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Nutraceutical

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Nutraceutical, a portmanteau of the words “nutrition” and “pharmaceutical”, is a food or food product that reportedly provides health and medical benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease. Health Canada defines the term as "a product isolated or purified from foods that is generally sold in medicinal forms not usually associated with food. A nutraceutical is demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection against chronic disease."[1] Such products may range from isolated nutrients, dietary supplements and specific diets to genetically engineered foods, herbal products, and processed foods such as cereals, soups, and beverages. With recent developments in cellular-level nutraceutical agents, researchers, and medical practitioners are developing templates for integrating and assessing information from clinical studies on complementary and alternative therapies into responsible medical practice.[verification needed][dubious – discuss]
[2]

The term nutraceutical was originally defined by Dr. Stephen L. DeFelice, founder and chairman of the

Foundation of Innovation Medicine (FIM), Crawford, New Jersey.[3] Since the term was coined by Dr. DeFelice, its meaning has been modified by Health Canada which defines nutraceutical as: a product isolated or purified from foods, and generally sold in medicinal forms not usually associated with food and demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection againstchronic disease. Examples are beta-carotene and lycopene.
[4]

The definition of nutraceutical that appears in the latest edition of theMerriam-Webster Dictionary is as

follows: A food stuff (as a fortified food or a dietary supplement) that provides health benefits.[5]Nutraceutical foods are not subject to the same testing and regulations as pharmaceutical drugs.[3] The American Nutraceutical Association works with the Food & Drug Administration in consumer education, developing industry and scientific standards for products and manufacturers, and other related consumer protection roles.
[citation needed]

The FDA provides a list of dietary supplement companies receiving warning letters about their

products.[6]
Contents

PPL Therapeutics.[original research?] As the average age of the citizens continues to rise.3 Medical foods 3. the population increases its . represents approximately a quarter of the $6 billion total annual food sales. American Home Products.[citation needed] The preference for the discovery and production of nutraceuticals over pharmaceuticals is well seen in pharmaceutical and biotech companies. as compared with other therapeutic agents has met with great monetary success. which commit major resources to the discovery of nutraceuticals include Monsanto.2 International sources 5. as an attempt to accomplish desirable therapeutic outcomes with reduced side effects.[citation needed] Some of the pharmaceutical and biotech companies. This figure is slightly higher in Europe and. Warner-Lambert.[hide] • • • o o o o • • o o o o • • • 1 Market and demand 2 Food as medicine 3 Classification of nutraceuticals 3.4 Farmaceuticals 4 Examples 5 Effectiveness and safety 5.4 Impact of placebo effect 6 See also 7 References 8 External links [edit]Market and demand Nearly two-thirds of the American population takes at least one type of nutraceutical health product.Dupont.3 Bioavailability 5.[7] The nutraceutical industry in the US is about $86 billion.[dubious – discuss] [citation needed] The use of nutraceuticals. Novartis.[8]Even without specific financial figures. business reports continually suggest that the market is consistently growing. Metabolex.1 Regulation 5.2 Functional foods 3. Genzyme Transgenic. in Japan. and Interneuron.1 Dietary supplements 3. 47% of the Japanese population consume nutraceuticals. Johnson & Johnson. One possible explanation for the growth of nutraceuticals in the United States is the aging babyboomer population. Abbott Laboratories.

Chinese. have mentioned benefits of food for therapautic purpose. people’s dependence on these products and their increasing availability suggests that the growth of the market shall remain stable.[10] Until just recently. . proteins.000 year old ancient Indian health science.fats. based on a projected population of nearly 400 million citizens. Egyptians. analysis of food was limited to theflavor of food (sensory taste and texture) and its nutritional value (composition of carbohydrates. water.the 5.[10] New research conducted among food scientists show that there is more to food science than what was understood just a couple decades ago. In contrast to the natural herbs and spices used as folk medicine for centuries throughout Asia. However. Ayurveda. Documents hint that the medicinal benefits of food have been explored for thousands of years. The Indians. and Sumerians are just a few civilizations that have provided evidence suggesting that foods can be effectively used as medicine to treat and prevent disease.[9] Although the price of some nutraceuticals may drop as generic products make their way into the market.” The modern nutraceutical market began to develop in Japan during the 1980s. the nutraceutical industry has grown alongside the expansion and exploration of modern technology. vitamins and minerals). By halfway through the 21st century. said that people should “Let food be thy medicine. Hippocrates advocated the healing effects of food. there could be almost 142 million Americans over the age of 50.focus on health and wellness.[9] Hippocrates.[original research?] [edit]Food as medicine Considered a father of Western medicine. there is growing evidence that other components of food may play an integral role in the link between food and health[citation needed]. considered by some to be the father of Western medicine.

and metabolites.[11] There is minimal regulation over which products are allowed to display the nutraceutical term on their labels. food. Nutraceutical products were considered alternative medicine for many years. organ tissues. delay theaging process.These chemical components are derived from plant. the term is often used to market products with varying uses and effectiveness. are typically sold in pill form. and may be found in many forms such astablets. herbs or other botanicals. antioxidants. Nutraceuticals have become a more mainstream supplement to the diet[dubious – discuss]. and provide medicinal benefits valuable to long-term health. softgels. [edit]Dietary supplements Dietary supplements. now that research has begun to show evidence that these chemicals found in food are often effective when processed effectively and marketed correctly.[7] There are multiple different types of products that may fall under the category of nutraceuticals. and substances such as enzymes. glandulars. or powders. such as the vitamin B supplement show above. [edit]Classification of nutraceuticals Nutraceuticals is a broad umbrella term used to describe any product derived from food sources that provides extra health benefits in addition to the basic nutritional value found in foods. A dietary supplement is a product that contains nutrients derived from food products that are concentrated in liquid or capsule form. improve health. Examples of these nutraceutical chemicals includeprobiotics. Dietary supplements can also be extracts or concentrates. amino acids. and increase life expectancy. capsules. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 defined generally what constitutes a dietary supplement. liquids.”[12] . gelcaps. and microbial sources. minerals. The definition of nutraceuticals and related products often depend on the source. The "dietary ingredients" in these products may include: vitamins. “A dietary supplement is a product taken by mouth that contains a "dietary ingredient" intended to supplement the diet. and phytochemicals[citation needed]. Because of this. Members of the medical community desire that the nutraceutical term be more clearly established in order to distinguish between the wide varieties of products out there. Products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases.

[13] [edit]Medical foods A photo of medical food on an IV pole.” [edit]Functional foods Functional foods are designed to allow consumers to eat enriched foods close to their natural state. This product is not intended to diagnose. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before marketing.[14] The FDA considers medical foods to be “formulated to be consumed or administered internally under the supervision of a physician.”[13] Nutraceuticals and supplements do not meet these requirements and are not classified as Medical Foods. and which is intended for the specific dietary management of a disease or condition for which distinctive nutritional requirements. other than a purely nutritional effect. cure. on the basis of recognized scientific principles. Functional foods have been either enriched or fortified.”[4] In Japan.Dietary supplements do not have to be approved by the U. Medical foods aren’t available as an over-the-counter product to consumers. treat. or powder. and (3) should regulate a biological process in hopes of preventing or controlling disease. This practice restores the nutrient content in a food back to similar levels from before the food was processed. rather than a capsule. (2) consumed in the diet as often as daily. are established by medical evaluation. tablet. Sometimes. such as vitamin D to milk.S. all functional foods must meet three established requirements: foods should be (1) present in their naturally-occurring form. or prevent any disease. a process callednutrification. additional complementary nutrients are added. Health Canada defines functional foods as “ordinary food that has components or ingredients added to give it a specific medical orphysiological benefit. Although supplements claim to provide health benefits. . products usually include a label that says: “These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. rather than by taking dietary supplements manufactured in liquid or capsule form.

Omega 3 fatty acids in fish oil. [edit]Farmaceuticals According to a report written for the United States Congress entitled "Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms. such as psyllium seed husk Cancer prevention: broccoli (sulforaphane) fiddleheads (Matteuccia Struthiopteus) Improved arterial health: soy or clover (isoflavonoids) Lowered risk of cardiovascular disease: alpha-linolenic acid from flax or chia seeds. “(Farmaceuticals) is a melding of the words farm and pharmaceuticals. Proponents believe that using crops and possibly even animals as pharmaceutical factories could be much more cost effective than conventional methods (i. in enclosed manufacturing facilities) and also provide agricultural producers with higher earnings… “At issue in the United States has been whether the current system for regulating biotechnology is adequate for ensuring the safety (to humans. Medical foods are regulated by the FDA and will be prescribed/monitored by medical supervision. flavonoids inside citrus. Medical foods are always designed to meet certain nutritional requirements for people diagnosed with specific illnesses.”[15] [edit]Examples Studies show that broccoli may help in the prevention of cancer The following is an incomplete list of foods with reported medicinal value:  Antioxidants: resveratrol from red grape products.. It refers to medically valuable compounds produced from modified agricultural crops or animals (usually through biotechnology).Medical foods can be ingested through the mouth or through tube feeding. anthocyanins found in berries     Reducing hypercholesterolemia:[16] soluble dietary fiber products. in agricultural circles. tea. animals and crops. Programs.e.[17] . and the environment) of newly emerging applications. and Laws". such as farmaceuticals… The term farmaceuticals is more frequently associated. wine. and dark chocolate foods. with medical applications of genetically engineered crops or animals.

Among unprocessed foods. there are significant product quality issues[19] Nutraceuticals from the international market may claim to useorganic or exotic ingredients. within the United States.[18] [edit]International sources In the global market. is one of the main challenges in finding effective nutraceutical products. within the United States the term is not regulated by FDA. products. many botanical and herbal extracts such as ginseng. have been developed as nutraceuticals. supporting scientific research. garlic oil. and increased health benefits. Within this loose regulatory oversight. In 2005. and consumer benefits and differentiate their products from "dietary supplements".In addition. etc. [edit]Effectiveness [edit]Regulation and safety Unlike pharmaceutical drugs. and effectiveness between "nutraceuticals" and "dietary supplements". the National Academies Institute of Medicine and National Research Council created a blue-ribbon committee to create an improved framework for the Federal Food & Drug Administration to evaluate dietary supplements. nutraceutical products are widely available and monitored with the same level of scrutiny as "dietary supplements". With the continued use of a broad definition and lacking greater distinction. Companies looking to create a wide profit margin may create unregulated products overseas with low-quality or ineffective ingredients. function. Within the oversight of the Federal Food & Drug Administration. and health regulatory agencies to add specific legal and scientific criterion to the definition and standards for nutraceuticals. Despite the international movement within the industry. yet the lack of regulation may compromise the safety and effectiveness of products. [edit]Bioavailability Bioavailability. Though the improved framework fails to distinguish between "nutraceuticals" and "dietary supplements". The FDA still uses a blanket term of "dietary supplement" for all substances without distinguishing their efficacy. academia. not all foods are broken down . a cost-effective and scientifically based framework was needed to evaluate the safety of "dietary supplements" including those consumer products recognized internationally as "nutraceuticals". which can be thought of as the "absorption rate" of a supplement product. professional organizations. Nutraceuticals are often used in nutrient premixes or nutrient systemsin the food and pharmaceutical industries. legitimate companies producing nutraceuticals provide credible scientific research to substantiate their manufacturing standards. unlike many other countries such as Canada. manufacturing process. the use of broad-based definitions creates inconsistent credibility distinguishing the standards.

nutraceuticals still fall into a grey area from a regulatory point of view. Nutraceuticals with poor absorption rates results in nutrients being disposed from the body without providing any nutritional or medicinal benefit. This may well serve as a model for the veterinary field in the long run. In Europe there is. cats and horses. but also an increasing number of essential fatty acids. and the field of animal nutrition as such established itself as an important factor in the achievement and maintenance of the wellbeing of animals. Consumers using nutraceuticals may inaccurately credit their use of nutraceuticals for healing illness. safety and efficacy. have experienced considerable success in the market place of products for use in dogs.often named nutraceuticals as an amalgamation of the terms nutritional and pharmaceutical . This is why the regulation of veterinary nutraceuticals continues to fall under the patchwork of 50 state feed laws.and digested as effectively. part of the effectiveness of nutraceuticals may be attributed to the placebo effect. which are produced in a purified form and given orally to an animal in order to maintain or improve its health and well-being. However. However. with nothing in the way of a compromise. regulatory or otherwise professional level. but nothing in-between. Consequently. the most successful products in economical terms to date are the joint health products. The marketing of herbal supplemen ts is especially problematic in Europe. antioxidants. no legislation available to accommodate the term nutraceuticals. minerals and amino acids.Abrahm Hoffer (Phd & Md). Commercially available nutraceutical products for animals include the traditional substa nces such as vitamins. when the body is often able to recover on its own. there has also been some controversy regarding their safety and efficacy and it has been repeatedly suggested that they should be classified as drugs. While the situation in the human sector has been .food and drugs . [edit]Impact of placebo effect Similar to pharmaceuticals.led to considerable confusion regarding its terminology and its legal status. Opponents to this argument -Such as Nobel Prize winning chemist Linus Pauling and Dr. probiotics. although an according development has already been established in the human sector. Similarly. namely glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate. and herbs. the implementation of the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act allows unprecedented claims to be made about how food or a dietary supplement affects the structure and/or function of the body. New nutraceutical products for use in animals are in development. as yet. regulation of products for human or animal consumption is divided into laws that deal with either medicines or foods. the US Food and Drug Administration has so far not accepted this act as applicable to animals. disease management was increasingly perceived as health management. sick individuals may require more nutrients to "trigger" the mechanism. The chondroprotective agents. Examples are fatty acid compounds for applications in the joint health sector. However. where the fast evolution of a new product category at the crossing point of two existing sectors . the development in the animal field is still behind in this respect. In most countries. in the veterinary field. However. enzymes. as with pharmaceuticals. it is still up to the Member States to implement their own legislation on claims within the constraints of prohibition in the EU Food Labelling Directive. A substance administered to animals must either be a food or a medicine. Being neither food nor medicine but having properties of either of the two. .have come a long way since a new trend in the care of companion animals emerged in the 1990s.state that the availability of these nutrients may in fact encourage the healing mechanism. nutraceutical products are widely seen as non-drug substances. since the registration of herbal medicines involves the demonstration of quality. and in many parts of the world terms like dietary supplements appear more appropriate. which mostly are spin-offs from according research in the human field. the term nutraceuticals is not accepted on a global.[20] Nutraceuticals for The Animal Health Industry Nutritional and dietary supplements .clarified in recent years in regions such as North America and the EU. In the meantime.more or less . This trend followed a similar development in the human health sector. there is no agreed EC Directive on food supplements for animals. To date. This trend reflected a shift in the mindset of both veterinarians and animal owners: rather than relying purely on medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of diseases they started searching for nutritional and dietary alternatives. In the human health sector in the US.

this evidence must be in the target species. along with the need for information detailing the evidence supporting claimed health benefits. . One class of such substances are phytochemicals. and its benefits must be demonstrable at a normal level of consumption. and it is therefore essential that the regulatory environment is adequate to cope with the wealth of new products and hence health claims that are likely to be associated with them. the pet food companies. This is not surprising. Functional foods and nutraceuticals for cats and dogs Published on: 02/22/2007 Rating: Author : KAY J. reduce the severity of symptoms of a disease. There are generally three types of companies producing nutraceuticals for animals. a nutraceutical is “any substance that may be considered a food or part of a food and provides medical or health benefits. with varying success. Those that have managed to gain a stronghold in this market certainly have injected respectability. Powerful market forces are fuelling the interest in functional foods. further nutraceuticals will be identified. recommended dosages and safety. it is not a pill or a capsule. vitamins and minerals. RUTHERFURD-MARKWICK and WOUTER H. which has swept through human nutrition over the past decade. no effect at all may be seen. is now also happening in companion animal nutrition. 1999) and a large portion of these pet owners will be health conscious individuals who not only are particular about their own diets but also those of their pets. Medicinal herbs. with rapid advances in scientific knowledge supporting the vital role of diet in health and disease prevention. which are physiologically active. the joint health preparations slightly lost ground due to the fact that a rapidly increasing number of competitors in that segment led to a certain price erosion. HENDRIKS . approaching a 60% share of the total in 2005. along with technical advances that are allowing the development of health-promoting foods that can be marketed to health-conscious consumers at a premium. A functional food must remain a food. nutraceuticals for animals were produced mainly by smallscale or niche manufacturers. It is a dietary supplement that encompasses non-nutritive food components such as phytochemicals. as portrayed in the final chapter of the report in a number of examples. since it is estimated that between 50-60% of households in the US own at least one cat or dog (Olson and Moulton. too. the need for high quality diets and dietary supplements. Scientists are now working to create nutraceuticals that have higher and more consistent levels of bioactive compounds. both pharmaceutical and nutritional companies have had an entre in this segment. nutraceuticals and functional foods specifically formulated for companion animals has grown. have long been valued for their healthprotecting compounds. increasing research efforts combined with growing public acceptance appear to have caused considerable growth in the segment of herbal products. while it completed the year 2005 just below that mark. A useful grouping of nutraceuticals based on Wildman (2000) is in Figure 1. 1993.) The functional foods revolution. As scientific research identifies more substances with medical or health benefits. As a consequence. amino acids or botanical compounds such as bioflavonoids or phytochemicals. This. flavour or aromatic attributes. the dedicated nutraceutical manufacturers including herbal specialists. On the other hand. means that it is not surprising that the functional food/ nutraceutical industry is booming. It may reduce the risk of acquiring a disease (but generally not prevent it).. more vigorous competition and technical knowledge into it. A functional food is defined as “any modified food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients it contains”. Looking at product categories. All these different types of companies have their different angles to access the new segment of nutraceuticals for animals.compounds derived from mushrooms and novel antioxidant substances. A functional food is one derived from naturally occurring ingredients that is consumed as part of the normal diet and is beneficial to health. or to develop new fortified food products. Hoff et al. and/or enhance physical performance or mental dexterity. and nearly one third in Europe. While in the early stages of this industry sector. It is consumed simply for its health promotional or nutritional benefits rather than for its taste. A nutraceutical therefore is not a functional food. naturally occurring compounds synthesized by plants that are not classified as nutrients but nonetheless impart a health benefit when consumed. If the diet is sufficient already. More than half of total global revenues of this market were generated in North America.Massey University. The development in the nutraceutical market sector has also had an impact on the pet food industry where manufacturers were able to identify a variety of substances that could be employed in order to add value to their existing product lines. Most important. Products for use in dogs reinforced their dominant position. and the pharmaceutical manufacturers including both R&D-based and generic companies. What are nutraceuticals and functional foods? As defined by the American Dietetic Association. New Zealand (Courtesy of Alltech Inc. The global market for nutraceuticals for companion animals was estimated in excess of $1 billion in 2006. including the prevention and treatment of disease”. combined with an increase in consumer demand and the change in perspective on food (no longer viewed as merely a means of providing sustenance).

diet changes. which can in turn stimulate both nonspecific and certain specific host defence mechanisms of the immune system. 1998). for which specific health benefits have been conclusively demonstrated. 2002). REQUIREMENTS OF A PROBIOTIC For a microbe to act as a probiotic it must satisfy a number of important criteria. Further controversy has arisen following reports that a number of probiotic products either did not contain the listed species. coli and Salmonella. and elevation of secretory IgA levels). increased phagocytic activity. 1996. A number of probiotic-containing products are currently being sold specifically for use in companion animal diets. however it is becoming increasingly clear that probiotics elicit at least some of their health benefits via immunomodulation. It must not be toxic or cause disease. Probiotic products are often sold with unsubstantiated or very general health claims. or the levels of viable probiotics were less than one tenth of that stated on the package (Hamilton-Miller. Despite this fact. some of which may play a key role in maintaining human health. Firstly.. it must be capable of resisting the acids and bile involved in the digestive processes of the animal’s stomach (microencapsulation). Lourens-Harringh et al. and it is becoming increasingly clear that all probiotic strains are not created equal. there appears to be some controversy as to the quantity of viable probiotic organisms required to confer health benefits in both man and animals. . Weese. and various minimum standards have been set around the world (Saavedra. Probiotics Probiotics are defined as live microbial food supplements that beneficially influence the health of the host (Schrezenmeir et al. the microbe must be able to establish itself and ‘colonize’ the gut of the target animal. 2001. delivery medium and safety). to re-establish beneficial microflora depleted by antibiotics and prevent re-infection by pathogens. Levels ranging from 106 to 109 CFU at the time of consumption have been suggested... Probiotics have therefore been proposed for use in animals to establish a healthy gut microflora and prevent establishment of pathogenic bacteria immediately following birth. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus are strongly associated with optimum microbial balance in the gut. injury. there appears to be a scarcity of relevant literature to support their current usage. temperature extremes. In this way they are able to improve various aspects of growth and performance of animals by aiding digestion. Generally this was considered to occur by improving the microbial balance (Fuller. Schematic diagram showing groupings of nutraceuticals (adapted from Wildman. PROBIOTIC USE IN ANIMALS Probiotics effectively flood the gut with billions of live.g. one aimed to investigate a number of the factors critical for demonstrating that a particular microorganism can act as a probiotic (Biourge et al. and it is for these two genera that the greatest body of evidence for health promoting properties of probiotics exists. Probiotics are also able to prevent the proliferation of potential disease causing pathogens such as E. This can occur in two ways. The gastrointestinal tract fulfils many functions aside from digesting and absorbing nutrients. transportation. 2001). change of environment. contained extra species.To enlarge the image. promoting the synthesis and absorption of vitamins and minerals. by generating increased resistance to infectious diseases either by direct antagonism or by stimulating immunity (e. 2001). to treat or prevent scouring by suppression and exclusion of pathogenic bacteria. The authors investigated the effects of the expansionextrusion process required for petfood manufacture on spore survival of Bacillus CIP 5832 in the production of a dry dog food. it is of vital importance that information detailing the probiotic strains (including accurate viability counts. competition. 1989). and to reduce the effects of stress such as fear. 2000). dose. Of the limited studies carried out in companion animals. be made available to the pet owner. In addititon. by breaking down cellulose and other indigestible substances.. beneficial bacteria to help boost the gut’s normal microflora. click here Figure 1. surgery or vaccination. this process resulted in over 99% loss of spores. it should be able to show an ability to inhibit the growth of pathogens or to have some other benefit in laboratory conditions. Not surprisingly. One of these is that the gut is host to a complex mixture of microbes that make up our resident gut microflora. Since daily consumption of probiotics is recommended. and it must be capable of surviving manufacturing processes and have a reasonable shelf life. and information on the species tested. training.

More success was achieved by spray-drying the potential probiotic strain onto a previously extruded product. and whether combinations of inulin and FOS would have any synergistic benefit.. (1998) sought to demonstrate that Bacillus CIP 5832 was able to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract of dogs. An excellent review on prebiotics in companion animals has been provided by Swanson and Fahey (2002). 1994). that can improve host health”. However. whether the fructans can be used interchangeably.. Sparkes et al. although there is strong evidence to suggest that inulin and oligofructose fermentation lead to an increase in short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the gut. before such technological advancements are continued. increase in stool frequency due to an increase in the microbial biomass resulting from increased fermentation. the initial preparation of the product resulted in an immediate drop in the expected level of spores. genetically modified microbes can be made that are more effective in improving health or nutrition than the organisms that occur naturally in the digestive system. (1998) showed a decline in faecal E. Prebiotics Prebiotics are “non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon. Vickers et al. 2001). 1992). In a different study lactobacilli numbers were shown to significantly increase following supplemental feeding of healthy dogs with FOS (cited by Vickers et al. 1998. should be provided. there is currently limited conclusive published evidence detailing the benefits of prebiotic use in cats and dogs. The data from well designed human trials has shown significant changes in the composition of faecal microflora (Roberfroid et al. coli numbers in cats fed a FOS-supplemented diet and an increase in lactobacilli numbers. Van Loo et al. The stability of the product was then studied over a 12 month period. safety.. viability counts. This serves to further emphasise that the ability of a potential probiotic strain to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and beneficial health effects cannot be extrapolated from one species to another. Further knowledge of how prebiotics elicit their action is also needed. 2000) or lactosugar (Terada et al. fructooligosaccharides and mannan oligosaccharides. 1995). The most commonly known prebiotics include inulin. The latter is considered more extensively elsewhere in this volume. Further studies are also needed to increase our understanding of the mechanisms of action of probiotics on the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system. Studies demonstrating health benefits in the target species are required along with information on optimum inulin and/or oligofructose inclusion levels. with further losses of greater than 25% occurring over the following 12 months. Such a study highlights the potential problems inherent with the production of probiotic products. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN PROBIOTICS Using biotechnology. Biourge et al. 2002). INULIN AND FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES Inulin and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are natural components of many edible plant materials. ISSUES As with probiotics.. however in a second trial by the same group (Flickinger and Fahey. and although successful. delivery medium.. primarily . This is reportedly due to supplementation with FOS causing a reduction in the level of toxic metabolites and detrimental enzymes that result from colonic fermentation (Tomomatsu. Gibson et al.. They are non-digestible oligosaccharides and therefore classified as dietary fibre. increased calcium bioavailability and possibly a role in the reduction in the risk of colon cancer (Pool-Zobel et al. There is a large body of evidence supporting the role of inulin and oligofructose as prebiotics in humans. they did not demonstrate any potential health benefits in the dogs. 1992). in this case only 60% of the expected levels were detected. The first successful genetic modifications of this type of organism have already been reported. Faecal Bifidobacteria levels have been reported to significantly increase following lactosucrose supplementation along with a decrease in levels of Clostridium perfringens (Terada et al. A number of groups have demonstrated in dogs that faecal E. 2001. which aid in the suppression of potentially pathogenic bacteria (Wang and Gibson. A trial aimed at evaluating the ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (a strain for which there is considerable evidence supporting its use as a probiotic in humans). 2002). Bifidobacteria or Lactobacilli between animals fed 1-3 g of oligofructose per day. 1993. with FOS promoting beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacteria. One trial in dogs failed to demonstrate any difference in the levels of total anaerobic bacteria.. data supporting the use of inulin and FOS in companion animals is somewhat limited and also contradictory in nature. 1999). However. however the results from these trials give no indication as to whether any animal consuming these products would receive any health benefits. 2001). coli concentrations do not change significantly following ingestion of a FOS-supplemented diet (Willard et al. to survive passage through the intestinal tract of dogs concluded that faecal colonization in dogs is variable (Weese and Anderson. Therefore in the future it is likely that custom-designed probiotics will be created to either directly improve digestive function or improve health. animals fed oligofructose at the highest concentration of 9 g/kg had higher levels of Bifidobacteria in faeces compared to the control group.. it is essential that information detailing the effective dose. 1999. As has been found for a number of probiotic strains.. Other reported benefits resulting from the ingestion of inulin and FOS include a bulking effect.. There are several studies investigating the effects of prebiotic supplementation on faecal characteristics and digestibility parameters or in vitro fermentation characteristics (Hussein et al. along with properly controlled trials carried out in target populations for probiotic strains for which specific health claims are made. 2002).. Hesta et al. information which is critical if the product is to be marketed with a health claim.

It does this by inhibiting certain enzymes that destroy cartilage and enzymes that prevent the transport of nutrients. 1976). either individually or together are the most commonly used chondroprotective agents in dogs and cats (Anonymous. providing the building blocks and regulatory stimulus. PRINCIPLE OF ACTION Increased repair processes in degenerating cartilage may require a larger demand for raw materials than that available. coli cannot survive... tend to have a less refined diet containing offal products. 1999). whereas nowadays intake may be marginal to deficient for optimal joint health. which prevent damage to the connective tissue. 1988) and marmoset monkeys (McLennan et al. investigations into the effects of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids on immune function. A number of uncontrolled testimonial surveys investigating the use of these agents in the treatment of degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis in dogs have also been carried out (Anderson et al. Once synthesised it is used directly for the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans and hence cartilage matrix synthesis. which helps to keep the cartilage from breaking down. Interest in these fatty acids was first raised following the observation that Inuit people. Chondroitin sulphate works together with glucosamine to block the action of cartilage-damaging enzymes and to promote the healthy flow of water and nutrients into cartilage-producing cells. Chondroitin sulphate and glucosamine. which are found primarily in fish oils. and therefore can help the body repair eroded and damaged cartilage. and there is evidence that SCFA have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Chondroitin sulphate plays a major role in the growth and repair of cartilage. decreased due to the increased use of more purified ingredients. butyrate and propionate. has raised great interest in the functional foods arena.. which however.acetate. Anderson et al. and offals. also have a low incidence of heart disease (Bang et al.. 1999). particularly in dogs. .. 1999) in experimentally-induced degenerative joint diseases in dogs (Canapp et al. eicosanoid production. and animal cartilage is the only significant food source of chondroitin sulphate. 1993). whereas a similar infusion of soya bean oil was not. who normally have a diet high in fish. comprise only a small fraction of a dry diet. In addition. However because these surveys are not randomised. The reported benefits include a reduction in symptoms such as joint tenderness. Such veterinary surveys are generally performed due to the inherent difficulty in carrying out animal trials assessing the effects on naturally occurring osteoarthritis. pain on standing. and the high molecular weight chondroitin sulphate have unique and overlapping functions. therefore inadvertently increasing the propensity of dogs to develop osteoarthritis. 1999). It helps to produce more collagen and also normalizes cartilage metabolism. definitive conclusions about the efficacy of the nutraceuticals cannot be made. A combination of the two has a synergistic effect since the low molecular weight glucosamine. There is considerable evidence on the use of glucosamine and/or chondroitin sulphate as chondroprotective agents (Lippiello et al. 1999). Sources of chondroitin sulphate in petfoods are generally from animalderived ingredients such as meat and bone meal. cats often supplement their own diet by catching and eating small animals such as birds and rodents. 1996. The ability of ω-3 fatty acids to prevent or reduce the severity of arrhythmias has been demonstrated in a number of species including the rat (McLennan et al. which generally have a lower incidence of osteoarthritis. which are necessary for the synthesis of cartilage. (1994) were able to show that an intravenous infusion of ω-3 fatty acids was able to prevent the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation. Has the chondroitin sulphate intake of companion animals. ISSUES Osteoarthritis and joint injury are common in animals.. and lipid peroxidation amongst others have been carried out in a number of species. Since then. including dogs. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids The potential therapeutic benefits of dietary supplementation with ω-3 eicosapentaenoic acid and the ratio of ω-3 to ω-6 fatty acids (arachidonic acid). It is interesting to speculate that a dog 50 years ago would have obtained ample chondroitin sulphate from its diet. which is the protein portion of a fibrous substance that holds joints together. Using an experimentally-induced model of myocardial infarction in dogs. Glucosamine is an amino sugar. Chondroitin sulphate is able to protect existing cartilage from premature breakdown and promote the healing of bone.. inflammatory responses. SCFA also lower the gut pH to levels below which some pathogens such at E. pain on walking. Billman et al. especially in dry diets? Cats.. which is synthesised within the body from glucose and amino acids. 1999). controlled trials.. Chondroitin sulphate and glucosamine in the treatment of degenerative joint disease Chondroitin sulphate consists of repeating chains of mucopolysaccharides. joint swelling and spontaneous pain (Anderson et al. which are more likely to contain cartilage and hence chondroitin sulphate. specifically dogs. These biological polymers act as the flexible connecting matrix between the tough protein filaments in cartilage to form a polymeric system similar to reinforced rubber. where osteoarthritis is reported as being one of the most frequently encountered joint diseases (Canapp et al. The mechanism of action of glucosamine is therefore simple. It stimulates the manufacture of collagen.

However. In a study in young (2. Some of the major dietary antioxidants include vitamin E. resulting in the production of eicosanoids with lower inflammatory potential than those produced from ω-6 fatty acids (Reinhart. 2001). Baskin et al. Allison et al. which can be utilised for improving health status by stimulation of the immune system. although the enhancement is not sufficient to elevate the levels to that exhibited by young cats. 2002a... which are important for the endogenous synthesis of other compounds with antioxidant capacity. Two studies by the same group showed that inclusion of a broad-based antioxidant and mitochondrial cofactor supplement can partially counteract/reverse the deleterious effect of aging on cognitive function in canines (Milgram et al. 2000. 1998). Studies in dogs have also shown that dietary adjustments of ω-3 to ω-6 fatty acids result in altered eicosanoid metabolism (Vaughn et al. 2000. This explains the interest in the isolation of natural antioxidants. they concluded that antioxidants may have subclinical biochemical effects. Others (Baskin et al.and B-cell mitogenic responses (Kearns et al. Antioxidants Antioxidants have been included in animal feeds in order to protect the nutritional value and improve palatability and the quality of the diets for over 30 years (Greaves et al. For example an increased tendency to bleed. The latter study indicates that vitamin E supplementation may enhance T-cell function in old cats.. vitamin C and flavonoids (Greaves et al. 1997). glutathione peroxidase. Nowadays however. 2001. 2001). Scott et al. (2001) concluded that antioxidants (vitamin E and ascorbate) have a minimal effect on Heinz body anemia induced by dietary onion powder or propylene glycol. in reducing the risk of cancer and heart disease..Omega-3 fatty acids have also been shown to reduce wound inflammation in dogs (Mooney et al. such as controlling inflammatory responses. although teams with higher plasma vitamin E concentrations did not travel faster than other teams. ascorbic acid.. e. ISSUES The apparent broad spectrum of effects that ω-3 fatty acids seem able to elicit. or suppression of immune responses. 2002). (2000) concluded that oral administration of bioflavonoid antioxidants may assist cat erythrocytes in resisting oxidative injury. Interest in the potential use of vitamin E as a nutraceutical for companion animals. These nutrients are required for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH). other deleterious effects may result. (2002) showed that oxidative damage impairs cognitive function in dogs and that antioxidant addition to diets can improve cognitive function.. has been increased by observations in other animals that lymphocyte proliferation to B-cell and T-cell mitogens is affected by the dietary level of vitamin E. The effects of individual antioxidants in canine and feline diets tend to be similar to the effects described in other animals. ß-carotene. Wander et al. b). include sulphur amino acids. Dogs with higher plasma vitamin E concentrations were less likely to be withdrawn from a race. 2000) have shown that dietary antioxidant (α-tocopherol. Evidence detailing the efficacy of antioxidants or nutrients in stimulating antioxidant defence in companion animal diets is growing. There is good evidence that a ‘cocktail’ of antioxidants may be more beneficial than individual antioxidants when included in companion animal diets. whereas in others suppression of cell-mediated immune responses were reported (Wander et al. lutein and isoflavonoids (Allison et al. compared to dogs having lower plasma vitamin E levels..g. ßcarotene and lutein) supplementation of sled dogs can reduce exercise-induced oxidative damage. Hill et al. The dietary vitamin E requirement to obtain optimal immunological health of animals has been found to be approximately 4.. it is recognised that antioxidants may play a key role in slowing the aging process. carotenoids. along with unclear effects on immune responses suggests that caution is needed when supplementing diets with ω-3 fatty acids. However. There was no significant difference in lymphocyte proliferative responses to pokeweed mitogen (B-cell mitogen) between cats of different ages regardless of dietary treatment. 1997). GSH-sparing may be important against milder forms of oxidative stress. Furthermore this study showed that vitamin E supplementation of diets to supraphysiological levels (500 IU/kg diet) does not provide the added benefit that is generally found in other species.. Cotman et al.92 years) cats. selenium and zinc. There are many nutrients with antioxidant properties. 1999). Several nutrients. (2001) showed that sled dogs with a higher plasma vitamin E concentration have enhanced endurance. although the age and breed of the subject animals used may have had an effect. and generally improving health and well being.6 fatty acids have also been shown to enhance immune responses such as T. The antioxidants most studied in cats and dogs include vitamin E. 1994. Further evidence supporting the latter finding was provided by Hendriks et al. . regardless of treatment. The reasons for such differences are unclear. 1996)... The latter two studies showed a limited effect of antioxidant addition to an oxidative challenge. A greater benefit of antioxidants in companion animal diets can be expected during conditions of increase oxidative stress such as exercise. In some studies in dogs specific ratios of ω-3: ω. vitamin E treatment did enhance proliferation in response to the T-cell mitogens in older cats when compared to old cats fed the control diet. superoxide dismutase and many other enzyme systems. the effect of vitamin E supplementation on the immune response was measured (Hayek et al. In stimulating one function. 2000). aside from its antioxidant properties. Omega-3 fatty acids reportedly act as substrates for eicosanoid metabolism. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to concanavalin A and phytohemaglutinin (both T-cell mitogens) were significantly lower in older cats compared to younger cats. Piercy et al.65 years) and older (9. Serum vitamin E levels increased in a dosedependent manner... Hill et al.10 times higher than the dietary vitamin E level to prevent vitamin E deficiency.

The results cannot be extrapolated to other age groups or other species. may be considered as a toxin in others. Kim et al. It is also important to realise that including several nutraceuticals in a diet in an effort to achieve combined benefits may not necessarily be successful. maintenance and development (Younger. Such history is lacking for novel ingredients and novel processes. Furthermore. for example. and naturally the product must have been proven safe for consumption. The primary aim of dietary guidelines and food guides is to make recommendations on the requirements of essential nutrients in order to prevent deficiencies and support body growth. b). Enhancement of. . The market for such foods is predicted to expand significantly. and different levels of certain enzymes etc. before the full market potential can be realized. and a safety assessment is required.. In dogs. for a number of products beneficial effects are yet to be conclusively proven. the parameters measured are not directly translatable into a health outcome. considerable time and hence money. Any diets containing ‘cocktails’ of nutraceuticals therefore must also go through thorough testing to substantiate any claimed health benefits. lymphocyte proliferative responses or phagocytic activity may not necessarily translate into increased resistance to disease. Other dietary antioxidants shown to have immune-modulating effects in cats and dogs include lutein and ßcarotene (Chew et al. requiring large numbers of test subjects. Summary Functional foods and nutraceuticals are purported to be efficacious in the prevention and/or treatment of disease and the promotion of health due to the presence of specific concentrations of physiologically active components. In certain circumstances.. Issues on functional foods and nutraceuticals in animals Different species often have different metabolic pathways. then that claim should be scientifically substantiated. vitamin E where consumption at supraphysiological levels enhances immune function. although the control diet in this study was below AAFCO requirements. 2000a. As new evidence on the roles of vitamins and minerals comes to light. Recently though. Future scientific studies are therefore essential to provide this assurance and to inspire confidence in the functional foods in the minds of pet owners worldwide. 2002). even in the absence of regulatory requirements. and feeding the normal dose for long periods of time. vitamin E has been shown (Meydani et al. isolated components from these foods that are added to other foods or packaged as dietary supplements.g. 1998) to increase a number of immune parameters when included at supraphysiological levels. The number of functional foods is potentially very large and encompasses natural foods. A recommended dose based on experimental evidence should also be stated. doubleblind trials in the specified test group need to be conducted. due to their adverse effects on some diseases. 2000. When a functional food contains novel ingredients or is produced by a novel process. However. Combinations of nutraceuticals cannot be assumed to have synergistic effects. nutrient requirement recommendations are likely to be revised to take into account effects on factors such as immune function. which can therefore affect the potential function of a putative functional food or nutraceutical. no benefit may be gained from consumption of functional foods/nutraceuticals.. safety assurance comes from a long history of safe use by large populations over a number of generations.. and in fact. when used in combination could interact with each other so as to negate any potential benefit. not only for themselves but also for their pets. Although there is evidence to support the use of certain functional foods and nutraceuticals in companion animals. it is important for the pet owner to realise that in the context of a balanced diet. it becomes particularly important that safety as well as acceptability be considered. and food components synthesized in the laboratory. the demand for healthpromoting foods and food components for use in companion animals is expected to grow. Safety testing involves a large array of testing including feeding high doses. A number of essential nutrients are likely to result in improved health when consumed at higher levels and therefore in the current climate can be considered as functional foods.(2002). Expectations for the future As pet owners worldwide become more health conscious. With traditional foods. Requirements for marketing a functional food If a functional food or nutraceutical is to bear a claim. Particularly for immune claims. recommendations have also been made to avoid excessive consumption of certain nutrients. with the range of products being offered likely to increase dramatically in the future as manufacturers can be expected to seek the extra profit arising from sales of these high-value products. Therefore it is very important that data not be extrapolated from one species or age group to another. consumers will need to be assured of the safety and efficacy of functional foods. e. This means that randomised. Trials to determine such effects are very difficult to run. a compound deemed to be a nutraceutical in one species or age group.

and is an excellent source of vitamins. Nutraceuticals are used for a various digestive disorders and other metabolic conditions in pets. It is dosed at 1 to 2 tablespoons per 8 ounces of drinking water. This is the clinical application of nutrition in the treatment of disease and metabolic disorders. and anti-oxidants. chronic diarrhea or foul smelling stools. It has reparative effects on the joints and reduces inflammatory effects of arthritis. Significant advances have been made in pet nutrition with formulated diets. Probiotics are supplements of beneficial bacteria given to re-establish the normal bacterial flora in the digestive tract. Proanthocyanidins are a group of strong anti-oxidants which scavange destructive free radicals. soothing anti-inflammatory effect on the GI tract. Gucosamine sulfate is the preferred and most effective form of glucosamine products. digestive enzymes. Specific nutritional requirements have not been established for many of the exotic species commonly kept as pets. Methyl sulfonal methane (MSM). or in the drinking water at the rate of 2 ml per 4 ounces drinking water. pine bark extract. It is commonly stated that malnutrition is the underlying cause of many of the disease syndromes encountered in birds and exotic pets. minerals. Aloe vera can be given orally in the form of a gel or juice at the dose of 1 drop per 100 g body weight 3 to 6 times daily. age. but more effective when in combination. lipase and amylase. They are often given after antibiotic therapy or severe GI disturbances.Nutraceutical Supplements Nutraceuticals are micronutrients. The specific diet and variety of foods depends on the species. Supplements used in the treatment of inflammatory conditions and arthritis include glucosamine. and include grape seed extract. MSM is a sulfur based supplement that has anti-inflammatory effects on joints and generally supports . and oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Some formulations of glucosamine contain chondroitin or MSM for further joint support. and other nutritional supplements that are used as therapeutic agents. and activity level of the individual pet. probiotics. and amino acids. These bacteria include lactobacillus and bifidobacterium. health status. Digestive enzymes are beneficial for certain pancreatic diseases or primary digestive disorders leading to maldigestion. but glucosamine is shown to be useful alone. These substances provide excellent anti-oxidant effects that result in less inflammation. Apple cider vinegar is an acidifier of the intestinal tract and entire body. and elimination of free radicals from the body. but it is only the beginning. probiotics. Specific indications for apple cider vinegar include chronic bacterial or yeast infections. and digestive enzymes. improved cellular integrity. as the only water source for 1 to 2 weeks. bilberry. The classic essential enzymes provided in most formulations include protease. apple cider vinegar. Aloe vera provides an effective boost to the immune system. These may be combined with other specific enzymes or herbs depending on the condition. macronutrients. and citrus bioflavanoids. Some of the commonly used supplements are aloe juice. Examples include vitamins and minerals. therefore current recommendations and diets are based on anecdotal experience and limited nutritional studies. among other things.

It occurs naturally in several plants e. most commonly bovine tracheal tissue. Because FOS can promote the growth of the “good bacteria. Chondroitin Chondroitin is a large molecule made of Glucosamine units that is a very important part of cartilage formation. Common Nutraceuticals by Pet Valu on Thursday. root of the chicory plant (inulin) or artichokes. FOS can be made using microbial fermentation that converts sugars into FOS. Chondroitin supplements can slow the process of degradation in a diseased joint by binding up and neutralizing some of the destructive enzymes that cause inflammation in the joints. Fructo-Oligosaccharides (FOS) FOS is a non-digestible carbohydrate that feeds the good bacteria in the digestive tract. Beta Carotene Beta Carotene is a powerful anti-oxidant in the fat soluble tissues of the body. a good source of soluble fiber.” Look for these most-common nutraceuticals in the ingredients of your pet’s food. Dr. Dave Summers describes nutraceuticals as pet food ingredients “added for specific health benefits. including Vitamin C. acting like a stiff sponge enabling it to protect joint structures under compressive loads. 2010 at 11:43am On page 11 of the Summer 2010 issue of the Pet Valu Companion magazine. However. June 17. cats are one of the unique animals that cannot synthesize Vitamin A from Beta-carotene.” it is called a probioitic. Garlic . as proven by scientific research.healthy tissue and cells. Chondroitin forms a matrix which attracts water.g. Sulfur is suspected to be an important mineral for the body to prevent degradation of tissues at the cellul ar level. Beta Carotene is called a provitamin because in most animals it can be used to form vitamin A. Blueberries Blueberries contain a blend of many powerful anti-oxidants.. The blue color of blueberries comes from anthocyanins. Chondroitin is extracted animal cartilage. Extracts of shark cartilage. similar to how starch is converted into alcohol. which are a major contributor to their anti-oxidant activity. green lipped mussel or sea cucumber are also used. Blueberries also contain pectin.

since they are vulnerable to colds. which can be of benefit to your pet's respiratory system. and therefore garlic should not be added to cat foods. It also has anti-microbial activity to help keep a healthy digestive system. In dog foods. Allicin helps protect against infection by enhancing the immune system. garlic also helps increase palatability. Garlic can cause anemia in cats. .Garlic contains the powerful anti-oxidant Allicin. Garlic has anti-viral properties.

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