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14-16 November 2011 Vientiane, Lao PDR
MONGOLIA: URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTOR PROJECT Tuu Zundui
The views expressed in this paper are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.
ADB’s Support in Urban Development
Two very different and distinct patterns of urban accommodation: - 22.5% of the population live in apartments connected to centralized heating, hot and tap water, sewage and electricity. - Ger (or tent) areas are growing in all cities due to massive rural-to-urban migration: 60% of the population and 80-90% of the poor live here: (i) Poor infrastructure (water supply, sewerage, road, flood protection, bus terminal, transportation, school and hospital) (ii) Severe air pollution in the winter because of burning coal for cooking and heating (iii) Pit latrines that pollute underground water and soil and bad smell (iv) Women and children fetch water to the home (v) Health problems and associated economic loss
Issues in Ger area
MDG -16: Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
60% 60 47.8% 39.2% 40%
40 30 20 10
2005 2010 2015
Accessibility of water supply and sewerage plant (as of 2010)
Water supply Sewerage
centralized protected well other
water kiosk protected spring centralized vintelized pitletrine pitletrine other
PROJECT IN BRIEF
Impact: Improved living conditions and quality of life of the urban population, especially in ger areas Outcome: Upgraded basic urban services, urban roads, and on-plot facilities (water, sanitation, solid waste) Investment: $ 46.1 million (76% ADB’s Special Funds; rest from the State budget, Local Governments, and Ulaanbaatar Road Fund) Duration: 5 years, 2008-2012 Geography: Orkhon, Bayanhongor, Gobi-Altai, Ovorhangay Sukhbaatar, Bulgan aimag senter and Ulaanbaatar Classification: General intervention Themes: Inclusive social development and Environmental sustainability Subthemes: Human development, and Urban environmental improvement
Basic Urban Services
• Water supply: 39,880 ger HHs have water kiosks within 200 meters, total pipe 110.75 km; 23 schools, kindergartens, public institutions connected. Sewerage: To connect schools, kindergartens and hospitals to 10.8 km of improved and expanded sewerage pipe networks of ger area in Erdenet and Altai, Bayanhongor, Arvaiheer Solid waste management: About 354,600 people in Erdenet, and Altai, Bayanhongor, Arvaiheer, Huvsgul, Tuv, Arhangay supplied by solid waste trucks and backhoe loaders.
Project Outputs (Cont’d)
2. Urban Road Improvement
Public transportation (19.1 km) in 4 ger areas in the capital (improving concrete asphalt road including bridge, lighting and sidewalk in ger area)
3. Institutional Capacity Development:
- Erdenet PUSO improve their operational efficiency (i) financially sustainable functioning, (ii) implement the proposed tariff reforms, (iii) technological reform, (iv) sound O&M plans for future - 60 training sessions - help government agencies and local communities increase awareness of public health, environmental management, traffic safety, technical assistance on tariff reforms and alternative technologies for urban infrastructure and services – 120 training sessions
Urban Issues and Project Solutions
Lack of infrastructure
• Construct road, sidewalks, lighting
Inadequate solid waste management facilities Pit latrines pollute underground water and soil and cause bad smell Children and women burdened with carrying water to their homes
Lack of institutional development
• Collection tipper trucks, backhoe loader etc
• Connect to sewerage system • Improve sewerage treatment plant
• Connect to centralized water supply with water kiosks
• Improve Public Utility Service Organization’s capacity • Upgrade financial system, accounting procedure, water tariff and company business plan
Expected Gender-Inclusive Project Outcomes
Expected Project Outcomes: • Water supply, sewerage system and sewerage treatment plant will be improved and 270,000 people in 6 provinces serviced • PUSO will be independent and financially stable. • 128,000 people in 4 ger areas of Ulaanbaatar will be close to the concrete asphalt road and sidewalks, lighting and public transportation and will live in a safe, accessible and comfortable environment. Project Focus on Gender will have multiplier effects: • Economic/Health: Better access to water will create a more healthy environment and enable women to spare more time for income-generating activities, and attend to family members • Education of children: With water kiosks connected to water pipes, children will be free from the drudgery of waiting for water trucks and collection so, especially girls, can go to school. Accessible urban transport/safe mobility: Improvement in ger area roads with sidewalks and street lights will improve mobility of the poor through access to public transportation and safe walking areas in neighborhoods.
Gender Action Plan & its Implementation
Component A: Improvement of Basic Urban Services Component B: Urban Road Improvement Component D: Institutional Development and Training equal access to employment opportunities for M/F during improvement of urban infrastructure including management and project implementation work How: through agreements with contractors. To be monitored by the PMU, PIU construction engineers at project sites equal access to training opportunities for M/F with gendersensitive training materials 40% women in all community groups training, awareness building and consultation programs equal participation among men and women in sanitation, health, and hygiene training Engage public health awareness, and training specialist to monitor and evaluate project impacts on women How: Public health awareness and training specialist will design gender sensitive training materials and involve at least 40% women in training local CBOs and their governing boards. PUSOs with assistance from Institutional Specialist will be encouraged to adopt gender sensitive human resource policies in assessing their training needs, performance management, staff appraisal and rewards.
GAP Implementation Mechanisms
Loan Assurances: Covenant 71: IAs, PUSOs and UMG to implement and monitor the GAP through the PPMS, on a annual basis until Project completion. • Covenant 69, the EA, and IAs shall ensure that civil works contractors to enforce project standards in employment of men and women • Covenant 70, the EA and IAs shall (a) cause the contractors to disseminate information on the risks of STIs to employees; and (b) raise public awareness and education on health and hygiene in Project areas. Each PUSO and Municipal Road Dept will ensure implementation and monitoring of the GAP in their respective sites. Management: Through distribution of roles and responsibilities among PMU/PIU and Consultants: • PMU – monitor the implementation of the GAP on annual basis. -Construction supervision engineer and Public health awareness and training Specialist are monitor and evaluate project impacts on women -Resettlement consultant to assess that priorities of women affected by land acquisition and resettlement, to identify specific measures to assist them and to avoid disadvantages for these women.
GAP Indicators and Results
Expected Outcome Relieve time and labor burdens on women created by lack of access to infrastructure Indicators/Results to Date 55,168 men and 56,282 women will be involved by the completion of the project for public awareness and training of health, hygiene, sanitation. 200 staff from PUSOs and 210 workers from contractors, around 89000 residents trained. Completion of project 91 water kiosk connected with water supply pipeline in 4 provinces and 6 provinces supplied 7 solid waste trucks, 5 backhoe loaders, 4 excavators. Incidence of infectious disease caused by insufficient hygiene among women and children: Public health awareness training specialist arranging workshops on: Prevention against infectious disease /proper hand-washing, house cleaning, air circulating etc/ Quality of water tank, safety keeping and pure water containers Storing solid waste in garbage bin and dumping in garbage truck Pour out waste water in hole Disinfection of latrine, use vacuum sewerage machinery to clean when full. Erdenet subproject case: 11 CBOs, total 87 members, hence 72 female members. 10 of women on the governing councils of CBOs. Create employment and income generation opportunities for women 33 of women employed in construction, operation and maintenance of infrastructure with equal wage for equal work 56,282 of women’s home-based businesses created after the provision of infrastructure (water supply, solid waste disposal, roads)
Improve health and hygiene among women through public health awareness training
Empower women in local decision making processes
GAP implementation Results: Employment and Income
Project contractors Total workers 25 38 63 5 47 30 Gender male 19 30 61 5 39 26 female 6 8 2 8 4 male 387.5 400.0 350.0 350.0 625.0 333.3 625.0 333.3 Salary $ female 383.3 400.0 350.0
1 2 3
Hailaast 1.1 km Orbit Tahilt 7.3 km Baruun Salaa 4.1 km -Local labour
Erdenet -Local labour
GAP implementation Results: Public Health Awareness Training for Roads
(each subproject 4 times organize training, need to involve 100% residents, Hailaast 100% involved, other 2 subproject 50% involved)
Hailaast 1.1 km road
Contractor 25 workers 19M/6F Beneficiary 33,652 residents
Baruun Salaa 4.1 km road
Contractor 38 workers 61M/2F Beneficiary 24,839 residents
Orbit Tahilt 7.3 km road
Contractor 63 workers 30M/8F Beneficiary 27,144 residents
Botanik Sharhad 6.6 km road
Not yet selected
Beneficiary 42,485 residents
GAP implementation Results: Public Health Awareness Training for Urban Services sector
(each subproject 4 times organize training, need to involve 100% residents, Erdenet, Govi-Altai 50% involved, other 2 subproject not yet start)
PUSO Staff 166 96M/70F
PUSO Staff 57 46M/11F
PUSO Staff 33 12M/21F
PUSO Staff 43 34M/9F
Beneficiary 51420 residents
Beneficiary 24200 residents
Beneficiary 23100 residents
Beneficiary 12730 residents
Contractor 47 workers 39M/8F
Not yet selected
Contractor 29 workers 24M/5F
GAP implementation Results: Gender Capacity Building in the PUSO
Erdenet Number of PUSO staff 166 70/15 191.6 Bayanhon gor 57 11/4 218.3 Ovorhangay 33 21/12 205.0 Govi-Altai 43 9/6 175.0
Female staff and how many of them are female headed household
Average salary of PUSO staff ($)
Challenges vs Achievements
Contractor: • Salary rate is same for both men and women There is dominance of male workers as the project is implemented in infrastructure field It is difficult to maintain equal participation of • Men are not interested to attend public men and women for any trainings/workshops events or training in sanitation and health • Women are more interested to attend in about project information in local level
public events, especially health/sanitation
Project targeted beneficiaries are not actively • It is more efficient to disseminate information through, media including participating in workshops/seminars local TV, newspapers There is dominance of male-headed households among affected people under the project. • It is traditional manner that man must be household head.
It is difficult to recruit affected people to work • Need to arrange or create possibility because both men and women do not have to access professional study/training professional degrees. center
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