canonically (I. e., juridically in the ecclesiastical sense), this autocephaly had never been abolished. The provisional government, born of the first Idealistic period of the Rus. sian revolution, considered Itself called to fufill the cherished aspirations of Russian society. Endeavoring to rectify as soon as possible the faults and injustices of the old power, It proclaimed, a few days after Its formation, the independence of Poland; and, with the same Idee, reestablished, during the first month of its existence the autocephaly of (be Georgian Church; for this autocephaly counted supporters evcm among the conservative Russian poll. tielans of the old regime (as, for L-stance, Duinovo), who considered it abnormal that one of the most ancie-L churches of the orthodox world, the Georgian (or Iverlan) Church, was In an orthodox State like Russia deprived of her autocephaly In an anticanonlcal way-in other words, against the existing canonical principles of the orthodox church; that Is to say, not by decision of competent canonical authorities, but simply in execution of an order of the laic power (decrees of Emperors Paul I and Alexander I), being forcibly converted Into a simple diocese, and subjugated to the rule of another much younger orthodox church-the Russian Church. We wish here to point out the comparative antiquity of the churches, because the orthodox church classes the local churches of which she is composed by order of seniority. We shall also bear In mind, in what follows, the fundamental principle of orthodox canonical law, according to which a local church acquires autocephaly, either by virtue of decision of the ecumenical (universal) authority of the orthodox church, or by resolution of that autocephalous church from which she branches. Further, according to the same principles of canonical law, a local already autocephalus church loses her autocephaly-by virtue of decision of the ecumenical authority, or by its own formal resolution carried out by her duly qualified canonical institutions. 162



We shalt also point out In this connection that the deprivation of -the Georgian Church of Its most ancient autocephaly had not only never been contemplated by any ecclesiastical authority whatever, but that this ques-" tion had never even been raised. This deprivation took place only by command of the Emperor Paul I (1801), who ordered that the Georgian Church be subjugated to the rule of the synod of the Russian Church. The action of this decree of the laic power was annulled by another decree of this same latc power--. e., by the law of the provisional government of March 27, 1917. The law of March 27, 1917, reestablished the autocephaly of the Georgian Church, setting forth that the rules which would regulate, in the future, the existence of the Georgian Church in the Russian State would be drawn up together with the superior authority of this church (pending the election of the catholicos patriarch, the temporary government of the Georgian Church had at that time as head, Leonidas, bishop of Gurla and Mingrelia.) These rules were drawn up and issued on July 25, 1917, under the title of "Temporary rules on the situation of the Georgian Church in the Russian State." The two legislative acts of the provisional government concerning the Georgian Church (the law of March 27, 1917, and the "temporary rules" of July 25) created a regime of coexistence In the Russian State of two orthodox churches-the Russian and the Georgian. The provisional government conserved, pending the convocation of the constituent assembly, the ord.'r which existed under the Empire dealing with the financing by the State of the confessional organizations, and their subordination to government control in certain matters (nomination of the clery, etc.) We shall see later on, that these two laws, while reestablishing in principle the rights of the Georgian Church, were far from being perfect, presenting internal contradictions and giving to the principle proclaimed an incomplete and Irregular embodiment; but let us now consider Geoigian Church history, noting several dates which mark certain stages in the process of the development of the canonical Independent, or autocephaly, of the Georgian Church. The merits of the Georgian Church before the universal church are great 1; but for the Georgian nation its church has been, as was set forth in the letter addressed to the Conference at Genoa by Ambrose, cathollcos-patriarch of Georgia, the " principal factor of the power and glory of the national Georgian State." We may refer those interested in Georgian Church history to the considerable literature on this question, in Georgian, Russian, French, and English (in the first place to: "L'Eglise g~orglenne des origins jusqu'lA nos Jours," by Michel Tamaratl-Rome, 1910, and "Sketches of Georgian Church history," by Archdeacon Dowling, D. D., London, 1912) and to the more special publications of philological, canonical, patrological character, etc." The history of the orthodox church of Georgia reveals a typical process of the birth and development of a local orthodox church; baptized by missionaries of a neighboring church, the newly converted flock passes the first period of its church life In a close canonical dependence on the mother church, as the local ecclesiastical life develops and the national hierarchy strengthens, the new diocese receives a larger autonomy; the ties which attach it to the distant mother church weaken, becoming more and more nominal; In the last stage We have the testimony to this effect of many Christian historians; e. g., Kerakos. an Armenian histeilan of the thirteenth century, says that Queen Tamara. of Georgia, made a treaty or peace with the Sultan of Damascus. and since that time the sultans have treated Christians more humanely. Dosltheus, patriarch of Jerusalem, says the pious Iverian kings have always been admintrators and protectors of the Holy sepulchre and other holy places. The Arab historian, Ibn Shaddana, also says that Queen Tamara offered Salladin 200,000 dinars for the holy cross, and In 187 asked that the monasteries taken from the Christians should be restored. Even at the present day there are at the holy places, Mount Athos Bulgaria, Syria, Cyprus, Antioch, over 30 monasteries and churches built by the Georgians. Published by the Georian 8ocle of and Etnorp ; the GeorgianChurch Museu; the Rfaculty Academy of .languages (Texts and Researches in Armeno- eorg an ausian Philolog'y) ; thePhilology); oriental Science of the University of Petrograd (Collections of in .apbetcal the UnIversity of Tiflls (" Sdzveleni Sakartvelossl") and various separate works of Professors Marr, Taknlchviil, Tsagarel, Kekelidze, etc.



t.e dependence on the mother church expresses Itself in forms of subordination more symbolical than practical (for instance by the ratification by the mother church of the local primate before his elevation to this dignity; by the sendtog to the metropolis of a certain amount of the church receipts; by the mention of the name of the head of the mother church at service; by the obligatory reception of the holy oil from the mother church, etc.). Lastly comes the formal granting of complete independence from the mother church. As said above, this takes place either by decision, of an ecumenical council or according to the resolution of the mother church. Autocephaly was so received by the orthodox churches of Cyprus (and later) Greece, Rumania, Serbia, Montenegro, Bukovino-Dalmatia, etc., and so also by the ancient Georgian Church. Born at the point where two Orthodox Church currents meet-the influence of the Patriarchate of Constantinople and that of the Patriarchate of Antiochthe Georgian Church attributes to Nino, a Holy virgin who came from Byzantium, the conversion to Christianity of the Georgian nation (326) and to the activity of the thirteen Syrian Fathers, who came from Antioch (St. John of Zedazeni and his 12 disciples), both its further propagation In, and the foundation of, the hierarchy in Georgia. In 384 the Georgian Bishop Pantophilos assisted at the second ecumenical council, which transferred the Georgian Church from the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople to that of the patriarch of Antioch. In 458, in the reign of the Georgian King Vakhtang Gargaslan and of Anas. taslus I, Emperor of Byzantium, the archbishop of Mtkheta, the Georgian capital, was elevated to the rank of catholicos (a title belonging in the Christian East to the heads of local churches). The Antiochian patriarch Palladius, from whom the Georgian (Iverian) Church then depended, sent to Mtskheta the first Catholicos, Peter (a Greek), and from that time the Iverian Church enjoyed a certain autonomy in its interior affairs, bt its head remained a Greek, receiving consecration from the patriarch of Antioch. In 553. in the reign of Georgian King Pharsinan, the Catholicos of Miskheta and all Georgia, was elected by and from among the Georgian clergy, continuing to receive consecration from Antioch. In the eighth century, after the death of the Catholicos Ba:rtholomew, hict successor. Catholicos John, went. to Antioch, where the council of the Antiochian Church, presided over by the patriarch Theophilactus, granted autocephaly to the Georgian Church. In the tenth century the Catholicos of the Georgian Church was elevated to the dignity of patriarch and Catholicos of all united Georgia. The decision concerning tle granting of autocephaly to the Georgian Church was later confirmed: (1) In the eleventh century by the patriarch of Antioch, Theodosius (in connection with the question of the preparation of the holy oil) ; (2) by the council of the Antlochlan Church (also in the eleventh century) presided over by the patriarch Peter: (3) and in the same century by his successor, Theodosius. The great canonist of the orthodox church, Theodore Balsamon, patriarch of Antioch, in his analysis of chapter 2 of the resolutions of the ecumenical councils, mentions the Georgian Church among the autocephalous churches of the East, and writes that the archbishop of Iveria was recognized as independent by the Antiochian couticil. The Byzantine caronist-Mathias Vlastav, author of the Elementary Syntagma-also states that the Georgian Church is not dependent on any of the eastern patriarchs. Being autocephalous, the Georgian Church took part in the common life of all the churches. She was invited to take part fit: 1. The Council of Basle. 2. The Council of Florence, from which her representatives, the metropolitans John-Gregory and Dositheos, withdrew, considering as unacceptable the plans of the Emperor John VI. 3. The Council of Moscow (1666), which was convoked for the trial of the Patriarch Nikon of IHussin, at which the Georgian Church was represented by the metropolitan Epiphanius and the Archimandrite Pachomius. But the process of the canonical development of the Georgian Church did not stop with acquisition of complete canonical independence. The expansion of the Kingdom of Georgia, its gradual decentralization, and the development $By tradition Iverla Is still mentioned in the full title of the Patriarch of Antioch.



of the political autonomy of the western Georgian Providences, involved the necessity of granting to the senior among the bishops of these Provinces a canonical autonomy. . This perfectly canonical process ended In the granting of autocephaly to the Archbishop of BitJvinta (or Abkhasia), with the title of Catholicos of Abkhasia and BitJvinta, and from 1444, of Catholicos of Abkhasia, Imeretia, and western Georgia. His spiritual jurisdiction extended over all the autonomous principalities of western Georgia (Imeretla, Guria, Mingrelia, Svanetia, and Abkhasia). In 1657 the seat of the Catholicos of western Georgia was transferred to Gelati, near Kutais. Such a canonical division of Georgia into two Cathollcosates vas fully acknowledged by the Orthodox Patriarchs of the East. We have testimony to this effect from the Patriarch Macarlus of Antioch, and the Patriarchs Dositheos and Chrysanteus of Jerusalem, who addressed themselves, according to a special formula, to each of these two Catholleol. The existence or the autocephalous Catholicosate of western Georgia continued from 1390 to the end of the eighteenth century. Exhausted by a thousand years' strife for the defense of Christianity against Islam in the person of its diverse representatives (Arabs in the seventh, eighth, and ninth centuries; Turks-Seldjuks in the eleventh century; MongoloTartars, under the leadership of Tchingls-Khan, in the thirteenth century; Tartars, lead by Tamerlan, in the fourteenth century; Persians and Turks in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries), Georgia turned for help to her northern neighbor and coreligionist, Russia. By a treaty, signed in 1783 by Catherine II. Empress of Russia, and the Georgian King Heraelius II, Georgia put herself under the protectorate of Russia, who, on her side, assumed the obligation of the defense of Georgia from foreign aggression, conserving to her a complete autonomy in internal affairs, and guaranteeing the succession of the Georgian Royal dynasty of the Bagratids. Although canonical law, as we have said above, can not be the object of constitutional or international legislation, we will here note that. according to the treaty of 1783, the Orthodox Georgian Church was left unchanged. Twelve years after the conclusion of this treaty, when the armies of the Persian Shah Aga-Mahomet-Khan, who was irritated by the fact that Georgia had put herself under Russian protection, approached the Georgian frontiers, Russia, failing completely in her obligation, gave no help whatsoever to Georgia, who fell a victim to nn invasion the like of which had not been suffered by her since the days of Tamerlan. The rest of the story is known: King Heraclius II died without having seen the liberation of his country, which was reduced to desolation and burning ruins. His son, King George XIII. reigned three years and a half. After the invasion of Georgia. which took place under the eyes of an indifferent Russia, in answer to the request of the Georgian Government to consider the question of a more effective defense of Georgia In the future, the Rus.lan Emperors Paul I and Alexander I, after the death of King George XIII, simply annexed the kingdom of Georgia to Russia, proclaiming her n department of their empire, thus canceling the treaty of 1783, concerning the protectorate of Russia over Georgia, and the guarantee of the sovereignty and autonomy of the latter. At the same time the very anclent Georgian Church was deprived simply by decree of a tale power of the possibility of exercising her autocephaly. "I wish." wrote Emperor Paul I in 1801. "that Georgia be a department, and therefore place her immediately in relations with the senate, and in all that concerns her ecclesiastical affairs, with the Synod." I 1811, by receipt of Emperor Alexander I, the Cathollcos.Patriarch i Antonius 11 was "convoked" to Russia. where he died." After his death the Georgian Church was not allowed to proceed to the election of a CathollcosPatriarch, but a Government General of the Russian Synod was sent out from St. Petersburg with the title of Exarch of Georgia, to rule the most ancient autocephalous Church of Georgia. It is not our purpose to criticize the motives of Emperor Paul I, and, beyond saying that he evidently thought that he was doing his l~est for his. 'This rescript (June 10, 1911) actually stated that the dignity of the Cathollcos was not compatible with the authority of the Russlan Holy Synod.


-empL we shall only remark that his order concerning the Georgian Church, -being the decree of a lc power, was devoid of all canonical (ecclesiastical) Importance. Therefore the ancient autocephalous Orthodox Church of Georgia (as we have already said) was not deprived ot her autocephaly, but only of the physical possibility of exercising It, and remained, as she always had been, autocephaous. In fact, the Russian bishops who, in execution of an irregular and anticanonical decree of the lalc power, Interfered in the government of the autocephalous Orthodox Georgian Church committed a grave offense against the laws of the church. The exarchate of the synod of the Russian Church In Georgia was, during the whoje time of its existence (over a hundred years), the instrument of the Russion Government for the carrying out of a definitive State policy In the Caucasus, hut we will refrain from any judgment of the work of the exarchate in this connection, firstly, because It was precisely for the carrying out of this policy that it was created by the Russian Government, and secondly, because the very existence of a synodal exarchate over the Georgian church being illegal and anticanonlcal, there Is no occasion to approach its deeds from the point of view of legality or of justice. A few examples, however, will give some Idea of the exarchal rgirme to which the Georgian Church was obliged to submit: Some time after the enforcement of the exarchal tutelage over the Church of Georgia, her property, valued at over a hundred million golden rubles, was confiscated, the Georgian language was systematically suppressed and replaced by Slavonic, although the congregation understood not a word of it; the beautiful ancient Georgian Church music-being considered to resemble the bleating of a goat " -- was replaced by Slavonic chants, incomprehensible to the congregation; the Georgian bishops were exiled, etc. The rule of the Russian synod over the Georgian Church was also exceedingly unprofitable for the latter-for instance, with the permission of the Exarch Euseblus, a very rare eleventh-century text of the Gc.,pel was taken from the monastery of Gelati, stripped of its precious stones, and returned with false ones; from the Cathedral of Sion very great quantities of precious stones were taken away; the same was done with the jewels belonging to the Patriarchal Cathedral of Mtskheta, and the monasteries of Alaverdi and Bodbi. The old historical sacred books and manuscripts, with artistic miniatures and illuminations, were carried off; the famous image of the Virgin (valued at 50,000 golden rubles) was taken away from the Castle Church of Metekhl In Tiflis. By order of the Exarch Palladus, Mr. Sabingus took the best of the Georgian holy Images, under pretext of restoring them, and despoiled them of their jewels. There was also systematic repression of the Georgian bishops and high clergy for a peaceful and purely academic defense of the autocephaly of the Georgian Church. The exile of Bishops Kyrion and Leonidas and of the Archimandrite Ambrose are but typical Incidents of this lamentable period in the history of the Georgian Church. But, to the great credit of the Georgian clergy, it must be said that, however high they held the banker of the autocephaly of their church, they never protested in such form as could damage the interests and prestige of orthodoxy in the Caucasus, where so many different religions and confessional interests clash. On the contrary, while denying the right of the Russian synod to usurp the prerogatives of the autocephalous Georgian church, the Georgian clergy-in all that could serve the cause of the extension and strengthening of orthodoxy In the Caucasus--gave their energy to common action with the Russian clergy: As examples of this, the missionary propaganda among the Osset Highlanders (begun under King David the Reconstructor, in the twelfth century, and continued in the eighteenth century by Bishop John of Manglissi and others) was carried on by the Georgian clergy under and In cooperation with the synodal exarchate. The most decisive form of protest against the Illegal r6gime to which the Georgian Church was subjected was the appeal addressed by the Georgian episcopate, clergy, and laity to the ecumenical patriarch In 1912. when the oppression of the Georgian bishops and higher clergy took the character of real persecution. In this appeal the Georgian Church begged the ecumenical patriarch to defend her violated rights. ISee the letter of March 25, 1804, addressed by the commander In chief of the Huselan armies in Georgia to the Catholicoa-Patrlarch Antonlus Ii. (" Acts of the Caucasian Archeographical Commission," Vol. II, p. 268.)



In 1906, In connection with the political and moral crisis which ,Russia was then experiencing, the question of the convocation of a council of the Russian Church came up. A special preliminary commission, under the direction of the synod, was created to prepare material for this council. However strong was the desire of the synod and of the government to eliminate the question of the autocephaly of the Georgian Church, they were obliged, nevertheless, to Include this question in the program of the preliminary commission, creating a special subcommisslon ad hoe. The Georgian bishops, animated by the spirit of Christian peace and love, and hoping in this way perhaps to obtain the restoration of the rights of their church, decided to take part in the meetings of the preliminary commission, and to defend therein the interests of the Georgian Church; they were assisted by Professors Marr and Toagarell, the greatest authorities on Georgian history. But everything was done to obstruct the discussion of the question of the autocephaly of the Georgian Church In the preliminary commission, and the Georgian delegation withdrew from it. At the end of February, 1917, the change In the Russian Government took place. By a declaration issued March 12, 1917, by the Georgian episcopate, clergy, and laity the Orthodox Church of Georgia returned to her autocephalous exlstence. On March 27 the Russian provisional government published the law "Corcerning the regulation of the Jurldicial consequences relative to the reestabitshment of the autocephaly of the Ancient Orthodox Church of Georgia," by whifh law the Russian state power restored to the Orthodox Church of Georgia the power of exercising her ancient autocephaly. On July 26, 1917, were published the "Temporary rules concerning the situation of the Georgian Church In the Russian state." As stated at the beginning of this article, these two laws of the provisional government created a regime of coexistence in the Russian state of two orthodox churches-the Russian and the Georgian---conserving, pending the convocation of the Russian Constituent Assembly, the control of the government over the confessional organizations existing under the Empire. But the law of March 27, as well as the "Temporary rules" of July 26, were the result of a compromise between a 'sincere desire to reestablish the rights of the Georgian Church and the fear of changing too radically the order of things which had, de facto, resulted from its hundred years' enforced subjection to the Russian Synod. Being the result of a compromise, these two laws presented considerable drawbacks and Internal contradictions; while proclaiming the reestablishment of the autocephaly of the Orthodox Georgian Church, and Intending to restore her status quo ante, they gave the principles which the proclaimed and In. complete and Irregular embodiment. Evidently desiring to avoid dissension regarding settlement of territorial limits between the Russian and Georgian Orthodox Churches In Transcaucasla, and not wanting to give any territorial basis whatever to the national aspirations of the Georgians, the provisional government, rather unexpectedly, granted to the Georgian Church (which they were In principle reestablishing in Its rights) a species of autocephaly quite new to this church, and utterly unknown to orthodox canonical law-a national, nonterritorial autocepbaly.0 The inconsistency of this system, from the logical as well as from the canonlal point of view, Is' evident. From the, because the reestablilshiment of her status quo ante, such as existed before the Intervention of the Russian laic power, being intended, the Georgian Church, being territorial, posses.sed a territory within which she ought to have been reestablished. And from the canonical, because this expedient created a situation directly contrary to the fundamental principles of orthodox canon law, inasmuch as it permitted the extension over the same territory of two autocephalous orthodox authorities the Russian and the Georgian Churches. The intervention of one bishop In the diocese (territorial domain) of a fellow-bishop, or the Interference of any ecclesiastical authority (Metropolitan, Patriarch,' or Synod) In the territorial domain of an equal and corresponding * Altering the ancient title of the head of the Georian Church, "Cathollcos-Patrlarch ef all/eorgia," to "Catholicos-Patriarch of all the Georgians" (art. 5 of the "Temporary ue) 'lerUSeveral dioceses form a composed diocese. the Metropoly of Patriarchate, over which extends the jurisdiction of the senior bishop. the Metropolitan. or, higher. in the limits of a local church, the Patriarch or Synod. 96153-26----12

NATIONAL RBPUBL1O OF GEORGIA ecclesiastical authority, is most strictly prohibited by the holy canons (" there shall not be two bishops in one town"). At the same time, from a lay point of view, If the basis of the organization of the Orthodox Churches is a territorial unity-the diocese-the extension over the same territory of the Jurisdiction of two t lual and mutually Independent ecclesiastical e'thoritles of the same rellgon Is incomprehensible, and suggests a difference In con. fession or a seum. The Orthodox Church admits exceptions to this fundamental rule only In regard to the legations of one patriarch or head of a church on the territory of another autocephalous church, and also sometimes for single parishes or monasteries, for local or historical reasons. The existence of a whole nonterritorial, local church Is utterly unknown to canon law. The holy canons, as we have said, condemn all Infraction of the territorial principle, (principle of the territorial sovereignty of the bishop) which Is the basis of orthodox church organization. The general danger of these Infractions lies in the natioual feeling carried out too far In church matters there, where different national interest and arpiratons clash, and the Orthodox Church, has, In 1872, clearly defined her point of view on this subject (in regard to the Bulgarian Schism): the national principle of church administration-leading the confusion of the Jurisdiction of several orthodox bishops who would, according to this principle, rule' people of different nationalities on the some territory (as the Bulgarians would have it)-has been severaly condemned as a false doctrine (Philetism). , le laws of the provisional government, however, being the acts of a laic poWer, were absolutely devoid of any canonical Importance, and had meaning only so far as by them the Russian State power withdrew the forcible and anticanonical pressure by which It had a hundred years before deprived the Orthodox Georgian Church of the power tO exercise her autocephalous rights, and In as far as they reestablished her status quo ante. The Georgian Church, animated by the desire to regulate her situation in the spirit of Christian peace and love, accepted--even In the defective way In which It was given to her-the possibility of exercising her rights, taking into consideration the temporary character of the laws of the provisional government. In September, 1917, the council of the Orthodox Church of Georgia assembled. This council confirmed the declaration of March 12 and the acts of the temporary government of the Georgian Church, established the foundation of her organization, elaborated and adopted her canonical constitution, and elected as catholicos patriarch the Bishop Kyrion. who after the confirmation of his election by the Russian State power (according to article 6 of the "temporary rules") ascended on October 1 of the same year to the apostolic cathollcosal and patriarchal throne of Mtskheta and all Georgia under the name of KX.'ron II. The canonical head of the Russian Church-the holy synod-preserved a complete silence on the question of Georgian autocephaly, not protesting In any way whatever against Its Just reestablishment or against the laws of the provisional government concerning this question. Meanwhile the political horizon 46f Russia was becoming heavily clouded. In October the council of the Russian Church assembled in Moscow, and had scarcely been opened when the Bolshevik coup d'etat took place, and it had to continue Its work in a city already occupied by them. In spite of that it completed the great work of reorganizing the ecclesiastical government of the Russian Orthodox Church, and having reestablished the patriarchical form of church government elected as patriarch the Metropolitan Tikhon, who was enthroned on February 21, 1918. It should be noted that the council of the Russian Church preserved a silence as complete as did the holy synod In regard to the reestablishment of the autocephaly of the Georgian Church. About a month, however, after ascending the Russian patriarchal throne the Patriarch Tikhon saw fit to address to the the Georgian cathollcos patriarch an epistle against the reestablishment of the autocephaly of the Georgian Church.




In this epistle the Patriarch Tikhon quoted extracts from the rules of the church In condemnation of insubordination on the part of bishops toward their hierarchical superiors and applied them to the reestablishment of the autocephaly of the Georgian Church (?). The Patriarch Tikhon thus accused the Georgian bishops of Insubordination to the Russian exarch. The publication of this epistle was all the more unexpected In that both the holy synod and the council of the Russian Church had been passive on this question. At the same time the Russian clergy In the Caucasus began to spread rumors to the effect that the orthodox patriarchs of the east, notably the ecumenical patriarch, "did not recognize" the autocephaly of the Georgian Church. Although there was no question of recognizing a new autocephaly, as this was only a case of the reestablishment of an ancient and already universally recognized autocephaly, and of the abolition of the anticanonical exarchal rule, the catholicos patriarch of Georgia charged Mr. Gogolachvill to interview the Metropolitan Dorotheos, then locum-tenens of the ecumenical-patriarchal throne. During the audience granted to Mr. Gogolachviii the locum tenens, as was only to be expected, catagorically denied the above-mentioned rumor. The Georgian Church did not consider It possible to enter into discussion with the Russian patriarch on the clear and simple question of the reestablishiment of her canonical rights, and therefore left the epistle of Patriarch Tikhon unanswered. The present organization of the Orthodox Church of Georgia as established by her last council may be summarized as follows: The plenitude of the ecclesiastical power In the Georgian Church belongs to her council, which meets periodically, and which rules the church by the medium of the catholicos patriarch, elected for life by the council. The catholicos patriarch exercises his power in conjunction with the catholicosal council, which concentrates within itself the representation of the episcopate, clergy, and laity. The ecclesiastical-judicial power Is exercised by the catholicos patriarch through the intermediary of the catholicosal tribunal. The catholicos patriarch renders account of his government to the council of the Orthodox Church of Georgia. The election of the catholicos patriarch, as well as the nomination of the members of the cathollcosal council and tribunal, together with the functioning of these bodies, are regulated by the fundamental laws established by the council of the Orthodox Church of Georgia. The Georgian Church Is divided into1. The Metropoly of Tiflis (with the auxiliary bishops of Gori and Alaverdl). 2. The Metropoly of Kutais. 3. The Metropoly of Tjkondidi. 4. The Archbishopric of BitJvInta and Abkhasia. Pending the decision of the question of the administration the Russian parishes founded under the exarchate, these parishes, by common consent of the Russian and Georgian Orthodox Churches. remain under the administration of the Russian bishop residing in Bakou (eastern Caucasus). The Catholicos Patriarch Kyrlon II died in the summer of 1918. In his place the council of the Georgian Church elected as catholicos patriprch Leonidas, Metropolitan of Tiflis. Meantime the political life of the Georgian nation was rapidly developing. In 1918 (May 20) the Independence of the Georgian state was reestablished. In March, 1919, met the Constituent Assembly of Georgia. One of the most important of the legislative acts passed by this assembly was the law of the separation of the church from the State. In 1921 (January 27) the powers recognized de jure the independence of Georgia, whose international status was thus definitely regulated. This independence had already before been recognized by Soviet Russia, which had concluded a treaty with Georgia (May 7, 1920). In contempt of this treaty the Russian Soviet troops in February, 1921, without any pretext and without a declaration of war, crossed the Georgian frontiers in overwhelming numbers, and, notwithstanding the desperate resistance of the Georgian Army and nation, occupied the territory of the Georgian Republic.




The National Government of Georgia, appointed by the Constitueat Assembly and recognied by the powers, were obliged to withdraw from Georgia and to continue abroad their efforts for the liberation of their country from foreign *Mtary occupation. The Catholicos-Patriarch Leonidas 1, as the good shepherd who leaves not bis flock, remained in occupied Tiflis, where he died In the summer of 1921, the victim of an epidemic of cholera imported by the Russian Bolshevik troop& The Catholieos-Patriarch Ambrose I, elected in his stead by the council of the Georgian Church, seeing that the only salvation of his peole lay in their liberation from foreign military occupation, fearlessly addressed (February 7, 1922), from occupied Tiflis, a letter to the conference of Genoa, In which he exposed the tragedy of the Georgian nation, demanding the withdrawal of the Bolshevik troops. The sorely tried Georgian nation has not yet drained the chalice of her bitter suffering& In these civilized times she has fallen victim to an invasion unsurpassed In barbarity by those of the Mongols and Tartars; but God has allowed her to face the trial of this invasion with her national church firmly reestablished in her ancient rights and with a great Georgian patriot at her head. May God grant that to-day, as in ages past, the Georgian Church may still be the strength and stay of her nation, and show herself to be the self-same church which for long ventures has given to the people of ancient Colchis the force to carry through countless trials the Golden Fleece of their spiritual and national culture.


(Adopted by the constituent assembly February 22, 1921) Below are published two documents, constituting the fundamental laws of the Republic of Georgia; the act of independence of the Repubile of Georgia and its constitution. The act of Independence was proclaimed by the Georgian National Council at Tfilis on May 26, 1918, and was confirmed by the constituent assembly elected by equal, universal, secret, and proportional suffrage of the citizens of both sexes at Its first session of March 12, 1919. At the same session the constituent assembly entrusted a commission with the work of working out the plan of the constitution of the Republic, giving a judicial form to the political organization, which existed already, de facto, in the institutions and constitutional practice followed In Georgia. This achieved Its object and finished its work toward the end of 1920. The definite text of the constitution was voted on by the constituent assembly on February 22, 1921, so that the Republic had already been attacked by the army of Soviet Russia. PAis, February,1922. The constituent assembly of Georgia. elected by citizens of both sexes, according to the direct, equal, universal, secret, and proportional electoral system, at its first sitting of March 12, 1919, proclaims before the world and history, that it fully confirms and approves the act of the Independence of Georgia, declared at Tiflis by the Georgian National Council, May 26, 1918.

For several centuries Georgia existed as a free and independent state. At the end of the eighteenth century Georgia voluntarily allied herself with Russia, with the stipulation that the latter should protect her against enemies from without. In the course of the great Russian. revolution conditio-i arose which resulted In the disorganization of the entire military front I the abandonment of Transcaucasia by the Russian armies. Thus. left to their own devices, Georgia, and with her all Transcaucasia, took into their hands the direction of their affairs, creating the necessary organs for this purpose; but under pressure from exterior forces the links which united Transcaucasian nationalities were broken and the political unity of Transcaucasla was thus dissolved. The present position of the Georgian nation makes it Imperatively necessary that Georgia should create a political organization of her own in order that she may escape from the yoke of her enemies and lay a solid foundation for her free development. Accordingly the Georgian National Council, elected by the National Assembly of Georgia on November 22 (December 5). 1917, declares: 1. In future the Georgian people will hold sovereign power, and Georgia will be a State enjoying all the rights of a free and independent State. 2. Independent Georgia's form of political organization will be a democratic Republic. 3. In case of International conflicts, Georgia will always remain neutral. 4. The Georgian democratic Republic will apply itself to establishing friendly relations with all nations, and especially with neighboring nationalities and States. 5. The democratic Georgian Republe guarantees to all citizens within its territory all civil and political rights without distinction of nationality, religion, social position, or sex.



6. The democratic Georgian Republic offers to all inhabitants of its territory a wide field for free development. 7. Until the convocation of the constituent assembly, the National Council, with the addition of representatives of the minorities and the provisional government responsible to the National Council, is at the head of all Georgian administration. FIRST CHAPT-gQZNEZAL BAsIs First article. Georgia is a state; free, independent, and indivisible. The permanent and unchangeable form of its political constitution is the democratic Republic. 2. The capital of Georgia Is Tiflis. 3. The official language of Georgia is the Georgian language. 4. The flag of the Georgian Republic is of carmoisine color (dyed dogberry) with one black and one white stripe. The seal of the Georgian Republic is the effigy of Georges-La-Blane mounted on a horse, surmounted by seven actres. 5. The laws and decrees only enter into force after they have been published In the regular manner. 6. The territory of the state may neither be ceded, divided, nor sold. The enlargement of the territory or the rectifications of the frontiers which may be contested is only possible by virtue of a law. 7. The administrative division and the appointing or the alteration of the autonomous boundaries (limits) can only be done by the legislative law. 8. The constitution is the supreme law of the state. Any law, any decree, any ordinance, or decision which is in contradiction with the principles or the spirit of the constitution can not be promulgated. All the powers of the state are held to fulfill the constitution and to apply Its principles, as well in the legislative domain as in the administration. 9. The laws and decrees previous to the constitution remain in force, if they are not in contradiction to the constitution and Its principles. 10. The present constitution remains in force permanently and uninterrupted, except in cases provided for in the constitution itself. 11. After the adoption of the contitution the constituent assembly shall publish It with the signatures of its members.

12. The Georgian nationality is acquired by birth, by marriage, or by natural. Ization. 13. A Georgian citizen can not be at the same time a citizen of any other state. 14. A Georgian citizen can not renounce his nationality except after having fulfilled all his obligations to the state. 15. The detailed conditions of the acquisition and the 7oss of the rights of the indigenes are determined by law.

16. All citizens are equal before the law. 17. There is no distinction of class. 18. No titles, except degrees of the universities. shall be conferred. Decora. tions are abolished; distinctive marks may be conferred by reason of war. 19. Capital punishment is abolished. 20. Nobody can be condemned except by way of the judiciary, with tile exception of disciplinary punishments provided for by law. 21. All citizens are Judged by the same form of procedure. 22. Every person enjoys individual inviolability. Nobody can be arrested or deprived of his liberty in any other manner, nor submitted to search except by warrant of a court of justice or by the medium of inquiry. 23. The administration can only proceed with the arrest on its own Initiative on the following cases: (a) When the guilty person is surprised in the very act. (b) When the guilty person is indicted on the place of the crime by the victim or by a witness. (c) When any object establishing the guilt of the prisoner is found upon his person, or when incontestable signs or traces of the crime are found upon his person or his domicile.



24. The arrest of culprits by private individuis is lawful when they surprise him in the very act of crime and when there is cause of fear of escape before the arrival of the agents of the public forces. 25. Any person arrested by order of the judiciary or administrative forces must be brought before the nearest court within 24 hours; in cases where the court is too far away in order to bring a culprit before it within that period, it may be prolonged, without, however, exceeding 48 hours. 20, The court must proceed Immediately, in no case later than 24 hours, to interrogate the prisoner. After this it may ordainj by written order, either the further detention of the culprit or his immediate release.27. The judicial authorities are obliged, in cases where It happens that a person has been arrested in violation of the above-mentioned rules, to look Immediately into the case and to give immediate orders either for his release or to keep him in custody. 28. The domicile of a citizen is inviolable, and searches are only authorized in cases provided for by law. 29. Private correspondence is Inviolable and can only be seized and examined in pursuance of a Judgment of the court. 30. Every citizen has the right of moving and selecting his own residence; there is no restriction of this right except by order of the court of Justice. 31. Every citizen enjoys full liberty of conscience. He can not be prosecuted nor have restrictions brought upon his political or civil rights for reason of his religion or convictions. Everybody has the right to profess his own religion, to change same, or not to have any religious creed. No person has the right to evade his political or civil obligations by calling upon his religion or convictions except in case provided by law. The actions of a religious character modify In no way the civil rights or position of anybody. 32. Every citizen has the right to express his opinions, to propagate them verbally, by the public press, or by any other means without previous authority of the government. In this case he is only responsible to the court of justice for any crime committed. 33. The citizens of Georgia have the right of public assembly without arms, either Indoors or In the open air. 34. The administration has the right to close any meeting If It becomes unlawful. 35. The citizens of the Georgian Republic have the right to form professional or other societies without previous authority of the government, provided ttat their object is not forbidden by law. The dissolution of such societies Is only possible by order of a court of law. 36. The free development of the Intellectual professions, commercial, lidustrial, and agricultural pursuits Is guaranteed by the Republic. 37. The right of Individual or collective petition Is assured. 38. Workmen have the right to strike. 39. The citizens of both series enjoy equal political, civil economic, and family rights. 40. Marriage is based on equal rights and upon mutual consent of husband and wife. The form and rules of marriage are determined by law. Children born in or out of wedlock have the same rights and duties. The mother has the right to seek and prove the paternity of a natural child by way of the courts, and this child has the same right to seek and prove the paternity. 41. No fugitive for political reasons and who takes refuge in this Republic can be extradited. 42. All official and private persons guilty of infractions of the above laws aimed at the rights of the citizens will be prosecuted according to the penal code. 43. In case of sedition within the country or In case of war, parliament has the right to suspend temporarily the constitutional guaranties contained In articles 19, 22, 25, 20, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, and 38; in case of war the guaranties contained in article 21 may also be suspended, provided the accused be pot amenable to justice of a council of war in the military zone. 44. When parliament is not in session the government has the right on its own responsibility to suspend the constitutional guaraptles above mentioned. But in this case it is obliged to convoke parliament immediately and to submit its decision. 45. In case of serious epidemics the government has the right to suspend temporarily the constitutional guaranties in articles 22, 25, 20, and 30, in so far as this act Is necessary to fight the epitlemic.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF *GEORGIA 46. The rights and guaranties enumerated in the constitution do not exclude eter rights and guaranties, although not yet formulated, but nevertheless run along the principles established by the conbtitution.

46. The representative body of the Georgian Republic Is the parliament of Georgia, composed of deputies elected by universal, equal, direct, secret, and pteporttonal voting. Every citizen, without distinctJou of sex, enjoying all his rights and being over 20 years old has the right r',, part in the elections. The parliament Is elected for three years. 4T. The rules of a legislative election ase laid down by a special law. 48. Members of parliament are not held responsible for opinions expressed by them during the term of their office. The person of a member of parliament -is inviolable. He can neither- be arrested nor Indicted without consent of parliament. An exception Is made in the case of "flagrante delicto," which must be brought Immediately to the knowledge of parliament. A member arrested or indicted must be released Immediately If parliament so desires. 49. Members of parliament may refuse to bear witness about facts which may have been Intrusted to them In their quality of deputies. right may be invoked even after the expiration of their term of office, 50. Members of parliament receive a: Indemnity fixed by law. 51. The cases of ineompatability between the office of deputy and the exercise of a public office or whatsoever profession shall be determined by law. 52. The sovereignty belongs to the entire nation. Parliament exercises this sovereignty within the limits fixed by the constitution. 53. Parliament votes on the laws, decrees, and decisions; the manner of their publication shall be fixed by a special law. 54. The powers of parliament are the following: (a) Legislation. (b) Supreme direction of the army of the Republic and in general of all the armed forces. (o) ieclaratlon of war. (d) Ratification of treaties of peace, commerce, or other treaties with foreign powers. (e) The right of amnesty. (f) Making of the budget. (g) The right to make Interior or foreign loans. (h) Appointment of officials as provided by the constitution. (4) General control of the executive power. 55. The sessions of parliament are public; but parliament has the right by special decision to hold entire or partial sessions behind closed doors. 56. Parliament decides Itself the validity of the election of Its members and resolves on all questions relative thereto. 57. All decisions of parliament are made by a simple majority of votes, unless another modus has been adopted by law or by regulation. 568. The openings of parliamentary sessions necessitates the presence of at least half of the total number of deputies. 59. Parliament has the right to Interpellate the Government and to question It. Interpellations and questions are subject to rules determined by law or by regulation. Parliament has the right to nominate commissions of Inquiry. 60. The parliament fixes Itself by regulation the procedure of its discussions. 61. The annual sessions of the parliament begin on the first Sunday of November. The elections for the renewal of the parliament take place in the autumn, simultaneously In the entire Republic, and in time to permit the newly elected mer:bers to be present at the opening of parliament. 62. The operations of the parliament can only be suspended by parliament Itself. During the Interruptions In the work of the parliament the right to assemble this latter In extraordinary cases bclongs to the Government or to the bureau of the parliament. The assembly of the parliament Is obligatory if one quarter of the number of deputies desires it. 6.3. The right of initiative belongs to: (a) Any member of parliament. (b) Any group of 5,000 electors.



64. Parliament is obliged to submit any new law to a popular referendum if 80,000 electors require It in writing. The rules of a referendum are determined

by law.

65. Parliament elects its bureau yearly.

FznM CHaPE--EXMCUxVa POWER 66. The executive power belongs to the Government of the Republic. 67. The President of the Government is elected by parliament for the period of one year. The same President can only be reelected once. 68. The other ministers, members of the Government, are appointed by the President from among the citizens Who have the right tc take part in parliamentary elections. 69. Mtembers of the government may not fill any other office or profession. They may only be members of parliament or of the councils of self-government. 70. The president of the government is the supreme representative of the Republic. He appoints the representatives of Georgia to other powers, and it is to him that the representatives of foreign powers are accredited. In the absence of a government decision which may find itself obstructed, the president may by exceptional right have recourse to the armed forces of the Republic, but he must Inform parliament immediately. The ordinances of laws and by-laws relative thereto emanate from the president of the government, who, however, does not have the right to arrest the action of the laws or to hinder its execution. The president of the government has the right to order the extraordinary control of public or local administrations, or the revision of particular cases, according to the rules determined by law. The president has no other rights except those conferred on him by the constitution. 71. The president of the government has a lieutenant. In the absence of the president hi attributes devolve upon his lieutenant. 72. The general rights and duties of government are: (a) To assure the supreme direction of the affairs of the Republic according to its laws. (b) To watch over the application of the Republic and the execution of its laws. (c) To put before parliament its plans for laws, as well as its conclusions about plans of laws emanating from the parliament or from the people. (d) To defend the external interests of the Republic. (e) To safeguard the Republic from external dangers and to defend itN independence. (f) To insure security and order in the interior of the country. If unforeseen circumstances require it, to mobilize the armed forces of the country, but not for any period longer than 21 days. This period can only be prolonged by consent of parliament. (g) To manage the finances, to issue money according to law, and to submit annually to parliament a budget of revenue and expenses of the State. (h) To give an account to parliament of Its work and to submit at least once a year a report about the internal and external situation of Georgia. To present also to parliament any special reports if desired. (i) To acquit Itself of all obligations Imposed by parliament or by law. 73. The members of the government share in the directions of the affairs of the Republic, which do not depend directly on the president. Each member of the government directs independently, and under sole, personal responsibility to parliament, the department confided to him. He must resign as soon as he loses the confidence of parliament. A minister has only the right to vote in parliament If he is a member. The president of the government is responsible to parliament for the general politics. He is obliged to submit to the decisions of parliament and to execute the same, if necessary to change the ministers or even to re-form the entire cabinet. 74. Every member of government has the right to be present at the sessions of parliament and at the meetings of special commissions. Parliament, as well as the commissions, are obliged to listen to the minister if he requires it. On his part the minister is also obliged to present himself, if required, before parliament or commissions, and to furnish explanations. 75. The president and the government are responsible, under penalties, for any violation of the constitution; but only the president may indict them before a court of law. Members of the government are Judged as provided for by the common law.


76. The supreme court of Georgia is the senate elected by parliament and has the following functions: (a) To watch over the strict enforcement of the law. (b) To find out justice in the capacity of a court of cassation. 77. Civil and criminal matters and administrative debatable matters belong to the department of permanent tribunals. The organization, jurisdiction, and competence of these tribunals are determined by law. . 78. The judiciary power Is independent and only obeys the law. Justice is rendered in the name of the democratic Republic of Georgia. 79. The verdicts pronbunced by the tribunals can not be annulled, modified, or suspended by any legislative, administrative, or executive body. 80. The bearings of the courts are public; in certain cases, where the morale or public security requires it, courts can be held behind closed doors. 81. All serious matters belong to the penal jurisdiction, as well as political matters, and offenses of the press are submitted to a jury. 82. Judges are elected for a fixed period. The rules of such elections as well as the conditions to which the judges have to submit are determined by law. 83. Except by determination of the court, judges can not be the object of any change contrary to their wishes. They can only be temporarily dismissed, if they are arraigned by justice or if their case is under consideration. Their definite dismissal can only take place by judgment of the court.

84. No tax can be Instituted or levied If not previously sanctioned by parliament. (NoT.-The right of bodies of self-government to levy taxes is determined by special laws.) 85. Nobody can be exempted from the taxes of the state if not sanctioned by law. 86. No sum for retiring pensions, compensations, or whatsoever expense may be deducted from the treasury of the state except conforming to the law. 87. No loans of State nor any other financial obligation may be contracted without the authorization of parliament. 88. All revenues and all expenses of the state must appear in the budget. The budget must be presented every year to parliament for its approval. 89. If parliament does not get to voting the budget for the commencement of the budget year, the government can be authorized by parliament until the approval of the budget to cover the expenses of the states on the basis of the budget of the previous year. 90. No transfer of expenses of one chapter of the budget to another may be made without authority of parliament.

91. The control of the state is performed as follows: (a) Rigorous execution of the budget of state. (M) All revenues and expenses of the state. (c) The accounts and balance sheets of the different ministerial departments. (4) The finances of the bodies of the local self-government. 92. The controller of the state is elected by parliament. Ile is not in the cabinet, but has all the rights of a minister of state and is only responsible to parliament. He gives an account of his office every year. 93. The organization of the control and the rules of its application are determined by law.

94. Every citizen 95. The object of territory. 90. The duration determined by law. 97. The effective parliament.

Is compelled to do military service according to the law. the military organization is to defend the republic and its of military service and the organization of the forces is force of the recruiting contingent i; fixed every year by




98. The institutions of self-government being at the same time local administrative bodies are charged with the direction of economic and educational affairs within the limits of their territory. 99. The organizations of self-governmenti its rights and duties as well as the manner of their administration are fixed by law. 100. The institutions of self-government have the right to make by-laws for public administration conforming to the law. 101. The self-government is elected by secret, proportional, equal, and universal suffrage. 102. The by-laws and orders of the self-government can only be changed by legal manner. 103. The central bodies of the government have the right to suspend the bylaws and orders of self-government when they are contrary to law, but such matters must immediately be brought before a legal power. The manner and conditions of such suspensions are determined by law. 104. The self-government depends on the central bodies of government for the direction of its general administration. 105. The cases where the resolutions of self-government must be approved by Government are determined by law. 106. The institutions of self-government have their own budget according to a special law.

107. Abkhasle (district of Soukhoum), Georgia Musulmane (district of Batoum), and Zakhathala (district of Zakhatala), which are integral parts of the Georgian Republic, enjoy an autonomy in the administration of their affairs. 108. The statute concerning the autonomy of the districts mtntioned in the previous article will be the object of special legislation.

109. TIhe arts and sciences and their instruction are free, and it is the duty of the State to protect them and to help in their development. 110. Elementary instruction is gratuitous, general, and obligatory. The scholastic system is an organic whole where primary education serves as basis for secondary and for superior teaching. The teaching is in all its aspects laical. 111. The state must see to it that Indigent children have free schooling food, clothing, and school materials. The government and the bodies of self-government must set aside yearly from their resources a certain sum for the defrayal of these expenses. 112. Private schols are subject to the general school laws.

113. The Republic sees to it that all Its citizens have dignified existence. 114. Forced expropriation or restriction of private enterprise can only take place in virtue of a special law, which determines their manner, and only for the needs of the state and for public utility. The owners of property who have been expropriated will be Indemnified, provided there are no dispositions to the contrary made by law. 115. The Republic has its own commercial and industrial organization. Its principal object is to develop this organization and to create a single and complete system of social economy. The Republic will aid the bodies of selfgovernment in the development and strengthening of similar economic organizations. The government has the right to socialize by legislature the commercial, industrial, and agricultural enterprises which may be suitable for this purpose. 116. The State watches particularly against the private exploitation of the work of small producers, of the agricultural, the workmen, and the homeworker. The Republic will also give its special attention to the prosperity of agriculture. The proprietor of land has a duty toward society to cultivate the same to get the best possible results.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA 117. The existence of the State is based on work, and it is therefore a particular duty of same to protect same. 118. The laws of the Republic intrust the bodies of self-government with the work of establishing labor exchanges, employment agencies, and similar institutions which shall keep statistics of unemployed persons an:1 assist them to obtain work. The representatives of workers' unions to the extent of half, at least, shall take part in the central direction of these institutions. 119. Citizens who are out of work shall have the assistance of insurance and help to procure work for them. 120. Any citizen who is incapacitated from work by age, sickness, or other causes and having neither by law or custom a claim of support from his heir, curator, or any private or public institution, and being without means of existence, has the right to have assistance from the State by way of insurance or other methods. This assistance is also given by the State in cases where the heir or curator are not in a position to care for the invalid. 121. Any citizen incapacitated from work by age, mutilation, or other causes will receive in the way of insurance an assistance proportionate to his salary. The insurance capital will be raised by means of a tax levied on the employer. 122. Besides the tax mentioned in the proceeding article, a certain part of the receipts of the republic shall be annually set aside for the same object. 123. The normal duration of working time of hired help shall not be more than 48 hours per week. The worker must at the same time have a weekly respite from work of at least 42 uninterrupted hours per week. The exception to the weekly hours of work are determined by law. The fixing of the normal -time of work for agricultural laborers and season workers necessitating special working conditions are fixed by law. 124. The employment of minors under 16 years in establishments is forbldden; the working hours for minors between the ages of 10 and 18 is fixed at 6 hours per day; minors under 18 and women may not be employed in night work. 125. The Republic fixes the minimum rate of wages and establishes normal working conditions. It creates a special inspection of work and sanitary control independent of the employers. 126. The protection of female labor will be the object of a special law. The employment of women at work detrimental to maternity is forbidden.. During the time of confinement the female worker is excused from her work for at least two months without suspension of salary. It is the duty of an employer to permit his female workers to give the necessary time to their nurslings, 127. Any Infraction of the laws giving protection to labor comes within the penal code. 128. It Is incumbent on the Republic and the bodies of self-government to insure the protection of mothers and children.

129. It is forbidden to bring any obstacle to the free social development, economic and cutfural, of the ethnical minorities of Georgia, especially to the teaching in their mother language and the interior management of their affairs concerning their own culture. Everybody has the right to his mother tongue in writing, printing, and speaking. 130. All local ethnical minorities formed into united administration enjoy the right to group themselves and form national unions for organizing and directing their cultural matters within the limits of the constitution and the law. The local ethnical minorities which do not belong to united administrations may constitute themselves independently into an ethnical union, enjoying the competencies mentioned in this article. One is under the jurisdiction of an ethnical union for reason of the language one speaks. The cultural needs of the ethnical minorities are met by sums levied on the budget of self-government in proportion to the number interested. 131. Nobody shall be restricted in his rights, civil or political for the reason of belonging to an ethnical minority. 132. Any ethnical union may bring before a court of justice any matter in violation of the rights conferred to the minorities by the constitution or by law. 133. Any citizen of the Georglan Republie has equal rights concerning the admission to the civil or military service of the state as well as to the serv.cie of towns and communities.



134. In localities of a mixed population the bodies of self-government, are obliged, with the funds at their disposal, to create a sifficlent number of schools and e.tabllshments of instruction and general education in proportion to the ethnical composition of its population. 135. Instruction In all schools belonging to an ethnical minority shall be given In the language in which Its pupils speak. 136. In a circumscription submitted to a body of self-government where the proportion of the ethnical minority exceeds 20 per cent of the whole of the citizens and where the administration of communal and state affairs run concurrently, the official language, if the minority desires it, shall be the language of the said minority. 137. Any deputy of non-Georgian origin, not knowing the official language sufficiently for expressing his opinions In parliament, may use his mother tongue, on condition that he has previously submitted to the bureau of parliament an exact translation of his speech. The application of this article shall be regulated by law.

138. Any Georgian citizen hai access to all the offices if he satisfies the requirements of the law. 139. An officer may be relieved of his office, or incur disciplinary punishment by order of the institution or the chief. The rules as to his definite suspension are fixed by law. 140. Every officer has the right of a pension. The terms under which an officer or his family have the benefit of a pension are fixed by law. 141. Every officer Is responsible to justice according to the principles of the common law. Any citizen has the privilege to arrain any officer who may be guilty. Any citizen has the right to be reimbursed by the state for any loss or damage caused by an officer in the exercise of the functions of his office. The proceedings and conditions of indemnification are fixed by law.

142. other. 143. 144. bodies

The state and the church are separate and independent one from the No confession or creed enjoys special privileges. It Is forbidden to make any levies on the resources of the state or the of self-government for the needs of any religious order.

145. The complete or partial revision of the c.nstitntlon may be deman'-cd(a) By at least one-half of the members of parliament. (M) By a group of 50,000 electors. 146. Aprolosal for the revival of the constitution can on:y le heard In parliament six months after the deposition of such proposal. 147. A proposal or plan for Ih partial or entire revisal of the constitution can only be adopted by a majority of two-thirds of the members of parliament. This proposal only comes into force after It hs received the approval of the people. 148. The alteration of the form of government of the democratic Republic of Georgia can not be made the object of the proposal of a revisal of the constitution. 149. Until the meeting of parliament the constituent assembly will act in Its place.


TuEc RUSSIAN SOCIALIST SOVIET FEDERATIVE REPUBLIC The democratic Republic of Georgia and the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic animated by a common desire to establish stable and peaceful relations between the two countries, In order to assure the well-being of the populations of the respective countries, have, for that purpose, decided to conclude a special treaty, and have appoluted as plenipotentiaries: The Government of the democratic Republic of Georgia, Mr. Gregoire Ouratadze, and in the Government of the Russian Socialist Soviet Republic, Mr. Leon -Mikhailovitch Karakhan, Assistant Commissar of Foreign Affairs; who after communicating to each other their- full powers, found to be in due and proper form, have agreed upon the following articles:

Based on the right proclaimed by the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic of all peoples to fully dispose of themselves to the extent of and including total withdrawal from the state of which they form a part, Russia recognizes without reservations the independence and the sovereignty of the Georgian State, and voluntarily renounces all sovereign rights which belonged to Russia with respect to the Georgian people and territory.

Based on the principles proclaimed in the foregoing Article I, Russia agrees to renounce all intervention in the internal affairs of Georgia.

1. The state boundary between Georgia and Russit, runs from the Black Sea, along the Pacou River to Mount Akhahktcha, crosses Mount Akhakhtcha and Mount Agapet, follows the southern boundary of the former Black Sea governments, Koutals and Tiflis, to the Zakataly district and the eastern boundary of said district to the Armenian frontier. 2. All the hills situated on the above-mentioned boundary line are declared neutral until January 1, 1922. They can neither be occupied by the troops of either of the contracting parties, nor fortified by either of the said parties. 3. As regards Darial 11111, the neutralization provided for in paragraph 2 of the present article will apply to that part of the hill comprised between Balta and Kobi; to Mamisson 11111; from Zaramag to Oni; and, to all the other hills, for a distance of five verstes on each sile of the boundary line. 4. The exact direction of the state boundary between the two contracting parties will be determined by a special joint boundary commission, composed of an equal number of representatives of each party. The results of the work of this commission will be embodied in a special treaty to be con :ludcd between the two contracting parties.

1. In addition to those parts of the Black Sea Government awarded to Georgia by the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article III of the present treaty, Itussia agrees, without reservations, to recognize as being comprised in tile Georgian State the following governments and regions of the former Rtuisian Empire: TifNin, Koutais, and Ilaboum, with til the districts forming the said govern. ments and regions, and also the Zakataly and Soukhouin districts. 2. As fast as relations are established thereafter between Georgia and states other than Russia-states already existing or that may be formed subse180




quently-and bordering Georgia by other frontiers than those defined In Article III of the present treaty, Russia declares herself ready to recognize as belonging to Georgia such or much other part of the former vice royalty of Caucausus as may accrue to her in virtue of treaties concluded with these states.

Acceding to Russia's demand to the effect that there shall not be tolerated henceforth any military operation, quartering of troops, nor any other acts likely to create a situation on Georgian territory which might' threaten her independence or be capable, of transforming Georgia's territory into a base of operations directed against the public order there established, Georgia agrees: 1. To immediately disarm and intern in concentration camps all military or naval units, debarkments, and groups having pretentions to the rOle of Government of Russia, or any part thereof, or of states allied to Russia-as well as representatives and functloaarles, organizations, and groups seeking to overthrow the Government of Ruissia or of her allies-who may be on Georgian territory at the time of the sigi ature of the present treaty or who may subsequently enter her territory. 2. To immediately disarm and Intern the naval vessels belonging to the. organizations and groups mentioned in paragraph 1 of the present article, whhh may be in the ports of Georgia, and also any vessels, which for any reason whatsoever may be in these parts at the disposal of said organizations and groups. The provisions of paragraph 1 of the present article apply in their entirety to the crews of said vessels. 3. To hand over to Russia without charge, and without demanding any compensation, all military and naval supplies without exception, all securities and funds which may be in the possession, enjoyment, or at the disposal of the organizations and groups mentioned in paragraph 1 of the present article, and which, in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2 of the same article, are to be placed at Georgia's disposal. By the terms of the present paragraph the following shall be considered as military and naval war materials: Vessels and other floating material; all artillery, commissary (including stocks of provisions and equipment), engineering, and aviation material in general. 4. To deliver to Russia, after disarmament, the units, organizations, and groups, as well as the crews, mentioned in paragraph 1 of the present article. Novu-Russia agrees to spare the lives of all those who may be delivered to her in accordance with the present article. 5. To take ineasures to send away from the Georgian territory comprised within the boundaries fixed by Article IV of the present treaty all troops and military detachments not forming part of the national troops of Georgia. 8. To take steps to forbid the sojourning hereafter on Georgian territory of the troops and military detachments mentioned in paragraph 5 of the present article. 7. To forbid an. persons belonging to the units, organizations, and groups enumerated in partigraphs 1 and 5 of the present article, in so far as said persons are not of Ceorgian nationality, to enter, in any capacity whatsoever, among others, as volunteers, the troops of the Government of Georgia. 8. Not to permit heneforth the formation and sojourn on her territory within the boundaries fixed In Article IV of the present treaty, of any troops and organizations pretending to the r~le of Government of Russia or any part thereof, or of the r6le f government of states allied with Russia nor any representatives and funct!onaries, organizations, and groups seeking to overthrow the Government of Russia or that of her allies; Georgia also agrees not to permit the transportation by the above-mentioned organizations, groups. representations, and functio.arics across Georgian territory, of anything that could be utilized to attack Itu-sia or her allies, and also to prohibit the sojourn in her ports and waters of vessels and other floating niaterul belonging to sail organizations, except in tite case of vessels in distrevs and other cases provided for by International law. 9. In case the organizations. groups, representatives, or ttinctionaries mentioned in the foregoing paragraph 8 of the present article should attempt to violate the interdiction stipulated in said paragraph 8, proceedings will be taken with resl*ct to tile persons m.d property that the Georgian Government



undertakeft to arrest in accordance with the obligations assumed by it in accordance with the terms of paragraph 8 of the present article, as stipulated in paragraphs 3 and 4 of the said article.

Russia agrees not to permit on her territory the sojourn and the activity of any group or organization pretending the rdle of Government of Georgia, or any part thereof, nor of any group and organization seeking to overthrow the Government of Georgia. Russia agrees to use all her influences with her allies to the end that the groups and organizations mentioned in the present article shall not be admitted to this territory. ARTICLE VIU In order to avoid any misunderstanding, the two contracting parties agree that at the time of the execution of paragraphs 5 and 6 of Article V of the present treaty in the parts of the territory accruing to Georgia by the terms of paragraph 2 of Article IV of said treaty, after the delimitation of the frontiers of Georgia and neighboring countries other than Russia, the necessary measures -of security In these cases shall be taken by Georgia within The shortest possible time, once she shall have assumed formal exercise of her sovereignty in such or such of said territories.

A Joint commission, composed of an equal number of representatives of each party hereto, shall be appointed to see to the strict enforcement of Articles V and VI or the present treaty and to the delivery and reception of the persons and property stipulated in paragraphs 3 and 4 of the said Article V. The commission shall Itself determine its method of procedure. The delivery and the reception of the persons and property syelfied in paragraphs 3 and 4 of Article V of the present treaty shall be effected within a period of two months from the date of the signature of said treaty.

1. Persons of Georgian origin, residing on Russian territory, and having reached the age of 18 years, shall have the right to choose Georgian nationality. Likewise. persons not of Georgian origin, residing on Georgian territory, and having attained the age above mentioned, shall be entitled to opt for Russian nationality. 2. The details relative to the enforcement of the present article shall be embodied In a special agreement to be concluded between the two contracting parties. 3. The nationals of the two contracting parties who desire to take advan. tage of the rights conferred on them by the provisions of the present article, shall be required to comply with the formalities to which they are subjected, within one year from the date of the coming into force of the convention mentioned In the foregoing paragraph 2.

Georgia agrees to release from penalties Imposed and from administrative or legal prosecution, all persons subject to such proceedings in Georgian territory. of acts committed in the interest of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic, or in the interest of the Communist Party. NoTE.-Georgla agrees to release Immediately all persons Imprisoned for the above-mentioned acts.

Each of the contracting parties agrees to recognize and to respect the flag and the arms of the other party hereto, as being the emblem of a friendly state. The designs of the flags and the aims, so well as any changes that may subsequently be made therein, shall be communicated to the respective parties through diplomatic channels.




Pending the conclusion between the two contracting parties, of a treaty of commerce, the necessary measures for which will be taken as soon as possible the economic relations between Georgia and Russia shall be regulated provisionally in accordance with the following general arrangement: 1. The two contracting parties lay down, as the basis of their commercial relations, the princlpie of the most favored nation. 2. Goods whose origin or destination Is one of the contracting parties shall not be subjected by the other party to any duty or transit tax.

The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of the foregoing Article XII shall serve as the basis of the treaty of commerce which Is to be concluded between the contracting parties, in accordance with the terms of said Article XII.

Diplomatic and consular relations between Georgia and Russia shall be .established as soon as possible. Pending the conclusion by the two contracting parties of a special convention regulating the law relative to consuls of the respective contracting parties, the necessary measures for the drafting of which will be taken, the rights and obligations of said officials shall be determined by the rules In force in that connection with each of the contracting parties.

The settlement of questions arising In the domain of public or private rights between the citizens of the two contracting parties, and the settlement of certain special questions between the two States, shall be entrusted to special Russo-Georglan Joint commissions, which shall be appointed as soon as possible after the signature of te present treaty. The composition, rights, and duties of said commissions shali be determined by special instructions drawn up for each commission as may L~e agreed upon by the two contracting parties. The jurisdiction of said commissions shall extend, among other matters, to the following: 1. Formulation of a treaty of commerce and other economic agreements. 2. Settlement of questions concerning the distribution of the archives and the disposition of curr~tit matters, administration and legal records, and social State documents in the former central institutions. 3. Settlement of the question of the method of utilization, possession, and disposition of the Batum-Bakou pipe lae in the respect to that part of it which, In virtue of Article IV of the present treaty, is situated on Georgian territory. This question shall be settled ultimately by means of a special agreement between the two contracting parties.

The present treaty becomes effective from the very fact of its signature on the date of such signature, without any special ratification being necessary. In witness whereof the plenipotentiaries of the two parties have with their own hands signed the present treaty and affixed thereunto their seals. Done in duplicate at Moscow on the 7th of May, 1920. Signatures: 0. OURATADZE.

APPENDIX NO. 6 (Exwpts from the booklet " PWpublique de. Udg6TW-Documente Relatifs AIa Question de I& G6orgle Devint ]a Soc1t des NatIons." Published by the Georgian Legatlon In France, Iarls, 1925. (Translated from F'r ncb.) Also note from the delegate of the National Government of Georgia to the Council of the League of Nations, relevant to the above]


NATioNI (Assembly Document 29 (28/254/254))

Df.,oATIoN DE LA Ri-PUBLIQUE GiOROIENNA 37 RUE DE LA P tROUE, pars, 218t May, 1919. The delegation of the Georgian Republic, acting In the name of the people and the Government of Georgia, have the honor to request that Georgia be admitted to the League of Nations In accordance with the provisions of the covenant of the 28th April, 1919. N. TCHE3DzE, (Signed) President of the Georgian Delegation. LEAGUE OF NATIONS Memorandum by the secretary general. Noinxa 20, 1920. I. On May 21, 1919, the delegation of the Georgian Republic, then in Paris, asked the secretary general of the League of Nations to submit to the council and the assembly of the league a note in which it requested, In the name of the people and the Government of Georgia, the admission of this country to the League of Nations. The secretary general In his reply dated June 0, 1919, suggested that in view of the terms of Article I of the covenant the better course would be for the Georgian authorities to address, when the covenant would have come Into force, a formal request through the secretary general to the assembly for admission to the league. An extract of the Georgian note of May 21, 1919, was submitted to the council by the secretary general on April 15, 1920, Council Doctiment No. 7, and to the members of the League on June 29, 1920. II. On September 1, 1920, Georgia made a formal request to be admitted as a member of the league. Tihe text of the request is annexed to this menmorandum. (Annexe 1.) An explanatory memorandum stating further the reasons which prompted Georgia to seek admission to the league was presented by the Georgian delegation in London on September 18, 1020, and is annexed to this memorandum. (Annexe 2.) III. On May 20, 1918, the Independence of Georgia, which before was under Russian administration, was proclaimed by the national council, a provisional representative body. The text of the act by which Georgia's independence was thus proclaimed is ajonexed to this memorandum. (Annexe 3.) The attention of the assembly Is especially drawn to article 3 of this act, saying In its authentic version: "In the event of international conflict Georgia will always remain neutral." The aforementioned act was confirmed by the Georgian Constituent Assembly on March 12, 1919. The text of this confirmation is annexed to the present memorandum. (Annex 4.) IV. Georgia has been recognized "de jure" by the GoVernment of the Argentine Republic (September 13, 1919), by the S.oviet Government of Russia (May 7, 1920), ahd by the German Government (September 24, 1920). 184



Georgia has been recognized " d e facto" by the Governments of France, Great Britain, Italy, January 11, 1920; Japan, February 7, 1920; Belgium, August 26, 1920. Copies of the acts of recognition, authenticated on behalf of the Georgian Government, are available in the secretariat. V. Article I of the covenant of the League of Nations provides: "Any fully self-governing State, Dominion, or Colony not named in the Annex may become a member of the league if its admission Is agreed to by twothirds of the assembly, provided that it shall give effective guaranties of its sincere intention to observe its international obligations and shall accept such regulations as may be prescrit-ed by the league in regard to its military, naval, and air forces and armaments." In this connection it may be recalled that Georgia applied for membership of the league "with all the rights and duties thereto attached, the which are based on the covenant of the said league." (Annex 1.) It may also be stated that on May 19, 1920, the permanent advisory commission for military, naval, and air question' has been Instructed "to consider and draft regulations in accordance with article 1 of the covenant, In regard to the military, naval, and air forces and armaments of the Republic of Georgia, and to forward the report to the council on the subject." In their report to the council the commission stated that it had received from Georgia the following information: The military forces of this country consist to-day of 55,000 men and of a national guard of 00,000 volunteers. At a later date and when the independence of the Republic is no longer threatened from outside this country hopes to create a militia based more or less on the example of the Swiss militia. The commission recommends the maintenance of the existing forces, in view of the present situation. Georgia asks to be allowed to keep the naval forces she now possesses for patrol purposes: Seven light craft of less than 500 tons. The commission recommends the maintenance of this force. The commission has received no Information nor request with regard to the air forces of Georgia. It should be added that the commission also recommended that the proposed armaments should only be considered as having a provisional character and that, among other countries seeking admission, Georgia should agree to submit herself to a revision of the armaments which in the opinion of the commission can now be granted to her if this would be found necessary at a later Iate. The commission suggested that i request for revision might be made by Georgia herself; it would have to be accompanied by a statement of the new conditions on which the request would be lased. The relprt of the commission li i formed the subject of a resolution (if the council, placed before the assembly. VI. It at letter dated September 8. I20, the secretary-general suggested to the Georgian Government that the assembly might wish to hear explanations regarding questions in connection with Georgia's application for admission to the League of Nations, and that it. view thereof it might be desirable for the Georgian Government to send it representative sliecially to Geneva, when the assembly would lie meeting, or to give its agent in some capital the necessary instructions. On October 10, 1920, the Georgian delegation in London informed tie secretary-general that Georgia would lye represented - for the said purposes in Geneva, by M. E. Gueguetchkorl. vice president of the Georgian Government and minister for foreign affairs, and by .M1. Avaloff. delegate.


Availing itself of the fact that the League of Nations is holding its assembly at Geneva in order to discuss the questions within its competence, the Georgian Government considers that it must once more draw the attention of the assembly to the situation of Georgia, and to inform it of the events which have taken place in the country since the assembly of September, 1921.



Since Georgia was occupied by the Russian Bolshevik troops in defiance of the pledges signed by the Moscow Government, the people of Georgia have continually protested by every means in their power against the rule imposed on them by foreign troops. On various occasions they have given expression to their hostile feelings against the invadei s by means of public demonstrations and strikes, and have given proof of the unanimity of all the classes and of all the political parties of the nation in protesting against soviet rule. In certain districts there have been armed risings. In Svanetia, for example, the struggle assumed such a character that the red army was compelled to abandon its scheme of conquest, and part of the mountainous region remained free. The guiding motive of these demonstrations and risings is to secure the evacuat'on of Georgia by the Russian troops and the reestablishment of demo. cratic rule. The officials of Moscow established in Tiflis can only exercise their domination by means of terror. Every kind of liberty has been suppressed. Law and justice are trampled under foot. The law is only recognized when it is profitable to the Interest of the invader and of hi agents. The so-called elections to the soviets have been merely nominations Imposed by the forces in occupation. All acts of protest are barbarously repressed. The Tcheka, whose members are all foreigners or former convicts, have establiqhed in the country a reign of terror without precedent in the history of Georgia; the workmen on thi railways, tramways, and nationalized industrial establishments, and the employees and officials of the various public services are dismissed on the least suspicion or are transferred to .4ussia under pretext of tla exigencies of the service and are replaced by foreigners. The prisons are overflowing with persons who have been arrested; there are more than 12,000 of them. Receiving hardly any food and living in appalling sanitary conditions, they suffer from hunger and disease and die in large numbers. These are the best citizens of the country, the members of the constituent assembly, the most prominent intellectuals, and the officers of the national army, mriost of whom were arrested at the outset of the occupation and have not yet been tried, and who have not even up to the present been told of the crime of which they are accused. On May 25 and 20 of this year, on the occasion of the anniversary of the proclamation of the independence of Georgia, the population wished to commemorate this historic date by peaceable demonstrations. The authorities in occupation, after outraging national sentiment by declaring that the real date of the independence of Georgia was February 25, the day on which the red Russian army entered Tiflis, the capital of Georgia, proceeded to commit appalling acts of violence under the pretext of maintaining order. The smallest gatherings were dispersed by armed forces, which fired on the population and hurled bombs and grenades among them; numerous persons were killed and wounded. The persons who were arrested were beaten, dragged by mounted Tehekists, ane thrown into the cellars of the Teheka, where their torture was continued. Concurrentiy with these nets of barbarism against Individuals, all that the country possv.,ses is being pillaged, plundered, and destroyed. The authorities In occupation, without any regard for the national wealth or for the future of the country, send to Russia everything which can be moved, and whatever pleases their leaders is squandered, in defiance of Pli private and public rights. Georgia is thus doomed to extermination by the Russian power and has become unrecognizable. Famine is raging in certain Provinces. A report drawn up by the Bolshevik authorities themslveq states that the number of starving persons reaches 250,000. Eplilemics are spreading: and in view of the absence of sanitary measures to combat them and the lack of medicine, they are claiming more and more numerous victims. M. Braztimal, delegate of the internatlinli syntilhallst conferin.e of Amsterdam, to whom was intru.Sted thle task ef sullilyinmg Georgia with medicine, on his return, drew a melawlholy picture of proeat-day Georgia. "The maii imnpres::ia. produced on a persIm arriving lit Georgia." says Ile. "is one of tniver.;al and Irremediable devastation, The streets, houses. Government buildings, apartments, furniture. chairs, tables. cupboards., clothes. linen, footwear, everything i,; torn. worn omt. demolisihed. plundered, and dest rayed." Mr. Serwey. a 1Belgian. who '%%as sent by the International col4orative societies on a mission to th, cooperative societies of Geogila, describes in his

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA report the profound distress which is prevalent throughout the country, and compares the present position of Georgia with Belgium's position during the German occupation. The occupation of Georgia is the triumph of the Moscow regime; it is the triumph of forces which destroy all national life and all material progress. At first the Bolsheviks attempted to hide their misdeeds by inventing the lie about an internal revolution in the country. Moscow caused this view to be desseminated through the international communist press. But the truth could not remain hidden. 1. Trotsky, in a book directed against Georgia, and 'M.Itadek, at the meeting of tile three internationals, were forced to admit that Georgia had, in fact, been invaded by the red army. In a report sent to the central committee of the Russian Communist Party, P. Makharadze, agent of tile government of Moscow, who was nominated president of the "Revkon,' or revolutionary committee of Georgia, at the very beginning of the occupation declared that"When the offensive of the red army began, no communist nucleus, no member of the party knew anything us to why this offensive was being carried nut; it was, indeed, quite unexpected. The entry of the red army into Georgia and fle proclamation of the soviet authority assumed the nature ot a conquest. for at that time there was no thought of any agitation in favor of a rising within the country itself. When the authority of the soviets was prpclaimed. no group of the communist party, no single member of the partylet us leave it at lat-could lie found capable 'if establishing this authority, and. more often than not. only suspicious tharacters or absolute criminals caine forward to offer their support." Tn order to prove to Europei how l''stiie tile Georgian people is to the lolshevik rule. the national government, in agreement with all the political ivrtics of Georgia. has more than once requested that an international comjnittee of inquiry should le sent to make investigations on the spot. Moscow, titrmigh its representativ-s tt the conference of the three internationals in Berlin. finally consenled to submit this question to the " committee of nine but. in conformity with its usual procedure, it did not keep its word. At the conferences of Cannes. Genoa. and The league, at which the Ytussiau problem was to I)e considered. the Georgian question was bound to he raised, althougli Georgia, in conformity with the Cannes decision, according to which Georgia was held to Ile Asiatic State, was not represented. Georgia, an however, submitted her grievances, and a protest through the memoranda of its lawful Government. through statements made by the various political parties of Georgia, and through a protest lodged by the head of the church of Georgia. She followed the coursee of lese discussions with anxiety. She hoped that the elvilized natitins would not remain indifferent to the crime lishmen' of relations with the government of the soviets, the evacuation of Georgia by the Russian troops. The government of Moscow attempted to have the Rui,;.jan delegation at Genoa recognized as representing Georgia also. This attempt failed, and the conference adhered to the ('annes resolution. Indeed, the lusslan subcommittee. in connection with the insurrections in Svanetia and the measures of repression taken by the authorities of occupation, and at tie request of the National Government of Georgia, brought the matter up before the Russian delegation with a view to putting an end to te continual bloodshed in Georgia. But 31. Tehitcherin denied the facts, in spite of the convincing proof which was submitted to the conference, and evaded this question icy raising a more general one-that of all the "oppressed nations." lie also accused tile powers who were present of themselves holding various peoples in subjection. The Russian delegation therefore continued to use the wealth of the Caucasus (its oil, its manganese. etc.) as a means for driving a bargain with tile object of obtaining credits and of consolidating the Bolshevik power. To-day it is perfectly apparent to all that the invasion of the Caucasus and Georgia was carried out with the intention of obtaining a hold over this country's wealth. 3!. Radek admitted as much in Berlin. saying that the soviets hal occupied Georgia in order to obtain "access to its oil." Georgia has been recognized "de Jure" by the majority of the civilized pow(rs, and even by Russia herself, who solemnly declaredd In the treaty dated May 9, 1920 (article 1) "that she recognized unreservedly the Independence and sovereignty of the Georgian state." The Georgian people should be free to work out their own destiny.
of the ltolsieviks. and that they woil demand, as a cilndition for tIe- estab-



International considerations, both of a political and economic nature, require that the evacuation of the country by the Russian troops should be insisted upon. Georgia will never submit to the yoke of Moscow, and as long as the Caucasus, and especially Georgia, remain under Russian domination no lasting peace can ever be established in the Caucasus nor in Asia Minor. Just as Tsarlst Russia-with its imperialistic aims-used the Caucasus as a military base for extending its influence throughout Asia Minor and the middle east, to-day the Bolshevik government is trying through these same regions to extend its influence. From the economic point of view, thanks to its geographical situation. Georgia, by means of her roads, railway, plip line and harbor, commands the highways for tile traffic in oil and other products of the Caucasus and the neighboring regions and forms a natural link between the markets of Europe and these rich countries. In order to put an end to the upheavals and wars which continue to hinder the development of all productive labor, it is above all essential that Georgia ain,! 9i Caucasus should, by their liberation and a neutrality which would make them accessible to all the powers as well as to Russia, be reestablished as a natural link between Europe and Asia. It !s true that, in its struggle against Rusisan occupation, the Georgian people received frequent expressions of sympathy from the civilized world; the governments of the various powers on several occasions evinced their moral support; speeches in Parliament, addresses. motions passed inI its favor by municipalities, political parties, syndicates, cooperative, and other societies, have been a source of great encouragement. But how loudly would the voice of the League of Nations ring-that great court of international justice! The Georgian Government in a memorandum addressed to the assembly of the League of Nations held at Geneva |it September, 1921, "after describing the situation of Georgia. entreated thie asseembly to protest "against the Bolshevik invasion and the occupancy of Georgia by the Red troops of the soviet." Unhappily this request proved fruitless, although the congress oit the union of associations for the League of Nations, held at Geneva Itself shortly beforehand, passed at vote urgently entreating the council and tie -pssenbly the of League of Nations to adopt ineas|res .u.h that the right of peoples to dispose of theinselves might be aplilied to Georgia. The national Government of Georgia, hopes that this statement of facts will persuade the League of Nations, the guardian of the rights of people., to protest against the unspeakable atrocities committed by the Bolsheviks, and to find means to alleviate the sufferings of the Georgian people, wh, lt the mercy of a horrille, despotic power, are strugging against famine aid'! disease.


Meeting held on September 20, 1922, at 3.30 p. n.


M. le lrouckere (I1'lgiua) having recalled the text of his proposal (Annex 12), stated that lie hail given muih thought to it beforo-- submitting it to the assembly and lie wished to point out the mait reason i underlying it. As a iriatte.e of fat. tle 'tle lima tiad been pla cd before tle assembly at the very begionilig (if tho stiion. as the ietmorandum addres,ed to the secretariat by fhe Georgin (;iiveinmaent hail been brought to lbfw i|itice of the assembly, drawing its attention to the situation of Georgia r.nd appealing for the lelp id the lieJ.tzage of Nations. The Georgian Government, by whoma ,his appeal was issue, was a legitimate Governmnt in the sense in wiieh the word was used in that asseinaly: that is to say. it was saed 1111o the national will and wa.s r,,,,wgnized as a ('ivrnniint by the other nations, lie recalled Georgia's
long period of anit indelpendence, her volitary union with 1u.ssia in the

eighteenth century. the act of violence connitted ii 18 3, ani Inst-after the war--her de.laralion of independence ini 1t1i. which was confirmel in 11)19 by a properly elected ( oustituent assembly. which hind never failed iII its 14Yal snliqsrt of tlie ( i,,ernnent from wih 411 tihe appeal hld eilanated. 'The



legitimate character of this Government was demonstrated) no less clearly abroad than at home; it was recognized de jure by the allied powers on January 20, 1921, and afterwards by other countries, foremost among whom was Belgium and later the Argentine, Poland, Austria, Rumania, and many others. This act of recognition was the result of ripe refle-tlon on the part of the powers and had. indeed, been consecrated by reason of the fact that It was accorded on the very eve of the invasion of the country. This legitimate government had been driven from its territory by tie Russian invader. If it were claimed that it had thereby lost its legitimate character, the example of Belgium formed an unanswerable reply. The first State to recognize Georgia had been the Russian Federative Soviet Republic by the treaty concluded with Georgia on May 7. 19-0. in the first article of which the independence of the country and tine legitimacy of its government were recognized. In article 2 Russia abjured any Interventlon in the affairs of Georgia. On February 15 in the following year Georgia was invaded without any declaration of war, and without having given any provocation, by the soviet armies in cooperation with the Turkish armies, and it was at this time. when the Government had to make a stand oil two different fronts, that the power was seized by foreign element. Tine speaker brought forward documentary evidence in proof of his statement, namely, the report of the Eleventh Russian Army (December 18, 1920) giving the complete plan for tie invasion of Geoigia. and also admissions made by Trotsky In his book entitled " Between Imperhlism and the tRevolution," and by ltadek. who had sald in Berlin: " We Invaded Georgia; we had to do so-we needed oil." Further. he adduced the confesslons of the very man who had been appointed by the Soviet Itepublic to govern Georgia, Nagarodz6, chief of the so-called Georgian Communist Party, in a document dated December 6. 1921. Two passages from this document showed that tile Communist chief had no illusions as to the attitude of the Georgian t 1ion toward tbe- (Coniianumlist ri'gie. Yet another wthority might be quotel. At Genoa. on April 22. 31. Motto and M. granting brought before the political commission a note from the Georgian Goverrment asking for intervention on the part of the powers Inl order to put an end to the occupation of Georgia by Rtssian troops. 31. Selnanzer propos,'d that the Rlulssan delegation should be approahed Ip Itli a view to obtalniii the withdrawal of it(e ,ovlet troops. tied tine restoration of the country's Independence. Men such as M1r. Lloyd George. o'n behalf of the British Government, and 31. Barthou, on behalf of th Fnench Government, joined in this action. And now to-day. lis, saute Georgian (asvrinent. possessing a I did, It all the elcaens of Ilgithnoay. turned to the league and poitcd to its country, ravaged by war, recovering by wonderful efforts. then ravaged anew lay tile armies of occupation, and offering a spectac.o of dlemolatiin nl.ery, s famine, and plague. Could the league remain Mind to all this? It would le said that Georgia was not a member of the league. When she applied in 1920 she had not been recognized by any power. and immediately after recognition was granted the invasion took place. If Georgia lnd been a ietinem', it would have be'-n necessary to apply the rovislons of article 10 of the covenanit. Would it have been possible at that time for even the most ardent friend of Georgia to consider her admission po.s!ble, in view of all the consequence involved by the -alted action pre.scribcd nt tie covenant? ]tut because Georgia wa% not a member, (lid it follow that the league had 11o duty tovart her? In the rceent past the league had not drawn anty distinctilo, between Greek and Armenian refugee,. Moreover, Georgia was, attacked to the technical organizations of tie league and her government corres'pnded regutlarly with tint league. The fact thnat shi wa not a mnodier ol:, maide one difference. nannely, that she could not plead article l: the assembly, however, was entitled to do so. The assentldy woud not ivish it to lit, sald that there were ohipresseid peoples so small as to Ie beneath its interetst. Georgia was : distant country. The question of Georih. however, was loluld up with tlt(, most serlos of tile league's present prolezn,4. Georgia w%,as near Contantinople. and already troops were concentrate ng at Balum: perhalis site would! ana tion miitary literr of il innlrialisumm which stenlily looked toward tine ltoporus'. Georgia was near Samyrna. She mv.4s near Armnenia, tilld the Georgian and Armenian peoples woilIl lie bolll x- tine 'li ,'st of Ilond-: i\lc n they realized tie peed for

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF- GEORGIA mutual aid. Again, Georgia was near both Baku and the Caspian Sea, and was on the road to central Asia. It was true that she was not near Bagdad, but she was not far from Adana. The Georgian question was not one of those theoretical problems which could be lightly laid aside. The Genoa conference had tried to ignore it, but the problem remained and would always remain. The speaker further pointed out that his proposal was less bold than the action taken at Genoa. Ita sole object was to ascertain obvious facts, and it gave promise for the future to an oppressed people. The future alone would decide the means by which the Georgian people would be able to return to their normal life and regain self-determination, but the league should make It clear at once that its mission was to restore this vital part of the world to normal conditions. This would not be a mere platonic wish, but a valuable encouragement to this oppressed people, and other peoples as well, and they might be calmed by the knowledge that the league had not forgotten them. The league would say to them, "Pat~ence, perseverance; the day of justice will come." The chairman stated that he was voicing the opinion of the committee in thanking the BIlgian delegate for his interesting, detailed, and vigorous statement. Mr. Fishur (British Empire) said that he had listened with much emotion to the eloquent and ear speech of M. de Blroucklre. Great Britain had always symnpoathized with this small but brave and interesting people, which to-day was under the yoke of a foreign army. The oppression of the small Caucasian Republics by the Russian Soviet was an historical disaster. Unfortunately, there was no Immediate prospect of saving Georgia. Everyone agreed that the league could not remain indifferent to any cause in which humanity .as at stake, but It was undesirable to ask the council to undertake political action which might involve the use of force. On behalf of his government, the speaker declared that at present lie could see no means of employing force for that purpose. lie PrOl to introduce a slight amendment into the proposal In such a way as to demonstrate clearly that the league was still concerned with the fate of the population of Georgia, and that it was anxious to follow the course of e: ents in that country. but also in such a way as to avoid binding the council in any manner to ;any fixed policy. lord Robert Cecil (South Africa) said that he warnly seconded the remarks of the British delegate. All who had read the document sent by the Georgian Minister at Paris, and who had heard M. de Broucktre's speech, realized the sufferings which Georgia endured as a result of unjustifiable military operations; but it was equally clear that the league of Nations should restrict itself to taking practical steps and should avoid a visionary Idealism; it must not attempt to redress wrongs wherever they might exist. It was clear that no power equld at the present moment take Ineasurc.4 on behalf of Georgia. and no member would plunge into a war unles forced to do so-a possibility which it was to be hoped would not arlse. Tie Dolgian delegate's proposal, in the form in which it then existed. did not appear likely to produce any practical re-ult. Indeed. it contained elements of danger. It might he regarded as ,n act of defiance to the Soviet Government, for which the league, could nec take responsibility. Demonstrations of defiance should not be nade unicss they could be supported. A still greater danger lay in the fact that the propM)sal might give rise to false hropes anong a po)ulation whhh they were amnable to assist. Such hopes might result in still more terrible sufferings. The South African delegate, however, strongly sympathized with th.e sufferings and did not wish to risk ndlding to them. All polilcal or military suggestions which would have no practical outcome imust be avoided. lIle proposed to his Belgian colleague that the resolution, should loe amended ac follows: "The Assembly of the League of Nations. moved by the present unhappy position of Georgia, invite. the council to give attentive consideration to the events In this part (of the world that it may lie able to selze any opportunity which may ari-e for giving assistance t the G-rorgian people li their distress." 31. Erich (Finland) said that the Finnish d~e.grrtlon associated itself with the spirit and Initiative of 1. (It roucvkre the more wtrmly as Fihnmid was deeply conscious of the cornmur.ity of intterests '.xicting between all the ,o.ate.



-which had severed their allegiance to the old Russian Empire and had been founded upon its ruins. The large majority of these nations, formerly oppressed by the Russian Government, had, happily, succeeded in surviving their vicissitudes, and, at the expense of considerable effort, had gained their independence. Other less fortunate nations had failed and had been obliged to accept the'arbitrary rule of the government of the soviets. Convinced that the League of Nations would do its best to assist those states which had preserved their independence In their important task of resisting the spread of Bolshevism and the attacks of the Russian invader, the Finnish delegation hoped that the league would also make an effort to save nations such as Georgia, or the unhappy province of Eastern Carelia, whose Inhabitants %Vero united by race to the Finnish people, and whose cause had been submitted for a consideration of the secretariat. The Finnish delegation hoped that the league would be able to save these nations, which at the present moment were placed under the intolerable rules of the Bolshevists. X. de Broucktre (Belgium), in reply to Mr. Fisher, wished to remove a misunderstanding. Tie British delegate bad very properly remarked that the league should not undertake to assist the cause of freedom by force of arms. The Belgian delegate made detailed comments on the various parts of the proposal and said that no such suggestion had been Intended. The proposal laid stress upon the need for patience, for abstaining from force, and, above all, for refusing at the moment to embark upon a war. The author of the proposal had been so cautious that lie had not even included the word "independence," because lie thought that P free life might in practice take several different forms. One factor aloz.e made liberty impossible--military dictatorship. It might be said without temerity that, under favorable cireum-tances, the league would help the Georgian people to attain a position in which they would no louiger be subljected to military force. If this Idea, however, had not been suffldelega'W, would suiiport his British col'ienlly clearly expressed, the ;Itlglan league's s gges( iins. lie would lil It more difficult to accept Li rd Robert Cccii's amehnent. (he wishes The suppression of the words " invaded and occupied contrary to) re',uignize a fact which was of the inhailitantl" would c,,nstitute a refusal 14) mt in ti.-pule. The league had aready heard put forward by small aguaiilist powerful nations. These cases had bca boit.o-gli in lit ,mitie of natloi right, lie asked whether, in cuses a flet lag thi, Soviet Itelhllie tIhe league no longer dared to tak' right In consideration. Thu Smth African dieegate's wording wis no answer to this que.ition, for the Ceoirgians were not asking for mere charity. They hiiew that it League of Natiipns had bel created for the purpose (if sonic day establishing right in the plate of inigit. Was the league "W to say to Ihelml, e can not grilnt you right, but we cali give po1ll lnis Lord Rplbert (Ccil, with his ia::sion for realities, had implored the tcommittee to protctt1 with c.autioni ald had pit It oLhits g1u:,rd against liltalisia. The Belgian delegate valued caution, li1t le was also a ,ullorter f blIness. They must dare Iio look the fa, ls in the fate anil to '.na ure tle diticullies if they were to surmount them. They vould not be giving ri-i to false hopes league w',uld one day be among tle (ieuirgilns, and lie was convinced that tli, able to establish right. As Jaur s had said, mankind couli lot live wili the corpwe. of assassinated nations in the cellar. Further, the Georgian question was entangled witl nil peseitt-lay questions would at of practical politics. Any attempt to solve the Armelnian prolib' the same time affect Georgia. The league would shortly lie requested to intervene on behalf of peace itAsia Minor. Ils asked if it could d1o so while tile Caucasus iqueslion was still unsolvedl, lie did vot ask that the Georgian olblenl should be solved immediately. The league need inerely say that it had nrit overlooked the Georgian question,, ant! that Its eager desire wits to do justice at the proper tie. .M. Mlotta (Switzerland) had listened with deep interest to the statement oi: 1. de B3rou.ktre and to the remarks of the British representatives anid if Lord tobert Cecil. There coul not lie any very serious differences of opinion when once it had been established that the Belgian proposal dl not seek to lneivene for the solution of the Georhian fluestioni by ofher thnun ieaceful neans. 'fliat was the essential point. lie a&o thtighit that there was some danger in the league's confining Itself to nierely pious resolutins. They must not be 96153-2 1-13



too free with resolutions, for superficial minds might be Inclined to think of th? league as a gathering of States meeting once a year for the expression of their wishes without any risk. On the other hand, so long as the league was not a superstate-and that was a very distant eventuality-it would not have any material means at its disposal, no army, no funds. It thus ought necessarily to confine itself to the expression of opinions supported by'the universal conscience of mankind on questions affecting world peace. The Swiss delegate did not think that the Belgian formula constituted a challenge; if it had been otherwise he, the representative of the most neutral country in the world, could not have been a party to it. The proposal stated an obvious fact, the formation of which would hardly be sufficient to cause a state of tension between the league and the soviet republic. However, if the committee thought otherwise, the speaker would agree to the omission of the words "invaded, etc." On the other hand, the final formula proposed by Lord Robert Cecll was excessively vague. The Swiss delegate proposed to keep to M. de Brouckdre's wording, introducing the words "by peaceful meanss" 3!. de Brouckdre (Belgium) ecepted this amendment. 31. Askenazy (Poland) apprecluted the lofty intentions of the Belgian delegate, which found an echo In all hearts. But the wise remarks of Lord Robert Cecil seemed to him worthy of the true dignity of the league, of the great importance of its resolutions, of the feeling of responsibility Incurred, and of the hopes it might arouse. Ile would like to have been able to accept 1. Motta's suggestion, but if the words had a political meaning, Ile did not quite understand, if they kept to facts, what was added by the words "by peaceful means." lie therefore requested the committee to accept the Bel. gian proposal with the necessary alterations suggested by Lord Robert Cecil. 51. Branting (Sweden) entirely agreed with the remarks of M. Motta. It did not sern to him to be going too far If they made use of words which only expressed a truth recognized by all. If the league (1(i not dare to proclaim that the Georgian people should, one day or other, have their independence like other peoples-who themselves might also one (lay be sunjected to tile yoke of the invader-it would be far from fulfilling its purpose, and lie was astonished that on this occasion Lord Robert Cecil showed so little of that courage which lie had displayedd on so ii'tny occasions when It had been a pleasure to follow him if it was at all pos.;ible to do so. There was no fuitestion here of converting this resolution into a Aimple expression of pity for unhappy Georgia, but of proclaiming to the world that the Georgian nation had a right to iil-erty, and that this was how the league regarded the situa. tion in that pari of tie world. They should state clearly that io challenge was intended to any power; to say to the Georgian people "invaded r.d occupied against its will," that it ought to I,e helped by peaceful meaus amld that the conscience of mankind was on its sile was by no means an insignificant declaration. An opinion supported by the conscience of mankind would have greater weight at no very distant date. They should have the courage to pronounce these words, which would give the Georgian people faith in its independence and would show it that it aroused sincere sympathy throughout the whole civilized world. Lord Robert Cecil (South Africa) regretted that lie had not been convinced by the Swedish delegate. They must be very careful not to pass resolutions for which they might have to pay dearly. lie liked boldness, iro. vided that it involved no risks except to him who showed it. If this resolution were addressed to any great lpowers and they took no notice of it, the only result would be nothing worse than a wound to the league's amour propre. But were they not, under the pretext of expressiig some fine feelings, about t expose G ,'orgia to further sufferings? Were they quite sure, moreover, that the resolution really represented the wises of the Georgians? The appeal to th, league came from the minister in Parls, not front Georgin herself. To adopt tihe resolution. even in the form prolxiscl by 3I. Siotta, might amount to saying to the G.orgian people. " You hleve rigot (n your sile; wh-t are -;ou waiting for to recover your liherty? " Would not that be InOilg iem to revolt. 1i14 : revolt womhl Ile loi ,ql allattack of the, fol by tusslan troops, with all Imaginable consequences? Nobolfy shared noble Ideas more than the South African delegate, hut iho preft-rrod to rcnUonce thvmi if timy uitl to carnagife. Two .years Ifort 1h



assembly had adopted a resolution In favor of Armenia-a much more moderate resolution than this one, and one for which he was partly responsible. After the vote several members asked him If he had really the right to risk increasing the sufferings of the Armenian people in this way. That risk would be greater for the Georgian people, in view of the strong wording of the proHe posal, and he could not be a larty to it. concluded by saying that he had no intention of restricting the action of the league in any way; still less was he deaf to the sufferings of the Georgian people. Mr. Fisher (British Empire) regretted that M. de Brouck~re was unable to accept the amendment of Lord Robert Cecil, whose apprehensions he shared. Moreover, as a member of the British cabinet, it would be difficult for him to bind his colleagues to give effect to the resolution. The addition proposed by M. Motta explained the peaceful intention of the proposal, but it did not exclude the possibility of a rising in Georgia. Further, was it not one of the reproaches leveled against the Soviet Government that they fomented sedition In other countries. Again, the words " invaded and occupied contrary to tie- wishes of its Inhabitants" might be justified, but. the contrary might also be the case. There was undoubtedly a strong Georgian CommunIst Party. In any case the league could not accept responsibility for these %ords, whlei might he regarded its provocative to the Soviet Government; nil the diploinats present would agree that this was so. Would the Belgian delegate agree to add to the word " ly peaceful means" the words "and In conformity with ti(- provisions of international law", Ti1e British delea-ate suggested this solution, while lkrsonally preferring Lord Robert Cecil's amendment. M. de Broekere (lHelgium) thought that, in spite of differences of opinion, help of the Georgian the committee was unanimous In wishing to cme to tile pole, not only in order to alleviate its sufferings but also to see that it had regards tie second part justice. The delegate accepted Mr. Fisher's proposal as knew the Georgian people sufllof the resolution. As regards tile first part, lie watchful solicitude of tire clefitly well to lie suire that finas1suran(e Of tile able league weull undoubtedly dissuade Ii, people from a desperate act and et it to lie patient. Nevertheless lie would agree to the otisslon of the words in question on condition that tile words " moved by the present unhappy situation, etc.," were not Insisted upon. After a further textual amendment proposed by 31. Molta (Switzerland), the proposal was unanimously adopted In the following form: situation In "Tile Assembly ef the League of Nations, having conshdred tile Georgla, Invites the council to follow attentivly the course of events in this part of the world, so that it may lie able to seize any opportunity which may ocicur to help ii the restoration of this country to normal coilitions lay any peacefil mean in accrdalice with the rules 'if international law."



SIXTHt COMiarrn Sil:

The PIra:,srrf.s 'i

The niext Item 'aII


agenda is the examination of the report

of tile sixli .oilltit tea' ail IN sit tItlion ill Georgi1a. (A.lnex 10, Vol. 1r.) I call ulpon .lozkiccr iDouloa, chairmall of ilie sixth coinriittee, and 31. Napoite, rapporteur, ta take their lates an tie Ilatforin.


.JIjkliet-r J.4illil1

a'laces Ml Ihall 31. uilill. 1a'a1h illair

on tie, llatforiil.)


assembly. .N". i.' Jiizte, raialwrtrUir. ,vili aarre.-4s tile 31.

arid gentleimi, the text of tie , c illlliitclwas as follows: lreselit linhalipy movel by tle ot(lilpleal contrary to tire vilhea attentively the course of events

.%1.L.vAlzXi1: (011ala41a), .1t porlteir. i,,ailie ti o ll , X ii ra it wh ich wa, sdll ill ra-ai lut "'i'e Asselibly af tihe .eagle (f Nation's, iiril at a. asla (,om tlr i"i u positlori (if (;e~rgi il to falliw of it.s irllabltant.. Ilivites. lie cou

ulils)rt unity which Iii this part (of the world. so t;hat ti alry ie' nue to seize aliny
to llii,,is ti lllrtry its, iorair:l I .c iiit lips.'" 4af t ,(.(air help ina the, rusi4ai-a lr' I i-legata- of Heltilllin. l(. l a I l's .11. 0i' Jtr uk ion "a' 'Ilis r'a'it wi c-In ; til il i ir I ir it rena klha le s pv( ,h. ili %hi(h Iia d - rile li e liaif rf l



the people of Georgia are placed, and related the political history of the couTutry, Its long independent past, and the various events which terminated. In February, 1921, In the Invasion of this unhappy country by Russia. He gave a striking description of present conditions in Georgia, ravaged as she is by the armies of occupation, a prey to desolation, misery, famine, and epidemics. He stated that it was of vital importance for the peace of Europe that normal conditions should be restored in Georgia. All the members of the committee declared themselves in sympathy with the recommendation submitted by M. de Brouckre, but some members were of the opinion that the text should be modified, as it might be dangerous to suggest political or military action which it would be impossible for the League of Nations to undertake. This point of view was specially emphasized by Lord Robert Cecil and Mr. Fisher. The latter thought that the resolution as it then stood might be considered to be provocative In relation to the Russian Government, and that its effect might be to make the situation of Georgia more serious still. Several amendments were suggested by Lord Robert Cecil, Mr. Fisher, and Mr.. Motta, and, finally, the author of the re-aolution accepted a modified resolution which was unanimously adopted by the sixth committee and which we ask the assembly to approve. The PRESIDENT. M. do Broucktre, the representative of Belgium, will address the assembly. 31. do BROUCKPRE (Belgium). Ladies and gentlemen, I will confine myself to a few observations. In the course of the debate-s of the sixth committee I explained at length, perhaps at too great length, the reasons for my proposal. This proposal gave rise to a detailed discussion. We finally arrived at an agreement which, though containing various shades of opinion, was uunailmous. The discussion seems to have exhausted its#f. and there remains very little for we to say. I will therefore limit myself to a few short remarks, and 1 will also make a statement wihh I think will help to cement tie agreement which we have now reached. In this Transcaueasia through which so) many leo!es have pssed-for it is a gicat thoroughfare (and you will perhaps allow ine to point out that we ought always to fix our attention on regions of this nature if we do not wish to be taken by surprise when great changes in the international situation occur)-in this Traneauc-ia.l where so mnammy leoi)le live. Jostle one aliothrr. and often come to allows, there l-Viitch injiistice and numlch inisery at the present time. Many peoples are sulfering ini those regions, nlauy art' opprcssvd, ald if we rentain different to their fate, we hall lie failing not only ill hunianitarian principles but, what is ierhalos more e..ezatll in the prineliles of elementary political wisdom. Our atentilon will shortly be called to the dikistr ols situation in Armenia Iby a resolution sulnitted by Lord Robert ('ceil, Which, I ant Sure. we .,4hall al Support. Georgia, too, has appealed to u. set forth its grievances. and declared itself a vlini of violent oppression. W'itliout entering million a 1de1ailhd d1isenmi-,jiiin of my proposal, I should like to say that the a,-enihily's resIlution will send a message of hope to these people who are resolutely clalminlg their rights, and who have confidence In their rights, and will tissure them that surh claims will never leave it indifferent or passive. Such a message of hope may laie immniedilate results, for the words spoken here often awaken far-distant eches. I do not think it will be maiuny years before the substance of our debateA is known i the bight valleys of tile Caucasus. It will bring great consolation there, and it will also, I llrmly believe, exercise a calming influen,-e. it was es'jKcimilly to reallyly this last point that I wished tea speak in here for a few moments to-day. As what has happened hcre will he inade known In Georgia. let nile addre.- a word to may moany Georgiaan friends. and awssure them' that the m esohition whhh iA Ieffre the .nsi'imily ctcnt ai"l, t only a prooinle. but also a word of adivl.e. It s y to lhpt : "The League of Nntions9 is there. the litethol, which it employs are still
ilooi'rfect and inade(luite, bit they art, htiprovi-g and lconittg more anld more

effeelive In solvng International conlllts without the lecessity of blooldlshed.

"fite resolution gli-ts you hope.

That hole, and the knowledge that the justice



which you claim will be yours, mu.t banish all the promptings of despair from your hearts. Abstain from premature and violent action, which can only bring you to greater misery. Only keep the flame of liberty burning In your hearts and be content to wait In confidence." And if these words are heard, the immediate effect of our resolution apart from its future results, will be to induce a certain measure of culm, tranquility, and peace. We shall have accomplished great things, If, only on this one point among so many others, we have been able to prevent bloodshed. (Applause.] The PRESIDENT. There are no further speakers on the list. If no one wishes to speak, I shall declare the discussion closed. The discussion is closed. The text of the resolution Is as follows:

"The assembly, having considered the situation In Georgia, Invites the council to follow attentively the course of events in this part of the world, so that it may be able to seize any opportunity which may occur to help in the restoration of this country to normal conditions by any peaceful means in accordance with the rules of international law." If no member requires a vote, I shall consider the resolution as adopted unanimously. [Assent.] The resolution was unanimously adopted.

The following note is communicated to the delegates at the assembly for their information: GENEVA, September 19, 1923. Sin: Since the occupation of Georgia by the troops of the Government of Mos.cow, carried out in defiance of the stipulations of the treaty signed by that Government, may owit Governnment, which has been obliged to renanli Inm exile abroad in consequence of this occupation, has sent several memoranda to the League of Nations, with a view to laying before it the position of Georgia. The Georgian question %as introduced ilcfore time third, assen,bly on tihe iniimiive of the Belgian delegation, and after careful consideration the assenibly passel unanimously in favor of the Georgian Republic a resolution, the text of which I venture to quote here: "The Assemibly of the League of Nations, having considered the situation In Georgia, Invites the council to follow attentively the course of events in this part of the world, so that it may be able to seize any opportunity which may occur to help in the restoration of thil, country to normmal conditions by any peaceful means in accordaince with tie rules of International law." This resolution gave the people of Georgia noluled ammfillmneo fit internatnfil justice and led them to hope for a peaceful solution of the problem. This year my Governiment considers it necessary to voice time feelings of the Geor-glan people directly to tie League of Nations In the form of an appeal addressed to the league by tie committee for Georgian Imndependence. The committee for Georgian independence. founded by all the political partie. of tile constituent asseinbly, was formed In April. 1922. This committee, suiported by all cla: es of the nation, Including among its members repre.,ntatives of all political and social groups, and posse,ssmng organization in all the l'rovinv.s of the m'outdIry. Is tNm.xprissi ,n of the tixedi determinationi of tile Georgian people to free itself from a forelq yoke. It is this body whiel Is at present leomding the national mnovenent. In forwarding to you the annexed appeal from tie committee for Georgian Independence, I beg you. on behalf of iny Governmient. to be so good as to sub. ti it It to tim ('mmm il' :aid A-',m ibly thi, .i of sllte of Nlltlltm . I hart. the Imnor to be, etc., I. CmAVw(HVrx. Dcilcgote of the .National (Iocerrmnc, t of (icorgi:. To tie lolln. Sin EtRIr 1)urttMONm,
tfrerclory, G(eral of Ihe Laqiju. of .Natrm m, (immlmma.

. 1IV




In the name of the Georgian people, the committee for Georgian Independence, in which all classes of the population are represented and to which all the . political parties of the constituent assembly have rallied without exception. approaches the League of Nations. the mouthpiece of the civilized world, in order to draw its attention to the present situation in Georgia. We can not convey any adequate impression of the situation, since words are too feeble to portray the suffering endured by our nation. The lawful Government of Georgia has on many occasions acquainted the League of Nations with the past and present history of the country. For centuries Georgia existed as an independent and self-governing State; her people always bravely defended their native soil. Toward the end of the elghteenth century Georgia concluded a treaty of friendship with Russia. but Russia a few years later began. In spite of this treaty., to carry out her policy "of destroying Georgian nationality. But national feeling it Georgia proved so strong that great Russian nationalism was unable to stilie it. On May 26, 1018. Georgia reconquered her independence and sovereignty. The constituent assembly, elected by universal suffrage. endowed the country .with a national government, an administration, and an army. After recelvilg "de facto" recognition by tlie powers. Georgia was soon recognized "de Jure," Russia hers-,if concluding a treaty with her in 1920. ]u February, 1921, however. Georgia was suddenly surrounded and invaded by the Russian armies without any declaration of watr. In this unequal struggle Georgia was forced to give way before superior numbers. After a desperate resistance, which lasted for ive weeks. Rus si again occupied her territory. Russia. regarding the treaty a.% scrap of paper. In deflince of the will of a the people, forced Georgia to enter into the union known as tle "Socialist Soviet Republics." In face of violeln.e the cnommittee of inion'kendeonce as.soelated itself with the protest of the Georgian Government. which has already been forwarded to the states members of the League of Nations. The present Government of Russia. disregardlng the rights of the Georgian people, has driven out her parliament, abolished her army. and suppressed ier currency. The country is governed by the Russian Communist Party and the occupation authorities. The "Soviet Government" of Tiflis. composed of Georgian communists, Is In reality aprponted by Moscow and is Moscow's docile agent. The country has e4,n turned into one vast shares. Without trial, without even any preliminary Inquiry, leading Georgians of all classe.. political and military men, workers and peasants have been executed. Weakent by famine. dazed by blows with clubp, bound hand ono foot. the victims are taken in lorric,s outside the towns, shot, and cast into colnln u raves which are barely covered over afterwards, and over which dogs fight for the corpses. The fainilies of the e unfortunate persons can not even secure their burial as they are goteraliy unaware of the time, place, and circumstances of their relatives' death. Thus hundreds of fervent patriots have been lost to the country. The nulnber of per.3ons executed since the occupation of the .country may be estimated at 4.000. All these horrors, as we have said, have been commtitted without trial or sentence. With no one to defend then, Ipoliti'al prisoners are not evell per. mitted to see their relatives. The (lark. damp. icy cellars in whiel they lie until their execution are nothing but tombs. Many become inzaue. On the night of February 13, 1923. alone. 92 lper.ons wvre taken from tie prison at Tiflis and 4hot beclai.:e in the far-ooff district of ';ourla tihe leader of the Bolshevist expeditionary corps hald been killed. On May 20. this year. there were expected. again without trial, 13 well.known Gorailn military men, generals and staff officers, of who one wa4 the le:idr of ai Ilitleal party. all aeciwed of a rising against the oceupationi authorities. Accounts of both11 these naws execuions were published in thinoiolal press. Itit slienco Is observed regarding all tlie others. years. extended their netivitie. to the IPr-ovinces of sviftlihiia. ihov.sourethfa, Gonria. and Kakhetia. Whole rout ryidv-, have been laln) wate. lloUer burned, and numerous families completely exterminsate , 1'mrsued moy tin T'ehekits. the people seek shelter ii the iniutlntoin.Tie Teleka and the exlpditionary nietachlntl4 have. 'lurim: the last two




Every manifestation of national activity is ruthlessly repressed. Art, literature, and the Georgian language are in peri. Not only is freedom of speech nonexistent, riot only is all sentiment stifled, but the faithful are prevented from practicing their religion, as most places of worship have been closed. The ministers of religion, including the highest dignitaries of the church, have been thrown Into prison. The prisons are filled with workers, peasants, schoolmasters, and students. This Is not all. Hundreds of them have been sent Into exile to the frozen regions of northern Russia. Many have been seized as hostages and are in danger of being shot as a reprisal for any act of hostility against the occupation authorities. In addition to imprisonment and deportation, a system of torture has been applied similar to that resorted to in the Middle Ages; but tortures of a more modern kind, such as a pretense of shooting, are also employed. These tortured are inflicted In order to force the victims to renounce the liberty and independence of their country. In the workshops and in the factories the Georgian workpeople who refuse to join the Communist Party are immediately dismissed. For this reason unemployment is very great in all the Georgian towns. In the country peasants who will not submit to communism are dispossessed of their land and stock, which are distributed anong other persons, mainly nonGeorgians. With support of the occupation authorities the property of the people is seized by foreign elements. Georgian manufacturers, traders, and peasants have no guaranty against spoliation of all that they possess. For them law and justice have ceased to exist. The import duties levied by Moscow paralyze the trade of the country, and tbere is no longer any activity in the ports. Foreign traders and manufacturers are also subjected to such persecution that they gradually prefer to leave the country, and this fact hinders the economic development of Georgia. The Georgian people will never consent to the occupation of the country by the Russiau Army. They know that they are fighting for their national liberty and indpendence. Representatives of the civilized world! Listen to the cry of a people Of ancient civilization which desires to remain independent. This nation Is threatened with physical exterminhation Its material and maral wealth is fast disappearing, and its national home Is in danger of destruction. The committee for Georgian Independence confidently hopes that the Leagie of Nations, that supreme organ of justice. will raise an nuthorliative voice against the acts of violence conmitted by the masters of present-day Russia
against the Georgian people.

TIFLis, May 25, 1923.


PARIS, September 9, 192;. Mr. PRE.IDE\T: I have just received the following dispatch froin Gcorgia: "The struggle continues. All of Georgia, witi the exception (of Ttlis 11n1d On the other hand. according to inforlnatlou from lthoritIative sources, Mosco w has decided to rcconquer Georgia 11d1 to tiaiN ed Is inakiltg military preparation. Confirming my telegrain of the 6,th of the current month, I have the honor to beg that yelle so good s to have the case of Georgia entered on the ilgenlda of the general assecinbl.y of tile Aagte of Nations in order that the co lltlt may be Settled ily lieareful 1neal-l ainl to Stop tIL' eflusiolI of the blood of a people wiihliat tlhs ,eaeles'ly tm shako off the yoke of the lllvahvr. Pray :elit, Mr. Pre.Adent, assurances of aiy hiliest collsilerltionf. President of flie Nalional Gor'e'
1t11(1of Batuni, is in the hands of the the side of Batum." Russian troops are arriving from Rnuurgents.

(h oriq.



Thursday, September 11, 1924--1 a. m.


The PRSIDsNT. The French, British, and Belgian delegations have brought forward a motion which they wish to place on the agenda of the present session of the assembly. It must first, of course, be passed to the agenda committee. The motion reads as follows: "The assembly, wishing to renew the resolution adopted on September 22, 1922, by the third assembly regarding Georgia, Invites the council to follow attentively the course of events in this part of the world, so that it may be able to seize any opportunity which may occur to help in the restoration of this country to normal conditions by any peaceful means in accordance with the rules of international law." M. Paul Boneour (France) wishes to say a few words in explanation of this motion. I call upon M. Paul Boncour to address the assembly. (M. Paul Boncour mounted the platform amidst the applause of the assembly.) M. PAU-, BONCOUn (France). Mr. President, ladles, and gentlemen, at this late hour the assembly may rest assured that I will only keep it a few moments. Indeed, in the matter of the draft resolution, which I have the honor to submit in the name of the British, Belgian, and French delegations, the painful and tragic events which are now taking place form in themselves sufficient comment. The news we read in tne papers an not, of course, be used as an official text for discussion; nevertheless, we can not pretend that we are Ignorant of all that the press tells us of events in Georgia, and we must all surely feel what a blend of pathos and paradox it is that we should be quietly deliberating here upon the interests of peace and the best means of securing peace, while at this moment somewhere in the w)rld a state of war exists, blood Is being shed, massacres tirc taking pace, and cries of agony are once again rising to the heavens. In the face of all that Is happening, the league can not stand Idly by and shirk its duty. The position, I admit, is difficult, because a state of war exists between two states which are not members of the league; but those who, with humane breadth of vision, founded and organized the League of Nations and drew up our common t;,id, the covenant, foresaw that the league, if its field is to be really world.w;,4e, must not take account of Its members only, but must carry out its mission of reconciliation elsewhere and bring within its fold thosrP. states which are not yet members. The proposal I have submitted on behalf of the British, Belgian, and French delegations is, I may inform the assembly, the outcome of an agreement be. tween Mr. McDonald, Prime Minister of Great Britain, and 31. Ilerriot, Prime Minister of France, at the moment of tbcir departure. Tie governmentt of Georgia had addressed a moving appeal to Mr. llerrlot and through him to the league. In their common desire for the welfare of humanity, Mr. MacDonald and M. Herriot, rally agreed, even in the rush of their departure, that the league ought to take up this question. When they left, they instructed me to arrange with Lord larmoor, delegate of the British Empire, to submit this proposal in their name. Tile thing is done. There is nothirig in the proposal which could offend the susceptibliftles of either of the two states concerned; if there had iNeen, I would never have takei upon myself the responsibility of making it. I am one of the many who think that the league will not prforni its fall task until it Includes every vntinn in the world. This proposal is in keeping with the ultimate aim of the league, and no state can take offence at the league's efforts to abolish war and establish justice throughout the world. That is its duly, and it will of course rest with Ihe comnlent em'unittees to consider ways and mearns of giving lralieal effect to this proposal. I will not enter upon that qmstlion now. ime states concerned may eonsidcr themselves honored that the league should gwve tIem credit for thinking thult no stutv, can ignore its appeal or itq determination to bring about the reign of justice In the worl'i. [Loid npphm.e.l The PmR:.sUws. If t!cre is no oposition, the draft resolution will 1e referred to the agenda commitee. (Assent.)

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA Saturday, September 20, 1024, 3.30 p. m.



The chairman, Mr. Enckell (Finland), read a letter In which the president of the assembly referred to the sixth committee for consideration a proposal submitted by the Belgian, british, and French delegations regarding the situation in Georgia. The proposal was as follows: "The assembly, reiterating the resolution adopted on September 22, 1922, by the third assembly, Invites the Council to follow attentively the course of events in this part of the world, so that it may be able to seize any opportunity which may occur to help in the restoration of this country to normal conditions by any peaceful means in accordance with the rules of international law." The chairman slid stress on the fact that this proposal was in accordance with a resolution unanimously adopted by the third assembly on September 2"2, 1922. In the light of recent events, and in conformity with article 11 of the covenant, this question was one that concerned the League of Nations. He proposed that a drafting committee should prepare a report which the committee might subsequently submit for the approval of the assembly. It would be stated in this report that the governments of those states members of the league in a position to further by their good offices the task of the council were requested to forward to It such useful information as might enable It to form a correct opinion on the situation !n that part of the world. The league could thus act in a spirit of conciliation and at the same time adhere strictly to the principle of international law. The proposal submitted by the chairman was supported by the Belgian, French, British, and Italian delegates. M. Ie Brouckr (Belgium) explained that, although Belgium, France, and the British Emprle had asked that the resolution of two years ago should be repeated, they had not wished thereby to remind the council of its duty. Recerat events, however, in Georgia had created a new situation. It was of Importance that 'lie attention not so much of the couicll as of public opinion should be attracted at a time when the League of Nations was assembled for the purpose of seeking a ieans of consolidating peace. M. Freire d'Andrade (Portugal) expressed his agreement with the Belgian delegate, but he doubted whether, since the adoption of the resolution, the council had been able to intervene "by any peaceful mans in accordance with the rules of international law" it the affairs of Georgia, with a view to assisting in the reestablishnient of a normal situation in that country. M. Ilofnieyr (South Africa) asked th, same question andi exj.resscd the desire that before the subcommittee began its labors those members of the league which had submitted this proposal should furaigh soine information on the existing situation in Georgia and should make practical suggestions. He believed that a platonic resolution would demonstrate the inability of i;,, League of Natl'is to deal with this matter. Prof. Gilbert Mui-ray (British Empire) said that two crlticIsms had been mnade vith regard t, the proposal: (hie to the effect that it was Incorrect, mnd the other that it was ineffective. With regard to the first, litlImnted out that the British Government had carefully avoided giving rise to suspicions (t this nature. The formula of acknowledgment of the Union of the Soviet Republics was couched in very careful language. The words were: 6The British Governumeut recognizes the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics as the de jure rulers of tlise terrtores of tie( old JIussian Empire which acknowledge their authority." There was therefore nothing contradictory between the de jure recognition given by tileBritish Government and the iroposa;l now submitted. The resolution did not prejudice the question of deterinlling whether Georgia did or did not form part the Idnton of SovIet itelublIes. of 'Tlie fact remained tliat a swte of war exi,4te ili oe!' part of the world, ami 111fultilinent of its duly the league (-ould not remain Indifferent to it. Did tlieresolutio;i decide the qmi,'lioii as to whether it wii:itcivil war or an ordit:'ry war? It had buen drawn tipdignedly, in terms to which l) neltlicr Georgia nor the Union of the, Soviet Itepubllcs could take ex-e'pion.
It was nierely a queslil of intervening il a mnaimer ii atc'iordite with tile

riles of international law.




With regard to the question of Ineffectiveness, It was evident that the League of Nations could not follow up this resolution by material action. Georgia could not be allowed to hope for action of this nature. It was, nevertheless, the duty of the league to endeavor to restore peace. Sir Joseph Cook (Australia) asked if any appeal had recently been made by Georgia to the council of the League of Nations. The chairman read a note dated September 9, 1924, communicated by the secretariat, from which it was evident that two documents relating to the situation In Georgia had reached the assembly. M. de Brouckere (Belgium) stated that lie was In possession ot two othei documents from the national Government of Georgia dated September 9 and 10, 1924, respectively. lie drew the attention of the committee to the fact that these letters had been dispatched by the President of the national Government of Georgia, the Government which had been recognized de Jure by the majority of states. M. Aubert (France) agreed with the statements made by the British delegate an%' by the chairman. Ile recommended the sixth committee to adopt the chairma,,'s proposal. Mr. Hofmeyr (South Africa) proposed the following draft: "That the sixth committee resolves that the attention of the council be drawn ot the resolution adopted by the thiir assembly on September 22, 1922." (The text of this resolution to be inserted here, as follows:) "The assembly, having considered the situation In Georgia, invites the council to follow attentively the course of events in that part of the world, so tha' it may be able to seize any opportunity which may occur to help In the restoration of that country to normal conditions by any peaceful means in accordance with the rules of International law." (Then would be added:) "And that the council be urged to take such steps as It may deem practicable to give effect thereto." M. Freire D'Andrade (Portuge.l seconded the proposal of the South African delegate, but suggested the delhtton fr.)m the end of the resolution ,)f the words "by any peaceful means In accordance with the rules of International law." Count Bonin-Longare (Italy) stated that the Italian delegation would al. ways be glad to support any Initiatives Intended to recentt bloodshed in any country. He therefore accepted the proposal, but eniphasized the extreme delicacy of the problem and the difficulties which were likely to be encountered. He thought, moreover, that the council should be allowed the greatest freedom In the choice of the moment and the means in order that It might be guided by that prudence which the situation demanded. Mr. MacDonald (Canada) stated that they had before them three proposals emanating, respectively, from the chairman. the South African delegate, and the Fl rtuguese delegate. Ht seconded the proposal submitted by the chairman. Sir -fames Allen (New Zealand) wished to know the exact position of GeorgiA with regard to the League of Nations. Had not Georgia applied tobe a member of the league? If he recollected aright there was some question concerning the stability of the frontiers of Georgia, and on this account tle application fer admission to the league had not been favorably received. The speaker agreed with the Canadian representative. The question must not be treated precipitately. M. de Brouckere (Belgium) explained the reason why Georgia had not been admitted to the League of Nations. Her request had been submitted In 1920. and de Jure recognition took place subsequently to that date. The subcommittee of the fifth committee had unanimously requested .her admission. but in the plenary session the opinicn had prevailed that It would be advisable to postpone the admission of Georgia for one year. Care had even been taken that the country should be admitted Immediately to the te hnlcal organization,; of the League of Nations. No one had thought of contesting the fact that Georgia was a nation, and had, indeed, been one since the time of Queen Thamar. There wasro question, therefore, of the war being a civil one. Mr. MacDonald (Canada) again supported the proposal for the appointment of a subcommittee.


NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA The committee chose the following: M. de Brouck~re (Belgium), Prof. Gilbert Murray (British Empire), Mr. MacDonald (Canada), M. Aubert (France), Count Bonin-Longare (Italy). On the proposal of Prof. Gilbert Murray, the chairman agreed to form, part of this subcommittee, which has decided to convene immediately. Monday, September 22, 1924-10 a. m.

The chairman announced that the subcommittee appointed at the previous meeting had drawn up its report on thr proposal dealing with the position ia Georgia. If the committee raised no objection, he proposed that this report should be submitted to the assembly. An exchange of views took place between Doctor NavseL% (Norway), Brouckere (Belgium), Sir James Allen (New Zealand), and Count BoninLongare (Italy). The last named proposed that the wording of one sentence in the report should be changed. The committee adopted the report with this amendment and, on the chairman's proposal, appointed Mr. Macdonald (Canada) rapporteur to the asdembly.

The assembly has referred to the sixth committee for consideration a proposal submitted by the e-elegations of Belgium, the British Empire, and France, in the following terms: "The assembly, reiterating the resolbitton adopted on September 22, 1922, by the third assembly, with reference to Georgia, invites the council to follow attentively the course of events in this part of the world, so that it may be able to seize any opportunity which may occur to help in the restoration of this country to normal conditions by any peaceful means in accordance with the rules of international law." This proposal Is a textual reproduction of the resolution adopted in 1922. The third assembly, prompted by feelings which we are sure our colleagues' all share at the present time, entrusted to the c',uneil the duty of watching the situation and seizing any favorable opporttvu'y to improve it by peaceful means in accordance with international law. The main features of the situation remain unaltered, and the tragic events which are in this moment taking place in Georgia must bring back to us the anxieties of the third assembly. As the resolution of 1922 is already on record, we may venture, in addition, to expressethe hope that the governments of the states members of the league may perhaps be able to assist the council, either with information or by exercise of their influence for peace so far as circumstances may permit.

The assembly decides to authorize the transmission to thb council of the report of the sixth committee regarding the situation in Georgia (Document A. 95, 1924, VII), In order that the council may be able, at a time and in the manner it may coi'sider the most opportune, to take into consideration the indications It contains." Thursday, September 25, 1924-4 p. m.

The PSESIDENT. We now pass to the fifth item on our agenda, the situation in Georgia (Annex 15, Document A. 95, 1924, VII). I invite M. Enckell, chairman of the sixth committee, and Mr. E. M. MacDonald, rapporteur, to take their places on the platform. (M. Enekell, chairman of the sixth committee, and Mr. M. M. MacDonald, rapporteur, took their places on the platform.) The PRESIDENT. The rapporteur will address the assembly.


Mr. E. M. (AoDoNs~w (Canada, rapporteur). The question of the situation in Georgia, which has been dealt with by the sixth committee, was put forward by the delegations of the British Empire, France, and Belgium. The report of the sixth committee is before you. Perhaps you will permit me, in a very few words, to outline the present situation in that unhappy country. A proud people, which for ceturines had maintained Its independence, became merged in the Russian nation a little over a hundred years ago. After the Great War, in common with a great many other countries in a similar position, the Georgian people asserted their independence on May 26, 1918, and adopted a constitution on the lines of a democrat republic. That nation so reconstituted was, on January 11, 1920, recognized by the supreme council, which was then composed of Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and Belgium. In view of later events, it is significant to note that on May 7 of the same year Russia herself recognized de Jure the independence of Georgia, using the following words In the treaty in that regard: "Russia recognizes without reserve the independence and sovereignty of the Georgian state, and willingly renounces the sovereign rights which belong to Russia as regards the Georgian people and terrain." On January 27, 1921, the allied powers recognized the state of- Georgia de Jure at t Le same time as Esthonla and Latvia, which urte now members of the league. Similar recognition was extended by a large number of other countries--Poland, Rumania, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Argentina, Panama, Haiti, Mexico, Liberia, Luxembourg, and Siam. On February 25, 1921, the minister plenipotentiary of the new state presented his credentials to the President of the French Republic, and since that date the Georgian legation has been functioning in Paris. What then happened-and it is an almost unprecedented action in the history of the worldwas that Russia, In spite of her recognition of Georgia, preceded to disregard the step which she had taken and to attack Georgia. Since then the position of that country has appealed to the sympathy of all the nations of the world. That the status of Georgia, as consitutei, has been further recognized and approved-is seen by the fact that no less distinguished a person that the present Prime Minister of France, M. Herriot, in 1922, brought the situation of Georgia, as it then was, before the French Chamber of Deputties, where his statement with regard to the position of affairs was approved by the then Premier, M. Poincar6. The Premier Chancellor of the Exchequer in Great Britain, Mr. Snowden, brought the situation before the British House of Commons in July of last year. While it may be said, in considering this matter, that Great Britain has recognized the Soviet Government in Russia, it must at the same time be borne in mind that that recognition was limited, and was coupled with a resirvation, because Great Britain only recognized the Union of Soviet Republics as being the de Jure government of such territories of the former Russian Empire as recognized its authority. As far as Georgia is concerned, it seems to me, therefore, that she has a full right to claim the sympathy of all tha other nations of the world. The representations which were made to our committee on behalf of that unhappy State disclosed the following facts: "The sufferings of the Georgian people are beyond all enduranc--; the terror, ivhlch in Rusia is relaxed at times, not only does not know any period of relaxation in Georgia, but is becoming more and moru, violent; deportations, imprisonment, tortures in the dungeons of the Cheka, execution without trial of representatives of all classes are more and more numerous; the arrested political people are treated as bandits, and intellectuals and workmen are deprived of all means of work; Georgians being hostile to the power, their admission to commercial and industrial enterprises as well as into the public services is hindered by every means; the clergy are persecuted for the exercise of their religious duties, and for having put into the true light the actual state of affairs. The chief of the Georgian Church, Patriarch Cathollcos Ambroslus, was condemnedsituation, years' Imprisonment and is now in close confinement." This is the to many and I am sure it is one which will appeal to every member of this assembly. It is therefore with full confidence that I submit to you the conclusions of the second committee. [Applause.] The PRFISIDENT. Prof. Gilbert Murray, delegate of the British Empire, will address the assembly. Prof. GILBERT MUBTLXY (British Empire). I rise on behalf of the British delegation merely to emphasize the purely humanitarian character of this resolu-

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA tion. There is no question of interference in the domestic affairs of the Russian Empire. There is no question whatever of using any form of military pressure to bring about a settlement of the fighting in Georgia in one way or the other. But every war or threat of war is the concern of the League of Nations, and if the wholesale slaughter and devastation now taking place in Georgia is not technically a war, it Is at least a terrible example of huwan suffering; and the League is concerned, according to article 23 of the covenL~lt, in endeavoring to alleviate the sufferings of mankind. We ask the council to watch for any opportunity that may offer to restore normal conditions in that afflicted region by any peaceful means, in accordance with the rules of international law. The league wishes to offer its good services to both sides in reestablishing normal conditions. I am afraid that we can do no more than that, but I feel convinced that we can do no less. It has been suggested, as Mr. E. M. MacDonald pointed out, that the policy of Great Britain has been inconsistent on this matter. On January 27, 1021, Great Britain recognized Georgian de Jure as an independent State, and this year the British Government has recognized the Soviet Government; but, as Mr. E. M. MacDonald pointed out, the words of that recognition were very carefully, and I think correctly, chosen. I venture to suggest that it would not have been proper for Ills Majesty's Government to interfere in the burning question then at issue between the Soviet Government and that of Georgia. At any rate, the recognition was expressedJ in very careful and correct language. Ills Majesty's Government recognized the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics as being the de jure government of those territories of the former Russian Empire which recognized its authority. It went no further. One word more. It is only too often the fate of this assembly to be faced by problems it can not solve and by human suffering which it can not, with its present resources, cure or even alleviate. The question arises in such cases as to what the league ought to do. It is perfectly clear that we must not make promises which we can not fulfill; it is clear that it would be cruel to encourage hopes which will not be realized. But surely it is equally clear that we can not simply turn away our eyes from this suffering and pretend, for diplomatic reasons, a callous Indifference which we do not feel. I think we can only do, in this and similar cases, what Is recommended !n the resolution before us. We must beg the sufferers to be patient to the very limits of human patience; we must acknowledge the duty which for the time being we can not fulfill, and we must ask the council to watch for every opportunity that may present itself of offering effective mediation and bringing peace to the regions where there is now war. [Applause.) The PRESIDENT. Count Bonin-Longare, delegate of Italy, will address the assembly. Count P.oNI.-LONOARE (Italy). Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen, the fifth assembly has had a proposal laid before It in which the couJcll is asked to follow attentively the course of events in Georgia with a view to restoring the country to normal conditions and putting a stop te bloodshed. It is clear that, at a time when the assembly of the league Is in session and is engaged in constructing its noble edifice of universal peace, it can not turn a deaf ear to rumors of war and strife. The league would be failing in its duty if, while drafting and codifying the doctrines which are to establish the peace of the world on unshakable foundations, it affected to ignore the tragedy of a war at the very gates of Europe. There can thus be no two opinions in regard to the proposal put forward by the 1?elgian, French, and Britikh delegations, and the Italian delegation wishes to support it, more especially as the rapporteur has given us a very timely reminder that we should not be adopting a new resolution, but simply reviving cne which was unanimously adopted by the third assembly two years ago. It is, however, one of the immutable laws of international politics that countries can not allow sentiment alone to gu;de them, and though we are anxious to do all in our power to save every sIngle life we call, we must remember that we are on difficult ground and that a false step might land uwq in a very awkward predicament. The situation of the two countries in conflict is such that the mediating action which we propose to exercise might, notwithstanding our disinterested motives, encounter most serious difficulties. We must therefore act with the utmost caution.



Accordingly I am glad to see from the report before us that the council is allowed wide discretion as to choice of time and methods. . I The council, wlich is preeminently a political body, will be able to consider 'the situation from the twofold standpoint of sentiment and reason. It can steer a course through the shoals of this difficult problem and so attain without difficulty the humane and peaceful aim which we are pursuing. (Applause.] The PRESID. r. M. de Brouck~re, delegate of Belgium, will address the assembly. M. DE Bnoucxftn (Belgium). Mr. President, ladies, and gentlemen, I should like briefly to express my approval of the prudent counsel which the honorable delegate of Italy has just given us and to say how sincerely I share the hopes expressed by the British delegate. In this matter, as in every other, caution is essential. Not only in the Caucasus, but everywhere else, the league may flud itself on treacherous ground. We must first and foremost ask the council to exercise in the future, as it has done with such conspicuous success in the past, that political wisdom and foresight to which reference has just been made and which, as experience has shown, is very rarely synonymous with inaction. If the league tacitly allows a whole nation to fight and perish without taking the slightest heed, Its inaction would, believe me, prove so serious that, far from merely avoiding incidents, it would provoke the most serious difficulties. I venture to say that the league's policy would be singularly inconsistent and indeed derisive if, at a time when the foremost Intellects of the day are devoting themselves heart and soul to the study of the problem of peace, it should stand aloof, if it sheltered behind a cloud of abstractions and shut its eyes to the fact that war is raging at our gates. It has been rightly said-and those who are most anxious to intervene and prevetit war are obliged to recognize the fact-that at the present juncture we van do very little. But should we on ti 's account remain silent? Surely not. There is a certain virtue in words themselves. Things which we can not do now we will be able to do when the conscience of the world has given us greater power, and it is this conscience which we must awaken and to which we must appeal. We mvst, by unanimously adopting the resolution before us, speak a word of hope to the oppressed. We must tell them that we kuow that war, unjust war, is raging, and that sooner cr later, as soon as the time comes, we will act, we will do our utmost, we will see that justice !s done. (Applause.] Tb PRESIDENT. MN.Georges Bonnet, delegate of France. will address the aembly. M. GEoRGEs Boimr (France). Mr. President, ladies, and gentlemen, I should like to say a few words in support of the eloquent speeches which have just been made. The draft resolution in question has been submitted jointly by the Belgian, British, and French delegations, and you will remember that it was eloquently defended in the assembly by M. Paul Boncour. As M. de Brouckre has just emphasized, the League of Nations can not remain silent in the presence of sufferings such as are now being endured by the Georgian people. The league must make its voice heard, and this is the aim of the draft resolution which you are asked to adopt. It is true that we must exercise the utmost caution. Legal considerations must be taken in conjunction with sentimental ones. We claim that the text before you takes both Into consideration, and accordingly the French delegation associates itself with what has been said by the previous speakers, and asks you to adopt the resolution. [Applause.) The PRESIDENT. Does anyone else wish to speak? The discussion Is closed.. The sixth committee asks that its report should be transmitted by the assembly to the council in order that the latter may be able to take it into considera. tion at the time and in the manner which it may consider the most opportune. On this understanding, I put the following resolution to the vote: "The assembly decides to authorize the transmisison to the council of the report of the sixth committee regarding the situation In Georgia, in order that the council t may be able, at a time and in the manner It may consider the most opportune, o take Into consideration the indications it contains." (The resolution was unanimously adopted.)



DELEGATION OF THE GEOROIAN REPuBLIc, 32 Queen's Gate, Lo'don, S. W. 7, September 1, 1920.

In the name of the Government of the Republic of Georgia, I have the honor to submit to the League of Nations the unanimous desire of Georgia for admiesion to, and membership of, the league, with all the duties and rights thereto attached, the which are based on ..he covenant of the said league. The reasons which lead the Georgian Republic to take this step, as well as the political ends at which she aims, are set forth in an explanatory memorandum which will shortly be submitted, with Its annexes, to the secretary of the league. The council of the League of Nations is urgently begged not to refuse its cooperation in laying the above-mentioned matters before the assembly at its meeting in Geneva. TCHEIDZE, President of the Constituent Assembly of Georgia and of the Georgian Delegation at the Peace Conference.


LoxNoN, September 18, 1920. Amongst the nations emancipated by the events of the Great War and by the revolutions which followed Georgia, together with Armenia, is the most ancient. She is also the nation which has kept longer than any the last vestige of her independence; indeed, she was not annexed to Russia until the beginning of the nineteenth century, so that this foreign domination lasted but a little over a hundred years. From a geographical point of view Georgia Is very (stinctly separated from Russia, that is to say from that vast plain stretching from the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea to the Baltic and the Arctic Oe'an by that natural barrier formed by the chain of the great Caucasian Mountains. From the ethnographical point of view the G, organ people, Leing in no wise Slav, are altogether unlike the Russians. They are a different type, as entirely different as are their language, their traditions, their customs, and their manners. Although the majority are, like the Russians, professedly of the Greek Orthodox Church, the Georgian nation, even in this particular domain, has never mingled with the Russians. Her ecclesiastical traditions were maintained even under Russian rule; In spite of the temporary suppression of the ancient rights of the Georgian Church Georgia restored this autocephalous of the Georgian Church on the morrow of the pan-Russian revolution in 1917. These primordial facts taken into consideration, it is easy to understand that with the crumbling of the former Russian Empire in 1917-18 a people such as the Georgians, homogeneous, with pronounced ethnical characteristics, with feelings of nationality aroused, having a still vivid remembrance of a freedom of age-long duration, possessed of a precisely defined territory, alert, and already initiated into political life, would of necessity have to constitute themselves an Independent state or otherwise descend Into Inevitable chaos. This movement In Georgia was altogether spontaneous and without precedent unanimous. Already during the last decades of Russian rule an exceedingly strong democratic current had made itself felt in Georgia; It was at its height during the revolution which convulsed Russia In 1905-6. Toward 1917 it reached complete maturity, and is the chief reason of the stability of the institutions created by independent Georgia. National sentiment, fertilized and renewed by the ideal of democracy, facilitated the application of this Ideal, acting as a sure basis, a settled framework, a medium coherent and united In spite of the differences in class and conditions. This rapid outline Is sufficient to show how not only inevitable, in view of political circumstances, but also essentially necessary was the solemn act of May 26, 1918. by which the National Council proclaimed the independence of -Georgia and the installation of her Government.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA Since this date, and up to the present time, political activity in Georgia has been entirely devoted to the work of her internal organization, and the defense of the Republic against aggression from without. Menaced and often attacked, Georgia has had to face numerous foes. at the same time suffering from the inevitable repercussion of the World War, and the agitated and violent civil strife in Russia. But neither the multifarious dangers nor the forces which menaced Georgia from without have turned her aside from the work of organizing the Republic. This task, resolutely approached from the beginning, has been continued without truce and has resulted in the creation of a governmental body, an administrative, military, and financial organization, in the necessary reforms In Justice and public education, in the better working of the public services. Georgia has succeeded in securing order within the limits of her territory, and is guaranteeing political liberty to all her citizens, thus letting them experience the priceless boons of independence after the servitude of a century. This constituent assembly of Georgia (elected by universal suffrage) which assembled on the 12th of March, 1919, and which replaced the provisional parliament, was together with the government the principal agent in this work of transformation and equipment. The constituent assembly opened on the 26th of May, 1918, with the solemn and unanimous coi Armation of the act proclaiming the independence of Georgia. The basis of the political constitution of Georgia is already elaborated in so much as the principle of republicanism has been adopted, public authority Is regularly constituted, and representative government by the people organized. The urgent necessity of reforms in administration, in agrarian and other matters, and the vicissitudes of the moment were the cause of inevitable delay in the establishment of a constitutional charter, of which the plan already drawn up by a special commission of the constituent assembly will shortly be submitted for the consideration of this assembly. This continuous struggle for existence, and the persistent labor devoted to the consolidation of the Republic impressed on the minds of even those wbose preconceived ideis and interests were opposed to it the fact of the creation of a Georian Republic, strongly organized, ardently supported, with a government eierclslng full power. It was not tihl after the definite setback experienced in the efforts to restore the Russian Empire n its former foundations that the independence of Georgia was recognized--le facto-by the four great allied powers (France. Great Britain, Italy, Japan). The decision of the supreme council, relating to this (January 11, 1920), was received with the greatest enthusiasm in Georgia. Later, by a clause of the peace treaty signed at Moscow, Soviet Russia accorded to Georgia without reserve formal and definite recognition. The evacuation by the Allies in July, 1920, of the Province of Datum and the installation in their stead of Georgian administration was d further proof of the confidence inspired by this Government. Rallying round the bantier of western democracy, the Georgian nation must naturally look with special sympathy on the formation of that political system born of the war and destined to paralyze war which the League of Nations is to Incarnate, which constitutes the most remarkable and the most fertile effort known to humanity on its way toward future unity. In asking admission into the League of Nations Georgia is in no way actuated by hopes of material gain in any form, political or otherwise; she only aspires to the consecration, by the community of civilized nations, of her efforts toward liberty and democratic order. To be associated from the outset in this task, in common with all those nations desirous of peace and solidarity, such is Georgia's most sincere wish. The Georgian people desire to take upon themselves as large a share of this work as their strength and conditions allow, and the Georgian Government is persuaded that the political and geographical situation of Georgia is of such a nature as to give a certain importance to the participation of this nation in the policy of international peace, of which policy t' e directing organ will be the League of Nations. The League of Nations will Indeed only be strong through the sincere and efficacious adherence of all political factors capable of Influencing and guiding public opinion in different countries.


NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA Above all, It Is Important that the authority of the League of Nations should be established in those countries which, through their geographical situation or special political conditions, might easily become centers of complications which would eventually affect the political life of the vast European "ensemble." It* is not exaggerated to affirm that such is also the position of the Caucasian Isthmus. Independence and political stability are necessary to the countries of which the isthmus is composed (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaidjan) if it is desired that the new Turkey and Persia should develop freely without being perpetually menaced from the north; if it is desired that the middle east, the status of which is in process of being settled, should not again become the prey of rival controversy. The obvious function of transcaucasia in international politics will be to separate those areas of power and influence which have a natural tendency to enter into conflict, and the consolidation of the Transcaucasian States is In this respect of an Importance reaching far beyond the frontiers of these States. Georgia being one of the chief elements In this consolidation, her admission into the League of Nations will facilitate the task which at present encumbers her in Transcaucasian politics, while the authority of the league itself will be thereby strengthened in those areas where, as has been said, this authority Is so necessary. There is yet another aspect of the problem which gives an international bearing to Transcaucasia, and to the question of the admlsshgn of Georgia into the League of Nations, this is the communication, through Georgia, with Persia, Armenia, and central Asia. There are very few commercial routes whose importance as an international artery is so pronounced as that route which, via the Transcaucasian States, unites the west with the middle east and central Asia. The best guaranty for the future safeguarding of the international nature of this route to the profit of all concerned lies in the help and guidance which the League of Nations is able to give for this purpose to Transcaucasia, and the reception of Georgia into the league will most obviously facilitate for the latter the above-indicated task. It Is, however, to bo foreseen that the organization and perfecting of the great lines of communication between nations will be one of the chief preoccupations of the league. The Transcaucaslan States, freed from foreign domination, united in that which constitutes their common interest, bound to the community of peoples by obligations set forth in the covenant of the League of Nations, will act as one of her chief mainstays in the east. This final solution of the Caucasian problem, a solution so in keeping with the principles which animate the League of Nations, which will be powerfully strengthened by the admission into the said league of Georgia, whose position and precedents assure her a special r6le in Transcaucasian politics. The Georgian Government deems that, apart from the above-mentioned considerations, the very principles which should regulate international life, directed from henceforth toward unity and coordination, militate sufficiently in themsclvcs for the admission into the family of free peoples of an ancient nation, once the outpost of Christianity in the east, now one of the outposts of democracy, a nation which aspires merely to labor, diligent and free, in her own domain, her lawful and Incontestable heritage. ANNEX 3

The Georgian 'National Council, during its plenary sitting of May 26, 1918, declared as follows: For several centuries Georgia existed as a free and independent State. At the end of the eighteenth century Georgia voluntarily allied herself with Russia, with the stipulation that the latter should Drotect her from enemies without. In the course of the great Russian revolution conditions arose which resulted In the disorganization of the entire military front and the abandonment of Transcaucasia by the Russian Army.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OP GEORGIA Thus, left to her own devices, Georgia, and with her all Transcaucasia, took Into their hands the direction of their affairs creating the necessary organs for this purpose; but under pressure from exterior forces the links which united Transcaucaslan nationalities were broken and the political unity, of Trans-caucasia was thus dissolved. The present position of the Georgian people makes it imperatively necessary ,that Georgia should create a political organization of her own, in order that she may escape from the yoke of her enemies and lay a solid foundation for her free development. Accordingly the Georgian National Council, elected by the national assembly of Georgia on November 22 (December 5), 1917, declares: (1) In future the Georgian, people will hold sovereign power and Georgia will be a State enjoying all the rights of a free and Independent State. (2) Independent Georgia's form of political organization will be a democratic Republic. (3) In the event of lnternatlhx.:i conflict Georgia will always remain neutral. (4) The Georgian democratic Republic will apply itself to establishing friendly relations with all nations, and especially with neighboring nationalities and states. (5) The democratic Georgian Republic offers to all Inhabitants of her territory a wide field for free development. (0) The democratic Georgian Republic guarantees to all citizens within her territory civil and political rights, without distinction of nationality, religion, social position, or sex. (7) Until the convocation of the constituent assembly the National Council, with the addition of representatives of the minorities and the provisional government responsibie to the National Council, is at the head of all Georgian administration.

On the 12th of March, 1919, the constituent assembly of Georgia confirmed the preceding act In the following terms: "At its first sitting of the 12th of March, 1919, the constituent assembly of Georgia, elected by citizens of both sexes, according to the direct, equal, universal, secret, and proportional electoral system, proclaims before the world and history that it fully confirms and approves the act of the independence of Georgia, declared at Tiflis, by the Georgian National Council, May 26,1918." Awmmx 5 PARIS, January 27, 1921. To His Excellency M. GUEoUETCKOur, Minfster of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Georgla, Paris. Mr. MINIsTER: After having taken cognizance of the decision by which the supreme council, under date of January 26, has resolved to recognize de jure the independence of Georgia as soon as this country should formally express the desire, you undertook, by letter of January 27, to address to me the official request of the Government and the people of Georgia to become recognized de Jure by the allied powers. I hastened to communicate your letter to the conference; this latter was unanimous in deciding to recognize de jure the Georgian Government. The allied powers are happy to be able to prove thus anew the sympathy with which they have followed the efforts of the Georgian people toward Independence and the admiration inspired in them by the work it has already accomplished. Be pleased to accept, Mr. Minister, the assurance of my highest regard. BRAN%, ANNEX 7

On the 19th of March, 1921, the Government of the Georgian Republic, which was holding Its power by the will of the people, freely expressed at the universal



-suffrage, was constrained to leave Its country. It was brought to do this through the occupation of Georgia by the armies of the Russia of the soviets, which, in violating the liberty and independence of the people, deprived its government of the possibility of exercising its functions on its national soil. Hereunder, a brief outline of the events which preceded the occupation of Georgia by the enemy. From the first day of Its existence, the Georgian Republic employed all its efforts to maintain peace with its neighbors. The people had confided the organization of Its state to the group which, since a quarter of a century, had constantly been at the head of the political movement of Georgia and had represented the country in the four Doumas of the Empire. The confidence of the people possessed by the government, which commanded a majority of more than 80 per cent at the constitutent assembly, placed the Georgian Republic under shelter from the interior crises which might have resulted from the quarrel of the parties. This security of the country ,was besides assured by the great reforms effected conformably to the quasiunanimous will of the people. In these conditions, the existence of the Republic could be menaced only by exterior forces, which imposed upon the Georgian Government extreme prudence in its foreign policy. The rapprochement of the Republic of Transcaucasia and the consolidation of relations with the neighboring countries as well as with the powers of Europe; these were the principal aims of this policy. But, faithful t 9 its duty of defending the independence of the country, the Government of the Georgian Republic could not permit any of its neighbors to impose its will or its laws on the Republic. or to dictate to it such or such other politics toward the countries of Europe. This circumstance did not fall to Incite against Georgia the hate of the Government of Moscow, who wanted to extend its domination on all of Transcaucasia in order to be able to use it as a political weapon. Before the formal refusal of the Georgian Government to become an agent of Moscow and to engage itself in the politics of imperialistic adventures of Soviet Russia. the Bolsheviksm declared that ths government was an agent of the entente. The "sovietization" of Georgia became an essential element of Bolshevik politles in Asia MiPor. After the defeat of the numerous tentatives to arrive at this aim through the medium of insurrections and of plots organized by the emissaries of Moscow and paid with its gold, the government of the Soviets, despite the treaty of peace which it had signed with Georgia on May 7, 1920, decided to conquer this country by the force of arms. In December, 1920, the commander of the Eleventh Russian Army, Hecker, was charged to present a report on the military forces necessary for the conquest of Georgia. In his report, in great detail, he demonstrated that his army could not succeed in effecting this conquest except on condition that the Government of Angora showed Itself favorable to this enterprise. The Bolsheviks therefore had to adjourn the invasion of Georgia. However, from this time on their troops began to mass themselves at its frontiers. All the protestations of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Georgia remained ineffectual. In order to evade the Nsar which threatened to break out the Georgian Govcrnment attempted to elucidate the aims pursued by Moscow In Transcaucasia; it solicited Its admission to the Russo-Turkish confereti~e which was to be held at Moscow last February. This proposition was left without answer by the government of the soviets. The steps undertaken by the Georgian Governmnut to guard against possible complications on the side of Armenta, at that time Wready soviet ized, were suecessful; the Government of Eivan consented to reguiita amiably the litigeous questions existing between the two Republics, and the vocationin of an Armeno-Georgian conference at Tiflis was fixed for the 15th of February. However, on February 11, the Russian troops forming a part of the Eleventh Army, invaded Georgia from the Armenian side. Mr. Scheinman, representative of the soviet government at Tiflis, declared to the Georgian Government that Russia knew nothing of this attack and that ;t was undertaken by the Armenian Government. At the same time the Georgian Government received from Mr. Chaverdoff, the repre.sentative of Soviet Armenia, a not less formal declaration, according to which Armenia was entirely unconnected with this offensive.



The facts prove that, of these two assertions, that of Mr. Chaverdoff was the true one; in the course of the battles engaged in below Tiflis the Georgian troops made many prisoners. The examinations they underwent demonstrated that they were all natives of the central provinces of Russia and belonged to regular units of the armies of Moscow. It Is therefore not Armenia but Russia of the soviets which sent forces against Georgia the 11th of February from the side of tile Armenian frontier. On February 15 new detachments of the Eleventh Army, reinforced by units of cavalry, crossed the frontier of Georgia from the side of Azerbaldjan. Deploying all it4 energy to repulse the invader, the Georgian Government attempted to stop ie war through diplomatic channels. On tile 16th of February the President of the Georgian Government attempted to enter Into communication with Moscow by direct telegraph wire, but Mr. Carakhan, assistant to the Commissary of Foreign Affairs, even though he was in the wire at Moscow, refused to speak with the President. The next day the radiotelegraph station of Tiflis received a message through which Mr. Chicherin, pretending to be ignorant of the fact that Georgia had been attacked by the Russian Army, proposed to the Georgian Governmeut his mediation between Georgia and the other Republics of the Transcaucasia While entertaining no illusions on the sincerity of this message, the Georgian Government replied that it accepted the proposition of Mr. Chicherin on condition that the Russian Government recall its armies from the Georgian territory. Nevertheless, the operations were developing. The chargedirected from two sides against Tiflis had encountered an heroic resistance on the part of the Georgian people. The army and the popular guard had driven back all the attacks of the enemy, although this latter greatly exceeded them in number as well as in armament and munitions. On February 21 the President of the Georgian Government sent to Mr. Chicherin a cablegram demanding the reasons of the war undertaken by Russia against Georgia. Without having received an answer to this telegram, on February 22, the President addressed himself to Mr, Lenin and Mr. Trotski, asking them to terminate the war, whose imreslallstic and offensive character was beyond doubt. For only reply the soviet government released an offensive against Georgia from three new directions-by the Georgian military road on the side of Vladlkavkaz, through the neck of Mamisson near Koutain, and by the littoral of the Black Sea from the side of Sotchl. Georgia saw herself attacked from all sides by the Eleventh Russian Army and by units of three other armies-Eighth and Thirteenth, without counting some detachments of cavalry from Boudenny and Jloba. The enthusiasm of the people, the affiux of volunteers, would have permitted the Georgian Government to Increase the forces of resistance, but there were not enough guns to arm all those who were ready to die for the lberty .and independence of the country; for two years the representatives of tae Republic in Europe had been urging the powers In vain to give the Georgian people the indispensable technical means to assure the defense of the country; only one power consented finally to furnish Georgia with a certain quantity of arms, but this decision was made too late. On the contrary, the Bolsheviks, by using the inexhaustible stocks of Chimen. were in a position to case against the Georgian Army troops always fresh, prli. vided in abundance with modern arms. On February 22 the Bolsheviks received a new reinforcement; the Government of Angora delivered to the Georgian Government an ultimatum demanding the evacution of the cities of Ardahan and Artvin. Being impossible to oppose sufficient forces to the Turkish offensive on this new front, the Georgian Government saw itself constrained to recall its troops from these .itlies. declaring. however, that the question was not settled by this fact and that this settlement could not be effected except by entente or arbitration. Meanwhile, the military situation of Georgia was becomng more and more difficult: Attacked from five sides, obliged to disperse its forces ieraoss an Immense front, the Georgian Republic had to carry on the battle under conditions by far too unequal. Her army was infallibly menaced with being encompassed and annihilated. The supreme Georgian commander decided then to evacuate Tiflis and effect the drawing back of the army In order to concentrate it entirely on the strong positions where it would be sheltered



from the Ittissian troops. The order was given to all the troops on all the fronts to retire fighting to the left bank of the Rion, maintaining Batum as military base. On February 2, Tflis was evacuated by the Georgian troops, and the retreat In the direction designated by the commander began. The battle continued three more weeks on the new lines of defense. In the course of these tragic days, the Georgian people showed itself more than ever united and resolved to defend its liberty and Its independence. All" the efforts of Bolshevik agents to provoke interior mutinies and to drive the soldiers Into rebellion remained fruitless. But lacking materials of war, without allies, alone, isolated, awaiting help from nowhere, the little republic could not long resist great Russia. The policy of the Government of Angora accelerated the end of this resistance. After having taken possession of Ardahan and Artvin, the Khemalist Government declared to Georgia that it no longer had any litigious questions with her and proposed to help to prevent the Bolshevik troops from penetrating in the Province of Batum. It begged the Georgian Government not to oppose itself to the entrance in the province of the Turkish troops, which were-so it aid-to take part in the defense of the region against the Bolshevist army. However, on March 10, once inside Batum, the Turks declared that the Great National Assembly of Angora had decided the annexation of the city of Batum and of its Provinces to Turkey and attempted to occupy by main force the public institutions of the city and its forts. At the same time they addressed to the Georgian Government an ultimatum demanding the disaimament of its troops. A battle took place in the streets of Batum between the Georgians and the Turks. The Turks were driven from the city. But from then on Georgia had a new front-and that on the side, precisely, where she had counted her military base as assured. The Georgian troops closed in on two sides by the armies of two great military powers, Soviet Russia and Turkey, were condemned to perish without the least hope of success. On March 17. the Georgian Government decided to discontinue the fight on the left bank of the Rlion and to dissolve the briny. The dissolution of the army, opening to the Bolshevik troops the road to Batum and making them masters of the entire territory of the Republic, had as an Inevitable consequence the departure of the Governn.nt from the territory occupied by the enemy; it was, In fact, the only means for the Georgian Government to evade all political contact wtih the invaders. The Bolshevists having organized on that part of the country occupied by tue toward this power. It declared that this usurping committee, not holding its power by the will of the Georgian people, but by Russian bayonets, a committee composed of people who entered Georgia on the heels of the army of the enemy had no right to be considered as "a government." In protesting against the violence committed toward the Georgian people, the government of the republic reiterated the assurance libat in all circumstances anywhere it would remain faithful to its duty of defending the vital interests, the liberty, and independence of its people. The facts stated above demonstrate-1. That it is not an Interior movement, even by h minority of the people, but the brutal exterior force, which destroyed the constitution, democratic republican, freely chosen by the Georgian people, to replace it with institutions imitating those of Soviet Russia. 2. That the Georgian people opposed a heroic resistance to the enemy, and that. ranking itself around its government it did not cede its territory until after having exhausted all means of resistance. 3. That the present situation of Georgia is a military occupation of the country by a foreign army. 4. Constrained by the fact of the Bolshevik occupation to leave its national soil, the Georgian Government continues to fulfill the authority which it holds from the constituent assembly and the pledge which It took toward its people, in defending the interests of this people before the powers which*have recog-*z,! the independence of the Georgian Republic.

the red army, a military power under the name of "revolutionary committee," the government of the republic, in ant appeal to the people, specified its atti-

Aprif, 1921,




(The Daily Herald, March 12, 1920] The note protests against the assumption that Batum and Georgian independenoe are in danger from Russia. This is untrue, the only danger threat-ened being the danger from the Entente. Russia has recognized Georgia independence; the Entente has not. The whole policy of Russia is in favor of self-determination of small nations, and no demand has been made on Georgia save that Batum shall not be occupied by hostile forces. Soviet Russia has not taken and will not take any hostile action against Gorgia, by occupation of Batum or otherwise.

From the report of the commander of the Eleventh Russan Soviet Army, Hewker, totha president of the military revoluuonary council of the Eleventh Army. The reprt

is dated December 18, 19201

As I have already stated at the meeting of the revolutionary military council of the Eleventh Army, the 3rd of December last, the operations against Gvcsrgli. are not possible except on the express condition of amicable neutrality of the troops of Klazim-Krabekir because, even in the case of a designation for these operations, in excess of the Eleventh Army, of all of the Eleventh Army and of the Second Army of Cavalry, our command will not have at its disposition sufficient forces to form a sure barrier against the Turks. Following the information of our intelligence service, the forces of KitzimKarabekir, situated on the Barikamlch-Alexandropol line, r.iach 22,000 to 24,000 men of regular troops and from 14,000 to 16,000 Kurd and Tartar horsemen. Considering the incapacity of the Armenian Army which is undergoing a period. of complete dislocation and which requiires a fundamental reorganization, we should place as barrier against the Tvurlks foreccs not less than two divilon-; of Infantry anal one brig.ade of cavalry. But, even in this case, our operation in the direction of Kazakh-Pont-Rouge and farther, on Tiflis, would be very much impeded. In the case of a serious resistance from Georgian units, our troops might find themselves in a catastrophie situation. Therefore, I do not see the possibility of furnishig such a. barrier the more so that at the beginning of the military operations, I could not venture to bring back the troops occupied at Lenkoran, at Daghestan. DJavouchir and Karabakh. In these conditions my profound conviction, which I deem it my duty to submit to you in writing, is that before the regulation of our mutual affair.. with the Turks, It would be dangerous to begin the military operations against Georgia. If the military revolutionary council of the Eleventh Army received real guaranties of the amicable attitude of the troops of Kiazim-Karabekir, the problem of the occupation of Georgia and of Tiflls, in the first place, would become more possible. For an operation altogether sure against Georgia, I estimate the concentration of the following forces necessary, in three principal directions: KazakhPont-Rouge, two divisions of Infantry, two divisions of cavalry; Poill, one division of infantry, two divisions of cavalry; Alstafa-Eliyzabethpol line, two divisions of infantry; in all six divisions of Infantry and five divisons of cavalry, to the effective total force of 25,000 bayonettes and 4,000 swords. The direction of Poil should still be taken care of by three trains as blinds which can be previously taken in a short delay on the Eleventh Army; to keep back the Georgian troops In the direction of Sotchi. it would be necessary to leave one division of infantry, and, to cover Vladicavcaz, the detachment of march of Comrade X. The considerations above are not given to demonstrate the Impossibility of an attack against Georgia, but only because I consider that this attack should be made only after a careful preparation in order to put an end as soon as possible to the people of Tiflis.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA Ifhowever, the political events make It necessary to attack, we must expect that the war against Georgia will take en a character of duration. I am profoundly persuaded that we can occupy without difficulty all the Georgian territory up to the ridge of Souram, but my troops would then bestopped. In consequence, I am taking the liberty of proposing to defer theatteck against Georgia until the realization of the following conditions: 1. Concentration In the region of Bakou-BIakh-Noukha-Elizabethpol.Kazakb of seven divisions of infantry and of the second army of cavalry. 2. The arrival of concentration on the Bakou-Elizabethpol line of all the trains of wheat constituting the revictualing provided for the months of December and January. 3. An agreement with the Turkish command. With these conditions and in the case of the stabilizing of concord, I am profoundly persuaded that the campaign against Georgia could be terminated' within about six weeks. ANNEX X [Telegram)

Kr olfn, Moscoiv: In 1921 your troops, In contempt of the treaty concluded between us, occupied, after five weeks of battling, Georgia, already recognized as independent by you. Since then the Georgian people are supporting perscutlons unprecedented and unheard of in Its history. Now reduced to Jespair, it Is battling against your power. Georgia battles, not for the reestablishment of such or such Interior r6giae, but for her right to her national determination and for the reestablishment of her indelendence. You know yourselves that Georgia will never submit to foreign domination. In the name of Georgian people, I propose you stop military actions and solve Rusio-Georgian conflict pacifically, basing yourselves on treaties concluded between us May 7, 1920. 1 declare at the same time that we are ready to conclude a complementary treaty guaranteeing your economic and commerchil Interests in Georgia.

Pre8idczt of the National Governmnent of Georgia. PAias, September 6. 1924.



GEN AA, March I.f. 192$. Mr. PRE.sIDENT: I have the honor to again have recourse to the high authority of the Council of the League of Nations for the affairs of Georgia. Referring to the telegram of my Government, addressed through the medium of Mr. Tchenkeli, minister of Georgia In France, to the Council of the League of Nations, I take the liberty of respectfully calling the attention of the council to the situation in my country. Georgia is passing through a tragic crisis, which is not only of weighty importance for herself but also for the whole of humanity. It runs the risk, through its injustice, of shaking the very foundations of international order. Georgia, in constituting herself an independent State, declined in the spring of 1920 the offer of Soviet Russia to form an alliance with her and preferred to become a part of the community of States of Europe. She entered into relation with these countries and was recognized de jure by them. Animated by peaceful intentions with regard to all its neighbors, the Republic endeavored to come to terms with the Government of Moscow and concluded with It, May 7, 1920, a treaty having all the characteristics of an international act. In the first paragraph of this treaty the Government of Moscow declares solemnly that "Russia recognizes without reservation the independence and sovereignty of the Georgian State and willingly renounces to all the sovereign rights which belonged to Russia with respect to the people and the territory of Georgia."

N , a an




A"" ,"4QM 0"WV


It seemed likely that Georgia could count on a sound future. Quite on'the contrary. Hardly 10 months had passed before the troops of this same Russian Government were attacking Georgia quexpectedly, without pretext, and without declaration of war. An unequal battle ensued. At the end of a few weeks Georgia was vanquished by the numerical superiority of the red troops and their better provision with munitions. And now it Is three years that the country has been under a rfglme of military occupation and of terror unique in violence and cruelty. All classes of society are persecuted; workmen, peasants, and Intellectuals are arrested, deported, or shot. In order to "prepare" the trial against the dignitaries of the Georgian Church and the patriarch of Georgia, the soviet authorities redoubled repressions as the date of opening of the trial approached. Georgia, victim of her loyalty and fidelity toward civilization, very naturally sought the sympathy of the civilized peoples and the moral support of the League of Natlonq. This latter in its third general assembly of 1922 responded by the unanimous adoption of a resolution Inviting the council to follow the events In order to seize opportunities which m!ght present themselves to help Georgia to return to a normal situation. This resolution has not up to now had much effect, for without doubt, as long as Russia should remain outside of international relations, it would have been difficult to imagine an Interven. tion by the League of Nations to make the Soviet Government respect the law of natius. But now the situation Is changed; diplomatic relations are begin. ning to be established between Soviet Russia on one hand, and the states, members of the League of Nations, on the other hand; the opportunity so long awelted now presents Itself to the council to attract the attention of Its members to the situation in Georgia and on the measures to be taken to safe. guard Its International status. I have the honor, therefore, in the name of my Government, to beg the Council of the League of Nations to kndly1. Consider If the states, members of the League of Nations, which have reestablished legal relations with Soviet Russia would not with entire pro. priety, in insisting on the execution of international engagements during the course of negotiations with the Government of Moscow, have Georgia evacuated ty the Russian troops. 2. Consider if the council could not with entire propriety send a commission of Investigation to Georgia. As to this second point, I take the liberty of calling the attention of the council to the terms of article 17 of the pact; the second paragraph of this article permits the council to open an Investigation fromn the time of sending of its invitation to the states not members of the League of Nations. In case of refusal of its invitation, the council is even authorized, by paragraph 4, to take all measures necessary for the solution of the conflict. The Georgian people places its entire confidence in the hands of the Council of the League of Nations. It does not doubt that it will take Its request under serious consideration. The Georgian cause is also that of peace and right. Pray accept, Mr. President, the assurance of my highest consideration.

Delegate of the National Governent of Georgia.

To His Excellency Mr.

President of the Council of the League of Nations, Genera.



The revolutov which brought the Soviet Government into being occurred on the 7th day of November, 1917. The Soviets (workmen's councils) a units came into existence already in the revolution of 1905, The First AllRussian Cougress of Soviets met in Petrograd in June, 1917. In the month of November, 1917, the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets adopted a "Declaration of the rights of the peoples of Russia." In January, 1918, the Third All-Russian Congress of the Soviets adopted "A declaration of the rights of the exploited and laboring masses," which constituted the fundamental declarations of the principles of the new confederation of the Soviets acting as a government. This congress also proclaimed the existence of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic. The Fifth All-Russian Congress of theSoviets met on the 10th day of July, 1918, and affirmed the declaration as the guiding principle and on the basis of it created and ratified the first constitution of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic. This document, consisting of about 90 articles, embodied the revolutionary principles and created those organs of government which have administered Russia since then. It was passed only after the government had been in existence and functioning for more than a year. The highest governing authority passed from time to time certain amendments to the constitution aimed to better expedite the vast business ef the largest republic in the world. The first of these went into effect on the 12th day of December, 1919, mote than a year after the passage og the constitution of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic, and an additional amendatory decree followed on December 17, 1919. On the 15th of February and the 18th ol March of 1920, explanatory amendments containing laws and regulations regarding the village and rural Soviets were adopted by the all.Russlan central executive committee and became a part of the fundamental law. The Eighth All-Russian Congress of Soviets adopted a decree "concerning the Soviet constitution," and the ninth congress which met in December of 1921 adopted six regulatory and explnatory amendments to the constitution of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic. The Tenth All-Russian Congress met in Moscow in December of 1922. The congress, like its predecessor, consisted of delegates from several autonomous republics: The Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic, which constituted European Russia proper and Siberia, besides eight autonomous republics; the Transcaucasian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic, which consisted of three independent and two autonomous republics; the White Russian Socialist Soviet Republic, and the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic. In addition to that there were delegates from the Chorasmian (Khiva) People's Soviet Republic, and the Bokhara People's Soviet Republic. On the 28th of December the congress adopted a resolution calling for a closer and a more centralized federation of these autonomous states, and this call was printed that day in the Izvestia, the official organ of the government. The call did not embody within its scope the Khiva and the Bokhara Republics because they were not socialist republics. Several months later Khiva became a socialist .republic and entered the federation, while Bokhara remains allied to the federation. On the 30th day of December the Congress adopted a resolution which later was incorporated Into the preamble of the new Constitution, and in addition to that it passed another which reads as follows: "We, members of the central executive committees of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, in session assembled, in pursuance of the powers conferred upon us and in accordance with the resolutions adopted by the first congress of the Soviets of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, held In the city of 215


Moscow, on the 30th day of December, 1922, and in accordance with the modifications and amendments of such resolutions, proposed and made by the individual central executive committees of the constiturmt republics herein represented, do hereby declare to the whole world the steadlfstness of the Soviet power, and "Resolve to enter into the covenant for the formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and to adopt, as the fundamental law thereof, the covenant and constitution creating the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics." The project of the new constitution was formulated the following day, and the constitution was adopted on the 31st day of December, 1922. The first session of the newly created central executive committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics took place in Moscow on the 6th of July of 1923 when the new constitution, amended and enlarged, was ratified and the new federal system of Russia created. CHARLES RzcHT, Member of the Institute of Soviet Lawe of the University of Moscow. SECToN I

Since the formation of the Soviet Republics the world has become divided Into two groups--that of capitalism and that of socialism. Within the capitalist camp, national hatred and inequality, colonial bondage and chauvinism, national oppiesslon and massacres, imperialist brutalities and wars prevail, while here, within the camp of socialism, mutual trust and peace. national freedom and equality, peaceful coexistence and fraternal collaboration of peoples Is to be found. The efforts of the capitalist regtme, in the course of the decades, to solve the question of nationalities by the joint methods of the free development of peoples and the exploitation of man by man have proven vain. On the contrary, the web of national antagonism is becoming even more entangled until it threatens the very existence of capitalism Itself. The bourgeoisie has proven impotent of bringing about cooperation among peoples. Only within the camps of the Soviets, only under the prevalence of the proletarian dictatorship around which the majority of the population has rallied, has It become possible to destroy national oppression root and branch to create an atmosphere of mutual trust and to lay the foundations for the brotherly cooperation of peoples. Owing to that-and to that only-it was possible for the Soviet Republics to repel the external as well as the Internal attacks of world Imperialism. Solely because of these conditions were they able successfully to end the civil war, become secure in their existence, and to pass to the tasks of peaceful economic reconstruction. But the years of war have left their scars. The devastated fields and idle factories, the breakdown of productive forces and the depletion of economic resources, this legacy of the war makes the isolated efforts of individual re.publics toward economic reconstruction inadequate. The rebirth bf economic welfare was found impossible as long as the separate republics maintained a divided existence. At the same time the unsettled -tate of international affairs and the danger of new attacks point to the necessity of creating a common front of the Soviet Republics against the surrounding capitalist world. Finally, the very structure of the soviet power, which Is international In Its class character, calls the toiling masses of the Soviet Republics toward a unity of one socialist family. All these circumstances imperatively demand the unification of the Soviet Republics Into one federal state, powerful enough of warding off foreign attacks and the security of internal economic welfare, as well as the unhampered existence of the various nations. The will of the peoples of the Soviet Republics unanimously proclaimed at their recent Soviet Congresses in their decision for the formation of the "Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics," stands as the unimpeachable guarantee that this union shall be the voluntary association of these sovereign nations on a basis of equality, each republic reserving to Itself the right of free wtlhdrawal from the union, that admission to this union shall be open .to all Soviet Socialist Republics, such as are now existing and such as shall



arlse in the future, that the new united state is a fitting consummation of the -beginnings which had their inception in November, 1917, toward the tranquil and cooperative existence and mutual bond of the peoples, that it shall stand as the firm bulwark against world capitalism, and form a decisive step toward the union of the toilers of all countries into one world soviet socialist republic. SEcTIoN



The Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic (R. S. F. S. R.), the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic (U. S. S. R.), the White Russian Socialist Soviet Republic (D. R. S. S. R.), and the Transcaucasian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic (T. C. S. F. R. R.), consisting of the Socialist Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan, the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, and the Soviet SocialIst Republic of Armenia, by this covenant enter into a single federal state to be known as "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics." Ann=or I

1. The sovereignty of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, as exercised "through the supreme governing departments, shall include: (a) The representation of the union In International affairs, the conduct of all diplomatic intercourse and the conclusion of political and other treaties with foreign states; (b) The modification of the frontiers of the union and the regulation of questions dealing with the alteration of boundaries between the constituent republics; (C) The conclusion of treaties for the admission of new republics Into the union; (d) The declaration of war and conclusion of peace; (e) The contracting of foreign and domestic loans by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the sanctioning of foreign and domestic loans by the several constituent republics; (f) The ratification of International treaties; (g) Control of foreign trade, and establishment of a system of internal trade; (h) Establishment of the basic principles and of a general plan for the svhole national economic system of the union; determination of the branches of Industry and of separate industrial undertakings which are of importance to the whole union; and the conclusion cf concession agreements, both those relating to the union as a whole as well as those relating only to the constituent republics; (i) The regulation and control of transport, posts, and telegraphs; (j) The organization and control of the armed forces of the union; (k) Adoption of a single state budget for the union, comprising the budgets of the constituent republics; determination of the general union taxes and revenues, as also of deduction'; therefrom and additions thereto for the budgets of the constituent republics; authorization of additional taxes and dues for the i. ndgets of the constituent republics; V; Establishment of a single currency and credit system. (m) Establishment of general principles governing the distribution and use ,f land. and the exploitation of mineral wealth, forests, and waterways throughout the whole territory of the union. (n) General union Jegislation on migration from one republic to another, and establishment of a colonization fund. to) Establishment of basic principles for the composition and procedure of the courts and the i.vil and criminal legislation of the union. (p) The enactment of fundamental laws dealing with the rights of labor. (q) Establishment of the general principles of national education. i) Adoption of measures for the protection of public health. (s) Establishment of a common system of weights and measures. (t) The organization of census for the entire union. it) Fundamental legislation as to the right.- of foreigners to citizenship of the union.

NATIONAL RIPUBLIO OF GEORGIA (0) The right of general amnesty within the territory of the entire union. (W) The right to veto all decrees made by the different Soviet congresses and by central executive committees of the several constituent republics which shall be In violation of the within constitution. (s) Settlement of controversies arising between the several constituent republics. 2. The ratification and amendment of the constitution shall be exclusively delegated to the Soviet congress of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. AnnTiLE II

3. The Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics shall guarantee the sovereignty of each and every constituent republic of the union. Except as delegated iu the herein constitution, the sovereign rights of the several republics constituting this union shall not be restricted or impaired. 4. Each of the constituent republics shall have the right to freely withdraw from the federal union. 5. Each of the several constituent republics shall pass such amendments to its respective constitutions as will bring it in conformity with the federal constitution. 6. The territory of each of the constituent republics shall not be altered without Its consent and no amendment, modification, limitation, or repeal of Section IV of the federal constitution shall be made without the consent of all. the constituent republics of the union. 7. Federal citizenship of the union shall replace the citizenships of the several constituent republics. ARTICLE III

8. The supreme authority of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republien shall be vested in the Soviet congress and, during the intervals of sessions of the said congress in the central executive committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which shall consist of the council of the union and the council of nationalities. 9. The Soviet congress of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics shall be composed of the representatives of city and township soviets on the basis of 1 deputy for each 25,000 electors, and of representatives of provincial Soviet congresses on the basis of I deputy for each 125,000 inhabitants. 10. The representatives to the Soviet congress of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics shall be elected at the provincial Soviet congresses. In. those republics which have no provincial units the delegates shall be elected directly at the Soviet congresses of the respective republics. 11. The regular session of the Soviet congresses of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics shall be convened by the central executive committee of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics once a year, extraordinary sessions shall be convened by the central executive committee of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics either on its own initiative, or on the demand of the coancil of the union, or council of nationalities, or of any two of the constituent republics. 12. Under extraordinary circumstances preventing the convening of the Soviet congress at the appointed time, the central executive committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics shall have the right to postpone the convening of the Soviet congress. ARTICLE IV

13. The central executive committee of the union shall consst of the council of the union and the council of nationalities. 14. The Soviet congress of the union shall elect the counciE of the union, which shall consist of 371 members from among the representatives of the several coistituent republics counted In proportion to the population of each republic.

$AIONfAL REPUBLIC, OF OF.ORGIA 15. The council of nationalities shall be formed of the representatives of the -constituent and autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics on the basis of five representatives from each; and of representatives of the autonomous territories of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic on the basis of one representative thereof. The composition of the council of nationalities as a whole shail be subject to confirmation by the Soviet congress of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Norz: The autonomous Republics of Adjarla and Abkhazia and the auton-omous territory of southern Ossetia shaU send one representative each to the -council of nationalities. 16. The union council and council of nationalities shall examine all decaces, codes, and regulations submitted to them by the presidium of the central executive committee and the council of people's commissars of the union, by separate people's commissars of the union, or by the central executive committee of the constituent republics, also when the question of such decrees, codes, and regulations Is raised on the initiative of the union council or the council of nationalities. 17. The union central executive committee issues codes, decrees, regulations, and orders, and forms a single legislative and executive body for the union; it further defines the work of the presidium of the central executive committee and the council of people's commissars of the union. 18. All decrees and ordinances concerning political and economic life of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and also those which Introduce fundamental changes in the existing practice of the state departments of the union must be submitted for the examination and ratification of the central executive committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 19. All decrees, regulations, and orders issued by the central executive committee shall be compulsory throughout the territory of the union. 20. The central executive committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics shall have the right to veto or suspend all decrees, regulations, and ordinances of the presidium of the central executive committee of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics, of the Soviet congresses, and of the central executive committees of all the constituent republics, and of all other government organs within the territory of the union. 21. The regular sessions of the central executive committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics shall be convened by the presidium of the central executive committee three times a year. The extraordinary sessions shall be convened upon the demand of the presidium of the council of the union, or the presidium of the council of nationalities, and also upon the demand of the central executive committee of any one of the constituent republics. 22. Legislative bills submitted for the consideration by the central executive committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics shall become laws only after having been passed by both the council of the union and the council of nationalities; they are published in the name of the central executive committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 23. In case of disagreement between the council of the union and the council *of nationalities, the question at issue shall be referred to a conciliation commission appointed by these two organs. 24. If no agreement be reached In the conciliation commission, the question shall be referred to a joint session the council of the union and of the council -of nationalities, wherein, in the event that no majority vote of the union council or of the council of nationalities can be obtained, the question may be referred, on the demand of either of these bodies, for decision to either the regular or extraordinary congress of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics. 25. The union council and council of nationalities each elects a presidium of seven of its members to arrange its sessions and conduct the work of the latter. 26. In the intervals between sessions of the union central executive committee supreme authority is vested In its presidium, formed by the union central executive committee of twenty-one members, amongst whom are included the whole of the union council presidium and the presidium of the council of nationalities. 27. The central executive committee elects, in accordance with the number of contracting republics, four chairmei of the union central executive committee fr(,m members of Its presidium.




2. The central executive committee of the union shall be responsible to thecongress of Soviets of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics. ARTICLE V

TiE PRESIDIUM OF THE UNION CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 29. The presidium of the central executive committee of the Unit n of Soviet Socialist Republics shall during the Intervals between the session of tht central executive committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics be the highest legislative, executive and administrative organ in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 30. The presidium of the union central executive committee shall have the power to enforce the application of the Union constitution and the carrying out by all departmental authorities of all decisions of the uniun congress of Soviets and of the union central executive committee. 31. The presidium of the central executive committee of the Union of Soviet Soclalist Republics shall have the power to suspend or to veto the decisions of the council of the people's commissars and of the individual people's commissariats of the union; and of the central executive committeesan4 the councils of people's commissars of the constituent Republics. 32. The presidium of the central executive committee of the union shalt have the power to suspend the decisions of the Soviet congresses of the constituent Republics, but it shall subsequently thereto submit sueh declsloL for examination and ratification to the central executive committee of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics. 33. The presidium of the central executive committee of the union shalt pass decrees, regulations and ordinances, shall examine aiid rutify draft decrees and resolutions submitted to it by the council of the people's commlssar6, by the separate departments of the Union Soviet Socialist Republics or by the central executive committees of the constituent Republics, their presidlai and by othor governmental departments. 34. The decrees and decisions of the central executive committee of the union, of its presidium, and of the council of people's commissars of the unio, shall be printed in all languages in popular use within the constituent Republics (Russian, Ukrainian, White Russian, Georgian, Armenian, TurkoTartar) 35. The presidium of the central executive committee of the union shali have the power to decide all questions pertaining to the interrelations between the council of the people's commissars of tie union and the people's commissariats of the union on the one hand, and the central executive committees of the constituent Republics, and their presidia, on the other hand. 30. The presidium of the central executive committee of the union shall be responsible to the central executive committee of the union. ARTICLE VI

37. The couel of the people's commissars of the union shall be the executive and administrative organ of the central executive committee of the union and It shall be constituted by it in the following order: Chairman of the council of the people's commissars of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics. Vice chairman of the council of the people's commissars of te Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics. People's commissar for foreign affairs. People', commissar for army and navy. People's commissar for foreign trade. People's commissar for transport. People', commissar for posts and telegraph-. People's commissar for workers and peasants' inspection. People's commissar for labor. People'z commissar for food. People's commissar for finance, and the chairman of the supreme council of national economy.



38. The council of people's commissars of the union shall issue decrees and regulatioLs, which, within the limits of the powers conferred upon it by the central executive committee of the union, and by virtue of the statute estab. fishing it. shall be compulsory throughout the territory of the union. 39. The council of the people's commissars of the union shall examine decrees and regulations submitted to it by the individual people's commissarlats of the union or by the central executive committees of the conittuent republics and by their presidia. 40. The council of the people's commissariats of the union shall be. in all of Its work, responsible to the central executive committee of the union and to Its presidium. 41. All decrees and orders made by the council of the people's commissars of the union may be suspended or vetoed only by the central executive committee of the union or its presidium. 42. The central executive committees of the constituent Republics and their presidia may appeal against the decre-s and decisions of the council of the people's commissars of the union to the presidium of the central executive committee of the union, but in the meantime such decrees and decisions shall not be suspended. ARTICLE VII THE SUPREME E COURT OF THE UNION 43. In order to firmly maintain revolutionary law throughout the territory of the union there shall be created a supreme court of the union which shall be attached to the union central executive committee. The said court shall have the power and Jurisdiction: (a) To promulgate authoritative opinions on questions concerning general federal legislation to the constituent Republics. (b) On the motion of the attorney general of the urion the supreme court shall review the regulations, decisions, and sentences of the supreme courts of the constituent Republics and appeal against them to the central executive committee of the union whenever such decisions violate the general legislation of the union, or whenever they are prejudicial to the interests of other Republics of the union. (c) To render decisions at the request of the central executive committee of the union on the constitutionally of any regulations made by the constituent republics. (d) To adjudicate all judlciable controversies between the constituent republics. (e) To try the charges against high officials of the union for offenses committed in the discharge of their duties. 44. The supreme court of the union shall function through(a) Plenary sessions. (b) Civil and criminal departments. (e) Military and military transport divisions. 45. In its plenary sessions the supreme court shall consist of 11 members, including one chairman, one vice ,-harman, the four chairmen of the plenary sessions of the supreme courts or 'ie constituent republics, and a representative of the political department of the union. (See sec. 61.) The chairman, vice chairman, as well as the other five members, shall he appointed by the Pre. sidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Union. 40. The attorney general of the union and his deputy shall be appointed by the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Union. The duties of the attorney general of the supreme court of the union shall include the rendering of opinions on al questions submitted to the supreme court of the Union and the arguing for the validity of such opinion rendered at the session of the court. Whenever the supreme court of the Union at its plenary sessions shall render a decision in disagreement with his opinion the Attorney General shall have the right of a:tpcaling from such decision of the court to the Presidium of the Central Lxecutive Committee of the Union. 47. The right to submit questions specified in section 43 to the plenary sesslons of the supreme co'irt of the union may be exercised only by the central executive committee of 'he union, its presidium, the attorney general of thiunion, supreme court, the attorneys general of the constituent republics, and the political apartment of the union.

NATIONAL REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA 48. The supreme P.ourt of the union, at the plenary session thereof, shall have jurisdiction, sitting as a trial court, in(a) Criminal and civil cases of exceptional importance affecting the safety of two or more of the constituent republics. (b) Cases of impeachment and liability of the members of the central executive committee of the union and the council of the people's commissars of the union. No such cases, however, shall be tried by the supreme court of the union except upon a motion in each case made by the central executive committee of the union or the presidium thereof. ARTICLE VIII

49. There shall be formed, in accordance with section 37 of the within con. stitution, 10 people's commissariats, which shall conduct the branches of the State administration reserved to them herein. The regulations regarding the functions of the said people's commissariats shall be made by the central executive committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 50. The people's commissariats of the union shall be divided into (a) People's commissariats (federal) for the entire union of soviet socialist republics, and 4b) Joint (mixed) people's commissariats of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 51. The people's commissariats (federal) for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics shall be the following: Foeign affairs, army and navy, foreign trade, transports, posts, and telegraphs. 52. The Joint (mixed) people's commissariats of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics shall be the following: Supreme council of national economy, food, labor, finances, workers' and peasants' inspection. 53. The people's commissariats of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (federal) shill have their representatives In the constituent Republics, who shall be directly subordinated to them. 54. The joint (mixed) people's commissariats of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics shall exercise their functions through the department of the corresponding commissariats of the several constituent Republics on the territory of the aforesaid republics. 55. Each member of the council of people's commissars shall constitute the head of his respective department within the commissariats of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 560. Within each people's commissariat a board (collegium) shall be created, which shall be presided over by the people's commissar. The said board shall be appointed by the council of people's commissars of the Union. 57. The people's commissar shall have the right independently to decide all *questions within the scope of his authority, provided, however, that he informs the board (colleglum) of his decision. In the event that the board or any member thereof disagrees with the decision of the people's comrissar a protest may be filed by him or them with the *council of people's commsesars. Such protest, however, shall in no way affect . or suspend the execution of the decision in dispute. 58. Any decree Issued by an individual cormissariat of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics may be annulled by the central executive committee of the union or by the council of people's commissars of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 50. The decisions of the people's commissariats of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. may be suspended by the central executive committees or the presidia of the' central executive committees of the different republics whenever such decitsins are in manifest conflict with the constitution of the union, with federal legislation, or with the legislation of the respective republics. Upon such suspension a notification thereof shall immediately be made by the central executive committee to the council of people's commissars of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and to the union commissariat concerned. 60. The people's commissars of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics shall be responsible to the couhcll of people's commissars, to the central executive commttee. of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the presidium thereof.




61. In order to unite the efforts of the constituent republics in their struggle against the political and economic counter-revolution and against espionhge and brigandage thee shall be created a Joint state political department attached to the council of people's commissars of the union, the chairman of this departi meant entering the council of people's commissars of the union with the right of advisory vote. 62. The state political department of the union shall direct the activities of the local branches of the state political department through Its representatives in the councils of the people's commissariats of the constituent republics, acting In accordance with special rules and regulations duly ratified. 63. The control of the legality of the acts of the state political department of the union shall be exercised by the attorney general of the union In accordance with a special decree made by the central executive committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

64. Within the territory of each constituent republic the supreme organ of governmental authority shall be the soviet congress of the republic, and during the Intervals between congresses, Its central executive committee. 65. The interrelations between the supreme organs of governmental authority of the several constituent republics and the supreme organs of the federal government are defined In the within constitution. 66. The central executive committees of the several constituent republics shall elect from among their number their presidia, which during the intervals between the central executive committee sessions shall constitute the supreme organs of governmental authority. 67. The central executive committees of the constituent republics shall establish their own respective executive organs which shall be the councils of people's commissars, consisting of the following: Chairman of the council of people's commissars. Vice chairman. Chairman of the supreme council of national economy. People's commissar for agriculture. People's commissar for finance. People's commissar for food. People's commissar for labor. People's commissar for Internal affairs. People's commissar for Justice. People's commissar for workers' and peasants' inspection. People's commissar for education. People's commissar for health. People's commissar for social welfare. And also. with an advisory or deciding vote, according to the .ecisions of the respective central executive committees of the several republics, the representatives of the people's commissariats ofForeign affairs. Army and navy Foreign trade. Transport and of posts and telegraphs. 68. The supreme council of national economy and the people's commissariats for food, finance, labor, workers' and peasants' inspection of each constituent republic, while subordinate to its respective central executive committee and council of people's commlssiariats of the constituent republics shall, at the same time carry out decrees of the corresponding people's commissiarlats (federal). 69. The right of amnesty, as well as the right of pardon and restoration of citizenship of citizens condemn