SWITCHMODE
POWER SUPPLY DESIGN
P.R.K , CHETIY
BPB PUBLICATIONS
J76.0LD LAJPATIIAI MARKET,DELHI_l10006
FtAST
IHOIAIII
EOIllOIII
1917
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of Swi'!ching RilQule.Puil CorlVette." 4e LO(Ipson Track for TesTing Swltch8fJI £.l:i
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Practical Design Examples
D~9" 011 2.8 kW OffLine SMI.0
MGdDt.ingSwitching eeoc Converters
Modeling 01 SwiTching eeoc Con . 4(l CI(¢lJilAPofOUh
47
Tfi!lr'!lIfer Fundian8 ilnd l.oop Gam 651
3
Design ana Measurements
Ilr..cMr Using
PWM
93
PU5f1.WlQII 01 Swi'tching R(r'jjul~I(I..alCk.!~tt~~!ajl:nl.0 M$IlWromtnl 01 ~Ag"iI<JOOatld...:r~~~~~~~=r1I:rd~li~~
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ComputerAided Design
SPICE·2 CAD P..Contents
Preface Imroduction SwitchMode Power Suppliesan 2 Modeling and Analysis
Curfj)o1! tinuous CIECA:
vii Ix
Introduction 7
Injecl8d Equivalent CirclJiI Approach
Equivalent Ccnductlon 10 C~renl EquivSenl Cir~lIil Approacl'llo 17 InduclO( Mode
.llnjeel'8d
ClrcuH
and ~Iy:.d o."lln)iJcted
Application
Plogr<lmmed ApproK~
Swilching lo Modlilling
rtlls
Currar.
.forSwih:h __ ICTIm . Conlrol .
.. for SwHchMod.AnII~.05
___ ~aI~". Imp_P.oftPowOfSyllom151
ft_rSysl......
.....CondlllonlngUnllfo.c .""'~
DNlgnlOrRlllobilty HIO R.lillllllyllnll~ney167
R...fIn<IEIt&c:I.r Suppll ..11ab1lily_F..
Indo..
Pow..
SI*:..
Do«:CM_HIgIIE...c:y
LInH'_SUppllM127
123
""~1<1_~12e
8 7
IC.ilurflMO<I.Reg"'... IorSWhcl\.. ._~DigIIaIShunlRo9J_..._ingRegulMol ".
Contro~lC...
131
Spllcecrllft Power System. 170
. . .todS""S_.
Suppl"'32
__ ~ ...
. herein • low· voltagehigh'curr~nlpowersupplywith!owQutput ripple and fasl lransientrespons.>IlI51~ tothedevelopmentofhighly . are some olth~ examples 01 . cOIIU"oi.liable..wideapplic(uion.ci. dc·todo single and multiple output power suppl.i"e energy storag~ ~lemen's are
I
:::::~.bleenergy=~coming a prime de. ilched·moo£.]ectricalpower..dc·toac motorcootrol.yst~forspacecraft Despite thelimited.De!!ign and optimization of dctQdc converters.tedin'JI3.wilcbing mode(toachi~yelowlogsesltoconl"'I'hetransf~r ofenergyfromS<"IUrcetolo"dthroulihtheusee>f pui .e of semiCllnrhWIOrS in a power.etc .theseconvertersconne<. . which of· fer the highest power efficiency.:~£~?i~ve ~":~~~~~ C~:."crprocessing ig the u...)JOwer servo con· trol.r ticularconfigllrationresuitin . similar limita tionsonsourresofav"i1.andhighperformance.on.JI3. in~ and management of cle<:tricaljWWer.. engineers found innovativ~_ !IOlutions for power proce . Sw..demandsnflh~spaceprogr.idesptead use in the las! decade_ An es..... andd.c power amplific!1l with enough bandwidth and high effici~n0'_ Off·li"" switthe". width modulated or reson.upply of.arealsoindudedin supplyofthisrypeha..witch·mode power supplies.. The regulat~ pow~r
..hle power supplies.ht..~s. In· duaj"e ~nd caJl3...senn~1 feature of efficient eleclronic i>O. dc·t()~~ unint~rrupt.irelydevotedto$w..ign.\cb·mooe power supplies ""\"~ come intO .vailable energy on board the spacecraft.~~..t~h lnode powerconver$i(ln and deals with modern probiemsinanalysi •.Preface
(nthel960s..robotic •• andswitchingaudioamptifiers.andsynthesi.ileand wei(!.'· ticularly in computer s~"Stem.::t~~~
magnitudes and poWitiea.u!ele.effidentand lishtweight. Today. bi<lireuio""l powersllppiies(balterycharg .... These helped usher in Ihe era of modem pOWer eleclronitll.nt techniques. de. small .:· Ironic circuirn as applied to efficient conve".schargersl dc·toac inverters.ign c<K1sideration m everyday electric powerprocessmg Powerelectronicsi$ent. are mandatory inadditiOll.andregulationofele<:tricalenerlO'...
i~ .usethedesignca.i. Thus. covcr ..pr~"~nts ue nonlinear cvnverlcr pro' p~rlie5 for the static as well a..l prediClilln Thus.JI..qu. . in the oommercial usc todaycmploy the simpiesl poasible converter topology for dcr<rdc conversion. the ~iZI:' of the !lI. Among the =ious appmachesdcveloped for modelin~~odanalysisoflhe<Wilchingdc·to<lcr.ldrruitasarunctionoft~efrequencyloensure th:itlnecircuitllpeta[esasaDalyticallypredicled. it is necessary to make measur.lndustryi'lasbeenqukklorealjuthal thcenergy saving technique aisc affOfds the oppor. theCWTcnt·inj~ctooequivalcnl·circuitap· proachand.e. or get feedback from the meaSurement 10 COI'Tcd the analytica.rhefrequeneyof.· lions are ellpanding rapidly.<Iindelailinthisbook '
.r""". ru..1lgI1"tic and capacilive elementl decreases in a direCl propor· tion.mentofthe loop lI'Iin00 theprac· tica.:tn>nicscommunily may enjoy its fruits..used rosmooth the flow of energy while keeping Iosse5toa low level. Becau".inequipment ~i.p!acing conventional linear (cli•• ipativeas they operare in linear orconcluction mode) pOwer . Thus.o:s. However. small size and weight and relatively loweoot.". have receivedcDnsiderabieattentionbeatu:jeuftneirhiRh perfonnance features and il ismy intention to make avail~bieantheworklcarried outln j'IOwerelec· tronics (pa!1 of which has already been published intlleconferenceproceedin. dynamicac Sm:ltl signalatlowm.theessenti:llfeatures of the input and output transfer prQperties
Availabilityof the above model allowschoiceofthe best converll!l" !or a specific application and optimi%at.witch·mode power suppliel. thevalidityoftheo...on· verters.l!uivalentcircuitm""elthat correctly . and g<>O<i line rejecrion. fast transient response. high effICiency.<of their superiorperiormance.tatespaceaverageappr02chareused inproducingalio~ar·P..Thisisbeca.napplyLhe standard method Or circuit analysisappliCllbie to linear feedback control syslems using linear feed· back conrrnl lheory..wirch· ing increases.joumalsandwcllrc ceived).sothatthepowcreIL. Consumer and industry appli.and u is commonly believed that the design.vebee!1exteTl5ively carred our. in the d~si!1n ollhe feedback "y.neylevels.~upplies even ~t very low pOwer level' The modding. tunitytomakedramaticreduction.iOflofthefeedb3ckloopofar~gulatorcon· taining such a COfIverter Also the models enable to design the switch· ing regulatorn lorstab1e openuiOfl with large bandwidth. they are di. i.. and weight. analy. power electronic.e mo<lelsandlhecletl\gnC3J1oolybemadebymeasur· ingthefreq"encyresponseGfthesyst~mtocheck the accuracy of the loop gain and phase.• nd design of the"e switchingdc'l<rdcoonvertffl"s.
aneWCUITent·injetted equivalent circuit approach (CIECA) to mooeling switching dc·dc convene.matical modeling and ~naly..measuremen! including c'Omputcr aided design. that completely desctihe inpUI properties Or an equivalentcircuitmodelvalidatsmall·signallow· freq\leT1cylevels.Tb.. with which eachand every electronic equipmentwOfks.<. Conference papers were publisned only in the conference proceedings. bridoperational deocriptiun ufdissipative (linear) powersyslems andnondissipative(switch·mode)powff'ystems.conse quently I thought lMt it would be of !rf"3t benefit for tlte power electronics community to publish themasabook.Inthis.~nd~liabililya"pect" ircompris<% 23 papers arrangc:<iinasystematic o. book. 'a lent circuit approach i.design.This.·o)umecontainspapersdeal· ingwithmodeling.s ofswitchmnde power supplies ChapteT 2..ting in the foUowingmooes..!nilstressestheimportaDe<: of power syst~ms in all clectronic equipment and systems as it is the main S<lIJI"ce of pow . entitled Mcmlingd1llfA""lyl"is.onofpowersystem. whicharelatgelyoMcureandunavailable.lpel"$.Introduction
This book isan assemblylcoUcction 01 the paperll I have published (some of thern arecoauthored)and papersspeciaUywrilten forilli. (il duty ratio programmedcoovertersaperatingindiscontinuoosin
. as an introduction to matr.analysis. IIOwer stages is deve[· oped. The secondpaperpresentsadefinit. Thcevo]uLion oftbe power electronicsi5presenredfrrsr.!er inlo eigbt chapters in such a way it is easy thundcrsland Ch. Mosl of the papers were l'resented in confarcnccs and inpto fe8~ional journals. con tainsfi~p.apterlgivesanintroducriontoswitchmooe pOWer8upplies. classification of power suppHt:lI. the duty·ratio programmedcon. pOwer supply practicaldesigne""mples.andthesucressfuloperationofal1eleccronk equipment critiC211y depends upon proper and reliabte functioning of ti>e power "l"'tem. As an example.'erteroperatingincontinuousmduc lor conduction (CIC) mode is mode~ The same cunentinjected equi..tion. which starts with tl><> cu1Tent·in~cted approach and results in eitherasetofequ. employed to model II><> converten ope".
. Vario(>s networks for compensalion and their transier functions are presented Having designed (ompensation and im plemen!:edincircuilry. In the second paper.A.ductor conduction (DIC) mode.. that enable one to design a switching regulatorfoTstabiliry.itisworthwhiletohavethelineaT equivalent circuit model fortheCuk converter.supplieo. In the first paper. it has nonpulsatingioplltanduutputcurreotsanditcanbuck and boost the input vulrage to resuit in the required outputvo\lage. namely.·erter as it uses the minimum number of components.• tlu> Cult converteT has tbe merits of both b"ck and boost converters. desirable bandwidth... {iiI current programmed converters operating mcontinoous in· ductor current (CIO mooe. anew ap
.onlythemeas"rementswil1 confirm the a"curacy of the modeling and design which is dealt with in the second and third papers Difierenttecbniquestomeasurfthemagnitudeand pilaseof'I<'itchingregulatortransierfunctionsand loop i(ain are presented. and {iiil current programmed con.and transientre. the mathematicalmodelingandanalysisofthcCukcQu. V"rious building blocks of a switching regulator are de scrihedindetailandmathematicalmooelsarede· veloped forallbuildingblocks in terms of transier function. now the design of regulators using ahove mentionoo basic or extended converters is appropriate and is thus dealt in Chapter 3. design of an Off·Line 2.atorsispresent •..rters operatingin discontinuous in· ductor conduction (DIC) mode A. Having known the mooels for switching dc·dc converters. verter is also included. hnerejectiQn.<linChapter4 Chapter 5 indudes six papero \0 give more in sight into the practical hardware design aspects of switchmod~ pow.SkW Switcher employing PulseWidth Modulated PushPnIl Converteras the iX>werstage is presented including the step·bystep design procedure lhat eliminates tbe trial anderror approach and results in fewer manhourupent in development. Now to accelerate the design process a computeraided design appr(>a(h forswitchingregui.tepbystep procl'dure to design compensalion is ilIuslrated using two examples.. Also itis an optimum topologycon. Hence.ponse.
anim proved power condirioning unit developed lor regu!ated busspacecraft power systems based upon the prindple of using a common conlrol block for charge... judiciouSlIelection ofcomponenls. menl for a simple dcdc convener regulator v.ystems.accuracy...tionGi£reerunninll"a9 well aadtivenzype power supplies Not only the regulator ICa or pulsewidth modulatingregularorICsareuoedfOTswit<.partial redundancy<U>d&haredmode afatandbyredundancy..c.1tellites areal$Opr~nted.butotherICsareused~sweU. Chapter 7 includee twc papers that deal with spacecraft power systems. reproducibility. The firsl paper deacribesa typical 5paCe<:rait power s)">tem con .. the main requirementafany~orsystem.liability and lowercool$ are llIe primary consideratkms in the design afpower systems.storage battenes. Reliabilityi. The first paperpresentsICsforcontrol. A reliability analysis i.thecurrenlstepupconverter regulatorandapolarityrevennngvollllge. pregented.Unre1iabilitycan mean lO!$ of waste.istingof90larcelb. where possible. wbich provides a measure 01 reliability desiiOUed inlo tbe system Also included i~ the failure mode and effects analysi9(FMEA)whoocpurpo!le is to identify and :!~::~te.lntheoecondpaper.~tc .highlevelso{. where an integratedcircuit timer i8used as the control d.and .majorityJog. Highpomormance.prolectionandinstrwnenta.hunt.. The second paper describes different ~pproaches to redundancy suchas standby redundancy.ith CUlTentfoldback.This is illustrated in the sec..nnlqeoGicompactDeSS. are covered in the firlltpaper Tbereliabilityandredundancyaspectlare~x· amined willi special reference Ul the power supplies.GiIlifaSitics.i. TbQUgh the inherent circuit reliability could he maximized by drruit design. manufacturing techniques. and power conditioning <U>dontrol electronics. .credundancy. di.tepup converter regulator. The maindif c ference.. The imjlOltant ways of improv· ing the reliability of any electronic S}"$tem and various methods..h·mOOe pawersupplies.ond paper. thechancefailurelhatcould lWliallyortotallyjeopardizea misaion can he taken Care of only byadoptingre~UJlda".charge. etc . load shar· ingredundaocy. between powersyste"'" for low earth or· bil~tellites<U>dgeosyncbronDUSorbit5... to be lollowed in designing the syste!llljforhighd~"ignreliabilitycl)tnl"'redtothe reliability due to components..... _""_~throughrehx::I.preoentedintbethirdpaper. critical single point
..!nadditioobeavyelementslikeinduc· torforchargeanddiocluorgereguJatorsandoutpul eIOpacitOT"ll shunl and diacharge regulators are for made common for the integrated system
Chapter8dealswiththereliabilitya~tsaf the power.lator. and the etonmniesGimasaproduction. tu a •• ure the y overall mission reliability atthe required level.
Chapter 1
SwitchMode Power Suppliesan Introduction
.
. 1.euJalion(%) 
{aEIAE.I of the power supply'.Ippl.Prot:ts. The power system converts the voltage Irem one type 10another and iron) one M!velto anotherlevi'~tndtn tl:fecase of ac from One frequency to another frequency. IneaD time between failure (MTBF) of any piece of equipn:lent m dOM!ly linked with tm! cf the power supply. decade has witceseed significant ~dvmces in Power Electronics relulti. wbich 18not acceptable.lity of change in operating temperature.Dg in the develcpmeatef reliable.. the primary fuocti.0
o. dede converter. The power supply is.
power .efficiency and the system becomes bulkier and heavier. x
100
where
~~ !JEt.on of supply is to provide a predetermined constant output voltage when the input voltage and/or output current vary widely a. most of the electrical and electronic equipment operates with de voltage. The stringent demands on performance.stem conditions the outputs of the emrgy sources so as to match with the requirements of the various loads or
equipment.y to be as low as poMible_ In view of the fact that the.tIn_ As. etc. The successful operation 01 any piece of ele{ltrk:3~or electeceic equipment depends upon proper and reliable function~:d.. Some equipment may require more than one de: voltage for internal opererion.
Change
in outpUt voltage
Change in input volage Nominal Output voltage
where
E. volume. In orher words.
Lin.0 I__
POWER SUPPUE$ largo MTBF. battery eliminator.. ThU$. the weight and volume of the power supply has to be as . .atsinking and forced air requirements increase
directly. the power ejstem proceeeee the power while matching the impedance of the energy sources to that of the loads or equipment. In the CASe <X ac output voltage. the design and te<:hoolOiY of the power sy:5tem have received 3. the power !R1pp1y shall be able to. TM specifcations of the power supply are closely linked with the equip
for I'OOat of the equipment of energy sources are ba etc. Thill is because it provides pow~r to energize . one of the important elements of any piece of electrical or electronic equipment.. The energy is 3C. In general. The: hardware processing is known used (0 carry as a. tho fnoquoncy can be anywhere from a few cycles to few thousands of cycles. Within the equipment SO~ portion may work at a different de voltage than [be other portion.oIt!ge.. and current levels meeting the equipment requirements This can be anywhere from iii fraction of a watt (0 a Iew 1:houBands oi "Wa~ and few volts to thousands of volts and the voltage can be de or ac. The any power degree to which
3
power supply provides the above eonditioRa of the power supply.
explained
above.an as possible.SWITctIIIIQIIt. U the electrical or electronic circuits and makes the equipment operate. and this field is known as ft..m.
tourCe
types
solar cells.
of equipment
work
on ac voltage
ment.si1tg E1«· trotria or simply .wo.
Ell 
Output vo]taee with
DO
I0o<I
Output voltaac with full: load
. E~ . Lt is very essential to have very high efficiency. Thus.. Uahtweight aar. power out this supply. the sources lJi energy are available in the form 01 ac or de. However.. a truly challenging exercise.
2. liE. reliability aud ceet make the design
ill. Also
bc. R. Thus. the pOwer supply.. great deal of attentioo. It is not only desirable but abo essendal to have the cost of the power 8l. regulation is defined as given below.nd there is a possibi.EVwr ElldnmiCl. the power !y.
~KUlator.
a constant
output voltage under
sic figure of merit
i!l the
baAccord
with lower . de" liver the regulated power at specific . The Last.I high efficiency power systems with 2
ingly.gystem basically processes the power to convert it from one fonn (input) to another form IreA uuired power output).
Few
piece. The other
reries.Jaht.
Power Syltems The power systems employ different ap preaches to process the power and to convert it from one form to other. or Linear . The diseiperion varies as a function oi input voltage and load Iiuctuations and hence they result in poor efficiency.
3
.. rated temperature (T_) Output voltage at min. There is a series CDn~ trol device usually a transistor in either the commonemitter or cemmcncolector configuration that acts on a signal from the control circuit or erTor amplifierand prevents the outprr yollage fTQlTl
obtained by rectifying and filtering the ac waveform. •• ]I[E.. The duty ratio of the square wave can be varied to obtain regulation it there are variations in input voltage Or load. The second approach is the reeonant mOOlI!' approach wherein de iDput is applied through controlled switches to a LC resonant errcuit. Nondissipative power systems employ some kind of highly efficient cctoac conversion proceee.
T_~
.. There are two approaches to dctoac conversion.
Maximum operating temperature . Diode voltage and emitter followerregulerors are the ~imple8l regulators one can conceive.1
cuits
Sene. always have rome sort of reference ill with which it compares the received sample of the output voltage and amplifies the difference. )
1'. tr.(T _
E~_
E.a· rion is very essentiaJ and it is a must for equipment
operated by human beings..tilon o.1 DIooIport . These are nonnally employed only for coarse regulation. the paM transistor is operated in active conduction mode such that the voltage across tbe pass trnnsistor is always equal to the difference between the input voltage and cutput voltage. Ir~. These power systems can be further classified into series and shunt types. The nondissiparive power systems operate in the switch mode resulting in high efficiencies. to a low·pass filter. 1 shows the power supply claseificetion tree 3.i
tM de input 15chopped at It high frequency rete to resuh in a square wave. In this approach.. these
pow~r systems exhihil low EM] and less ripple
characteristics..E. it is ea&y to levelup or leveldown the voltage by employiag low wei. The duty ratio determines the amplitude of the output voltage if the input voltage is constant..ln~Jc)(tneriscl. rig.. The control circuit may lake many forms.E. Oneil'" the de power ia converted into ac power.. the rate of en@rgyexchange iii nol governed by an independent clock but by the resonant frequency of the energy storige elements Thus power supplies Idede convertersjcan be viewed as a linear or nonlinear LC or non·LC oscillatortsquare or sine wave) coupled through a traMform@No!!<:tifier.
Regulelor
The most wid... The power svstems can be
classified as (il DlssijJatillf..T. Final de voltage can be
In the case of linear type. 2.. rated
temperature (T..
_
Nominal
output
vQl_tAg~
'temperature 1(E.·Math) Fbswr Systems. The
resulting error signal corrects the drive of the
SiI"'. thereby operate inefficiently r~quiring large hearsink area. .0
C..1...
Po_ S'_"
and OJ) Nrmdissipah'vt (Switd.t and high frequency transformers. .
_.. As the name irKlicates the dissipative systems are those which dissipate more in the conversion process.) hWV" Sysftm.ratiOfl of which is shown ill Fig. Minimum operating temperature
3. The output can be rectified and filtered' to get de at a different voltage level than the input.. . ith and where efficiency is nOI an important cnnsieeration 3."i}
> 100 at
. _ where
Coefficient .. The first approach is the square Wave or pulsewidth modulated IPWMJ apPI'Nch where
Iluctuatiag . This square wave voltage can be levelled·up or levelleddown by using eransformers.h.:1y used of 0111 linear regulator ciris the series regulator. but it ... low outpul current requirements.
Output
voltage
!II"
max. (Li~. the baslcconfigu. However. In meet of the prscncal appllcatiorrs.
SO that the collectoremlner voltage is always the difference between the input voltage and the desired output voltage. itch "[ode)
Buck
Deri\'~d F>g_ 1. This regulator is: eenerally preferable for high voltage. Here the shunt control element Irransisror] must be capable (If withstanding the entire output voltage.2 Nondlaalp. but it does not have to carry the full load current uelcss required to regulate from fu11load to no load.l.
Conyeru~rsReculators
lies transistor.tl •• powor Sy.. in the case 01 the switch
. Hence. Power supPy c~Slific. Since the seriesdropping resistor used with the shunt regulator has higb dissipation.!tlve)
I
Shun
I
t..alion rr .':1 Sv i r c h 'lode)
'. 3.in("IH(Dis. the efficiency of chis regulator is poor. This regulator is preferable for medium [0 low voltages and high output currents with relatively constant loads.
shown Jn Fig.
The basic configuration of a shunt regularcr is
As explained above.i [IC~ WII v e (RI!'Sonlnt S.sipa[lvl. 3. .
Squ e r e vn ee (1'~. the series transistor must be chosen carefully to avoid the second breakdown. even.1. medium current loads.. the dissipation is rugn.2 Shunt Ilegu"t". 3. the seriespass transistor alwa)'3 operates in the active region.tern. if there are variations in the input voltage and/or output load As in this regulator.")
·I
I
S"ll~hiT1g
(~OJldissip..
VCf~. the stored energy {tie" to collapse load while the voltage is maintaiued by the capacireversing ill! pclarjty. 3. takes the path inducto" charges and stores energy. Thia means Ih3 t a "witching r~ 'tUlator to a voltage higher than tbe input voltage.s1RegulatQf ln a boost regulator.~. (ii) boost type and (iii) buckboost type. \lvhen the switch is turned OFF. the current flows through lI"!iie inductor and energy is stored in it. 5.ing or noudisstpative power systems. ON. higher than the input voltage. compared with a stable reference voltage and the This ret{1llat.. When buck type. in these regulators.1 Eklck Regulator ductor tends to collapse and its polarity changes In a buck regulator. the output voltage is such that it adds to the input voltage.. tor. or less than the input voltage. 5. thus ~""nding current into the OUtput capacitor and load.. rhe swildl is turnedvoltage. A schematic
output voltage. The
ON and the process continues such that the output voltage is maintained very close to the reference
voltage.2. which controls the inductor releases the stored energy similar to an switch ONto!'}' periods.. can be used as a de stepdown transformer with highest efficiency. BOOst converter
power stage. ~ switch is turnedox. When the switch . When an the stored energy in the inductor is used up. When the output voltthe indu tor. can be greawr than. Rapid discharge «'SUllS in i\ lower age e xceeds the reference vo 1tagl'. Thus.wilCh L~ lJoltage and vice. The output voltage is. determine'] hy the rate af discharge of put capacitor and lbe load.
A
F~.. viz . the width modulated waveform..2. the inductor reverses its polarity.6 shows a sim ple twnedo.or operates 00 the principle of both amplified error signal ill used to gE'nerate " pulse' bock and boost. At this step.. When the switch is turnedauto mobile ignilion system. Figure. the . This takes output v"II' . (he current into t be switch is O"F.2.2 Boo. When the switch i~ turnedosr.. the output voltage Is alway. When the through the diode a nd send.s (l. transistor operates ill ON (saturation) or Off (cutoff) mode and hence the dissipation in ehe pass transistor is minirmun. The au tput voltage i. The
regulators can be divided into three types.
5
.3 BuckbOost Regulator converter power stage. the capacitor discharges and the output age to an 0 pposite polarity to that 01 the inJlut voltage decreases. the pas. equal to. Figure 4 shOW'l a simple buck 3. current fi_s through the induc!orand into out· at course. (he stored energy in tbe in3. tile stored l'nerID' in the buck boost power s(age. (i) of a boost power stage is shown in Fig. the voltalways less than the inpu t voltage and can be pracage aero ss the inductor and the input voltage are tically anywhere between 10 % and 90 % of the inin series and together charge the output capacitor p ut voltage. 'The regulation is achieved by controUing the duty ratio of the pass transistor. At this instant.
(iii) fixed OFF period and variable ON period. BlJCkbooSt oonveeter power stage.: ele ctrcmagneti C SoC'" ening. This PWM signal can have one 0 [ the following characteristics. Cuk. (il FIXed ON period and variable OFF period.5
Free Running and Oflven Type. Bell Lab. which is used to drive the regulator switch such that the output voltage is maintained at a predetermined level. etc . For a specific use. the above regulators are usually connected in parallel and are operated in phaseshift. As is clear from above description. the feedback control loop of the above "ltUb!"". Vanable. (ii) Variable ON and OFF periods with fixed frequency. changes besides tbe de changes on the output voltaire and the changes in the input voltages. ct .2. 1'0 enhance the power capability.
3.v
vg
R
fig.
The switching regulators can be of the Iree
running type Of driven 1)1"'.
II
.2. 6. the output voltage is compared with a reference v oltage and the am plified error voltage is used to generate a PWM signal.. line rejectiOll.. transient response. are derived from these basic converterregulators. is modified to sense the at. All other converters like. multiphase) mode to reduce the EM [ an d pro blerns .4
Other Typo of ConverterRegulators
The above described regulators are the three basic converterregulators.. a trade off between the various characteristic features has to be carried out depending upon the requireme nts and an appropriate configuration has to be selected. To improve the performance characteristics such as regulation.
3. Weinburg.
nt CIrcuit Appt'o_ch to Modeling and Analysis of Current ProgT1lmmed Swllchlng dede Converters (Discontinuous Inductor CondUlrlIon Mode) 33 Modeling and Analy.Chapter 2
Modeling and Analysis
Cllmlntln~ed de
Conv""".. Indul.." 01 CUK Conyerter Equlva . In DlKontinuou.
Equivalent I
CIrcuit Appt'mll.h to Modeling
SWitchIng de
CUrTant InJltC1ed Equivalent CIn.ul1 Approach to MOdeling of Swllchlng Ikdc Convert . nl CIrcuit Approach 40 Using Current Injected
.tor Conduction Mode 17 ClECA: Applleatlon vertera 28 10 Cu~l Progr8lllmed SWitching DcDc Con
CUlTanllnlKt1ld Equtv.
t important of which art the (".fMi~ ".a.." ceived.I'L:R switch in~ convert c n. What~""r the' approach used h) ~et the C:On veri er t ransf er p rupert ies.k
liw .w. 2) The av ilab.rits ()jooth lhf.I. and the results range from speci fi. A gOUt] revie W I'J f these • pproachesis auern II! ed in 1.
.1rJ[Xlt.d ()rd~( /)ro~s U1 an e. . as well as !he fact that transfer properties simultaneously rI~vl'. 1he n mo. control type techniques which arrive at a block d iagra m Iinear iwtj descript ion of \ he nonlinear system and models fmly transfer proper' t ies.' epl''''''c.d 3) 'low l'i!llr:t'(J!f'~/ cir(Uit .rl t'd cqu I \.1 "'Iuiw/e1l Id""U m'odt."''
fiO!(.wzy dtM.'"'3more infnrmarina about the converter properties compared with the other.roat./>ed. . Tbeequivalent eire uit approach might be preferred by electronic circuit designers.(. "" Airnspaa ".) The anal ysis is dear" r and easier in the' DIe mode.ical in'sight int o the ccn verter circuit !na t permits optimum design.. !. These t vilO fart" led me '" (avur the current injected control t~lw approach iomodel input and output.8Slbt merits Or.rirrH~ in di~cm'il1 1'1 inlMiJ. The current injected approach represent. """"Iy.. nu m eri c sol ut t t:'flS tu p.'"'>I1e/. aciu.f.. madellng i!J ~ drar'd1rd i~simldf' H:'helh~'1' "j' fv:pff'l:m>r t
{}(Rrafts in ro12/'1.!:~rleT
.'oj inductor t~\onduni(m lDIC) rnndt~. fir.lnJJ un ~Quiv.at coroxrter. IIlk. 3) Input and output as wen as transfer properries are modeled.. wJoich . an. SUI a thoreugh study and applicauon 01 both a pproaches reveal that 1) the current injected control type approach in Con' tinuous inductor conoucrion (CIC) mode is equally . Nov. app.H~ 1'1at'! l'!..<iran.l~ i'."iu'«1
por.'eF
fWlrotf.< /i'" SPIC'F.Cal'.efl e ra! equi ville o I eire lli t n uldc Is.
The development switching converters of the is presented
<&:119$1IEEE.lc approach ' 1. TQ
8
.
clition to transfer properties.
emeA
to modeling io detah.'
rJ/lLh'(l/tiTi df('JII!l :#r(1. has rece ivcrl (UII.e most I. pp. l he result is uf course the same. dcdt eM."J rinUll wl. arc wdl. and 2) the electronic t!'q ui valen l c ireu ir st iii t e space ave ru I{t: app roach is nor clear ~or becnmes more complex and cumber~.".. Thi.'Mif(l~~t lir. S028GB...t.d Ektronic
NQ. low j leuets....liia. "'lmS
{1.I!."".e.. physical in5ight I hat permits optimum design. i~jffhliJro"I'ol Iyj!.ar"".0
Introdu clio n
Mod eII.""~ iJujuej'tJI'
roifdu~:tim
m«k'~r 2l the madi!ling ~u. and those accustomed to the control type might prefer the curran t inj ected .i~ling to J a te onl y t he ~ ~"'c(r<>nic C 'lui va len ic ircu i l stale s PJ ce average a pproacn a. however One approach givt..' •.1ity "f the in pu I mode I avoids the f res b Sl2 rt in 'he ana lysi s of cascaded converters.sl~nt circuit 1J:!i\n~ the current injected willFUIIYP" <\~pn)3ch.[j~ff swUchiJtgdcdr. .'("i}l~'!lJ t Q:(I}mJai'b.n'be m{Nlf t:i!.dtc}.:H lent t irc ui! approacb (CltXA'f Thi. fig from analytic to de$~>!noriented.DC CONVERTERS
A
II)
ftCU' .1'"
dr:~j(:~.01 .:1$0 easy compared with equivalent circuit state ~INI"~ 3¥e."""."".ms.1t1'r
'" '!1M . cmr. Thus this approach is ca j i~d 1he cu rrenr inj c.:' 0 f I h~ va rious "~l_ preaches to rnodeling' 1'io'l":i~thinK converters Cx.eiopr./wir. 111 aIr' mmPllleT Jcr thnm:hm}' 1~'NIirli"".
Reprinted
with
permission 19B1_
T"'"SIlcw. whereas thP.:'CUJTl::'n:! iILj€'cred renrrul ~YP£' apntna L· h 'is very dew' and becomes ea sier.sidera ble anent ion ill recen l yean.
II Lin ear equi valent ci rcuit is dev el~ped to give ph ys. The equivalent circuit also leads to til. {illd
fffr/m)l1ch (ClEC AJ ts ikw[·
'''I"'. 1\£$17. and anum ber u f m ~thllds ha ve bee n tI~.. lu.RP approach.!t!:T$tiJP5
. l<fl Vf'~' rlOSl? to 01'(.
s)"r..lfJ".control type appreach to modeling switching converters..}1tJ'i:ml.~"jNiu. Ud . mod ilied approach has the n erirs 01 the above mentioned two 3pp'ooche >.~to .11: 01£ ""mml injITltfi aJ!pmf1<h and 'l"?UfUSin'eithtra sci 11}eqrmiitms whith WJ?lpl.i«tt.CURRENT INJECTED EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT APPROACH TO MODELING $WITCHINGI)C.!l:!.ng ". 6.NJt cin. The electronic equivalent ci rcuit sta te sp ace average approach models input and output in adhom IEEE Vol.d ri()i lht d~"ffle.~ and t he c urrent in ~ iecrcd control ty].11 nptll.llowinl!:.Isdui benefits of t he electronic e qui valent c ircuit state space average approach is the ea se with which more cornplicated converter structures can be anatyzed. 4. ".. It is ! hought Ih::ll one "Itb..
Now I be clockwi se rotation of Fig. 2 (6).demonstrate this approach. The second part does not contain any switch.ar (parallel Rand C) pam are identified . Following the same approach.fy the nonlinear part of the converter circuit and to linearize o"ly that part of the con ve rter as the remaining part is inherent ll' linea. the modeling is carried out for buck and buckboost con verters and the results are presented in Section 4.m. only limited by the equivalent "erie~ reS. and buckboost. and a paralle 1 RC network. This is In". Hence this approach becomes simple as the linearization is achieved by averaging the current through the nonlinear part that is injected into the linear part of the converter.{ is limited awl ('01\trolled by the value uf the inductor!' which is of c ourse affected by the paralle I RC" et work. modeling and analysis is carried out Ior the basic three converters' buck.s a ncnli n P. l n fact this is how the nonlinear (three·terminal blOl"kl and lin. to modeling switching dede converter power stages. d2Ts is the i_merval during which the transistor is turned orf and the diode is on. remains the same throughout the switching period."~.• very large current will Flew t hruugh the switch. as the capacitor is nne charged . Now the current through the threeterminal 1J10t. current in
a
n. One of the two parts contains the switch and is supposed to be the nonlinear part as it takes different connecticns depending upon whether the switch is turned on or off. 2 (E).. A.t. 2 (D) results in Fig. A similar method can be f<lJ1ow~d for any switching COnvener power stage. as . Capitalized quantities are used for steadystate values and quantities with carets are used for small perturbations The CIECA is outlined in the flowchart of Fig. Figure 2 contains the WUrce voltage !III. the threeterminal block re present. Section 2 contains the detailed development of modeling switching converter power. dl Ts is rne interval during which the transistor is turned em and the diode is off. We know that this circuit is a buckbuost converter. Initially.' pa rt w h ereas r he S~cond (paraHeiR and C) part re presents a Iinea r parr. and 1'5 = IIfs is the switching period. dl + d2 . ts of the CI ECA wit h those of the elect ron ic equivalent circuit state space average approach and the current iniected control type approach.jnc~ (ESRl of the capacitor. 2 IDI. since this approach is very simple and easy to apply. the I (10 the source) or 10 the :1(to the ground). Section 6 concludes this new approach. a threete rminal block. 2 (C). and is inherently linear.J. Th e loll owing conventions a nd notations are followed in the modeling and analysis. Section 5 compares the me". can see that the threeterminal block injects current into the second part resulting in appropriate
0""
9
.. whether the 2 connects 1(. In addition the ripple will be very large as til" capacitor has to supply current to the loitd during the penud when the switch is turned off. 1. Again we arc familiar with this drfuit. the boost converter This is of the views which explain"lhe development of basic converters. stages using the CIECA_ The ClEeA is demonstrated in Section 3 by applying it to the boost converter power stage. The end result of modeling i" cither a set of equations representing the transfer properties of converter. Physical reasoning in each step 01 this modeling is included and the modeling is attr!mptoo for the basic threE: converters: buck.'.1\ basic converters. and buckboost. theoretically the circuit results in a converter though there are practical limitations. mentioned above. problems.
2. the ClECA... boost. Th us the converter power stage is identif\ed" as both nonlinear and linear and in fact the ea part of the converter determines the verat.hllwn in Fig. A I" l onp.· (..0
CIECA
The development "f the CIECA allows a unified treatment of a large variety of converter power stages..
jected into the linear part of the converter. 2 (C) results in Fig. A Iunhcr step in clockwise rotation 01 FiR. The flrst step in this process is to identi. Assume the threeterminal block simply contains an ideal switch as shown in Fig. or a linear equivalent circuit mode I for the nonlinear converter.1. An inductor is "dded to allevian: th. boost. which is very general and applicable to various power stages. Thus the buck converter would have resulted. This large current can damage the switch it se lf.
<II W
~
'" o
""it
w
.... <I: .... <II
,
...
,..
....
D <I: w
~'~
~ :z
o ;::
<>:
:J
> '"
a:
w
W
o w ....
o(ij
'" Z '" o
o
0'" v:
'"
~<: C
=
,_
10
2) derivative of the inductor current function of the value oC the inductor. the voltage 'Cf<>S< that in each subinterval in " switching period; 3) relationship between average injected CI1)"rent and output voltage v ~ (i,",)(z). where ~ is the impedance of the linear part of the converter. Now a steadystate solution is achieved by setting derivative" and perturbations to zero (Fig. 1. box 3). Sin ce the converter equations in (Fig. 1, box 21. are linear. superposition holds and can be perturbed (Fig. 1. box 4) by the introd uction of a small ac variation over the steadystate operating point. As we know. the independent dr'VLTlJ!nputs are vg and i d. the perturbation in these two inputs causes the perturbation in i and r'. The small ac variation from the steadystate operating point is negligible COlI" pared with the steadystate operating point values, ie .. viV. e.r:!Vg. dJD. ill Ieach) 0:: I. Osing the above approximations. nonlinear scrondorder terms arc neglected to obtain once again a linear set of equations. Now only the ac part i, retained which describes the small signal. low fre/''fIdI.Jc,~currlJlll(
1
~J
.
G
2
.>
2
........___/
~
I
J
Fig. 2. (A) Probebl .. b .. lc dtcU" wl1h wtllch swilcI1ill!l eon""",1<1 hava developed. (8) Th_ lerml",,1 DlooK shown .oporeJely. (el IndlJdor 10 added 10 IB) .1 _po ~r<lpriaI. pIrIce. (01 e"",_ rt>IOIi,," ot ee). (E) eloe ...... ""alion of 11)).
,.It.,.
8"
output voltage, The following ate a set of relationships relerring to the converter diagram and current and voltage waveforms shown io Fig. 3: I) average current
(i...
J determined
by the first
Fig.
...~
To 
..._
part, injected into the ....cond part in a switchiug period;
3. Ty~cal inductor current and buc4< convarler.
''''Iag<!
""vflQrm.
in
11
quency behavior of the converter. Using this set of equations, the inputtooutput and controltooutput transfer functions (Fig I, bDX 5) are written, Using the same set of equations an equivalent circuit (Fig. I. box 61is dra w ~ which represents the input and ooiput small .~ignal, low frequency properties of the nonlinear converter. Although the outlined method follows in terms ot equations and arrives at an equivalent linear circuit model, one can proceed from (fig. I, box 2) in a parallel way using equivalent circuit models. As in the first method. a perturbation and linearization are carried out and from the resulting circuit models a final linea" equivalent circuit model is obtained similar to that of (Fig. I. box 11). Even though both paths have identical results. <me need use only one method depending on his taste: however the circuit model path give> more physical insight into the qualitative nature "I the results, especially the right halfplane Z!~r(J" boost in and buckboost converters, Thus the CI ECA to modeling switching dede converter power ~t"~". derives the linear equivatent circuil which complet<·]y describes the input and output small sigllal. low frequency properties of the nonlinear convener power stage, ill addition to the transfer properties.
FIg.. 4. BQost ron v 6f19t wit'" a.11pataslUe:s. and Storage timll! &11001& n"9'<H:I(!d.
The average inductor current injected into the output circuit during .J. s.witrhiog period is g1veo hy i,.. = i (<12) _
(1)
Q
where i is th.e inductor current, The derivative f the tml uclfj r CU rront j,1;j g iven by Lfdi/dl) • [v},' 0
(de)J
(2)
The refnre the nul pu l volmge is n,
3.0 Soost Converter Modeling
We now demonstrate the method "·Jr the boost converter power stage shown in FiR. 4. The switches are assumed 10 be ideal. P"rasiti~s and storage time effects of the transistor swurh arc not included for simplicity. The OECA con be applied to the converters operating in both erc and Die modes whether they are duty ratio programmed or current programmed, Similarly the CmeA can be applied whether the convener operates in freerunning or in fixedfrequency mode. However, the present modeling is limited to (iy.ed·frequency duty ratio programmed converter>; "perMing in CIC mode. Inductor CUJTCn\ and voltage waveforms for the boost converter are shown in fig. 5. The shaded portion shows the amount of current injected into tbe output linear circuit (parallel R and C) and the interval during which the current injected is rl2Ts.
Ii.. RJIIl ,
+ ,RC]
(3)
where HI(l + sRe) is the impedance of the out· put netwnrk. The steadystate conditions can now be found by us; og (l)( 3) and sell ing the deri va rive [0 zero. Therefore the above ~ql1ations reduce to
lltVK
=
11D2; l ~ VI[R(D~ll.
(4)
Equations (1)(3) are perturbed around the steadyslate O!>,,'ating' point. and secondorder nonlinear terms are neglected once a{(ain to obtain the linear small signal model
t:
=
i(D2)  l
i
(5)
L(diJdl)
= fig 
TXD2) + Vd~ • sHe)]~" the
Ii • [Ri(l
The inputt';:~mtput
and
ccntroltooutput
12
H W.~F
I
I I I
I I
I I
14t:= =:. 7.
13
. .
transfer functions are obtained from (5) by first taking Laplace transform
NS)liig(fi) .elD'.SURlY.) (l .
+ SURlY'.
Fig. + S' l.!! l6)
(J
equivalent circuit model nbtajned using the electronic equivalent circuit state space average approach.J ~. This d rcuh can be rter dire<:lly used in oornpuh3 r slmw(IItkirt.(l/D2){U(l + SLiRD'. Small signal ~Ow frequency 'i ne81( &qlI~lafl. + S'LCllY. an equivalent circuit as shown in Fig_ 6 can be drawn. !oouctcr cu rrent and 'lMltage waveforms
_~:I
01 I he bOOliII ecnve ner in FI g. using the electronic equivalent circuit state space average approach or the current injected control type approach.)/(irs. ~ f1'gID. The dependent current ""d voltage generators are replaced by an equivale nt trn nslormer as shown in Fig. 4.~I~"""'h==_d21_' __
dlT_" Fig. This equivalent circuit is identical to the
6. 4. Using (5). 5.t orcun mode I 01 I he boo:9l OOI'Ivll!l 01 Fig.)
These transfer functions are the same as those obtained by 3.
r1er roploci"9
Ii""".
10. Using 0)(3). From the circuit of Fig. ner 01 Fig.
~.... The sign of this generator is such t hat in the con trnltoootput tranefer function. o. equivlller>! circuit
"'" dependent cur·
FIg. Also notice that the effective value ". the de model is simply obtained by short circuiting the inductor and open circuiting the capacitor: then !llf. th e inputtooutput transfer funcnon. ~
':. upon the steadystate duty ratio.{]} 'ffi_O
c:i'"U~rO!
"'to. This current generator is moved to the inpu t to put the cirrmt in a form that enables one to see thaI there is reaUy a lowpass LC filter. From this circuit we can see that during steadystate. Hybrid Approach. and shown in Fill. dl. 9
Fig. 10 f nr the buck "on' verter.0 Modeling Buck.3
_
rent and voltage generl!lOr.
C
:
•
. One can see that Fig. one can see that there is a current generator (in place of a "witch in the actual circuit of Fig. A hybrid approach to modeling is demcnsrrated below which uses the equivalent circuit model immediately after the Iinearization oi the nonlinear part of the converter. Now the circuit is perturbed and secondorder terms are neglected to once again obtain the linear system.. Small ')9"'" tow f. 8 can be drawn. •..O<jUeflCy mOdel of 1M _ ccn . 7 after the dependent generators are replaced with a transformer. 6 and one will get an equivalent circuit as in Fig. buckboost. The results for the two transfer functions of principal in reresr .
Fill 8. zero.
I.:~!
01. 7. Sm.. (A) Buck CO erter. Tbe converter and its equivalent circuit d iagrarns are shown in F ig. and tf2 assume the steadystate values. .
C
till".
14
.
4.
is the same as Fig. 4) between the L and the C.aIl"gnaJ low frequollC)' Ilooar equlval".mer. 4. (8) L". Equivalent
11H3). The same method as described in Section 3.ear equivalent circuit . and the controltooutput transfer function are as follows. II {or u.
0 .0 has be e n followed 10 model buck and buckboost converters. an equivalent circuit as shown in Fig.(
:~· D~~ D
C
0].. L now depend.s by an 8q:uMitent tfanITo.
and Buckboolt ConvIJr1a..... Thus the movement of the current generator to input prOO1Ke8 a freqaencydependent voltage generator..c
o....~. 9. this re suits in a ri~ht hal f· plan..1 circuft for booS! con .
.
v(s)ld(sJ ~
~
S' LC/lJl J I
(VIDl D2) (I .the modeling is carried out for buck.)I
SURD.frequency CI C mode are ca rried out and th e i. with the current iuje<:ted control of
1_ M iddlebroo k.0 Comparison
A new CmCA to modeling of switching dede converter" is developed and presented which describes the small signal.alent circuit "tate <pace average approach. 6.)
The equivalent circuit diagrams and transfer functic ns obtained here for buck and bU. In addition the equivalent circuit models developed are the same as those obtained in the state space average approach. fOf rhc C onverters ope ra ting in current programmed UlOOC. The traosfer functions a".{s)
uWdr.type approach and the electronic equivalent circuit state space average approac It. T~ble I gives a detailed comparison of CIRCA with two other approaches. The Netherlands. Orlando. Presented at the I £E E In te rnational Semic ond uctor Power Converter Coil' ference. 1976. and Clique. S. References.c ecuivalent circuit state SP" ce average approach. of the CI l':CA will be substan t iated by work l<! be publ i. (1977) Model·
2. elementaires. ~8)l. To demonstrate this approach. Th is • pprcac h is al so encouraging and attractive to power system designers with circuit background as the modeling become' sfmpler and is "cry clear in DIC mode. Technical Report 1.ckboost are the same as these obtained in ". and huck boost converters operating in fixed. hed if) w hid.
Mode ling and analysis for Ihe d m y ratio programmed buck.J. Nocrdwijk. the modeling and ana lysis is carr ied ou t. It is very clear that the CIECA has (he merits of both the other approaches.ng a nd analysis methods for d cdc switc hing con ve rters. 15
. 11.011 CIEe}\.r linear equivalent circuit models developed uSing the new CmCA. The merit.v 
(DI)I Jill + SJ} R + S' I Lli (V~ [1/(1 + SUR + S' L() I
V(s)!Vgfs} ~ (Dl! D2) [11(1 + SURD'. Fossard. (1976) Modelisa
. boost.5 A K.'. thereby enabling them to make be tter designs. for the "on verters operating in t be [)] C mode. Table I gives a detailed compa<'. Enropea n Space Rese ar chan d Tech T! oJogy Organ i~3t. (A) B~I c:ult model. R.' •
(I +
S' LCflJi.Iow frequency inputtooutpu t and controltoout pnt transfer properties as well as input and outputpropertes of II1e converter. the same as those obtained in the current injected contro I type approach or . FL. The results of the mod ding and analysis are compared with those results obtained by using the current injected coatrol type appreach as WeJJ38 by us ing 1 he e lectroni. d utJ' ratio programmed ClC mode. This approach also allows power system designers with control background to use their COntrol ~now ledge and sti II ge! eq ui valent circuit mode Is to give m ore ph ysica 1 insight int 0 the converier operation.SLJ)1I RIY .0
Conclusions
o
Fig. and Cor cascaded converters. and buckboost converters ope rating in fixedf requency. A.
ccewerter. tion des cellule. 5. 1977. boost. Contract 25901'1. M.D and
'>
Cuk. wvlvf. 01'.jJlIlU:U· QlquiW1oe'n1 clr
FO}r the buck converter. II the elecrronlc equi.
S .
com.1:'M9O used dir&Cilly jn eornpu.. A .
drt:urtt. wlll1l1le· CIImtn1 InJeded Comrol TI'PI A. Middlebrook.oI...
J... Fossard. mlilll"lip!JIlllill'OO:fl5.
~Ul 11M oLltput
equt¥"'t
nOI avaJa. IJnd
l
Ca:nflO! . Br~n...
3.t
wl1er. 36·57.jrt model!: in COIfIpLlte!'S kJr ~etiCl!ll)
and eumbe'lOm.
f'rJwe>" E/edronics Specin iists Con/cronce Rcccrd.~
in t:IIJC~1lI1
and i)oo. "'PPRllch. 1....jer." n(rI u&4'I1I. S.. (1977) A general linear continuous model for design of power conditioning units at fixed and free running frequency.D.H1. 00'1 mean that mit CJloor'tiCAI modfllll9. and Middlebrook.. R. etc. and
Jalade.
U. ElM:lronIc EqIll •• I. ' IIIInd noniiIr'l81l11' part.5 lilleDrizo8'd: tHIfK. M..OOfWG~r pow&r ~tago IlI'tiI idIIiIInh'liBd 1111'\(1 QiI'II~ INl p.IJI i.. and Clique...n.• tjtS~ rime not .. Praioux . tt. 19'aSy
r.
no.D.881 artd flOn~n. T"'"
"'...5 limp" and .wtlch beIwe6n l
PoI'1d
C.r
I:.IIBI!ii:f
and
s! m pie
ami '1191)1 c. availan'"
iJN.. M. A.l . Marpinard.. aRabl.
5i~I".b~
~
•
ClECA
circuit modets eMI8 to Obtain RAS4!Imb~nc801 equiv8l8nt clrcu~ock diagram. I"I1II.Tab.ntliog C~4Jr:s
a.. l. P.
Pasadena.oo. A..t1ual
(fOe:!.Uy in t:Om&:lutsn. PI'. and Cuk. 4. (1979) State Space analysis of pulse
width modulated switching converters. the oonli8f18r power ~r& d&t1ti"'&d _00 O"ly that ~~rt is litreJllm8d: I\8nee Ihill! 8DP'{)8C~ f.S... ~ulnWrl el_MS. H)76.·P.' (:ir~i.' ~re the in l. California Insf itute 01 Tef.II •• y IiiInd
PfediCtiC""
MOdelJl'Ig ... (1977) A general unified approach to modeling switching detode converters in discontinuous conduction mode.l_. S.
16
.. .
Power
Electronics
Group. pp..n in lhe
oon'_"'. Spaialisls Crm/£Te1lCe Recm'd.. re III
. pp. iiQ us il'lg SPICE.1&ii.plex Ph)I!IlcIII l'8IISIOOin~ tor fight htlrf.pIaMo :r:troto UN 01 blOC$( <HI:Qram..
]. ~
(. p. Fossard.OIc.. R .G..e . A .rt~ control type blO¢~ dJagram is 100fer . In fEEE
Pouier Ekclroni".sJ eoQul.. R.r
no.a. fun.nc:e to (OflWllrtef
euil!r 0:0 have tc:hiaJ
\00
obtain
9qLllivalent circun modem a1Go
muctl 010&81 to physical converter circuit ..J .
9. cleat
I
Of •
M. R. et tho CIECA to _I .n .. The Netherlands..r_ulion thOtJg'" only sem.... Cuk.r
"'Y &net
e.r: hll!!lJ'lC6o l~ apDfOl1ctJ.. be<:aMes compktx
.
ior' tt't .18·34. 1977.Ipatti t.(Wn(llirE' CQAvIl1l"(8t is trealed lor lin.tlltf1l.. 1977 8. 5. In IEEE
Technical
Note
T58. re.
li 11... A. J.loIMlC filler propanilt'
models 'hili
U'1wgh It
is. 110m
actual conveJ1M nJ'Olllic:al nccers flllMmbti. Presented at the 3rd European Space Research and Technology Organization Spacecraft Power Conditioning Seminar.. 113124.. to actual oorw. Feb. Ferrante.. In IEEE Pouer Etearonic« Specialists Conference ReCl6d..Indefi!itandlng ~l'Iat all tM MSfC COI'I"enet1 eff8Ctiv61y hlll..p_ and :. . 6.D. In IEEE Power Electronie» Specialists C{)n/~re»ce ReCflrd.. Brown.hnology.nt Circuit ~ 6pKe . 1977. 6. (1979) Modeling and design of dede con verte rs using mod ~rn control theory.ts tao be obtailn8t.. tnr.$I'I 01 nre c:orwerH!H t" nonliino. 1979.. In lact.Q8.nd lI'u: c:anon='t:aI m. SI~mj.• Rensink.t<>dolog '" CiC
Modelil1g in Ole
••
oy &rod
''''pI. Capel.
~mple. Noordwijk.Qr ~'S of tl'toi..& lhi1 I!IIPP~ i!. pan: 1: rnedelisation: part 2: open loop analysis and control design. (1976) A general unified approach to modeling switching converter power stages. ConIperI ..].P. 284·301. 1979 1.pproIOJ'!
of
:stage
1in .
be u~ rtir'l(. and Clique. like U5irig
GoiP
SPICE._. (1979) Modeling and analysis of switching dede converters in constant frequency current programmed mode.
... SwItctIlng DoI)e eonv.ble hybrid ill . EI. and Middlebrook..
ftpeCJi.
(1956) Establishment de modeles marhematlques pour regulaterus de puissance a modulalion de largeur d impulsions (pwm): 2: models
continua, ESA SdenHj"IClJ.n4 TcclmiclJ.1 Reuiew,
1966, 2 (1), 115·129,
CURRENT INJECTED EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT APPROACH TO MODELING OF SWITCHING eCDC CONVERTERS IN DISCONTINUOUS INDUCTOR CONDUCTION MODE
Ckm",1 NtjecJM IIqlu,,./,,,1 r:inuil a/1/lnJoc;, (CIECA) to m!JdtU"g ,wi/ching d<'<k ooni$rler /ll!U}.' s(<ljf<!Ss lkueli oped . .,h.d ,/11m wilh. """,,", i><j<L1ed "","')(11:11, .Itd I"'$><II> in a "./ 01 "'I011li""_, .,hid, Ikscrio. '","plttdy i"pW and VIJ.tpu t /W'OIJCrl~.and i%H t(jJUtJ(lkn1 linear circuit m.:xkl l~lid al .'unaU Jipa i 1o!4,~/reqJ#;:~jfzy kt't!~ Th,s appmlJ<h to m<Jdeli"JI ,wildoing d<4r crn<wrl.,. pourer :sl.are.s Iuu tb~ mt!riJ~ lJ/ tuo k:!w:wn approac~.: i) elect'W'!ir. ftJJjJ'mltml rin:uil $l.ul~ space r.n~ r1PtmXJ.ch. ii; ~r~."t i~~jmed ('(mlm! ty/>fOnpprooch, nt1m'f!Y;.a.J tJu? ~Ung is r,'f'ry dt'4raM is !i;mpltt w"l!IJu,..lItf!amt'(tmr~)pr,.a.lc$11I ro~tinU<1u.~J' di~MllinilOJt:; irlductM ctJMfKtimc modt.!i. b; O results i,. ,m eit?lIttwu:nl ritt'Ui~ whidt j_~ i.WF] t:/(}5(, to Ill" ucA .... tua! convener. eJ tlu' r.q~ifialnd .:frr:ui.t
tmI
bf .. ,~
di"£d~)l
ill CIImplller;,1' tneoretica! pntdi<!i,m" li~< S/'/CE. erc.. dJ demit! "I In, de",,"l, 0/ b,,11I h. apptw,du'_, ",.alwn,d. t Hm.~i7lK d~I'fJI'.lolK'd amJ
('~1ilti,.'}! .]e.."WH.<;(Tatm for
Ihr m'1f1('11o~
"'~t~r
i"
(mlli,lhOU'$
"~ldwrWi'
omU.u.('hilft
w, the
CIi:..'CA is nrm.' n1P"(lRd
!iHIIIJSL<tO
10 tJ4;' (QU!I(>rlet'!IJ/I4'rnfingill mode,
discmJ
iru/Ilttm"
limdaflim!
1.0
Inl.raducllon
The modeting uf switching converters has received considerable attem ion in recent years and a number of methods have been developed, rallj(ing from analytic to design oriented, and the results range from specific numeric solutions to general equivalent circuit models, A good review of these approaches is attempted in '. :!. Among the various approaches to modeling switching converters existed to dale, only the follov.'ing two approaches are well received, namely: i) electronic equivalent circult state space average approach ,~; iii current iniecred con! ro! type approach " ,0. 'Whatever theapproacb is used to get the converter transfer pro© 1982 fEEE. Reprinted with permiss ion from IEEE 7",."",/;"", ""Industrial Ei<tI'Onics. Vol. [~",.29,No.3, pp. 230234, Aug. 19S2.
perties. tbe result is, of course, the same; but One approach gives additional information about the coeverter properties compared to the other, The current injected approach On one band, represent" control type tech niques which arrive at a block diagram linearized description 01 the nonlinear system and models only transfer properties: on the other hand, electronic equivalent circuit state space average approach models input and output in addition to transfer properties. The equivalent circuit approach might be preferred by electronic circuit designers and those accustomed to the control type , might prefer current injected control type approach to modeling of .witchinR converters, In addition 10 the above cnmments, it is lhou!(ht thaI one ui the must useful benefits of electronic e.qujvalcnt circuit stare space average approach is the ease with which more COmpIiGH~d converter structures can be analyzed and the equivalent circuit lead. to the physical insight that permits opt i roum design, [jut a thoroug h study and ~ P1l1 iClilion of both approaches reveal much more interesting facts that "I the current injected '''''Irel type ap· preach in c'Jntinuous inductor conduction (Cl C) mode is equally easier compared to equivalent circuit state space average '11JlI1><l."h; b) electronic equivalent circuit state space average approach is nor dear 4 or becomes more complex and cumbersome' in discontinuous inductor conduction (DIG) mode, whereas current injected control type approach is very clear and becomes more easy. Because of these two facts, current injected control type approach is used to model input and output, as wen as <ransier properties simultaneously developing an equivalent circuit. Thus, this approach is hereafter called current injected equivalent circuit approach (C[ECA). Having developed ODd demonstrated the
17
~
 switching dede converters operating in continuous inductor conduction mode 1., the current injected equivalent circuit approach is now extended to the converters operating in discontinuous inductor conduction mode and presented in this paper, To
2.0
Current
In.je<:ted Equivalent
Circuli ApprDach (CIECA) The following conventions and notations are follo...'IJd in the modeling and analysis: 11', T, the interval during which the tranis turned on an d the diode is the interval during which the transister is turned off and the diode is on,
demonstrate this approach, the modeling and analysis is carried out for the basic three converters, i.e., buck: boost, buckboost. The section following the introduction contains the detailed development of modeling of switching converter power stages using current injected equivalent circuit approach. This method is demonstrated by applying to the boost converter power stage in Section 3. Following the same approach, the modeling is carried (Ap· pendix) out for buck. and buckbocst converters and the result. are presented in Section 4, Final seclion presents the conclusion.
sister off,
d,T,
d,T, + d~T, + d"T, = Y,
T, =
1'/, swit.ching
period.
The capitalized quantities are used for steadystate
SWtTCHI~O ()CDC
CO~YERTERS CONVERTER EQUATIONS
STUDY STATE PAOl'EllTE9
~Iv ... _'jn (lt~ndh,lOJ:)E
i) i)tflwal,f.'t'e
of jn~hH;;llJ( eunenl
current !:it
A'w'Mage indud.or iii
ill
ct,ll~r.n'~ 0 'lI Vg
""'''chlng
period
(v}= Ipt: :z or QUI.$n.lt
('.1,1") iii) Oul put .... olta~ 1,1. impoed.nu
,,_v .114(.,
v
MtwQirkl
lave ""iIoln. d, D1 dl02
PERTUA
DA rtO~
,
OVNA."C PROP ERnE S
LI"U~
UHEARllATtON
d1 • 01 tt2 D2
EQU....... ENT CI!lCUIT (8,,",)
:9:~~~Yg :r~:~~ again nn....
i
=
+
a2:
d1
Perturt ..
.,f(!duel
UOn ttorma
iI) rr:tpul to OIJ'JlU!:
Itaosler f\lnehon
Cbntro. to OtJ1pUI
if)
•• n=I,eye+7."tI
Uar1S'" Nnction
'Yltl'm
fig. 1. Flowchart of
pt(lQrammed
cufJ'ttnt injected &quival&nt circtJil apptOlld110 dJscOO1inuous induCl.c;Ir COfHSuClion mode.
modeling
sW!lchlng
dece
cooverter!
In the
dUty
ratio
18
values and the quantities with hais for the small per. turbations,
L
The current injected equivalent circuit approach to modeling converters operating in discontinuous inductor conduction mode is outlined in the flowchart of Fig. 1. which is very general, applica ble to various power stages. The first step in this process is to identify the nonlinear and linear parts of the converter circuit and linearize only the nonlinear part of the converter a. the remaining part of the converter is inherently linear [Box 1). The nonlin ear part of the converter determines the average current injected into the linear part. Now (Box 2), • set of relationships are wriuen referring to the converter diagram and current and voltage waveforms shown in Fig, 2: volt secon d balance on the inductor; av e rage curren t (i".) injected into the linear part in a switching period; iii) relationship between average injected current and output voltage u ~ (j .) x (z) where z is the j m pedance of ~h;~jin ear part nf the converter.
i) ; i)
vg
R
e"&<1"
Fig. 3. SooSit conver1er with
""9lecled.
en P8rasif:ijcs Bind
:~1I0r.gll:'l
lime
Now steadystate solution is achieved by settin" derivatives and perturbations To zero (Ro~ 3). Since the cunve rrer equations in Box 2 are llnear. superposition balds and can be perturbed (Box 4) by the introduction "j a small ac variation Over the steadystare operating point. As wt, know the independent driving inputs are III! 3l1d d. the perturbation in th es two inputs cause the perturbation ee in; and v. Now making the small signal approxirna
tion, namely, the small ac variation from the steadystate operating point are negligible compared to the "!eady state D~rating point values. i.e .. vlY, d,ID,. J.,tD" ill (each) "" 1. Using the above approximations, nonlinear second order terms are negle('te<J to obtain once again a linear set of equations. Now only the ac part is retained which describes the small s ign I low frequency behav iur 6/ the convert er. {J sing these sets 01 equal ions, the input to output and control 10 output transfer funclions (Box 5) are written. Using the same set of equations, an equi valent circuit (Bo" 6) is draw" w hich represents t he input an d outpu r small signal Jaw frequency properties of the nonlinear converter. Although the outlined method follows in terms of equations and arrives at the end an equivalent linear circuit model, one can proceed from Box 2 in a parallel way using equivalent circuit models. As in the first method, perturbation and linearizetion are carried out and from the resulted circuit models a final linear equivalent circuit model is obtamed similar to that of Box 6. Both the paths ,',,suIt in identic a.! results.
t;V,.'
3.0
Boost Convuter·Modeling
Fig. 2, TypiUllnduclor book. COnverter.
currenl on<! voltage
w •• eformsln
We now demonstrate the method for the boost converter power stage shown in Fig. 3. The switches are assumed to be ideal, and lb. present modeling is limited to fixed frequency duty ratio programmed converters operating in discontinuou& HI
state conditiorrs can now be found by using (1)(3) and seuiag the derivative tc zero. The steady. . Using (5) an equrva len t circuit is drown as shown in Fig.)
(3)
W.0. Ve: V. a hyhrid approach !O modeling is
ViV..'' coovertor in Pig.'T
2L
.• assume steadystate values. d2• etc .
D"D.
. 3.. + ".D. In<lLJCIor curr&!'H an<lvoll11l"'''''''om". Hybrid Approacll_ As mentioned in Section 2. ~ 1+D. 4. 
_(2M _. •
J..
.V·
Fig.)
=
VIV.
The in puttooutput and tbe coatroltooutput transfer functions are obtained from (5) by first raking Laplace transform
"""f ~ ~
where
II
2V
(["M:j J.state operaeing point and second order nonlinear terms are neglected once again to obtain the linear small signal model
'"" .'.:.(4)
Equations (1)(3) are perturbed 20
around the steady
.
1
I
oj... ..
v
R
V. The average inductor current injected into the output circuit during' a switching period is given by II.
+ V.
(2)
o. +
I)..
D.. The Rt constan t is asswned to be much greater than the switching period T.. •
D..2L (.1D. ' J. are the same as those obtained using electronic equi valent circuit state space
a verage approach or current injected contra] type approach. Inductor cunene and voltage wa veforms Ior the boost COllV erte r arc shown iIT Fig. 4. d... Therefore.' D.
)
SIWfr
II)
2L
Volt second balance on the inductor V·d. __c. the above equarions reduce to
These transfer function. T. A. This equivalent circuit is ideo· tical to the equivalent circuit model obtained \Ising electronic equivalent circuit state space average approach.
!?)J(l + sRI. The "haded portion shows the amount of current injected into the output linear circuit (parallel Rand G) and the interval clurillg which the current injected is d. • d.. d.T. 5.'
(5)
l!le_
inductor conduction mode....1I) M
RC·
where RI(l + "Re) is the impedance of the output network. • d.' T.D. V~
D.ID. • D..
VIV)
d.
The output voltage is
" =
(i.
.<1(API~'n<I'ix)..'i.:ms(~I' htn1.n·:~~n. From this circuit we van see rh.l1l::"ofor the tw» tr~~tl.
21
. ~H1dsecond urder terms are neglected l<J obtain tlw linear system unce aga.fam~ an.! model imnwdi"tely alter the linearization of the nonlinear part Illt' convener. 5.0 can br drawn.(.
4... Small !Signa~law frl.CS the equivalent cirt·u.~
vg
Fig.v~nl!r 01 Hg.. follo .. which U>..'f~_ The ('OU1\if..' hlld. Fi~.">dl'll)l!('k and buckboost l·onvt·rh.1H3)..
d•..0
VII
Fig.d by open rircuitin... t.~!_~ ftU' trw huck ronwrter ~Hlflin Fij.5.ln.shown ill F.titltl are .'a_hl~::. I'.at('d below..n . Equivaion' ". 3_Thts eirClIl1 can 00
dit9Cth{
IJs. th<:. Nnw the circuit i:s perturbed..rter ~lIld ib4 l~qutVa1t'lil rinuit dt'W." I. ~ s..!lCYlinear equivalent tkcui1loc in compute~ srmulalions_
60051 CO!'l. 6..' dc mode1 is simply Ob'~tDI1. UsinJo: (1)13). Tlu. d~.(cr f\lll~'tillH~ uf principal interest. [·~wi\ialtnt {'lTl"uil.:· sanu..u.·ritwtiill the pn"'i~~u~ ""'1 i<1 " II<".f_ jor th..u dnr'in~ steadystate.~Fi~. for
r:j{.: Ih" (a'
"r
pacitor
and assuming
stcadystutc
I. 7 and is the same ~.bm~t 9 CI)!l"'~'nl'r.
Modeling 01 Buck and Buckboost Conveners Th.input [0 output transfer function and thr rontrol tu ()LlfPOllr.uJt
I.!qu8..mC'!hud a~ (h'S04. This is shown in Fig....'IIb'e
demon<l. . IWt'Il ["110.
w_
> converter
2 M RCll ..A '·M.
tB) tnduOlO<cu rre.).l lOW f. S". """.MI
F Of the buck converter For the buckboost
if
M __
l_. SIW.. 3.". _
V...
oi!lm.
=(!f. 7.".where
F..r:q
eq"ivaI' nt
22
.!..
stgnal \ow frequ..
v
ii
M
1 .n.
92 = lm..oquoncy II""".nt
cl...cult
K_
ZL RT..~f fig.~ fOf _
""""..nt _VOltaga
\OS'<_""..
o
{:11J
L
09
C
R
9.
s..:M) ·t·M
(q I'"
smoll
fl..
"n
l~ (I
+
1 ) SIW. ("I BuCI<t<lI\Viln...
r2 = (1M)R Fig.
ciU:\JH' mod'al.)
\A 1ino".
Jl ~1'!'_ Il /K
91 ~ 0
FIg..
Appendix A.. (8) Induelor turrui'lt and 'VOltage wa.
2
K
~
inducturccuduction mode. 9.i:~lot'" this appreach."
23
.a1ef'i1 cncult mode'.
ZL
RT. T() (k~llim~ir.i n g current injected control typ~ apprM<:h as well M e Iectroni c eoui va lent circuit Slate Sll'\ce a ver ag~ ap
preach.
RC
Buck Co n verter
H a vi ng developed ana demoast rated the new current injected equivalent circuit approach to modeling switching dede converters operating in continuous inductor conduction mode '".0 Conclu~ons
.. an d bu L k boo st con verte T~ <\I ~(l prvsen ted irI l l Lt" previ nus sect i ons. the ml)()eling is. 8(8). equiv. !A) Buckb(K:t:S1cot.)7...fl thf' ourpur
IV 5.The inductor current injected int':.
(C'J
Irs small signal lo11'II trequency linear
where
M
=
s: D. Shaded portion shows the of current injected into the output linear Iparallel Rand GJ and the in te rval du ri ng the current injected is (d. is I\OW extended to converters operating in diS<'ontinu". eli)im~. T he result $ of ~he mod ~I i 11g ~Iu d analysis are compared with th use 0 bWi"ed u. voltage shown amount eire ui l whirh average _ Inductcr curre n t an d waveforms for the buck converter are in Fig. • d. beosr. carried Out tor buck.vel1er.
lnducror current and vnll. The average inductor current injected into the 'output circuit during a switching period is f.!lvt:~n by
o. 
+
n. art equ iv aleru circuit is drawn a'S. .
+
. assume steadystate values.sRC) is the impedance of the output network.. The steadystate conditions can now be found by using (). Therefore..+
J.)i(/).RCI K
.
24
.
+ . V. TJiJ.mtcrval during which t he current injected is d. d.1..JRf:': w.RQ is (he impe dance of the output network.. jIK M
Volt second balance on tile inductor (2a) The output voltage is
R)1(1
Ii
where (3a)
2V (~) M ZM
~V D.
=
iJ... d".!\. 1'.
(l'~.D)
(1a)
v
R
2L
E"""ti<>ns (talnal are perturbed around [be steadystare operating point. T~ r{J.)(33) and setting the derivative to zero. sllel Rand C).)'I.
+
. ~HJ. •
where R/(1
of. The steadystare conditions can now be found by usiQg (lbH3b) and setting the derivative to zero. +
..
W_{~M) .• til
Volt second balanre
.1
lL
on the inductor
(lbl
(2b) (V + /))I(V..". V..'c[()nns for I he buckboost COn· vcrtrr .circuit during a switching
period is given by
'"7'>".. ~ v
1 (!tfJ 
l+SIW. VIV.
a..
V)IJ.i.
(im
•
R)l11 + .' ~ (i.! 8(C).:r.)
(511)
The outpu t voltage is
l' ~
f) ~ (Ri(I
sRC)).
I
!) ~ (D.shown in Fi. 3.RC)
(3b)
The input to output and the control to output transfer lunClions are obtained from (5a) by first taking Laplace transform
where RIO + .. the aoove equa lions red uce to
v~.
the above equations
reduce
to ll::iing (Sa). and st.1M
I RC'
Therefore. and the...~
v
'~I (1). d. R. etc" assume steadystate values. •
D."ond order nonlinear terms are neglected nnre "gain 10 obtain the linear small signal model
v~. Shaded pori ion shows the amount of current injected into the output linear circuit (pa. HuckBoost Converter.m' shown iu Fil!... etc .
Middlebrook and S. 9(C). 7.~rlV
I
c
5. Clique. "Modelisation des celhiles element.
5.
IitD.
M~
V..al"l" Con]. Clique. (Orlando.
if /1
where
v
(M)
. .
D. R. "Modeling Mr.· T. 19771M" pp. tinus. 1976. Prajoux." in IEEE Pouer EII'cITrIn. {N'~>rdwijk. pp...jl~nt circuit approach (CIECA) to modeline of switching dede converters. EI~cI. SemiConductor Power Converter Conf. kill~ Laplace transform
T ..dt!l6IrTook.nar. (. S..'
D.:5. M.~ fl. "Modeling and analysis of switching dede converters in constant trequeucy Current programmed mode...fechnical ''''1<' T·s<.I t ncory. mathernatiques pour regulateus de puissance a modulation de largeur II impulsions lpwm]: 2.." In IEEE Pmcer £ll'rlro.. Fossard d al" "1\ ~eneral linear COn· tinuous model fur design of power conditioning units at fixed and free running frequency. pp." Tech.rancH
1. l~{it\.
Cult. 18. Middlebrook and S tuk.
T. 1976 Rec.' 2L
D. 113·124.. </. ires . Third £STEC $.4 Sci.
. vol 2.' ~ 1i~1D. .":S ernUl).
(4b)
Equations {lbH3bl are perturbed around the steadystate operating point and second order nonlinear terms are neglected once again to obtain the linear small signal model
~
'.V •
VIV.'
(5h)
V
llnifwd I1PProoc. "A KB"cml
('IV.1977.()uil·. • D. 11.
anaiy. • D.. 1'h<. Marpinard. A.
U"inS (5h). i" discontinum .' 10 m(xieli ..34.d design uf dede converters using moderon cont .. 1. ~.. " in }'riX'."". Mode! "". vol. D." presented at the IEEE Int.. A. ESTEC contract 2590175 AK. 1\ (1" 1981. R. 1'l7!l. 1':179R r.'W'11I)) i'£"<1".K. .onics Spe~..i" of pulse width rnodulated ~wlll'hlt1. 115·129..
d..R converters. lIme 1977.]. Netherlandsl. FL). H$u "' a!.. 6.. "Modeling
and
. " in IEEE Po".. P .m<iilil!ni"" s'm. and J JalaM.'$ S/wia/isls Cont. R.o.'. 9. Cult ant! R. 10. Fnsaard and M. Fossard and M. C~lirnrni.1'. m. t:... Pa rl ~ Ope" 1.•" switching lir·l(fac comlfr/.". "A general unified approach to modeling switching converter power stage s.
V R
D. Tech.seltlrn III Ihe ll:. method. ~?~'
T.D.
~
+
V.j.J. J.D. Chetty.nI~I.C. 25
IRI{l + "1<()1.' Power Rlt'flrulIil. ign.. crmdudiIJn miNk" pY... J..~"
The input to output and the control to output transfer functions drC obtained (rom (5b) by first t . A. 1977." lEEI: Tran» A erospace and Elec trcn ic $ysl. "Current injected . Specialisu Coni.' of u Tcchnology. S.. for dccc switching conveners.
2L
Ks
R
.. Rep.
V
~W. Art Brown. Part 1 Model: ?mi." Elearon. no.".1 I nt'ol i 11 1<.
circuit is drawn as shown
Ral. an equivalent in Fig.(10p 1\ nalysis and eMI ml De. 3. 2..' Om/. "Establishment de modele.
M$
V Ii
I + S/W." .
(V.EE Pow. .R.. "State S""ce t\n"ly. Rr». Feu.
./ _t~>1"" ItJ obtai • •"".~rlm.lh.ed conll6rlors ""h. 1'0 /kmqn. .<mini pro/lf'!J".CIECA: Af'PLICATION TO CURREHT PROGRAMMED SWLTCHINO DCDC CONVERTERS
The curnn! ."jcc:. tm"."ing other modeliog approaches ~.... o_( /It"" a""(~. . 5../lui.
grslnmed stabilized converters.bit ~. ami boc/d.\ is briefly reviewed in Section 2: Soclion 3 contains the explanation for the instability of the current programmed converters when they cperate at duly rat. so that the overall dVl13mic properties and the slllbility can he analyzed and designed.. """'I.d
I"."s.mf!<J twoPOk ml)('"".. odel.rgl. Section Ii presents modeling Inr the current pro
o/l<mli./I "" /.d equivalent circuit approach (CIECA) is very ~er8Dlile t..
b/orlijIdo' romp clio""".... modeling is carried out rur buck and buckboost converters and the results are prc.d oul for Ihe ~Jltk. Since this approach 1 is used in this paper for rriooeling and analysis <if converterscperated in the
26
..'..1" well as input and output properties of basically nenliuear switching dede converters in the frequency domain....""Uons "" Aero_<""""and El!d. Vol. """.'/'"
1(_.. i·\ tha t the controltoourput transfer function is basically a onepole function if the effect of adding an artificial ramp to stabilize the converter is neglected (see Section 8)."" f... more interestinli: invesrigatinn made for the first time is tbat the effect of the inclusion of an artificial ramp adds back the pole but with large damping. The advantages of the current p.g inj&...a. to ahibil .nlcd in Section 5.k" Icircuil "IIProoch(ClECA) 10 ". are Pm6'l1l<d i.11 dl.... CIC mode. is <Sf •• dd to model the <'.......ult. _The salient 1eature of the cu rrent programmed CI C mod..! converters.sligm.tended 10 current programmed converters operating in the continuous inductor conduction (CIC) mode. pp. CmC..
n
m.982. 2) Switching converters when current programmed behave basically as firstorder systems. One.!" /"n<tlb".llil1l!ar rqu. The main gool is to obtain the smallsigna Iequi va lent circuit models which rep rese nt both inp ut and out put prop erties.....". Among the various appreaches attempted tJJ attain this goal.. This allows controlled derating of compoaeras. AES18. Following the same approach.Ddtllng swi/clting am1J<:l1<>r />Owe.<loth.tages
without
load sharing
problems."ctiMls T~augh ".r "I~iV(J1en1ircuit c a" w<1I os In. s re. th< /f)rn' of eql(iV<1/""/ arcui/ . l4rr'... the conclusions on the results 01 the work carried out.r.
thefirst rime using CIECA..fumr ofl"".d
lion
f""llw~CJ. as "".. This approach is nOW ". 1.
2~O RevLew 01 CIECA
The current injected equivalent circuit approach to modebng switching converters in duty ratio programmed mode has been developed 1..5 Section 4 contain" the detailed devekrprneat 01 modeling for bon..~rI.. />Ok ""Jxm'" lhe . _li"g i...... pr. 3) Several converters can be operated in parallel lSi 1982 IEEE.. the current in.ull. which call then be embedded in the model of a complete regulator system.g. ar. modeling of switching dede converters has received considerable attention and the effort has resulted in the characterization of transfer .•• too I'.. Tnis bas """" '"..
4) Inductor sawtooth current waveform replaced
advantageously the reference sawtooth necessary to generate the putsewtdthmodulated control signal.
Cimh'n"WS intiru:1or (..~.. of lire.U.ogrammil>g are already well known and are summarized as follows: 1) Switching converter active components are protected from excessive overload and stress.
1_0 Introduction
In the last ten years... Reprinted with permission Imrn fEEE Tm .I pro/ITUm ".. Thus this paper is concerned witb current programmed switching dede 'Converters operating in the fixed frequency..rmic SystIln . 538544. greater than 0.'(j/enl circuit model' which repre_I wih HI/I<II and ""(PUt frroPitrl. Section 9 present. N~. The re..d fiN
ditio»
mode. Section 7 compares
the resu Its wit]) those nbtained ". Sept.tralc/u method.t co__ /lmIif' stages
.
d1 n + d2 Ts ~ T.. during which the transistor is turnedoff and the diode is on..t
D..nttoI:
t~ (n..Ing CIEe"'.H:on croduet t~Tl11i obl.nD~
DYNAMIC
PAOFEJ!TIES
LINEA"
EQU IV.e 01 0 Ulput n. jected inro rhe line~r part.t~d current and output voltage V ~ (i~.e ~d 1oI~lor eu U. the voltage across that ina &wi tcrung period:
3) rela tionshi p between a verage inj.
Now steadystate solution is achieved by setideDtlly the nonlinear ami linear parts (If the c. is
Modeling converters operating in the aCmode 'using CIECA is outlineo in !he flowchart of Fig. 1.lE![Natl~c1In~"Jctor
CI.lected tc
ii...llJ:1ut tr.g1' 1")~lt.av!!+i.ntlf'lfIrfUf'u::tli:l" . dl Ts is the interval during wbicb the transistor is rurnedon and the diode is off.1 lnjected into the linear part ina swi tching perle d:
operated in variable frequency mode.nI'B
a~
PllrU.oon . 01 the ron verier as the remainder of the Co" verter
21
.in Ol'lCoII ~:a..
A(lWChan 01 mocI91ing 'wilohing dcl<><lcconverters
in Iil& elc m<>de ".z (>'I"".O.l x (x) where. V l~fIiI.Q...n· ting derivatives and perturbations ru zero (oox 3). in box 2 arc Iinear..~0'1
nlli!!!.u!Ja. 10oulput
U~N'tf h.IIt·. verter ciro. The Iullowing conventions and notad(Hls are • followed in the modelOlg and analysis. is the swi~hinil period.work)
vV
<110'
11202
2
3
PER7I1ABATIO~
& LI~EARIZA.DC·Oc CONVER111AS:
GDNVERTER
£aUATIONa
STE"DYSTA
TE PJ!OPlERTIISS
I)
1J.A LE~T
eIRCIII~
(Bud:) I)ln~u..lM1iOn
d j' ~ D] .l1ft1n.SWfTCHmC .
1. ~ ~ D2 T a2 • vg .
preach can be also used io modeling tbe converters
the corwerter derermmes the average current . Tbe aonlinear part of
fixe d I req!lency mode..ilUGIICIl"
I~) J\'1l1rag.
set~'
2.. Capitalised <l\.) CQ.
which is very general and is applicable to various power stages _ The IirSI step in this process is to
the impedance of the linea. is inherently linear (box I).lantities indica te steadyttlate values and quanhlies with carets indicate small perturbatinns. and Ts ~ llJ.Vg+vg 11' _'oJ .I. I:unent ::::0 'V~__"'V!i z Ro(zj I~~'I lave
otini.uitand to linearize only the nonlinear pert Since the conve II e r "<lila lion. a brief r€ vie w of t ilis approac his presented here. 01 course tile same a p.='l.':'1)1
Fig..) derivadve o( the· inductor current function 01 the value orthe inductor.n'
In •• wilc~I"~ p«lo~ (I••• ) Yi) OtJ\pu1vD1lU.. Now (bolt 2)a rela!innshi(l" Me written referring to rue COnvener diagram and (he current and voltAge waveforms shown in lIig_ 2: 1) average current (i".in hnU~ '1:sr.r part of the converter.rlv~niv. d2Ts is !he interva.
Now h\' making the smallsi~nal approximation.!:i and he cause ror this inst~hiljlY is thltt rbe current proS{ anuning itself ron:.. the small fie variarion from the steadystate operating point being negligible compared with ihe steadystare oper"ting point values.""
these ap proximationa.. . fi21D'2.
. 'ow only the Q.~..'oJHw:.
and .frequency properties of the nonlinear converter. USC"!! this set of equations..heboOS!
28
.velo. As we know. nonlinear second order terms are neglected to obtain once again a linea" set of equations. Typical
""_. Using the same set of equations.s.
3. even in rhe upt°n loop.OUCTOIl'"Ol.a small ac vatin linn over the stt:a~y~tat(' operating point.~n~:ot'. the inputtooutput and comroltooutpor transfer functions (box 5) are written..m8 o
01
t.s_ hus I ht' vu rreut proT Krammed (otlvl:rltr::.D In6tablllty In
Current
granmwrl
Progrommed Conveners
t
1~·I. This instability occurs when the duty ratio exceeds O.. anrl in(n~a:. "IV furlVg. On in! hesc two i n pu ts cause (be pe rt urbat ion in i and u.d ~tllQe waveforms in
Ind~or
superposition hoids and can hr..
Fig 2.__.ll rl'rdback the... the perturblat._T'___' __d_' __
btJck convener.
4_ Induetor
l:onvr7n~u.ill i.iitutl~5 .ntern.g
J
Wilhall PQ'aai!lcS8nd 5tof&ge1lme Mg.]lll:\i(jvp and at· tains a v::11ut ~Jf 1 ill a dutv nltin o( n_.UG.j.t:~ m. j. the independent driving inputs are UI( and d.
l
._'_"'_d_'_T_'_'. neglected
Fi9· 3. mentioned
sui»... an eouivalent circuit (box 6) IS drawn which represents the input and output smallsignal low. flag8Ws.E
.!aill 01 which b". part is retained which describes the small·signallowJrequency behavior of the converter.
Current an. ..I _S
___
~dIT"d~'t
fofo~h
OW/fErn!
Boost converter sttecl.
/'
I. namely. reach) <! I.II. exhibit
As.. Un· duty rau» inn·(. perturhed (box d) by the iutroducuun nf. Usin~
in Sccuon 1 current proconverters op~nltin~ ill {ha~d frequency C[C mode exhibit instability even in the ab~l~n{~e of external Ieedback (u regulate the output ".
instability when. the duty 1"111;0 exceeds 0.5. 4.0 Model.lng 01 Boo'l Converter Modeling converters using CIECA, as reviewed
and
Equations (lH4) are perturbed ","omld the steadystate operating point, and secondorder nonlieea terms are neglected once again to obtain the linea smallsignal model.
(6) (7)
ill Section 2, is applied to tl1e boost converter
current pl"{Igramming is introduced in the process.
With tbe assumption of ideal switches (no parasitics or storage time modulation effecta have been considered). the converter diagram is shown in Fig. 3, Inductor rurr e nt and voltage waveforms for the boost con verter shown in Fig. 4. The shaded portion shews the amount {If current injected into rhe output linear circuit (parallel!? and (.) and the interva! during which the current injected is d2 Ts. The average lndcctor current injected into the 0\11put circuit during 3 .wi!(hin>: period is given by
L(dildfl
"
Vg [RI(l
D2 •
if + t' •
"T"
a
(8) (9)
P"
written as
+ SRCrft~.".
After taking the Laplace transform of (81. J(an be
i.;
=
d2i
(1)
where i h. the a verage inrl udal" cirrre nt . The derivative of the lnductnr current is f,(ivcn hy 1.(diMj) ~ V!f The output voltage is
The linetooutput and coatroltooutpur transfer Iunclions can be written from the above equations
rn·
\I,
(2)
VIVI! ~
(1/l!J)2)! 11(] + SH(2)] {J2I21
(11)
IiI~ ~ (N •
+ SR{.)I
(3)
v ~ i.....IRIII
.(1  SU(R 1),':,)/(I + SI?Ci2).
where RIO + SR(."J is the impedance of the output network. In the boost converter, the programmed c urrs or is actually the in d UCIO'" current 3'; nee that i, the current which flows through the switch when it is turned on. Therefore; is constrained ",jIb the control signal irt (41 The steady sta te cnndirions can now be found by using Url3). setting frequency terms to zero. and setting all other quantities to their steadystate values. Therefore the above equations reduce to VIV,!( = 11m ~ M
The salient feature of the resuh is now apparent. Both rtsponses show siogle pole response when the eflect (If addil\g an artificial ramp is excluded. An equivalent linear circuit model is developed uSin!': (7}(1O) as shown in Fig. 5 which ~"<lmp!etely
describes the inpll1and output properties of the cur
(5)
fill, 5. una.' equivalent eire"" grammed boosl convartar in
no:.::,,~
,l L1  ito~r_
I ~ VI(R •
m).
etc
mod.1 lot ttwo curront premod •.
rent
programmed nonlinear boost converter """ling in the CIC mode. S.ctioo 6 presents the modeling of current pro
'ammed stabilized converters, i.e., to .nclode the :fl'ct of addil)g an artificial ramp.
··M3J o
,,"~,iI',,1
D' If
5.0
Buck and Buckbooll
The same method bas been followed to model the current programmed buck and buckboost COnverters operating in the ele mode. The converter and iu. equivalent circuit are 01>0 .. ", in Fig. 6 for the buck converter and in Fig, 7 for the buckboost converter. In both cases the switch current is the inductor current during the interval dl Ts. The equivalent circuits of Fig. 6(B) and 7(B) contain familiar current sources driving the He network, i.e., si nglepole response in bot h cases: the current modulation generators as a function of i; the Control signal, and vC, the input modulation voltage and the filter C in parallel with load R. The re&JJt for the two transfer functions 0/ major interest, the linetooutput transfer function and controltoourput transfer [uncrion, '.T~as follows, For the buck converter, ildnl:s <>01. depend upon Vii',
o<gnol _,
Fig. 7. (A)
a_boo.t
oquIIi .... rt d",u~
oon""rte,.
(S) i.(lw tr.q"""cy .moll modo! 01 blJCtllioo<d _>'$(I", +
vtV, ~ (DlID'l)2
vii;
=
{l/(l
SRCIDZ)l
R( 1  SUIJi R)/(l + S h'ClU2) (13)
vA; ~
For the buckboost
RIO + SRCJ.
t 12)
coovertcr,
As in the case oi the boost converter.the buck and buekboost con verters exhibit olle'DOk response and ' it is interesting to aote tha t inclusion of an art ificial ramp into the modeling changes all these results, which is dealt with in Section 6.
8,0 Moc»Hngof Slull~ Progfllmmed Boost
Current Converter
H
.1
A mentioned in Section 3, an artificial ra mp with suitable slope has been added 10 the switching current to stabilize the con verter even ill the absence of external feedbaca. Figure 8' shows the
"'9. '6. (AI _
co~.r.
e
"W'
lW.,CIl.hi_Jot' 101l1'1I,IC1'IIL _.II .....
.... M tNiM
.:~
;;;:J:= :....::,,> "" r~
_,
• ..,..,..~ (:OoI'!1!Ql,s.(;.oo.~
;
~el"''''''''''IIIeT'~':'11Io.C.''1
linear 4!q1J1Y81erdcircuit
(8) SmaJlslg""ll"", !req_ mod8t of ~ conVOtter.
Fig. B_ Adu,,~ !nduc:lOl cur"'nt ,n Si{InIII.nd anillcilJ of Ojlpraprilltl ,wilc/l C"""'nt.
''''''P
boo., converter. eo."..
oIop& m lIddod '"
30
actual inductor current, the control oigl'laJ, and an artificial ramp of apPropriate slope III added to the switch current. Now looking at the waveform. the average inductor current; can be related to i, ali
.j _
V{/;j/i,rS)
=
Ac [(1  SfW:2J/H
+ SlWQ
+ S"IW")J.
Under !:be assamption tMt Dl. D2 <:K (convert being opel'llting d""p in tAe ClC ~ .
i,  '" • dl
' Ts  ",1
• <II • TsI2.(14)
W"
Perturbing i•
!, 
21D1· 1s 112·
[)'J
(14) and retain.ing only ac terms
(m
+
mll2)
Ts •
d
Ag IDl . TsJ2)ml (15)
where
m is the slope of the artificial
I is the slope of the inductor current and ramp added to stabilize the open loop converter. For the boost converter ""I is given by
In
Ac
W'
=
R • D2I2
 2KIL • (;(2  lY).
.11
=
VglL
(16)
where '" is chosen to be the tr ega!i ve slope of the programmed (inductor) current and is given by
From the above equations, it is clear that either th~ controltooutput or the linetooutput transfer funcbollS exhibit twopole response. This is Quite in contrast 11) the singlepole response of current programmed converters in the absence of an artificial ramp.
m•
(V
(17) alter lak
7.0
Phy.lcal
Ellplanation
Using (16) and (l n (15) is rewritten ing Laplace transform as
irs)
=~(s)
 [Vl2
 D2)1RKj
drs)
{lS]
 (DIRK) V,(S) Substituting the value oi
7 frnm
(18) into (10) yields 11)21 II) fi(s)
(/M ~ {
(:,~.Iv,if$! +
 (IlL) (I + SLDlRK) [1 + SL(2  D2)1RKj.
Vg{s)}!
(19)
Linetooutput and controltooutput transfer functions can be written using 17l, (9), and (19) as helo;o':
Vrs)IVg(<.i ='Ag[(1
+ SfWd}l(l
+ SlWQ
+ S"I~J
The following explanation applies to lh~ current programmed converters operating in the erc mode and in the absence of all artificial ramp with appropriate slope. Of course the converter will be unstable if the duty ratio is greater than 0.5. When the convener is current programmed. the state variable loses its contribution toward a pole due to inductor current. This happens because the inductor current is no longer an independent variable and is (Constrained by the control signa.1. Though the deve) opment of ill duetc r current depends upon the value of the inductor and other operating parameters, its magnitude is constrained by the control signa L Now con sider the current programmed converter operating in the CIC mode. but in tbe presence of an artificial ramp. Of ccurse, now the couvert. r will be stable th roughout the operating range of duzy ratios. Refer to the schematic of Fig. S where the practical implementation of current programming and addition 01 an artificial ramp are shown. The switCh Sl in Fig. 9 i. purposely lneluded for better explanation, Rs is the resistor
31
Ag.'ik!1 J: llu~ ~rnp ~illl.)'2 adds (In artificial r.nlpto this current.. the slope nf which cari be adjustable or f:untiollously programmable in a hi~h performance system... Steps 1 and 2 have 10 be summed up in proper perspective.<i. Tl J rna k {' I h e conve rtc r ~{~ b lr.'li ion Lr1two steps. . We discussed SI~P 1 at th~ beginning of this section.ARjl/(J AliI/I! . Ill. This means the duty ralin is ("Uslam in the absence of sw itch rurren t Rl1 d hen ce the converter behaves as i( it is duty ratio programmed. To g'" the overall effect.'il is open and SJ is closed. Opt:II..0 Modelingof St..pole response but well (over) damped.. . are as Iollows. Bode pial boosl conV~ll1er. i:.
8. SIWQ • . i.relll ProgramlTlfKl Buck and Buckboost
Fig.blllled
Clj.of the artificial ramp.bk only il rh.h a rurrent proportional to the switch {'urrent is produced when S J is dosed and d "sur c or .e. The results for the two transfer Junctions o] major interest.
The same method has been followed to model the stabilieeo current programmed buck and buckboost converters operating in the CIC mnde. The net effect is that the conveners now exhibit two. only the artificial ramp is present.
01 ooOlr<>110 OUIput t•• . This also can be seen as the rwo poles being well separated as shown in Fig.)"'/11"')1
Onty current programmin. Ill . . Thus.~ is.· duty ratio is less than 0..0'\1 ~ r t hr en t ire f. This has been investigated lor tbe first time using' CIECA.5. boost. the converter ~ will be fit.'L n:gc uf dUlY ratio.
NIIW nlnsjd~'r ... Sirp 2: Only an artificial ramp is present. buckboost) exhibit twopole response. 10. they exhibit twopole reo sponse in the presence of th e sta biliztn g art ificia I ramp.010< '""ellen
01
. IS open and 81 ia closed. the linetooutput transfer function and controltcoutput transfer function.
Ac . nn aruticial rarnp is added hy <. When . pn:~c:nl.This effect is very significant as sopbisticated and high performance is expected (rom the power processing systems. 81 i~closed and SI.. 9.R
IV' ~ KILC. In the abse nee of curr ent proportional to switch current.)lffPU .cial ramp. Now cons ider SIep 2..K.'i'/W'1f
+
VI>!I~("J
SIWQ . v(. Practie61 jmplemematfon 01 curren! programmed boost tind addlbon (If al1lfi.
Converters
across wlu .:losinlo! Ihe swih'h 82. i. The current progra rruned om" erters in top absence "f artificial ramp exhiblt singlepole ccntroltoourput rCSJXrn>('. For the buck cuuvertcr.. though current programmed converters exhibit singlepole response in the absence
limier the ""''''''Pliun
f)l. Everybody knows thai duty ratio programmed converters (buck.e .
No.1 (lM i)Ulpur p"'p<riks..RK Current injected equivalent circuit approach (CIECA) to modeling of switch
M()deiing switching converters using cmc. IL Z.
A. exhibit twopole
conduction mode. This inw. the buck and
buck boost converters 9. 1'M roill/... To derrumstrate the approach.i(1
+
511V<l)i(1
." Record.' (~1epl'tsentP. 1..". R'printed v... Referenoe. (197'1)..
mtHil'l th« current pr(JJ[rammtld COnllCrif" POfl. M .ith permission Iroru /HiE T".tl1heol)' on specific designs.. Rockford. 1~7~_ ·1. It :l. Internal f(eport.0 Conoluslon. Sundstrand
Advanced Technology Corporation.. and Middlebrook.. Sundstrand Advanced Technology Corporation.Ac!<1 + $IW:2}1(1 + 5/WQ +
S'JH.
Under the assumption W'
2
that D1. 1\)."')j. P..~~!aj."... Current control modulators: gerlcr.. merits of bath electronic equivalent circuit state "pace average approach and current injected control theOJry approach".1\ has been extended to current programmed converters opera t inv./.
1.. and 1'0. response.. .nk.d i11 the form .'i. SiP. IYM.
.Mc:Jiol1s. R_D.
"'1.. Cherty. the current inje1:led equivalent circuit approach (C1ECA) has Ill.
@ I'Ill2 IEEE. they ~xhibil well (over) dam ped t wopc le rosponse when the e If ect of an art ificial ramp is included.lli~!t'ftr equlml'i1f.. Among tbe various approaches M· tempted to attain this goal.. Though the tonvertcrs exhihir singlepole response in the absence of a atabilizing artificial ramp.J. A . <lio. l"du"try AppliCtIlj.'il. modeling is carried out lor huck.">ic1' /t.. Thus the rruuleling developed for conve.f. O/IM. " and its devoid of demerits..~hlnK
(mdurtion Itlr"Jde. f. Hsu. Clique. IHJw:/~ Powt..! circuit tr'.
ozo.Rcn~..'u"illlPP1l)(1f.i t '" in
109 dede converters in discontinuous inductor conduction mode./y..0 Introduction
In the last ten years. boost.. I.t/. in the case of the boost converter. in rh l' C J C mode.{ tinear tQutmitHt circuit mWfis as well ss t.. 29529(1. May/June jg82. For the first time such an "1(. !.rn1l. Rockford.g1·SClllri&t oa fur 1&1 &~dJ.lfs
m(JiJl'litr.t'CAJ
converter j}(_)w.~Cm!fi'ffl.rn' R"'I'tI'. VQUA·IS.a' brukboQsI amwrJers to oblain _WUIlJ 5ign(i. Modeling and analysis of switching dt·... and the effort has resulted in characterization of transfer
as well as input and output properties of basically nonlinear switching dede converters in the Irequency domain.For the buckboost
converter. A .t ~prt.1. (I!l1lIll.. P.!f:T {J{lNtlting in jtleJ /fl?Qlttnry di~{"~tj~uo~ induc/uf
converters has received considerable attention.( has been investigated. Internal Report.h (Cf.2DID2).. Jl1). modeling of swttching dtdc
33
.ost... Brown.
CURHENT INJECTED EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT APPROACH TO MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF CURRENT PROGRAMMED SWITCHING DCDC CONVERTERS (DISCONTINUOUS INDUCTOR CONDUCTION MODE)
The I'wn'..5~'nl wlir i.".....
ing dede converters
in continuous inductor
KILCtl
.liga' Hen is hi~hjy significant and is very impurtant for hiJ1:h performance power processing systems.RK Current injected equivalent L cuit approach (CIECA) to modeling of switchstages to achic
Vrs)/Vg(s) VW{(s)
A. Chetty..3. lind buckboost n)l)\ r crters..'htdmnir 8prrioli". Todr'monslmtl'Ihr mi:lhmt.!? su. ar.odels th. Capel.tock converters in consram fn:quency current programmed mnde.er s!(Jj!}:S is eumded to .$"IW'») .ll
/0
iUjil"tni
rouicaient {'"it'(.
fixed frequency current programmed CI C mode 'ISing CIECA permits us to design regulal()rS contair
+ SfWQ + ing these co nverter power required performance .CJ. fEriff B1wtf J~lI"r{rml in' S/Jf't rali. Cml/rr"n.t fftVtlNir. fx.
followed in this analysis and modeling is briefly reviewed in Section 2. the same approach can he also used in modeling : he converters operated in variable frequency mode. ' The followinll conventions and notations are followed in the modeling' and analyais. the detailed development of modeling for boost converrer.0 Rt. a brief review is presented here" Of course..
2.programming are already well known and are summarized below. very general and proach. 4) Inductor sawtooth current waveform replaces ad vantageouslv the reference sawtooth necessary to generate the pulsewidth modulated control signal. as in the ear parts of the converter circuit and linearize only current programmed CIC mode.This approach. results are compared with those obtained using The current injected equivalent circuit approach to modeling con verters operating in the state space average electronic equivalent drcuit apdiscontinuous inductor conduction mode is butlined preach and current injected centro) theory apin the flowchart of Fig. as in '. this paper is concerned with current programmed swit<:hing dede converters operating in al'/). 2) Switching converters .rters operating in discontinuous inductor ccndue. The fir.view
The current injected equivalent circuit approach to modeling switching conveners in duly ratio programmed mode has been developed'. ls that the buck converter in this current programmed [)J C mode goes into oscillations under certain steadvstate operating conditions. the interval during which the transistor is the fixed frequency discontinuous inductor conducturned On and the diode "is of~ tion mode.
l)
teresting invesrigation that made. is used in this paper fo~ modeling and analysis of converters operated in the fixed frequency mode. the modelThe capitalized quantities are used for steady" ing is carried out for buck and buckboos] converters . 1.. is now applied to Jdel the current programmed switching con. Since this approach. are protected from excessive overload and stress: This allows controlled derating (If components. is to obtain the small signal equivalent uircuit " turned off and the diode is on models that represent both input and output protfJTs the interval during which the transistor is perties."s in the previous work d2 T< the inlerval during which the transistor is '''. Switching converter active component. '. Follcwing the same approach. The current injected equivalent circuit apand Ts Iii. The advantages of current . which". of a complete regulator system so that the overall dynamic properties and the stability can be d1 Ts + d2Ts + D3Ts T< analyzed and designed.s tate values and the quantities with hats fOT tbe and the results are presented in Section 4.
Thu •..on (DlC) mode. proach . One more in"
r~r
.t step programmed DIC mode is that the controltooutput in this process is to identify the non linear and lintrans function is basically a One pole. The final section presents conclusions Oll result" oJ the work
carried out. The salient feature of the current applicable to various power stages. whic h can then be em bedded in the model turned off and the diode is off. The small perturbations. The cause for this is discussed. The main goal. 3) Several COli ve rters can be opera led in parallel without load sharing problems. Section 3 contains SWitching period. and a remedy is suggested and implemented successfully to eliminate this potential instability in '.
ha viog extended
to CUIT"ot pro"
ammed converters operating in continuous induee conduction (CrC) made l.rhen current programmed behave basically as firstorder system s.
superposition holds and car be_ perturbed (hex 4) Flg_ 2. ~"i._m.!lfef
~'~ft
~1
• I"
1I1v
_
I
.g .
+iall&
P~rtufD~ICI'" p. 'ulK1ion to
Q:utpUI lurn.SWITCH[~G nc.::llIIv.ri'YI1P¥1I
il
Derr~mh.n . the small ac variation from the steady
the
verrer. Vg+~
'II
:..' 1:Z::.:..oduCl.~S n..' converter...IlTE PROPERTIES
o."ONS
STEADYlIT.4
5
6
the nonlinear part of.· linear pari. 51> perrurba tkJfl in tbese MO inputs cause the perturbation in i and v. 3) Relationship between average injected current and output voltage v w ..lf 'Yoltol~
" z
z:
('It) ~ I. ~.001)
CIllCUIT
C.w... Now (box Z) a set of relationships is written referring to the converter diagram and current and voltage waveforms shown in Fig...oItago ..
jnJ:kilt to c..'
.DC e()HVERTERS
CONVERTER
EOO.
Now the steadystate solution is achieved by setting derivatives and perturbations to zero (box 3)_ Since the converter equations in box 2: are linear.02l'd2
OYNAIohC
PROPERTIES
'UNEAR EQUIVAlEItT 10. (i. A... 'em
II) CgnlfQI I'...
V
PERTUR8ATlON • UNUR'ZAT'OI'< n1 :::.aoi curtef\t in II switchrng pIlJiod
at irW:h. 2_ 11 Voltsecond balance on the inductor. The nonlinear par! of the converter determines the average Curren I injected into lb.. 2) Average current (i._
ond
.mptdlinCII!! 0' OUlpul M1WOfIO
Ro(') ipt! dl~O' el202
'.. 01 ioouetor "
CUJ"tlnt
II} Average Lnd:"..V~~
j.[tVI'.J)( (~). we know the independent dri~ing inputs are VI< and d.idot cunelll 0 vIVg
l1li
!iaYlI!'l iII~Ou'1pl".
in
35
.ll.~glil!'cted 10 o:btam ence
I. Now making tbe small signal approximation.Kru>t <""onl bu<'< ecn.llpiJl tr.".. as the remaining of the converter is inherently linear (box I)..". . f..~) injected into the linear part in a switching period.<. where l is the impedance of the liuear part of the con
by the introduction 01 a small at: variation aver the steadystale operating point..! Jon y
~iI!!. T)'J>icalltodl.n IIr1(l'Olir Iy . namely...+ 01 d:2.
. and 010'_
neolooll3d.. • (It 11.7fT leach)
C
I. i. the convert.) is [he impedance uII he output network.eglected ro obtain once again a linear set of eq uations.t!. Using this set 01 equations. I nductcr current aod voltage w a 'IIelnm1. output vultR!!!"" is \ RI(I ~ . constrains i peak.VgIVg.t converter.
VgdlTl
2L
balance on lhf~ inrlurtor i~~
(II
The current injected equivalent circuit approach to modeling con .. In the hunf. = d2i i i~ I he av('n.. boost converter are shown in Fig. nonlinear secondorder terms are n. constrain i wirh the ~Ul1trolsignal i.state operating point are negligible compared 10 the steadystate operating point values..
.1)1"".
L
This Can be rewritten vg R d} Vg (4) in terms 01 dl. as ::.. i." diagram is shown in FiK. tilt' ll:fognlrnnwd current is actually the inductor current ~iIK't.
i. erters reviewed in the prev ious section is applied to boost converter..<.
put circuit during a switching
period is Riven by
where
current.3:tIDl .'!..
VlV. 4..1 during which the current injected is (12'1'. The average inductor current injected into the outL
VI!(dl + . current pro. ~.JoW inductnr
3.. 3. Hio. \oVith the assumption of ideal HVi!lteh(~s(no panlsll("!~ or storage time modulation df~·t=1 have been considered).NOJ
(2)
where R/(I + SRI..eMe. with oJl por ..) ~ V • '/2. The shaded portion snows !hlt amount uf current injected into the output linear circuit (parallel ii and C) 'U1d the . ~ i peak _ I'i..321m .t Converter
Voltsecond
t.e. Now only the lie part is retained which describes the small signal low IT.
tim. The.
Fig ••• InductOJ eutren1 and rro:ltagew3yelOrm5 Of 1M boosl
coevener. Using the same set of equations an equivalent circuit (box 6) is draw" which represents the input and OUtput small signal low frequency properties of the nonlinear converter.· quencv behavior of the converter. 'Therefcre.
Using the above approximations.
Boost coo.0
Modeling of 800.
The steadystate conditions can now be found by using (lHO and setting frequencv terms to zero and all other quantitiee to th~if sreadvstas e values.
8""""
36
Fill.' that is the current which Ilo 1'0'5 through the swi t cit w I".. for the.grclmming being introduced in Ih{~nrocess.. the inputtooutput and controltooutput trans fer functions (box 5) are written.'~ it is turned on.
1)
11m Zrt)
+
__M_
2M . S.'{l
+ SRCiMll} (2.p
v
1~ ~ til D2
4.' in I he duly ratio pTOwamm(~d converters ()p('raljn~ in r)lC mode t\n equivalent unear fin"Hi.1 RC(M ."
R
tn ~gil
(7)
1 + SRC
(8)
Eljminatin~ using (6).I!
V(. \Ml
'~ 1.. using (iI) and (7).
l~g ~
if ( M). the Laplace transform Ylt"ld~ the foUuwirllr£ simpli lied cqua l Lon:
.. linear equivakw'lt circuit model tor current pr<lgH..ml'l'l9d boost ('. 2M'"=1'
(nJMklx:t2M 
1 1 .92 "'I'M.\1 .1. .0119rl1 Die l'I"Ioru.II
The s~1hclll fral ure {It I1w result .. morlvl is develop.
The line tooutput and controltooutput transfer fu""tkm" can be written from the above equation as (5)
v
1 ave.101:.) •shown in FiK. !l which dt:~nLh~'s corupletclv Ihe input "IL(I output properties of til<' current proararnrned nULlI iucar boost Cllr'l'L:'~·n(·t"
operating in l)[C rnode. i
37
...oo.1
Vg(s).Therefore
the above equations
reduce to
2R(M (2M . d usinq (fil(H) 31.HmJ\responses shew ~ingh~pr. s/wp
Equations (l H4) are perturbed around the sle<ldystat" operating point and secondorder nonlinear terms are neglected once again to obtain (he linear small "ign.len'~pml~' <1. V~ Ili: Vii ~'i'
t=
where Wzo
2\
=
I») 1
I I + s/".
R..~ IWW il pparent.
R
Frg..) ..I)
v
=
~:_
t DW2 j.
Og
9("")"1 t ..
.
lJI D/
~ d2
(6)
2M .1 model. and taking.
7. .o1. (6) lIS &nail slgrlQlloW frequency linear equi.
(
RJ
K(l 2 :!M
Ml)
I
1 + ..
M' ..
'38
.ing in the DIe mode. (AIB"c~ (6) II...ft mod. the control signal and the input modulation voltage and the filter C in parallel with load J? The result for the two transfer Iunctions of rnajnr interest.
2 .I .llow s lino.:1M M}
J'. 6(B) and 7(B) contain familiar current sources dri \111 g the R·Cnetwork. 6 for rhe buck and in Fig.11"ule moves to the ri!oihth~li·plan" indicating that p
o
91
=0
92 = 0
rig. l. The equivalent circuits of
''/J.e./~
Fig. qutvolent circuil mOOel... . {AI Bucko"". small ign.. In both Cases the switch current is the inductor current duro ing the interval dl Ts.t
converter.I... single pole response in both cases: the current modulation generators function of it.. 1.nl
c.
""""'''lor.0 aue)( and Suckboost Figs. 7 for the buckboost.. 6.. The converter and its equivalent circuit are shown in Fig..~cn.'/uJ/>
w. the linetoontpnt transfer Junction'and duty ratiotooutput transfer function are as follows... Far the buck converter:
The same method has been followed to model the current programmed buck and buckboost cone vsrters opera . 4..
1""I"""ey
V9T
vg
IYfil'
~R
Note rlMl as M is increased beyond twothirds.
response as in 1 he dut y rat io progra m med con verters ope rating in lit" Die mode. IL. ~Ultdstrand Advanced Tecnnclcgr Corp . This is to be expected because of either one of these Iwo reasons: l) the inductor cum".e.'rd. or 2) in th is current prozramrncd converter IhR inductor receives current input rather than vnit:~1ft' input .
il:4. 'f'_R_K_ Cherty.thi rds.the buck converter IDpen loop) becomes unstable..FJ.
II is inleres(ing 10 note tbal ij docs not depend upon ik in tb e case 01 curren t program m ed buck boost converter operating in Die mode..
sr. the C1ECA approach presented here is more clear (compa red to') and is not cumbersome (compared to ').. be" delinjte initial and final value oj zero. is (hat it predicts bas ically a nnepole responS€ f.:rl
FQf the buckboosr con vert er:
V (M'K) f ~2where
1+
1
s/". These analyses ha ve been presented in th is paper..
rC!(l.. the CIECA has the merits of ele ctron ic equivalent circuit state space average approach and current .. The physical reascni t'lg for this unstability to 0'CUI and a remedy to avoid the same has been presented to . Il.e~
1.'Curren! injected equivalent crrcui t approa ch (C ]EGA) [0 mod eling of 3wi~l'hing dede converters in continuous indueto. The ana lysis has revealed a" instability in the buck convert" (open loop) when its outputtoinput voltage ratio is equal to or greater than tw 0.. transfer functions for buck. In all the rhree converters. the CrECA approach produces the linear equi va lent circuit diagrams lor nonlinear converters compared to current injected control theory approach (which could not produce) the equivalent circuit model.'..P
wp • _j_
Re
K
=
1!:.' U:U. n~ dev eloped f OT con vert ers in Ii xed 1requ ency cu rren t prog ra rn nit'd m C moot aud presented in this p~pt~T p~rIllils U:S to de~i.~ ito st.njected control theory approach and devoio of the derneri IS. "Current inje.I:! in the lase of duty rati u programmed converters. . these obtained by using Ihe electronic equivalent circuit slate space average approach' and the current injected control type approach '.." Sundst ra nd Advanced Technologv COI'p .d equivalent circuit appreach In mod eli ng and anal ysis of current programL"ed switciling dede convert er s (crmtLnw. i.
Conclusion
The current injected equivalent circuit approacb to modeling switching converters has been e xtended to current programmed con verters operating in the DIC mode. condu crion mode." Sun dst ra nd Advanced Technology Corp.. .
Thus.cte. Thus the model. and 2) the equivalent circuit models are the same as those obtained using the electronic equivalent circuitstare space average approach . ALso. I) rh. Internal Rep. "Current injected equivalent circuit approach (CIECA) to modeling 01 switching dede converters jl~ discontinuous inductor cond uc: ion mode.(lS
R efef(!Ot.(I in ing t hesc conv erter power C
[{] achj~ve required pcrformaece. However.1 the order nj the system greatly simplifies the design 01 a regulator loop_ The TO' . Thus. boost. thereby los i.. boost. the modeling is carried out lor buck. 2. 39
. in all throe 01 (he converters..)f!. Internal R~p. To demonstrate the approach. ". the salient feature gf the model for the current programmed COn· verters in 0 IC moo. Rockford.llal. buckboost are (he "arne a.u IIs Q f the mOOfling a no an a lysis s presented above using the curren I iniccted equivalent circuit approach. a nd buck boost convert. the reduction . lncernal Rep.or the controltooutput transfer [unction. Rockford.l. . ~~. the controltooutput transfer function is a single poJ(.{.. IL... =. te it self.me~. As m entioned in the introouction.'m~ inductcr conduction r]ll. rs.~'ki.
pr. "IEi>li 1''''''''1 Specialist. The main goal of this modeling is to obtain the small signal equivalentcirruit models which represent both input and output propertie s. 2. \'01.lpl~·J' nmfl1!riNs or mg(ulm rmn~. A.he modeling and analysis of converters operated in the tixed.. the same approach can be also used 10 modeling the converters operated in the variable frequency mode." California Institute of Technology.~It'tkh£n.ui
Th«
n'!iu.
.f req uency mod". "Modeling and analysis of switching dede converters in current Vrogrammed discontinuous conduction mode.i1IKrfu.cs Specialists Conference.ln~···d A s"u.S. 91}111. pp. Note T. Brown.r/Jf. (lppNrd .m.
The currentiuje cted equivalentcircuit approach to modeling sw'tch. Middlebrook.D. the currentinjected equlvalerucirruit appreach is.t. :10.J
l"rn. The currentinjected ('Quivalctlldrcuil appreach followed in this. is nuw applied to model complex converters.tlrISMliim.·]opmt"nl uf mnclrI. pp. 56·59. Middlebrook./I'h. The effort has resulted in the characterization of transfer as well as input Ii nd outpu l pn lp~rl ies 01 basica 11S nrmfinca r swi rc hin~ dede converters in tile frequency domain.""r.".(ahility can he analyzed and desizned..·v..lnal Ekct"".1983 IEEE. (i<.:.4.'\. Conference.. Feb. Thr.vec considerable attention ht:{. is used in tnis paper for I. . "Cu rrent control mod ularors: General t heory and specific designs. The Cuk converter IS modeled as an example.alf'r. Clique and A.1£·30..l: out. P.0 Review
n.
mol' (l..r. 'l 'nt' linal se d iou presents th(' conclusions on !he results of rhe work carried nul. S. cirdi:rnn.'
1.I.f!lmL\·_
'.SS.
Pasadena.'d cl<.."itIPtm)Q~h mil' (JJ. this paper is concerned with rbe modeling and analysis of a duty ratioprcgrarnmed Cuk converter operating in fixedfrequency con tmu ous.r. fortht. CA.~ (lPfd to' PJt'. California Institute of Technology.Hu~e tilt" high performance n'qujrl'nl_enl~~ of o( power pr"C<'"in)< systems. Sf.RK Chetty and R. 11I'"tt'f.tilT "'14JdJ!'lingand Onlli~m_'i cf (. Internal Rep..l{ nf switt~hill~ dede conveners has rccc.~II t.w fmt/ mtu("'J:I:. 6. A.t. MODELING CURRENT
1977 Record."" Tt~d. Since this approach .iI and /lui/. Cuk (:nnverter.afilt:. :M.100k}1I<irrurf (JPtnvcc)r /w." fEEE Power Eke/ron.
mlllid I~ IJPJawl'tj whj. 19!1O Record. Tech. Reprinted with permission from IEEE T."I'1'1 rl!i
''quu.J.'1'..IS fmlH/rr
!iOf.l'. These "an then be embedded in the model of a complete regulatcr system "0 that the overall dynarnir properties and .1. ht. This approach. Power Electronics Group.'lin. vt!"ryversatile.".n~II)
li'JII':fJrf'ql(ir.f'I'1J ...1J.~ m"dl'L~.i<s. Tht~ n~S:UlfS i:lr~1 nunparl'd with tho~t" ohlaiu~'d U:. 6. 1979.'11.".m ~Je.
/m'.tlj. Capel. Iwuh. J~kcmwner
is f1J. F ossard. ~.". "State Space Analysis uf Pulsewidth Modulated Switching Converters.JI'P7..1
i)'l OU' ff.J)· U:'1' •.t"Ui sparr average ehcrmmc t'QU i H kn (('ircu il ~tprroach v '.orirn..
5. "A general unified approach !Q modeli n. Of course. (JI 'I!~' JJ/Hdnrm.'1!t'. Cuk and RD. a brief re view of rh is aeproach is presented here. having exhibit~t1 irs merits I.n(.. Thus. Amnng various approaches attempted to attain this ~oal.tion :l cuutains the (ldaill.n' IIwfJi'l!Jityl'l) .tna!ysis awl !11(](ldiTl~ i~ briefly reviewed in Section 2. 7.11.twil JtJp.a·.t
rinuit
(lppYll{Jfh.
USING
The
AND ANALYSIS OF CUK CONVERTER INJECTED EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT APPROACH inductor conduction mode.ng converters in the duty ratioprogrammed mode has been developed J.! 1m Ind".(il
(~"f1
<..0
[11
Inlroduction
the last ten vcars.'h j'('PTt'sNJlro btlll! jJmpnrin.. The following con ventions and nota lion" are followed ill tbe modeling and analysis: dl Ts interval during which the transistor is rurned on and the diode' is off: interval <luring which the transistor is turned
d2 Ts
40
. feb 1983.l1.It" "'ItNif{ill!! a'f!d unatysis ()f ..wrom'nl ili)t'HfTi
l'f'{O/K'd
fq~iwJnt.l1ti"'j4rttd t'{ju. thr ffw.g switching detode converters in d iscontinnous conduction mode.
2.()j>EATlES
i)lp._DI <i2 ~D2
i. Now (Box 2."O
I=="\T.(t=fg~1!I
+ T.'oI!!I.' s~:!It~m
. and .. nd uctor condoct ion mode is OU t H ned in the flowchart "I ~·ig. /.ll:lOf CUJf9tit buck conllle.rter. Switching period..a.11'111:''''''' ii>
I
:
J
ciaccn
/6
lINHR
EQU'¥ALE~T (BoCisn
d1 = 01 + d2~p<_+a2
'I'!jI'=Vy'l'v!1
y
a.~
dll\
+ d'2h
off o1ind the cliodp i~ on. a set of relationships are written referring to the converter diagram and current and voltage wa veforms shown in Fig.
=V+.pm
luiiCbDI""!
0:.
I
h ..
The cap itilized quantities are used tor steady <state value" and the quantities with hats far "mall pert u rbations..~sllfr 11.:imp'llldilnC1l' at O'itPIJ!
neiW(if"k..(v}.
Con tml
Lrlll(I:. I.__.. The non linea r pa IT of the COnvener de terrnines [he average current injec ted into Ihe linear pa rt. under the assumption that the corner frequency of L&C Imter com" ponen Is) is much smaller than the switchin~ Ire
J
i'''"" F
I I
~O."'TO
and
=J
In
Fig.lin once itg. The fir1il S'f? in thig process is to identi f y rhe non] in ear and lin ~ ear parts (If the converter circuit and linearize only the nonlinear part of the converter a.. of j"dtlC'tOf
el)rrent =Q 'III!!: V9 v·_V ::I_Rep:)
ii)
AVlltap inlJu ~tN" CLJf rtlnl in a 5witc!Ling p8_riod
('a\le)
Itil Outp . and applicable to various power stages.svf!o
I'E
RTUR8ATIO~ lINEAR~.... :ia'Ve~ (z :.11:1 'S
...ty(!
P~rturl:lifti'tln pI ceuc I lefm.
vO~1age waveform'
41
.QTION
&
OV::.cIII~ C! .fl". t he rema inder of the converter is inherently linear (Boo: 1).
.$ n~J~U!'d IC!e tlll...
i. Typicml iOOI. Z.~.
The currentiniecred
equivalentcircuit
ap
proach to modeling converters operat ing in 'he continuous".TI and H = 111' .i vO~ilge.putUlo\ltput tr.L.lin line.SWITCHING eeoc CONVEJITERS
CONVERTe
A eQU ATIONS
STE AOYST A I ~ PROPEIITIES
j} O~rl'b'"tl V& ~LJlUJn1
01
Il"'Idi.I'l"f
ro ou .
d.J1. which ts very gene".. I.(j10r
Oori'Y..
Now.
Fig.· .). A.ing the same "" of equations an equivalent circuit (B()l( 6) is drawn which represents the input and output smallsignal lowfrequency properties of lhe nonlinear converter. Till.
I
I
"
1"'IASTiII'''Jn~~~ i!!OECfJNIJ
F.
"r
tion is applied to the Cui< converter .e. This converter is divided into two parts as shown in Fig.ouencv V.e. With the assumption of ideal switches (no parasirics or stcrage time modulation effects have been considered).Using the above approxirnations... The first part is up to"" from the source I'g. Inductor (LJ) current and voltage wa veforrns are shown in Fig. 3. ·1
112 • i1
(I)
3.. causes the perturbation in i and v. Cl and Cl in tum supplies to Re.un~g~~. mak'. All we know. superpoaition holds and the equations can be perturbed Iflex 4) by the introductinn of a small ac variation over the steadrsrate operating point. Now. InducllJr
(L
1) currant
and voUag. First Part of the Converter. The average inductor current injected (i. from the steadystate operating point are negligible compared to the steadystate operating point value". once again. the input to output and control [0 output transfer tunclions (Bo" 5) ere written.)/V.0 Modeling 01 Cuk Converter
The currentinjected equivalent 0. variation.. U.witchi11g period is given hy
i~. 4. i. for easy analysis...or09O II ottecos neglected. secondorder terms (product of (WI) limedependent quantities il or 3z and one of V.. 4.. the independent driving inputs are '~gand d. d2WZ. Thus.j
FOg . Now. The perturbation of these two input. The second part 01 the converter is from YJ to the output of the circuit..
m. tile discontinuous nonlinear current is approximated as linear continuous current (Box 2).Elform1J.
"f(rt'".Woe arid ". Since the converter equations in Box 2 are linear (at a particular operating point).. ~h all para. the small ac.l into the output circuit during" !..3. i. is true in all practical converters to achieve smaller output voltage ripple. The nonlinear portion of the circuit injects a current pulse into the linear part "I the circuit. the steady· stat e soluMon for the switching cir cuit is lound by setting derivatives to aero (Box 3).'110 the output linear circuit and the interval during which the current injected isd2Ts..e wa.in)( [hi" set of equations. The shad ed portion shows the amount of charge injected . ill leach 1. namely. VII. U. D are neglected to obtain.. only the ac part is retained which describes the smausignal Iowtreqeency behavior ol the converter. a linear set equations. Cuk convorter . JIIDI. 3. A voltage of &1is developed across CI.ng the small signal approximation. the Cuk converter diagram is shown in Fig. .':' 'h to modeling converters reviewed in the previous sec
~
.
42
. which sees an efiedi" e I02rl of Re whose value is derived as the modeling and analysis progresses.
The derivative of the inductor (Ll) current given by
is
[
R Dl' + S • R • C1
J~
'"" (8)
.where il is the average inductor (i.
R3
~"('1
+
lJ
fig
(3)
D2
+
v:
D
(~IJ
where Re/{ I + (S • Re • ('I)) is the impedance 01 the output network. Alter taking the Laplace transform and nor. the voltage vi is given by
as shown by"
vi
. the a buve equations reduce ["0 .!d.
Equations (l){4) are perturbed around the steadystate operating point and secondorder nonlinear terms (product of two timedependent ac variadon quantities) are neglected to obtain the linear smallsignal model.:. a bu r:k con V"ITer • l h.. Therefore. [ 1+ R (D1) SLl m

SILlCl]
(D2)'
S
.l) current.!!. Second Part of (he Convert .." Thus. r.I('1('d into the output lim.. iI
{7} Flg_ 5.. dt
~ Ifg 
a.deal which transforms power trorn its input 10 output with an diic.
'[5 . value "I the load see n by the r. ng t ha t dZ ~ ....t.YINI is 1'" The ((\'l'raJ!.which the rurrcnt iUj.... ASSllming thai the second part oi the converter is .'1
=
'.
(dl)
(. in fae.1)
The stuadvstatc l'onlhtiOIlS.:1_ Thrshaded pm"1ion ~hHW~ lhr' amount of ("wtrg~' inj.'~ unci part of the converter arc shewn in Fi)1. '1'1"._"'M part of the converter is givt:n by
or
Nr _
.f'n('y or lOti percent and neticin~ that the second part the converter is..:{'
m
\I) fie
11
m
(5)
Rr • RIl)l'. IndUClor (l2)
curren.ar rirruit and thv interval duriI~1!.. lnrlurtor (Lt!h:urrent !wd volOIiRt': waveforms fnr UH...'input vl)Ua~{'. which in turn is supplied to an effective load of R..!::l_ Vg
B._ considered here.3'J
S u . One can see tl"J::ut his is obviouslya blL~"k converter with HI heing th4. converter circuit from .~qucn(')' t~nr" to zcrn and all other quantities to their steadystare values.r to the output j.
VI.' !'(\(..
(2) Equations (6){81 call then be simplified
I
The average current as expressed by (1) is iniected into C1.can now be fuuJ)d hy using (1 )(11and setting r..1 and IJOIl3g@~a"ofort"l'ls 43
..@.
d] ....'"2 IYl
wt' _
(13)
"'~l2 =
t:t:'7l
l:..+L]
W2Q2 )
11'2'
(11)
m .L. CI
"01..dl_ (17) to get the
F~..:. and secondorder nonlinear terms are neglected once again to obtain the linear smallsignal model.
[1 .. ]
WI' 
[1+
_$ W2Q2
+L ]
W2'
( 18)
1. W1QJ _1 __ W2Q2 L2
(g~f
If
dl 
1"2 (15\
An equivalent linear circuit model is developed using (6)(8).
(10)
'where 12 is average inductor current. m e a bove equat ions reduce
S [ 1+' !VIQI
... The volt ~ge v2 is gi ven by
. (9)
ana
circull
model
(17) are combined
for Cuk COIWIH1er in
44
.•RSRC2 ]
(12)
The steadyslate conditions can now be found by using' (JOH12) and setting frequency terms to zero and other quantities to their steadystale Therefore. which
(14)(16) are simplified
~ +
7
as shown by
+ S'L2C2
J
liz ~ Dl : ~'1 +
VI .l
8
Equations (10)(12) are perturbed around the steadystate operating point.
an
I"
..2
= .~
inductor (L2) current injected (I. 6.
&quiVAlenl
Now.\.) into the output . line8( CIC mode. Alter taking the laplace transform.ss:
Ll .circuit during a switching period is gi''en by
overall input to output and control to output transfer functioas which are glven by
.. (14) Vl + VI •
_1__ _ l_~ WzQ.. (1006) as shown in Fig. ~ The derivative 01 the inductor (L2) current given by L2 • ai2 01 = V1 .."".. 6. D2
V2
where ~'2 is the output voltage.V'l
the
Pg
Vz _ (PI)
\D2
is
[+_5 WlQI
V2 T
+L][] W2'
(
+..(.
> S.O.0"1current programmed switching dede converters. 6. "Current injected equivak'''1
switching dede converters in discontinuous in. fkto·oc to. "Current injected equivalent circuit approach ro the modeling and analysis of Current programmed switching dede COnverters (Discontinuou. 1981. pp. 4.. chetey.".. P. 1977 fEEE nnw/' "'rein". no. inductor conduction .a.R.. 5vst" vol.describe. completely the input and output properties of the duty ratioprogrammed nonlinear Cuk converter operating in the continuous inductor conduction mode.K. The resul ts of the modef ng .K." in P. Ind.. The two approaches are es se ntially the same and it is primarily the averaging that is done differently.'c. One can see that the modeling and analysis is v~ simple. ons
circuit
approach
(CIECA) mode..
. Cheuy.re the ~ame as those obtained using electronic equivalentcircuit stale space average appro. Slobodan Cuk and R. Cherty.R.
45
.. tems." Internal Rep.R." IEEE
to modeling
of
switching dede converters in continuous inductor conduction Trans. Auosp.. Conf.. Trans." IEEE Trans. Ind.. vel.. P. "Current injected equivalent
circuit approach (CIECA) to modeling of
The currentinjected equivalent circuit approach has been applied to the modeling ot Cuk converter to demonstrate its ability to easily model even complex converters or cascaded converters.
3. lIi0·179. AES·17. :1.nverter.'r to achieve the: desired performance. (hetty. 1952. ·1... App/iml. ductor conduction mode. "/\ new optimum topo1oJ." f£t:F.. model.o. a... At'1Vspace end Electronic S.0 Conclu .n. vol1£29. "Current injected equivalent circuit approach to the mode l. no. Nov. IA·18.</. Middlebrook. Electro« . 2. P..
S..K.K. Aug. ch.. .{\' switchinl!.. Thus. References I. the modeling developed for a duty ratio programmed Cuk converter operating in the fixerlfrequency connnuousmductor conduction mode and presented in this paper permits us to design rezulators conl<1ining Cuk converter p"w.
Electron. s.I."
M.inli. accepted for publicarlon ill IEEE Trans. P. Mayl June 1982.R..
. 48 60 Regulator T.nd . urament 01 M80nltudeo and Ph_ Functions and LOOp G8ln 69
of Switching
..Ign o' Switching RegulatO.Chapter 3
Design and Measurements
MDCt.Hng ...
M...natlH'
CIoHd Loops.on Track for Teatlng Switch....
J1bility. high efficiency.1 "'spmse.0 IntrodU(. As the transistor in a ~witching regulator is np(~ratf'ri either in saturation or {'ulolf (and irle"lly in<iudor and capacitor arc lnssless].. Buck. No. g . dct od c con vert er which is th e er stage. mathematical models are developed for each building block. Switching mod e regulators have almost replaced the conventional dissipative series regulators because of their inner e nt superior characteristics.art' desen'bed ill deta il and matkematicat mtxhts are ikm/oped
. 3) are derived from these basic converters. Having already established the small signal low frequency model for the power stage '. pp. !inc rejlXlitm. switching regulators
pc'""
A.i.
1. All other converters (Fig.. and better line rejection has not had much coverage in the literature. and actoac conversions and tn huck or boosr the voltag.11' j mportanr.e stored induetive energy to a capacitor in another portion of the cycle. These regulators are very useful in detode.diU h".s. Section 4 gives stability criteria. and a driver stage: The reduced output VO\l<lK" . y all building. 333·33(. tworks /M IXJmptllsalion aM their mm.e . levels with isolation.<k of a . a com pensatio» network.. small size and weight.«. low weigbt.3. boost.'.. A supny·step {mXe<iure 10 desill" com· pensatwn is i/lus/yakd "$ing Iw() •. and finally a complete model tor a switching' regulator is obtained.s described and two examples are given as an illusrration. an ermr . blocks in terms of tnJ>f'(". Modeling and analysis 01 switchi nil mode regulators is v. the difference oltage between input ao.ING ANO DESIGN
OF
SWITCHING REGULATORS
Thus the main purpose 01 tbis paper is tbe modeling and design of switching regulators. dctoac. lIItildi~g bl.0 SwitchIng Reguilltors
Switching regulators operate on the principle M.
have received considerable attention because of the high performance requirements of power processing systems."""" the reference SO"TC". two illustrative examples.hillp. Hence. Section 2 describes switching mode regulators.. ~ stable voltage reference.1tS
.".hi~g •.kr Junc/inns
aNi pre$.other building blocks now remain ior modeling... Switching mode regulators h"ve to lie well under stood befure one can aim for optimum performance. better transient response. l . the forward converter [Fig. ~ich elUlbk one to M.tlon In the last ten years.funclirm. and equal reliability. This consists of switr. and different networks [or compensation and their transfer functions. A block schematic of a typical sw.ill'l a switr. and buckboost converters are the basic Iundamental con ve rters (F. alia Im". 2).d output is dropped across a variable resistor (a transistor in linear or conduction mode uf uperation). a n error am pi j [ier.
Va. Vol..t(lring energy in an inductor durmg one portion oi the cycle and then transferring th.gukItur for .$ corn pared with the reference. wiLl I>e 10 USI1 and ..siiir.'''f Stage or Switching DeDe Converter. :J(fll) is the
48
. 3(A)] is the buck converter with inputoutput isolation and the quasisquare wave pushpull converter [FiJI. A stepbystep procedure for designing the compensation .gulat()rs where.khjllg .. Various networks for compensation are also presented along witb their transfer functions. the switching regulators possess high efficiency. ample. a pulsewidth modulator. Switching dede ccnveriers are the
power stages Jor s Nitchin~ regulators.. low volume.tchinK regulator is ::. various building blocks of switching regulators are described.MODEI. For ex. The compensation is realized using appropriate networks. but t he design of switc IIing regulators for stability. Section 3 presents the modeling of the various building blocks.H wh. i. May 1982·.1Ido. desirable bandwidth."u"npIes VOI'. PO.hOWLl lfi F~. © 1982 IEEE. AES·18. desirable bandwidth. Reprinted with permission from lEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELEC· TRONIC SYSTEMS. [0 keep the output constant.". a volt:lge divider network. a stepbystep procedure fOf designing the compensation.a
''''Y
Irmuly
2.
r.ignal is amplified and fed into the pulsewidth modulator which drives the power stage to determine the required output quantities. This is in contrast to the series dissipative rr.c}I tile author hope..
~:rS1age
v 1'
i
i
I
I
"
G
"
o
49
.
Vg
!len
L~'G
j
..~er (91 Puohpull quali·aqua" .."IMI OO"""rI" CUI< co_~ .org convel1e< IF) 9811 Lab ""nWlner «(....
:L__
50
:L.1 Venable ocnvel1l>r.. (A) Forward """". iQn..
Fly. (E) Wlrint.. oon"""r
(D)
... CQn"'~Of .>c1 ...n_____"
Fl.... 3.__ Ie)
f1~.
. Power 818g.odellng
Converters... 4._01 . Basically these converters are nonlinear.
O .
l
I)'''H~~IC
PAOP£ATIES
LIN EAR EQUIVAI.f i. iPl cncl! . Modeling converters operating in continuous inductor conduction mode according to CIECA is outlined in the flowchart of Fig..
dT
..e
+i.
interval during which is turned On and the interval during which is turned off and the + Ii...!} i~_lnlJ!o en .
using current I"Je<:led equivaJent circuit 'PPfQIEICh
51
.e I'Httwcrlt..JIbf. 4. and.I iii I OUIP\l1 wOll. .ge ("l = i..c~Jl'lm' =0 w'ii! _vg w V z ..Og
01
~~h P"e. T.ction to output 11...parts oj the converter circuit and to lincarixc only tlu .g ecce (:on~s (CIt:CA). which is very gen.. 1".llto ttanl!iMr III COntf~ fti!lo~tI oulp:U1 1un.. the transistor diode is on. This means that a partial solution to the problem is oi'eady available.)
I) Inpl.vI'
alJo8in linfllf &Va1l1m
F~ ..t. 01 oulpUI
ill "''''11'1'IgI fndUe10. modeling and analysis of such nonlinear switching de dc converters has been carried out.IDr
11\. The Cuk converter [Fig. ntgl!CiU!I!d to.:'JH~
'
..erJi and applicabje to various power stages.oat I"e ot ~ndiu:ctQr cuerert
STEAOl'STAT'E
PROPEFITlE5
()erlWHU . Thefirst step in this process is to identify the nonlin ea t and lineal..
For several years. A..D2
PERTURBATION UNEARUAlION
&
d1 'l1'1li
\I
Il"
d2
D1
t
=
Il!! .rt. 3(0)) is a simplified cascaded boostbuck converter utili. 3.
the transistor diode is off.
The following conventions and notations are followed in the modeling and analysis..Z
(:l"I~td. The flyback converter [Fig. Flowehart Hiuliltraling mOdeling of SiMlchln.llrtu.=I .
=V+'v
ft1ol...twophase forward converter derived to share the power han dling capacity by two power transistor switches instead of one.u_ct term .2 ..
dT 2. In the discussion..C»d.th inputoutput isolation. ~T. nonlinear part of the converter '
or Switching
DeDe
CO~:~Jn"E~ EQUATIONl
I~ Ol'll..tlc. 3(C)) is the buckboost converter .._ Ref. Among the dif· ferenr approaches to modeling switching dede corverters is the current injected equivalent circuit approach (c)FCA)' which is hriefly reviewed here because 01 its merits over the other approaches. ~ 1//...lion
ib
I.ENT
CIAClIIT
180•• ..
1)1 i_fldut. .0 M.. the capitalizal quantitiesare used for steady state values and the quantities with carets are used for small perturbations.lwitc:'hing....ing a minimum number of switches. pe:r 19od {' . is the switching
period.. ttetion
+
p.
5.i injected into the linear part in a switching period. an equivalent circuit (box 5) is drawn .e. low frequency behavior 01 the converter.tD" iJ} (each) s i Using t he a hove approximations.
3.
1)
t. TVpic" inductor voftl!lgs and current waveforms switching oecc cOtlvtn1er.as the remainder of the converter is inherently linear (b<J'" 1).g
R
52
. the voltage across that in a switching period. vlV." ) ~ hy 'h~ int rod uction of a "man ac va r iation over the steady stat" operating point. TIle nonline ar part of the converter determines the average current injected into lhe linear part. Ihing the same set of equations. lind BuckBoost Converte ra.. the inputtooutput and coutroltonutput transfer funcnons (box 5) are written.m"
lions al(3in.~S(S the perturbation in . and . Modeling converters accor
.. ". BooB!. current fi. Now making tho small signa! approximation. Since the converter equations in box 2 arc linear.. which describes th e small signal. 5. the small ac variarion from the steady state operating point values. scperposition holds and can be perturbed 11>.'. \)"i"1< thi~ set of equations..ten referring to the converter diagram and current and voltage waveforms shown in Fig. and Ihe parturbation in these two inputs ".iTo=:!
1jif:'
I I I I
Fig. Only the 3{. v)i'IVg. nonlinear second order terms are neg leered to obtain (he linear set 01 equa
r:=':~~h. namely. l low frequency properties olille nonlinear converter..tich represents the input and output "mall signal. Now (box 2) a set of relationships are writ. the independent driving inputs Ore vKand d.. . !I. Modeling of Buck. average.. As we knew. p~rt is retained. 3) relationship between average injected current and output voltage 1) z~ where z is the impedance of the linear part of the converter.
J
Now st ea dy stat e solution is achieved by setl. 2) derivative of the inductor current function of the va lue of the inductor.. i.nj( denvatives and perturbations to zero (rox 3).
B.
pli!ier and Compousarion....( .l
((I

SUR ~l/
+ SUR D.y equivalent circuits (Fig<. and remp~nsa t ion n e lWOr k.)
vr.91.<) ~ rvllJ} (I + S'LIH /km$' C."". i. f j!(UIe t) shows ~ IYpi co I error am p 1ifi~.'ler: V(l)/flgl&! 0.CI[~)
SIJR IY. inputtooutput and duty ratiot./
Um oerter:
+
L
\lM/VP(_..
(I
/)..) . .
Bu.'lfi')"'
/\
V
l.1/).
+ SUR
V.V(sJ/Vrrt. S'J . low fr..1
=
(1 .e. boost.
'j
V(S)fJ. EnQr A.(..d
"
c
A
1
53
.M
(I
=
(VIV..lI
fj..v "
I.I/( 11'11 I + Y f.~I.loll)( with their ~maJi signal.
D) i I .I.
C. and (he important results. and buckboost converters.e:!
"
c
"g v
A
ding to C! ECA i~reviewed Ilbove and applied to buck. (I .'que"'. The reduced out put vo lm~e i~ coropa red w ilh a sta ble reference and t he error volt
(l
+ SUR I}.'J!d.fHI)
Vr.)I[i.
SUN
+
"PL(_)' ..(jlF..(s) "_ (\1m. + S~/..:k/wo..' + S'LCll:+.O"'OutT)I1t transfer functions. are presented here .ck
0>"""/...
I
.} ~ 1).
The pulsewidth modulator converts an analog control voltage into a duty ratio which drives the switch.oI5<ngl&
ramp (8) Triangular earnp
(el With sample and hold. 9.Hivea by
V/sJ/V.
~P~
v.
For
all
error amplifier.
54
. Figure lOlA) shows a typical pulsewidth modulator.g<> divider neI_~ and errer ampliHer"
age L.o.l/~~M
n_n__rl_r
'Nt~/j···1
I.4(s).. 10. it can be seen that if the amplified error voltage is equal to the height of the sawtooth ramp.Fig. Depending upon the power stage and other requirements. T)'l)Ic:01 wks9 widlh modul. pu lsewldth Modulator. From the waveform shown in me figure."""".
. Thus !h~ transfer [unction i~ . then the duty ratio is 100 percent. the transfer function can be written easily as given below. Far a voltage divider network. the compensation bas to be designed..::. The amplified error voltage is compared with a sawtooth waveform and a pulsewidth modulated signal is produced. Since the circuit is linear.
_j
LJ
PWM
U'··
··1
I VC~'T:'
I
I
~
T
1/"I ~ ~_J
I ___J.M 
Z..lOr (AI 8V.
D.S amplified with proper compensation.
I
v_
Fig. vc>t. iZi. ~ .
"J_ . the loop gain must Ialt below unity by tile rime the totJJ phase shift has
V_
f~
J
Error Amplltle..MJ
K A(s) H~(s)...
(1)
For the converter shown in Fig... Comp"na8llon &
55
.in ~The loop ga in is simply t. The loop gain and its phase dicrates the stability against oscilla lion. Thus Fig.
(3)
f..l\e product ul the gains of all the building blocks and the phase shift is the Sum of the phase shift.. The principal performance specifications of a regulator are concerned with its de regulation.. Figural is redrawn as shown in Fig. A
blocks of switching regulators. transient response. 10(01 is employed if the signal is 100 noisy or varying fast.~ various building
rV(s}ld.. SZLCi1 [R. SUR . output unpedance..." the loop is dosed around the convener..p/ll
. of all the buildinll" blocks. AU these properties are closely related 10 the regulator loop ga.
(4)
St. S'LC)'..1 • .There are other pulsewidth
modulators used in
"8~riOUS
specific drcumsta nee. and line rejection (audio susceptibility). Thus all these properties are determined by th. for
reasons... 7).
For a system to he stable.)J
(2)
lnputtooutpur transfer function (Une rejection) (open loop) for the buck converter example is give" by
F ~ DI (1 .
4_0
F'.blllty Crlterl. L.f(RI y! A(s). VI'll. 11 by removing the modulator and showing' its effect on the voltage and currentdependent generators directly.. 11 shows the general small signal ac equivalent linear circuit model for the nonlinear switching mode regulator. The loop gain T is gi yen by T~
pulsewidth modulator followed by a sample and hold [Fig.
(1
+ SLIR .
.
T
K
WfDJ
.
R.
ph morgln.
o· ~~L!T~i~~+l'Frequency
1110'
Fig. of phase shift. If it is moved to the left.i n m" rgtn. An
r
~
. either by selecting a de gain term or by adjusting the ga.. The gain margin is defined as the amount of gain below unity when tbe. The val ue of (he :o". Say ~ d1I down in the 0 dB line.e. than the corner trequencv of the power stage filter /" as shown in Fig.' it can be moved {(I left or right.40 dB slope starting at. since the band width is small."ilil)' OofiniM<lSg. compensation as the phase shift i. The phase margin is dl'fi""d as the difference between the actual plrase shift w ben the loop gaill 'is unity and 360 deg. Howeve r a turt her increase i n b~nd width .reached 360 deg. This is shown in F ij(. A.20 dB s lope. E:<ample I. 13(£). Stability i.".ll~r.
can hE dt'!'t ermi nert easi 1y _ The.l60 deg. 12). parasiucs accompanied with J~ anile'.d n.~i"t ance. 13tBn A GdB line is placed as desired hy properly
with .20 dB slope line indicates that. The system will be sta b Ie "" the loop gain crosses tit e 0 dB line
o
a
Because of ure power stage. 1ra nsient r~~ponse ui the aystern will be rel"tiy"ly I." a" the bandwi dt n has increased. Again.l.'
I. 13O~ rs that there is fle>:ibiliry to move the 0 d D line up or down. the feedback is negative.
selecting the component values in the de gain term.1 does not contain any frequency terms. frequency equal to the comer frequency of the POW"" stage r. assumin g tha t the gain of the error amplifier is 1 and that .
+
R. The system oscillates if the loop is dosed without an. A doubleSided arrow IIIliTk acruss the 0 dB line (Fig. at dB CI(OlSOver. anti characteristic resistance of the filter determine the damping 01 the filter (value of the Qf'C!(lrj [Fig.e sometl me.. Hence the pole is moved towards the right side so tool it cu ts the dB line at a freouency i~.which immediately adds n ~() deg.d. The compensat ion is designed at the end. there is . (Fig..' nt response wilt be poor. and _Idth.
56
. Now a stepbystep procedure (or dcsigni"ll" the compensation is prese nted with two examples. Therefore 3 pole is placed as shown in Fig. However. dependi!\g upon the PO le frequency f. •••
i\
""".in of the err".. amplifier to the required level.)I V". 1"... tJ(. there is a phase inversion of 180 deg. 13(D). total phase shift is 360 deg. The de gain is given by de gain
=
(WD) IR. the doublesided arrow nwk across .". Th~ ga in and pbase margin. the bandwidth wi n be less but t he system wi II be "til ble. Th is is be cause even at de.. the trans. i.8arodwldlh~ Phase Margin ~
i~"
__
I
I
FreqlJt'ncy
Gairo Margin
.j. described in terms of 180 deg. not poss ible ill this a POrOO ell because the corner frequency of the power stage 'iller OCCurS in the neighborhood ()I Ihe I~. phase sbilt at/. Equation (1) gives the loop gain of the reg ulator. 12_ St.I(H. Now let us start.
·'r'·I I
IQ 1l... lor .._"''.yCompe"
.. ~j" ~
o
I T.
'
+. Gal"
'Of ...
'~'
I
...tqU.(~!'II)!
I[ r
L_
. rw.... 1.
57
.
freq . 13...flC:Y In CyCIc:aJS.... m pie 1..
j
I
.1li ')1: '._J
I
~
F.:. I
:
. . Ll
I
I
11 i
.....
~r: ~
: !
loCi:l~
.c
•
I __ i
Fig....
which results in improved line regulation and load regulation.ss:
V1
A
1 + SR2C2 SR1C2
58
. Now" zero is placed as shown in
A
V1 V
~
• .
the achievable
frequency of the power stage filler. This increases the low frequency gain. l3(A). A further improvement in the loop gain is achieved by placing a polezero such that the zero f. bandwidth is limited by the comer
B. ~ (1 + SR.JJ \1 + ViP.I(R + R.)lSR.
A
SC. A. 13(F)). .IRs)]'
Such a compensation has been successfully implemented for a 2 kW quasiaquare wave puah pull
converter regulator.[R. Further
itt
crea se in ba ndwid th is attempted he re Again sta rt with Fig. mentioned in Example 1. frequency is lower than the f~(Fig.C. Figure 13(G) gives the loop gain induding complete compensation. Example 2... The compensation is realized using practical circuits. 14. This
transfer function is given by
V/V.alternative approach is discussed in the second example. the dominant pole is achieved by adding a capacitor appropriately to the voltage divider networ k and polezero by mod ifying the error amplifi er as shown in Fig.C. From experience.(R.
Figure I5(E) gives the look gain including complete compensation.. iR.
/
. Further improvement in the loop gain is achieved as in Ex
tion is
v/v.C.20)
!
".._ "
.. 151M Depending upon tire zero frequency I".)]):59
. 15.l!
[1 + SC.I ..s increases the low frequency &.
". Selecting zero frequency f.. 15(C)]. the + 20 dB slope line can be moved toward the left or the right.
t. It is better not to aUow hi gh frequency components after zero crossover and hence a pole is added to tbe system at a frequency higher than tile zero crossover frequency [Fig.ng the circuit shown in Fig.C.
11
.
b.20 dB slope) as shewn in Fig. to be equa I to the corner frequency of the power stage filter I" results in a single pole ( . the 0 dB line ..
"r. Adjusting the gain.
•
I
f'
+2'01)
.e .fi.R"J
((J + SR..r
e
1".. whose transfer func
Fig.
{(l
+
SR.__
I
.ain which results in improved line regulation and load regulation. The compensation is realized us.'Il
..s placed such that the required bandwidth is achieved. 1&.. ample 1 by placing a pol ezero such that the ze ro (f..
y
. 15(B).ySC. Gain V8f9us frequencycompeft5Still::Ul
tor elCample
•
1
1'"
2... (B. Th.
Fig..) frequency is lower than j" [Fill· J5(D)J._..
RlJ + se. \!1SJ. and noise rejection can be accurately found in short order..
60
. switcbingtransient response.on 1 Such designs have been successfully i mplernented on switching regulators at the 2 kW to 10 kW level.ghtH. After a brief description of switch ing regulators in Section 2.""I""'_' A~roSJ>aceElectronics tmd . in practice it requires some experience. Nov.by step procedure lor de signing th. a portion 01 the
R. however. Though the ci rcojts [0 re a lize [he co mpensati on have been rightly se lected at once in the above examples.Sler functions are given in Table 1.. ••• mpie 2. 1). A step.RF lelR.. The author hCJl)esthat this information will be helpful as a reference to realize various compeasstion scheme s. r n operation. pulse·width modulator. Jill>' 7. Experi.. Com~nsa' ion ne4 """~
fo. error amplifier. and costly. specifications.To make such circuits handy.
Fi g.hi"g·i"''!h />JI>'(CY 'I<Pp/y. characreristics such as stability.>em:!i..ponfi(!is til< i><'Y «'<fl· '" 'Mra<1t!"c a <". 1'_R_ K _. a closed loop.
]_ Cherty.
compcnsauon network.r.
+ R. Bot a new
approach tllllL employ. serves as the power stage).ndard £u"~1tII".O" from ti1tClmo i< Dts~. AES·17.printed wit h .lI11
ISC.iesi~ninl( proper compensatiun achieve stable regulator operation with a "'!)Ie bandwidth and gain to meet If a [lsi ent respo Else and Ii t1 e re ject inn require m eT1 Is.
time and mm~ry by Lt.
Such a com pens" linn has been success fully irnplemcnted [Of a buck converterregulator with a peak POW"' capability of 10 kW.. Relsrence.'~rini! jretj_ry re. '6. . a standard current probe si 'l1Plifies the testing. ruld
driver stage (Fig. gain. 3\. No... preferably when tbe supply is in its uorrnel conftgurarion=that is. Tra. 15. II R.ellce shows that a supply's basic chararxeristics can be best deterrnm ed by measuring freq ue ncy response . (11. and phase. (I Yll I) Current injected equivalentcircuit approach (CIECA) to modeling of switching dede converters in continuous
'0
Oil
ind uctor condu rtion mod ~. 802·808 SWITCHERS
CLOSED LOOPSON
TRACt< FOfI TESTING
Mea. 1~1IJ. A c/Jwd·/tJoPoPfmJd<"".~ing 11 sw. various networks for compensation and their tr"lJ.. Varlous networks (or compensation and their transfer functions were presented for easy reference. equipment because the"es)"St.3 c nee ki ng out a COm plet ed un iI to ve dty wheth e r
it meets the design.. Closedloop frequency measurements. lEJ. voltagedivider network.:lyde" PulJhh.guration comprises a detode converter (whi.I. as w~1Ias reducing both time ana cosr With 'his approach. lnc.d)t..Sy"/em_'. Vol.
The object of chis paper has been 10 model the complete s\litching regulator and 10 present vari <JUS networks for compensarion which a re handy to use. copyr. Conclusions
A
1
ve
(' + Se.e cornpensation was presented with two examples in S(oc."gCo_.
Probably th€ most difftcul[ task facing today's OEM designer of switchingmode power supplies . A switchingmode power supply in a closedloop C<inf.il..)I
~_///::~I. modeling of switching regulator building blocks was presented in Section 3. These two examples gi\·" a good idea about . stable vol\agt: reference.. ms a re inherently nonlinear and produce noise ill the 'switching process. uSUJlly require speci • I.)I
['
[' + sc. (R.=) t
IC.
1961....
~:
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r· tuatly from in.n.a1. In designing such a network.thl< compensating network is the key 10 achieving system 'lability. They om ~Isn he determindlfrom. trAn.stor (a IramistorinitBl. s"~tching rcgu\lllors are highly efficient Modelingaidsthed~sigoerinsettinglhesupply's loop gain and oondwidtitand aUows the deter· mination of its transient response and li""'noise rejection The first sr~p in design is to develop small· "ignal. In cont. they can
be derived by performing a fourtenninal measurement On the devic ••.ient response. The tr. (If unknown. and volragedivider networks. however.thephaseshif!isthesurnofallrhepha!e .k then left fora d""igner i. f.Modeling
II
SwitchingMOde Supply
Power
Swirching_modereguiatorsoperalebystoring energyinaninductorduringOIlehalrofapower cycleandrhenlrallSferringilloacapacitorinlhe following half.a1\dbecauseitsinductors~nd capacitor. mulliplying the gain5 of all the building blocks Sim.low'fr~uencyequiV1l1enlcircuitsfareach 01 the blocksMd thcntodelerminetheirindividual transierfunctions.tant.es. lUlSumethe gain of the error amptifier to be unity and assume initiaUy it does not CO<ItJin any fNquency<lepeodentlenns.~ a variable .rated either in saturationorCUIOrf.uitablecompensalingnetwor~toensure rhallheentiresystemwillbe. ideally have 1\0 loss.n~1 I{ain equation.ilecal1se the transistOr in a "witchedmode regulator i.fer functions for (he baoic de·todc converters are generally known.nspe<:tionofthegainvsfrequcr>cYl'lol or gnin'margin vs phasemargin curve shown in too fiSUre.!arly.Thedcloopgainnfthe "yStcm is given by
The response of the power~tage
used in a
CO!1'
. op.l.ncarorconduclionregion)tokeep the nutpul COt\. !<) deV(!lopa.Oncetharis d<>n theexactloopgainisthendelerminedby •.pection (see the figure).FQrdrcuitssuchaspulse·width mooulators. Al(hvughit isa.which include de regulation. dissipative'series re!(l1larOTsdropthedifferencein"oltagebetween the input and output acros. The s"itcher's b. tne traosfer function may be written v. error amplifiers. } Themajorta..lsic proJ}<:rtic.rable.hifts of all the blocks.mall part of the circuit. and noise rejectioncan be fou"d from thf.
t ~~h:o~~:sn~~:~~:~lth~~!'. An additional improvement in the loop gain c'nbl'xdievedbyplaciogapole'reropairwiththe tf.esultsinimprovedlineand load regulation.(lH ~lol'''' and the gain and pha&e margins "an he easily det~rmined_ More over..which.llo~t~:"'.e7o._"
:~:i~t~~~. :.i..:tioh function is F' " ""'"
F ~ V.'entional supply provide •• powerstaj!e slope of 40dB from an initial frequency equal to the cor· nerfrequcncyofthepowerstage'sftlter_Notethat th~ value of theloodresimance. ""
"
' ' .. ".. the L and C..Adoubl. From the frequency plot...
O'~I~EEmJ
V.!XXI
.he low fre<jucncygain._
v '. '~_...jsJ i+(SUR) .ific loop gain ofthe.Al).dBorreferenceline can bcset to define the system's operatingpoinl 0I1tllegainvslrequencyplotbyproperlyselecting the resislorvalues in the de ~ain term.. Let x dB d~finetheO<lBline. ""'.. If it is moved to the left..t t~rbccausethebandwidthhasincreased.:..and the characteristic resistance of the filter detennille thefiker'sdampinglactor. that the pole f''''luency may b"moved to the left o~ right.... ~
""
O'dB line with 20.)lr~qucnc.i~~~!.S'LC l~ af~~ ~10sed'IOOP' the linereje.es t.~gc's filter is m th~ roeighbo)rhood of frequency f.~·~: :~:
.upply is thus
>0
'00
'>0
10""
' . the band"'idth
~~tg§t. The feedback loop of Ihe error amplifier mUll! be modified accordingly_ The sp<:<....:ad~ rulloff is placed as
:~~na~oe::~=~~~~~~~'sio:i7i~t:~~:~.:. a further increase in bandwidth is nol possible in 'hi~ca""becausethecomcrfre<auencyofthepowe.:!~~:
l~~~~a../S)
D_.Iowerth:ln rp_This increa.he error amplifier 10 the required level. the transiwt response oi the system will be !Jt..il can be seen thaI tbe dominant pole can be set practically by adding an apprOpriate capacitor to the voltag~ divider network. The system willosci]late if the loop is dosed :i~I~U.~... However.idedarrowacross that line shows that the line can be moved up or down either by varying the de !!i'in lCnn or by rais· ing tl1e gam 01 t.i~ pole (fp) with a 20·dBJde.
"dim~ Ihatsimulatcsthcdosed·!oopimpet!anceallhat point.lrnns.""ltingina voltage.l .
i.OhtI.. boo6t..lis~rawnto showtheacequivaientoflllepOWer. 2) employs a wave analyter 10 generate a test signa! al a given fre quencyinordeitodri. Anotnerconverte".j. ThusmeasuringfTequency . a ".thea!>" prepnate lra.andtransieDt respOnse.vefe«tbar.. swep' over thr. BasK:ally I>Olllinurdevices. or l:uckb. The ratio of these IwO volla~csyieldsthe loop gain fora par licular frCijUCIICY...nti.tem •.1 SwilchingModePOWO. rfeoobacksy. Ifthecircuitillustrnted.elective. ilChing~gulaIOXS.olsewiCllhmod<o'.oulputimped.linique was devcloped by Hewl..and line rejection.r~owo'Stagel.udolheother
In an OI!<m'loopapproath."'COo'lV8nI.!I.in •• Ouclc._.l the output.0 TheThreeConver1.dollgner pIy.ten!levenbelesshaye reialivelysimpleequivaientcircuilll.'ethes ... Open·loop tc. made by Iirst opening the loop of a ~}'!IIem with negal..."".CIe1O<mi_
~":~~=::~~C:i~c~~=':~~
Drlving."'b""k_coow&<t.ent~ sponSf. In other words.doo&.'le\I frequency..nce."'mpMer.n~fer functions lhat characterize the supply caD be derived_It will then beappareDt lhat alloftheprincipalpropertiesofa~guJator..narrow·bandV(ltuneterslo!ind the magnilude of the inpUland OutPUI voltages Gain and phase are lhendelermine<l from th""" readingl.~amplifiedsuf· ficientlytndriveamodula".rthaldeliversaPWM output voltage back to the power siage 1.nputsignalAaredeterminedby
.dcrel(Ula\ion..SuPpl1oo· c l... OI<:.looPR'ainand O phase wil!varyasthefrequencyoftheinjeCledsil[llali.ov. ·Rased ona ph....Paekard' using a method oftenemployffi forteslinglin .Jost converter. ionl'_n . range of interest. the melhod Il. abilitytorejK"tinpulnoiseandripple.""ndconm'ctinga".ea. Themagnilude~dphaseofr"'pOnseofsignalB with~spectto..lhOsuWly'. An open·loop test jig (Fig.ultimate!)".tage.nFig.rIoIi<:s(dc reguIation.."."
Fig. are closely relaled 10 the loop gain of the circuit. A signal is then injected in the forward palh. ane"".'. One simple te<... re. aTe derived from these three Iypes.tag<' may be configured as a buck.There$ultanrefTorsignal. Althoughil is not ae accurate as ctOlledI""p driving.urem. 1..n
Open Loop
outputvoitageiseomparedwilharefcrclICevolt· age thruUKh lheerror amplifier in the feedback syst~.Onc. fcouNe. the magnitude and phase of the toop ~a.linear circuits in the supply (see "Modeling a SwitchingMode Power Supply").c.hBli.sor·lriangle technique. spOnsewill. siceharacteri!llics.iheco.andapo.n must be measured accuralely to verify the regulalor'. it r~"so""bly precis" ap' proach...entsan inexPl'osive approach to making frequenCY'response measurements..re"ealasySlem'sstabiliry.that is.tingrepre...rBlockil
The power .. ba.
ly the preferred approach Mor~over.andV"".ifnOlimpoosi· ble.1ti.. B.qu~n~y) aU~nu"tc" most h.e V.UgiyellOtonlyV_. in dB Thalmeasurement.ill of the s"'~tcbing fre quency... howeyer..plus~ ."'.has
an oscilloscoPf_Thesetwo "iUllals.lIbefiluaI.
moln1Oining 'he
i'potIOrm8<lcatefUly_Theopenloop_tIod. it is betlertoem~loyanin· strumenteay... . Note that a frequency sele<.theloophasto be m3int3ined 31. A stand .chin~ noi"c.ca!ly Iracks llle frequency oflheoscillator. awaveanaly. there can bea difference in the me"£u~mem5 between o!>"p loop and dosed loop because of Jarge ripple voltagu.eater accuracy of I'hHM measurements.
ouppIrlOY9nly~._ . _ . AsweepO<ScilL1to.u..).rmonics.erompietdy ~wamped by the swi.
oItlle
Fig. say.... which is a.~::t~:~~::'~·OO~~:~~~d=~."bsoIutely cs.edtogreateradvantageinc!osed·loop measurement systems As mentioned. Although such mere"" are available.ingtheinstru· me"t's selector and invert~r sw.th~t combines an osciU. But a method known as vtlitage inje<:lion uses a readily 3v3ilable rurrem probe to in&rt a signal into the f.. introducing il at 3 point whert' the
.ameopernting voint at ali time •.he. to lesthighg.M un~1hOOp8MOOpl..
._ inn". a narrow·band tra.f\' ..als A. These inslrunl~nts.._. Further.~dback loop.t~hcs. is obviou. ThMe Inol~~.torandnarrow·bandvoltmeterinsuchaway lhat the filteraulOmat.B can he measured NetwOl'k Analyzers Step In
for g.upuntilnowtheclosed· loop approach required special equipmen!. The preamplifier'. the phase of V_ with respe<:t to V".. re!lponse.ail~bleattheocope·svenicaloulpul.er.e analyz~r.Adncl B(i.with !eveled output.whkhprovideswmeb<ain conlrol.illatofOarecontainedininstruments like!heHPJOoIOAandlheRAFC0916Hfrcqucncy' re"pOl). which ha~ none "I these drawback.
can also be used to measure V~ and V". Dacl<S.>in systems in Ih~<)!>"n I""pas they eilher ""turnte or ru! oif.l will nO! r.tivev"llrnelerisrequireddespilethefacttMt th"vowerstage'$ output lilter (corner lrequency I~picajl)" onNenlh Or on~tw~n!icllo th~ "wilching fTt..m""surementscanbemadeinaverysmall amaun. Ihe preamplifier gains for signals A and Bshould be indi"id""ny adjusted "'thaI the m:>gnitudesof bolhsignal.'.. VoltmeteN. U."! dra . in 1": neighborhood of h._. A+ B.onrainshigh<>rdcrharmonic.king voltmeter i. or A.igr. matching or determining lhcdosc<l·loop imped"nce(which has 10 be connected when [he loop is op~ned) i~diffi culL And if th~ "y'l~m has large bandwidth:... com· bined with a narrowbond frequencyoeleuive vollmetercapable of lockmg On to theosciUator.~
~ __ _ w..""m~nlof phaseangleswillbemOTeaccuralc.oflime.·~ to be opened.2.ilisverydifficull. then ap' plied tothea"alytcr'svoltmeter... canbt.Thusme'''".ll<:hannel prClt1IlplifierinllleOCOpe.:i.ofthe switchillllfrequency.a".proces~d(hroughad\l.. because a loop does not h.. thc' magnitud~~"f .. riousmodul"tioncom· ]XInentscausedbj"tbemixingoflhesignalfre 'luency with the noise. ilsoutputr."""'act_wlll)'itoIdKeU'. but al. lnadditiuI!.. Aiso..
Magnetic: Injectlcma Closed·loop te8tinH.Astloted.'k!ntialtuuseanarrowbilndvoltmetersothatthe low·amplitude test sign..loncvollmetersimplyc"nnOt~i"!ingl!ishbetween 'llecornponemsofth~inje<:tcdfrcqucncyandthe "witc~illll Irequencies lnadditiontothesedifficulties... required because a j~rg~ amount of switching ooise is produced in Ihe 8upply.
:ted at any point in the feedback loop where the oulput impcdance is mucb !ess th. In an alternative approach...r... Moreover."'IIU
m_
"oJ
""iOoP_ ..~ and d/V_. hy "uhtr..istheonlycontro\inputtothepower stage..in is normally low..~nd.and can measure tne phase dilference hetwe._n.) current injection.
Tempu'
Fuglt
C\osedlropmeasurements(Fig._h_re"". B.f\'~.ifdesired."ts much higher than V"' Al high frcqucndes. the phaaetaO be determined without any trauhle.nput (forward path).ond
Two
. (In a
AII.h~nutpul fittercapacitor(inserieswiththeinpultotheerror amplifier) Oncethu".. ::'!!.the gain of the loop ts fQund.. The loop gain is then V.< regulatora with mulliple feedback loops because the feedback sign31 from the modulator....thecl(l!.. ae ..ics..wberea..stheduly<:ydetooQutputresponse.""l. The form .. the point that USUl!lIy m". and V"" is much 8malier than V~_ From the "ector triangle.!cting the in put signa!.&MtellinV_Supo i>lYdo!'Cl!taee""~"'_MIh""""loopd""" irlV.jcrtr.Mor..Tit"ri"h~"ebeenmet.
»..whic:h . to...Ih8I""t
Dquipmen' can runchecO. passes throua:h the pO"'~r stage and the error alnplifi~r and re"utto in A voltage of V~".ed·loop$C! up needs only a few minu{es10 periorm the test.t the injectioo voltage (~ign<!t) he V" which results in" signa! voltage.again). can easily be determined by using the wellknown geometrical rela!ionshipa' .n the input impedance ineitherease...njection.b • V"ande. V.o.l...If'lj)Utrooulputf_
. ofallthe"ide" are already known.eanbe"sily
m._'~..Asthcv"\u .theeqlli"alentootputirnpedance ofthedeviu: t. form a vector triangle.~=.'antage of the automatic sweptfr~quency capabilities of the test equipment.rTuncUoo.· det..ryquic!dy The two important transfer functions 10 be mc¥~urcd ar~ His) = vcrv..!. These three . b'2ab(cos9) . Further.. rejoc1ion.'end days because it is a mat1ual1ysetsystem.fre<luenq' respoosemc"..gnirude~slrequencyandphasevs frequencyplo!stobtobtained..... V~. Both signal injecringtochniques are ~v~n applicable to switchin.j~
11&~1
=.n the two inputs.3)aremoreac· curate because this ~pprr>... 1.Tht'latter. In the ciosf>d·laop"ppcaach... me~suremcnts with the open loop jig usually tak~.:tingcin:uitean be connected 10 an X·Y·Z plott..~u"III..:~:'::. Additionally. fromtht'output rC9poTlse.... Lt. call. a f1""tingacvoltage5<luree(whosefrequencycanbe swept over . (he loopg.. . width of an input pulse. The equipment can al50 display B_A.signal isoonfined to a single path_ What's more.. A..yieldsinformation 011"oriations in the output as a functinn of YMiaTions in Ihe. the angiebttwcen V. . V . nd .1S these criteria is either ..etion usually ""tisfies theimpedaru:e re<jllirements and hence isan ideal place to inject a signal.3.Mt the probe i. Th~ "umming jUl..quicklYlIlcau{cmotlcoUI'... V". tbe output of the ph~"...~~~
• . nge)can be etmn.. c.Ioop..."' V"" and V."biiily of the 6r cuitlorejfC!inputnoigeorripple.ltowm.:._..~ Yo ~
. at the.U.provided thaI tbe input and ""tput impedance criteria ~re meL At !ow fr"'luern.directJy in decibels.CbledIoap_~. and V..ureme11tscanlJclakcn.dlsee Fig. . withdutyratio.. connected CO should be much smaller 1!tAn the input impcdanceat !hat p<>intof.i"""ls are "ummed up 31 One inpllt to drive the pulsewidth modulator. In most switching regulators.. tlteLUrTI'ntprobedoosnotalterthefeedbackloop ~ince it has a very low output impedance.Howev~r. the Joopgain is high and V... yields info(OIa{ion 00 t".mmedidt~ly following the error amplifier(i" series with the control voltage to the modulator) or immf>diately following r.Ut the feedback ."chtakes ad."Iul~e".
) This system can mea.dosed·loops). "A Quick..ment 01 the elec:trical poweronooard the spac"."lnt~ti/}7lol ]"'mwlojElrclronia."'r. "Improved Accurncy f'haseAo."ce arc alw induded inpowert.H
MEASUREMENT OF MAGNITUDE AND PHASE OF SWITCHING REGULATOR TRANSFER FUNCTIONS AND LOOP GAtN
Inthel96Os.nlowvoltagehil!h"wl'C'!1 powersuppl)'w.th low output ripple and fa. inco!1lpulersy:.uremcnt.onboard the "pacr.cr"fts.Conveniem Method lor Measuring Loop Gain.. design an~ synthe~is ()Itlectro"ic~ircuitsasappliedtoelficient conver· sion.""I~re.tem. These dctordc converteTs with isolation tnmsformcrscanh<l\'~multipleoU!pulsof"arious m. rnordertodctcrmineth~lirst.ls "'ilh modem problems in analySis. 14 januaryFebruary 196J.pp. ~n~ regul. similar limitations on sources 01 available energy arc bccoming a prime design consideration in e.." Hewldt·Paclmrdfournal.. control. 1976. Thesehelpedushcrinlhe~"'ofmod ern power clectrooics.January.'eryd.t~m.. and high perfom.
.t lrans.gnilude< ~nd pol~rilie".ndde. Despile limited supply of "v"il~bl~ cuerg).y electric po .ure both transler functions...led tothedeveJopmentoihighl)'reli. In addition."n! response ore mandatory. devoted to ""'itched n.Mmandso/fhespaceprugram."mal1sile and weight.:u"'cyMca..lectronics.erpr~smg P(>WN electronic.) constant
Re'ett!nGe. Darticularl). 1. Regulaled power sup plyo/thi~type has wid~ applications. \'01.tion of eleclrical encrgy Design and optimization of dcrodc CQnv~ners wlrichofiersthehigheslpow~refficiency..ooepoweTcon"crsillf1 ..No_l. engineers found innov"tivc oolutions for phwer processing and manag.eflicientand ligh[w~il!ht electrical power sys!"ms for spacecrdhs.ble. Thes~ondcan be IOWl~ by holding the input supply voltage IV. is entirel). R. TOO3). D_ Middlebrook. 5·8..JO.Vol.lhecluly cycle must be held constant.pp.thedutyratioisdetcnnine<lby the compensated and amplified error·feedback signa!. 2..
lue""nd lh. interval during which the transistor is tum"u on ~mllh~ diude io off and d2T5~th" interval during which the lran"islori" tumedoffandthediodeiso!! Besides.dlTs~lh.'erlfor s(ead. thecapilaiized4uanlilie'are ".'Slal~ v. quantities with dots for
.
tinjecl<od
..
FIOwCf".
.quiva"~oirc"itappro..FOg.oconve"erSin
CIC
m"".<tOlcu".ch
lomodelingSW~Ohi"9
do". I..
ordertennsareneglecloldtuubtainonce apin iinearsetofequation8..\~~ • (~) I +§!:_1+ R .. onty the ac part i.. boosland buckbooSlcon"enern andlheimportamresullSi_~_.!i!::.
rt.:c~..0]. the . U$ingthesesct ofequations...
Fig..Usingtheaboveapproxim..lonicircuitmodol
(
V) m
2!:_ R(m}l
1 ..~(!.C
o
1_
'WeIl
Fig.1 and 5)
8uckCOnv.nIr.3.(AI6uckooovorter_IBjlto"".~::.1IIo1vr)Oi!owlrequoncy 11 .II""'I'eq .< c 1. S'LC R .tion.. Thus.. Using the9aJTle set oiequations. ncy
The current injected equivAlent circuit ap proachtomodelingmnveneTllreviewcdaboveis applied 10 buck.<} ~ CDI) 1+ I §!:_ . namely.'.nd 8uekbooet COn .nt~two inpulScausetheperturbatiooiandv_Now....... req"".an equivaientcin:uit (Box 6) is drawn wbich represenll! the input andourput ~mal!..: ~~g~I~~~~~ '::.moke the small signal approximation. 3.r v(s) vl/f.tileinp!lttooutputandcontroltoout· put tnmsferf\lnc!ions (Box 5) n" .IAlBooe! O'On.a._+.4.§2!}_ R({)2)' (1)2)'
. ..tl.theperturhation..inpultO(lUlputand dut~ ratiotoOlltput tran<f~r funaiO<1sare P"'8entcd 310!11( with their small signal low frequency equivalent circuits (Figs...91.. rter_IB) IlnearequwalontOircuftmodsl
·Urn]
~ •• m..Titten.maIl
0.
:I~:~.
inputsarevgandd.rt.Boo8t .lIlinedwhichdescribesthesmalisignallowfre· quency behavior of the converter.ignallowfreq""ncyproperti~softlHnon· linear converter
ModelingofB\H:II.lgn..Innear second..
lhe loop gain is given by
..tchingreiUlator' are given below: For Voltagl D!vld.(s) Rl..(~)BuokboooslCOl1_.R2 For Error Amplifier
~ t:(sJ
Z/
= 
. 6. The tnn.rn.lgn"lDwfr quency " __ ivalentcifc"i.IB)~.tm"I.5.
The outpul of switching dct<Kk: converter is regui.OJfH _I
£!!!j_a~
f.• 0].
Fi9.lted by dosing the laopwith proper eompensalion nshown in Fig.
"1M
=A(s)(say)
::(~
=
(~)_Grn(s)(>aY)
Now.r Network
~K(>ay)
.fer functions fo<vanousbuiklinghlockllofsw.
) Forthecon.loopgain is
.)(')("")'AM \D
\l+¥+::'~LC Rl+R2 Vm
.Gm(. ~(X..utcrshown given by in Fig. 6.
.
" fI.is much
. _ The three voltages V .uit (Fij(. can be connected alany poinl in the fee<l hack 1"01' where the .Consequ~ntly. 8.amefrequencyre5ponse Becauseoftllese reason~. ward path).ed to the open loop method.. Altem~lely. loop gain is high and V. Thi" is k"own as Cur· rent injection (Fig. Thi~ method 01 makinl( loup g. 9).dosedloopfrequency response mp. gain and phase measufements without opening the loop Closed Loop Frequency Response
Me •• urelTlllnh. 1= than the input impedance.emon"uoingcu". at the input (fo. Injection of a lest signal into the dosed loop enable. 81.ept Over a range.1.
Loop Gain end Phase Determination Let th~ injedio~ volt~!le (si~nal) he Y... Point of Injedlon Determlntltlon neilher
F'og.ngle(Fig_ 12. The cUl"Tffill'robed""so<l(allcrlhcfccdt.in mea""r~menlS utili.1. a" ~hvwn jn Fig.. V.)_At high frequ.asuremenl5 are preferred..wherein the open and closed loop measurements resul\$in!.9.CIoosedIOOp!""Iu"""l'"""""""m"""".l'nakesa ~e<:tortn. The loop gain is V IV m pr".. normall)' I(>wand V.
AllthedemerilSofopen \oop measurements are o~ercome by making the measurelMnts without openingtheloop.bilil)'o!th~ currenl probe ina!<SOCiation wilh a freqllency snur~e to insert a signal ioto Ihe fced· back loop (without ol"'ning it) b)' simply clipping itatanaDPropriateJlOint(wher~!hesignaliscon· fined 10" siogle palh) in Ihecir<."'tin~acvolt· alre source. loop gain i. is mucb higher than V . Y.themeasurements canbemadcinaverysmallamountoftillleCOI1l' p. passes through the power stage an<l tneerror amplifier and results ina voltage V.ntOljec1iOO'l
If the injected signaljs to be effeclive. This is known as voltage injection.lckloopsino.. r~suhing in a sil1nal voltage Y..)"tpul impo:dKnc<:i~ ". . whose frequcncy can I1C~".cs the magnelic coupling eap.'ided the inpUi and output impedances criten. are met_ A1 low frequency.: it has very low outpul impedance.. Y•.ncy.ud.
Fig. 11. S>gnal i"joc~on
in
a .
..
itohing regu""or wil~ m"lllpll fftdbad< 100"..
.)' ofpha"e me"surem~ntl. The oscilloscope can be Tektronix 500 ""ries Or Tektronix 7000 series.ecura.. provide.. Me .~'<i ea...1OfV~ on<! Vo
smalierthanV"..~y. the magnitudes of signaf. A.. the preamp(ifier gains for signal Aand Beaobe different~uchlMttheirmagnitude$areequaL In tnisease...oo V."". Allhoughsuch voltmeters. magnitude and phase of signa! B wilh respect toa signal A ." available...fli"IJreguI ...[rurnonls are HewlettPackard wave .gn~"""'m"""_1_0I'I""". B.
.are 10 be determined. ltJ_"". it is b<:Uer 10 use an instrument that combines an oodllalorandnarrowband\·oltrnet.o
o
G
Fog_12_V"""""'angIe5""m<tdbyl .1"0 .n. the plwle triangle isan isosceles triangl~ and a phase measurement becomes more accurate (Fig...oaly.elector and jnvert switches.! ~igrullal • given frequencydri'~s the nitchil\j! regulator and the..'IowI. some gain control. uretnentSetup 1
The meaSUTement s.voltagesmake a vector triangie(Fig. Such in. Using the .orlA). The preamplifier output availablealth~""ci\loscopeverticalontputsocket is applied to a magnitude voltmeter.·up is shown in Fig.".. The""lwo"ignal"areprocessedthrough~dual channel oscilloscope preamplifier tha..nsuchaway thatthev()ltmeternarrowbandfilterautnrn~iieally Iracksthe frequency of the oocillalQr.'\lIa.ermim:d by using the geometrical relalionship.theseth... The angle between V"and V. the phase can be determi... A$ the values of all the sides ar~ already known by measurement. 12B).oquoone1
(6) at hi9h k&q""""y Ie) v~.. it is absolutely essential to have narrowband vollmeter to avoid the !mIlIll re.. 13 wherein a Iel.pp<op'ia1. 3590A aoo 3581A. JII)A. ~or measurements On ~witching regutalOrs. A+ R or A_B ~re measured
('or better .st signal being completely swarnped by the switching noi&e..12C) The equipment needed for the above measuremenl are oocilloocope and wave analy .of'S 3(l2A.ca" "a9ily be de.are ma<!o equal by ".1J'liil. 312A..
.
"""".f.
li.~·I.FoQ."".
1.."..
Experl"""'''''OlII<Op.c_looplroq''''''''r'Gspon
.tor
.Ifij5tn
0·.m. J..
j_
€I
I
.=. •
""."""amlcllingfllQul...
. noel 1.
R" . Etectnmic Design
81
. n
An introduction to power electronics . "" A~ ElEctrcmiu and Syt:1ems 17 \6) 2.l1:! Madillng (Sundsrrand Ulinol!. and regulators are presented. The earlier
rying out the measurement method w switching
used to open the loop for carrying 0111 the measurements with some practical problems. Besides. 1965 june 40·41. method used to open the loop for carnave been briefly discussed. Cherty vanced ?RK [1J'~ntal
loop gain and phase determination measurement setups art' described. 3_ HewlenPackaraJournfJ. These problems are overcome by making measurements without opening tne loop.. The need for making
measurements..and a re
view o! modeling of switching converters. to 8witchirlg The earfler regulators method extension of measurement method regulators have been briefly discussed.
and Ad
Corporation..J< Slobodan 1976 IEEE Power Elcclnmu:s SPt'dalists Omfey~ 1834.
8. Middlebrook RD 1976 b:lt~tnatWnal}(lurnal of Electronics 40 (1) 14..
and two
Design of Su."fcJung RegIllators
Technology
RefJOr'l <..
7....eo. M>ldlebrook RD and c../ 1963 JanuaryFebruary 58. 'I HewlettPackard APP/iaxl~1n Noli! No 59 1965
January.ctnmics 3S (4) 48552L 6.r.J... (betty PRJ( 1981 IEEE TronsactUm..
5. Middlebrook RD 1975 lntematWnaljqunwl oj Elt.
Chapter 4
computer Aided Design
.
. 10"9£
to
LEX and CEX are set to perform an ac open loop
Closed loolJ output impedance of the regulator
Closed loop input fcncnon to Output transfer
analysis at the eloseo locp de oper(lliug point.J~ent
re
sponse..sign and analysis regulators:
I!)OIl nuaetines Hence the properties
of [he s w.' small signallinear equivalent circuit Inr nonlinear switching regulators
Z""
of the low pass transfer function function which are !he fouowof principal
S'mulatlon
For verification purposes a LO volt.
higher nonlinear efficiency.&
available modeling approaches using I()\I. Z~ '"
F
Loop gain and Phase Va frequency Dosed loop input impedance of the regulator
R . Also SPICE2 circuit analysis simulate package offers an easy approach to the switching regulators with the help of
presenny
frequency inherently
Z.ritching
regulator quan
bas been
simulated
and the above
described
small
volume..
higher
value
of Z~ and
in large overrundersbocta plus it takes more time to reach steadvstere. is important ill determining the modified regulator properties when an input filter is added
In the followlnK section
II
placed their dissipative linear counterparts because of the best performance advantages like small size. Figure ::1 gives the SPICE inpu{i including eubcircuirs.
=. Zc determines the transient response.
The: loop gain is the voltage
Loop gain shall have enccgb
de gain and shall
the node 15.
etc. This computer aided
be properly frequency shaped..
interest in the de.abllity. Though
tneae regulators
are
inherently
in
die modeling
developed
titles of principal rntereat are predicted llno cornpared with practical measurements made in:!.cching
T Z.. This is a buck switching regulator operating at a frequency of 100 kHz and the rCSult~ will be compared with the pracrica! measurements Figure 2 gives the equivalent circuit ready for SPICE·2 input.1 and error laboratory practical approach. The important quanti lies that arc of main concern.
He(s)
_
_
Low Input (ilter Output filter
pass filter characteristic
impedance impedance to nutput to of the low flII/l.. techniques'
equal
rcli.
I
sv.
the past few years resulted in successfully producing a linear equivajent circuit model . F
for closed loop regulator to pre
design technique accelerates in analY2ing and evaluating the performance of switching regulators. utta
Loop
tOu9h and Response.costly and time consuming In. Thi s type of computer aided design (CAD) ~ckage is
very useful Thus. 4 along with Middlebrook':">
Ie ano
at
is shown rneasuremcntr
64
. This adjustment opens the loop for 3<::: analysis. tile output (If control in Fig. 1 is simulated. have gained best place in
the field of power electronics and have almost re
vent tine vouage variations hom appearing in tbe Z..eclmiquc for the
design of switching regulators described here provides designers with great advantage for avoiding the. 1 amp switching regulator drcuit~ as shown in Fig. Source VEX injects of the power in 1
vac
signal
at the duty ratio in put
stage.SPICE·2 Introduction
CAD
PACKAGE
FOR
THE
DESIGN
OF SWITCHING
REGULATORS
An etflclent computer aided I. for the design of :switching regulators' are:
usefulness of SPICE·2 CAD package for the design of the switching regulators. The switching regulatOf'll. Iheand bandy for power supply designers.. viilui!of Z ami its
nonpeaking nature results
in
best
tr. On the otherhand its peaking nature results MOWS its ability output. lid a1 low a frequency small signal level including input and
main goal of this paper is to show the
out
put properties. _ Input
v/d These ing quantities are
Control
open represent
output transfer
modified once the loop is closed. A lowe.
The crossover frequency and the phase margin match very well.. t.VINPUT
RIN
CONTROL CIRCUIT
Fig. Delete VEX and CEX. CF andRFcontrol [he low frequency gain once the input r·ui$tanco@ or the impedance is
fixed. 10 \1'011. 1 1mp:n"ilCf'lirJg rvguJalorcircuil.. Output Impedance. Also note that the frequency of the "ZERO (lead)" depends upon CF and RF_ Effect on output voltage as a function of CF value is shown in Table 4·1...
.. Effect of Low Frequency Gain on De ReguJiltiod..1
ci~LriI
Of
Fig'.
2..
RS
®
FkjJ.
85
.. Equ.
rNdy
tor
SPtCE2
inp~.
.)2 POL'!' [2) 36 E2 3$ :l4 POLY 12) )! • EnC!!..J6 :33 0. SPICE input lor F'9
.QT
EP"J. " anc .
1K
rS"". os
'!.= 1Ll VOS(4)
..
:l2
+
G. .~~
(: il\Cluding
'SYccircuits.". 3.1 'Cil 31 .
vs
.6
v.
so
§1
.1U I"fLl=15Q IlL2=:50 ITl5= 1000 CH[..
n
0 0
DC
DC
S"
lO"
0 u 0 o
.~I .SUS
01 .SG.. ::'c ~< i~C
.&l~D_~
lropu! Liglin9
1C"D'• • 3 31
vz
7
==
V. II DC S 10 1<1 (I
..
'Mooe!
·Ench. " "..n ...
0
.1M ABSTOL.
.. S
us
• 5UBCl':T PWMxFM .0 " " " " v. :1 o ... .~m~~J. 1~~1
~~c
Tun
Trill'" • ?rinl
U$I A.~AC OpUonl • OpliorJl 'OpllorJ~ 'OpI'O~' 51 61l 0 6.n . . " " ain ox " "" ac o " os nc :~ " va " " oc • V..
.G
DC D<
0.. NTOI. ltu o " ~2':
c r '''oaf'D'j
~L~~.5US
ea
"
1. ".lIlUS lO.
.. ..n
:104
~S
33
az
lS
35
0 0
. N. .1524 r".
vt.'161
"'I Hi)
V(6)
V(U)!
10'(15)
V(14.
O'
VP
.." ".DJ~
:c
" " ..RS~.SV
"
"
lS9P 0'
5MEG
GO D. ct " " " "c .3Z RO 36() 1MEa FlO .u~ . PWM~FM \lAC EAC .
T
~~ O"T I
• $IJBCKTSC.1524
os "" "
"
DC
DC
O(.l~
"
~'l
. O.I)
D.
~lo'Sl
~en"
FiQ.(A5~...TOL." :.. "
ee
:~~~J~.EL. e os
or
0'
0.!tCl AC
O.. ru LvL TIM"" VP(14) I{'I"L) YDBlti) VP(6)
"P1ot
Tr.. 00. ..r1
1..7
0..
"
"' " " '. .TOL..~~:~ou
5
MI~4fU
I~
" '"
.
B823
o
0..d (de) (Volts)
~ 11i! 10 13. Input Impedance.047 •1
". SPICE Figure output' 5C shows of closed
predicted Vg measured closed loop output impedance. An ac vonage S01. ) . F)
Geh'I.
.5
S . Addition
01 ac ¥OttaGO
source
10 me
~\
··. For
dosed
in addition to lP.and zero voltage source VNAM. current through VNAM is the admittance LEX .Add an ac voltage
SA.0047 0. ac coupled
2:
NOSe) source as shown in Fig with a large capacitor' (eL.. Ope" Vs IreqlJ9ncy
87
..
VEX and CEX.. imloop output admatence.. in mhos.. 6A to measure
VEX and CEX for open loop
\ \
.. 58.{l'Cf> (VOSC) is added in series with the existing input
de voltage jVS). As VOSC.. change deleting pedance can be computed Figure 50 shows easily.
in Fig.
SA. Now the current through VNAM is the closed loop output admittance in mhos..~~
\
o
loop admittance as it is... A zero voltage a'S shown Delete ac source (VNAi\1) the
is: alae
input
added current.
~~ . .. Figure 5B shows the open loop output admittance.
Fig.
I:'
FIg. From the admittance.1 1 Hlz O\IqXII: . ~1Jw..
OUtPut
a~
.._I~JI
:
ttnicfo
Cf" \I'M.sese

~
•
)
loop outPlIt aclminanc&
I
/
. IV.
e.
..
"
"':.ed
Ind
1I18I1liI11KI
closed
loop
cctput
im.~
loop
output admittance
VI
treqllfllncy. For closed loop line transmission characteristic in addition to
.n~ e.Now the input impedance can be enmputed easily from input admittance.. the current through the VN&\i is the input admittance in moos. "~.~Fig. A~ VOSC". Linetraol!Jmjs¥wn Cbaracrertstle.
~I
J!
~~._ 1V. ec. an ac voltage sOUT~e (VQSC) is added in series with input de S8
:~.
Fill.
5C. 6D shows tbe dosed loop inpul admlnance.
ped. the voltage at node 6 give! the open loop line transmission characteristic and is shewn in Fig.
.
. F.. F..l:ilctl. Open
loop
input iodmittancil VI Il""EKIuefI¢)'. PrlildiChilC1. Figure 6C shows the vpen loolil1orrp1It impedance along with measured values. change LEX>=. Now Fig. As VOSC=lV..~" ~ . it ~s).~ . mtIMuro8d Qpon loop Input 1m
voltage source as shewn in Fig_ 7A. 69..
P~ICI.u. For closed loop input admittance in addition to deleting VEX and CEK.
lD
input admittance prediction.rld ped.~::_~~ . Fig 50_ CIo!wId
'1'
~~il ."
. Figure 68 shows the open loop input admittance (output of SP1CE. 18.IP. Delete VEX and CEX for open loop line transmission characteristic. To predict line transmission characteristic._J'~'
Fig.
7A.· ". Dctete VEX
V8
OJ)II.g_ Pre(lidlld I.. Change
LEX=lP_
Dejere "AC
'card
and
Insert "TRAN" and "Ie" cards.$UC.
deleting VEX and CEX. lP Now Fig..smiuion
oi'l!lfacl. aion c::r.
Et.
~c·"~'.ar6¢l11. CIOMd iIXIp quenqr..~
. whereas Fig.
F..CD
®
Fig.li(l VI
tre
c.!IOLIrca
A<l4i1:lon 01
.r1.ndm'''lJrK! c~ 70.Jlc. Ouput Load Step Response.
and CEX.n ~
lin...:.
@ ~
Fiit. . change LEX"..
quen<y. \j
.:
. jon chAl'K1«1IUc
rr. 78.. 7C shows the dosed loop line transmission characteristic of the SPICE output as it is..
loop~rHI (ranlnl.
liM
tron. 7C. 7D shows the predicted and measured closed loop line transmission characteristic.
ac voltage
to
the
in~
"1===
i F~.
trANlmi
... 89
.0)11 ~ .
"""I
90
. In such a case.
the
_I~~
COr\clualon.. Figure she .eltles in microeec. The undershoot is 0.
The steadystate duty ratio
dips to 0. tOB snows the step load response for damped
2[
system.
370
re
sponse to a step of 0.• TRA N
IOU 6
lOOOU
OU 1U rc PWUO 0 IOU 0..2A. fOT detailed pT'~(:tical measurement of proper' tiesof switch mode dede converter regulators. Flg.
(J.5974.
An efficient and higMy useful computer paper dede aided which
I
rj. see
a
100
seo
300
. This is because
output impedance has a peak.
Figure
9C shows
sponse i.6% and settles toad response in about has improved
the overshoot Thus
is
290 microsec. A will happen whc'tl the load decreases. uodersbcot cf t. the joop gain andphase s
!:In
400
SOO
liDO
V$
frequency.. .steadyarate value of 0.Tbus.1% and settles in 860 microsec.. the system has to be damped.. overshoot of 1.94. [he transient
response has not been improved. the response can be improved by damping the filter (Fig_ lOA) and Fig.15%.
Now the compensation
·V'v
. significantly. Figure 8B shows the control voltage
L26%.8% and s.6316. is modified to achieve
:1\
•
.
Control \I'O~lage r"~n.. while
regulating viceversa the output voltage at the same value.cl
a
phase
45
degrees
and gain margin
ee...595 increases
load.. 00
500
eoc
(..
design simulates
has
been
presented
in this
the nrmlinear
switching'
converter
to study its properties of principal interest in the design of modem ~witch·moo~ power supplies. 10 e Slop 10M
more
30 dB. margin than
[t bas a bandwidth of
of 10 kHz tue step
with of re
(.
~ 1\
tles in 370 micrceec to a ee .2)
voltage voltage response dips by
Figure
SA shows
the output
to a step load or O."
A
i
large bandwidth by using the control scheme shown jn Fig.%.. This indicates that although the bs .. 9A. VoJtage drops are proportional to current
and hence duty ratio has to increase by a small amount to meet new current demand..nd w idth has increased.
The
output
overshoots by 0.585 and set
to 0. s.e.
' IEEE Trnft3lJcUcms oj AIirfJ. Vol·A.'::.3.~. pp.R.
""f. "Input Filter Considerations in Design and Applications of Switching Regulators". 8!'~5. R.E51S.~pace'/md Ekctnmic SYS!t'fflS.
99_ Loop
Q8. "Closed LoopsOn Track for Testing Switchers. 2.~i".
Fig.. lJ11.91.K. lOA. TEEE Industry Aplliic..
RilI. P.1981. 108.D. FiHar damping
Motwork. 366382.
mod~ed
C«I'I
1.K Cheuy. July 7..
91
.. Vim:ent Bello. 1976 Record.. "Modeling and Design of Switching Regulators.1n
. 135140.
the reference' _ Reference> dealt with switching regulator analysis whereas the present paper provided a Sf'ICE2 CAD package to analyse and design the power supplies more efticientlv.~1
~!
oH +t
Fig. 3.. P. pp." ElectrOnic Dt>siglt. 4. N~). Middlebrook.. OiJ'tpul r89poflM pvnKlticn ootWOI1<
tv
II ~
lOad ". Ml1TCh 31.R. Cheny.
~~. May I~82.
1983."In. "Computer Program adds SPICE to SWt[cning Regulator Analy.rod
pMA
v:II Ir~
Fig. Sl(1P load
response
with
a damped
fI"I'." Electronic Design..aLlons Society Annual Meeting.
...controlied M"l1Iph.8 kW OII·Llne Swltche.Chapter 5
Practical Design Examples
DMIgn
vertet
of • 2..."'
Supplle.raIfon ot
Swltchl~ 12a
High Elflcltncy 127
fIIIproWnIe ... 128
. 10 Po. Pull Con
MleroproceNO. o...OocHI.dc
Dlwllal Shunt Hogu_r
S..If. lIsI~ M
PWM Pu.Ii~
lOS Hog"lator 118
LlnNr_~
Conwrtor _
ap.