haster of ßusIness AdmInIstratIon-hßA Semester 2

Project hanagement - hß004º - 4 CredIts
(ßook I0: ß1138)
AssIgnment Set- 1 (60 harks)

Note: Each questIon carrIes 10 harks. Answer aII the questIons.

Ç.1 Comment on the followIng
a. mportance of 0|A$ In project management cycle
b. Knowledge areas of project management
Ç.2 rIte few words on:
a. !roject CharacterIstIcs
b. $
c. !|$
d. !roject |anagement strategIes·nternal E external
Ç.3 hat are the varIous $C|o soft wares avaIlable In project management: ExplaIn
each In brIef.
Ç.4 LIst the varIous steps for FIsk management. Also explaIn C0| and Its key
Ç.5 Answer the two parts:
a. mportance of data management In project management·Comment.
b. hat Is the sIgnIfIcance of revIewIng FD:
Ç.6 Company Implements C|| level·0J. To make further changes It decIdes on
startIng a new dIvIsIon In the organIzatIon. t decIdes to advance the exIstIng project
management. hat are the steps to be followed by the organIzatIon to drIve project
management to a new horIzon:

µ.Ź A. lmportonce of BHAlS in project monoqement cycle


Stages In a Project hanagement CycIe - 0hAIS
!roject managers consIder the fIve steps - 0|A$ - as generIc for any system of a
journey towards excellence. FIgure 9.2 lIsts the fIve steps hIdden In the acronym
0|A$. 0|A$ Is hIghly relevant In !roject |anagement for the sImple reason that each
step gIves out In detaIl the actIons to be taken to ensure readIness for the next step.
7erIfIcatIon of 0|A$ ImplementatIon Is possIble wIth checklIsts whIch can be prepared
and used by employees at all levels. The team members can be gIven traInIng to
follow them.
Let us consIder each of fIve steps of 0|A$.

1. 0efIne -
ThIs step requIres that what Is sought to be achIeved Is IdentIfIed In all Its
detaIl. The followIng are the Inputs whIch wIll defIne what we are goIng to
ßenchmark: t refers to the standards achIeved by the best In the Industry. A
company's product Is set to meet them.
Customer PequIrement: t refers to the documentatIon of customer requIrements.
!roper understandIng of customer requIrement Is of utmost Importance. ou should
delIver what a customer requIres.
Process FIow hap: - t shows the actIvItIes that take place to result In the product at
the end of them.
ÇuaIIty FunctIon 0epIoyment - ThIs tool compares the qualIty characterIstIcs In a
company's product wIth those In theIr competItors' and theIr relatIve Importance to
the customer. To achIeve them, you fInd the technIcal specIfIcatIons you have to
Incorporate In our product.
Project hanagement PIan - ThIs Includes the materIals, men, actIvItIes, schedules,
mIlestones and so on.

2. heasure
n thIs step, we measure the outcomes of the actIvItIes. ThIs Is done usIng the
followIng methods.
0ata coIIectIon - ou need to collect the data about the work that Is done and
compare as to how It corresponds wIth what Is requIred
0efect hetrIcs - ou need to capture the devIatIons that are In the effectIve potIon of
the work In defect metrIcs. Then you need to decIde whether they are acceptable or
need rectIfIcatIon.
SampIIng - f the volumes are hIgh, you need to select a few of them and Inspect them
to see whether the entIre batch Is acceptable

3. AnaIyze
In thIs step, you have to analyse the data receIved from the precedIng step by
usIng the followIng tools:

Cause and Effect 0Iagrams - also called FIshbone 0Iagrams
FaIlure |ode and Effect AnalysIs F|EA
Foot Cause AnalysIs
FelIabIlIty AnalysIs

4. Improve
n thIs step, you have to Implement the measures to remove the defects found
earlIer for ImprovIng the process. ThIs can be done usIng the followIng
0esIgn of ExperIments - The effect of changIng values of parameters Is done In a
controlled way. ThIs allows you to experImentally determIne the effect of varIatIons
determIned. ou can use the results for optImIsIng the process
Pobust 0esIgn - The equIpment desIgn Is made robust to reduce the varIatIons.
ToIerances - The permItted devIatIons are made closer, so that the capabIlIty of
process Is Increased

5. StandardIze -
hen Improvements have become consIstent, the methods adopted are

µ.Ź.B. KnowleJqe oreos of project monoqement


nowIedge Areas, Process and ConnectIon
There are nIne knowledge areas consIstIng of IntegratIon, scope, tIme, cost, qualIty,
rIsk, human resources, communIcatIons, and procurement. These areas group 44
!roject |anagement !rocesses. All of the knowledge areas are Interrelated and each
should be taken care of durIng project plannIng. FIgure 1.1 lIsts the nIne knowledge

Let us know about each of these 9 project management knowledge areas.

1. Pro¡ect lnteyratìon Manayement: 0ecls wìth processes thct ìnteyrcte dì]]erent
cspects o] pro]ect mcncyement.

2. Pro¡ect Scoµe Manayement: 0ecls wìth processes thct cre responsìble ]or
controllìny pro]ect scope.

J. Pro¡ect Tìme Manayement: 0ecls wìth processes concernìny the tìme constrcìnts
o] the pro]ect.

4. Pro¡ect Cost Manayement: 0ecls wìth processes concernìny the cost constrcìns o]
the pro]ect.

5. Pro¡ect Qualìty Manayement: 0ecls wìth the processes thct cssure thct the
pro]ect meets ìts quclìty oblìyctìons.

ó. Pro¡ect Human Resources Manayement: 0ecls wìth the processes relcted to
obtcìnìny cnd mcncyìny the pro]ect tecm.

Z. Pro¡ect Communìcatìon Manayement: 0ecls wìth the processes concernìny
communìcctìon mechcnìsms o] c pro]ect.

. Pro¡ect Rìsk Manayement: 0ecls wìth the processes concerned wìth pro]ect rìsk

º. Pro¡ect Procurement Manayement: 0ecls wìth processes relcted to obtcìnìny
products cnd servìces needed to complete c pro]ect.

n total, there are 44 processes Involved In !roject |anagement. These are mapped to
one of nIne !roject |anagement Knowledge Areas.

q.ź. Wrlte few worJx on:

.roject Churucterlxtlcx :-

Any project may be consIdered to have the followIng characterIstIcs:

Pesource requIrement:
0urIng the course of executIng the project, It Is seen that the resource requIrement
Increases from start to an IntermedIate stage of the project. t further Increases at a
rapId rate and becomes constant whIle the project Is at Its 80 to 95º progress stage.
Thereafter the resources requIrement decreases to zero brIngIng the project to a
The requIrement of funds for the complete executIon of the project also follows the
same trend as that of the resources. oth the requIrements are more or less
ProbabIIIty of compIetIon:
The probabIlIty of completIng the project can be estImated based upon the normal
dIstrIbutIon curve. n the InItIal stage of the project the probabIlIty of completIng the
project Is low though not zero. t gradually Increases and as the project approaches
fInIsh the probabIlIty of completIng the project tends to become 100º.
The rIsks Involved In the project affectIng Its completIon tIme are hIgh at the InItIal
stages and low at the later stages of the project.
0esIgn changes:
The project durIng the course of Its progress may be subjected to changes because of
some external factors. The Influence of such external factors on the project may
result In changes In the desIgn of the project though not very often. t Is observed that
such changes, If any, are normally hIgh durIng the InItIal stages of the project and
decreases as the project approaches fInIsh

. Work reukJown Structure (WS)

The entIre process of a project may be consIdered to be made up on number of sub
process placed In dIfferent stage called the ork reakdown $tructure ($. $ Is
the technIque to analyse the content of work and cost by breakIng It down Into Its
component parts. !roject key stages form the hIghest level of the $, whIch Is then
used to show the detaIls at the lower levels of the project. Each key stage comprIses
many tasks IdentIfIed at the start of plannIng and later thIs lIst wIll have to be

$ Is produced by IdentIfyIng the key elements, breakIng each element down Into
component parts and contInuIng to breakdown untIl manageable work packages have
been IdentIfIed. These can then be allocated to the approprIate person. The $ does
not show dependencIes other than a groupIng under the key stages. t Is not tIme
based · there Is no tImescale on the drawIng.

What are Lead TIme and Lag TIme!
ead tìme: t ìs cn cmount o] tìme, whìch c successor tcsk ccn overlcp wìth ìts
predecessor tcsk, ì.e. the tìme be]ore the completìon o] the predecessor ct whìch the
successor ccn stcrt.

ay tìme: n cmount o] tìme, between c predecessor cnd c successor tcsk, ì.e. the
tìme c]ter the completìon o] the predecessor thct the stcrt o] the successor ìs

C. roject Munugement Informutlon Syxtem (MIS)

An InformatIon system Is maInly aImed at provIdIng the management at dIfferent
levels wIth InformatIon related to the system of the organIsatIon. t helps In
maIntaInIng dIscIplIne In the system.

An InformatIon system dealIng wIth project management tasks Is the project
management InformatIon system. t helps In decIsIon makIng In arrIvIng at optImum
allocatIon of resources. The InformatIon system Is based on a database of the
organIsatIon. A project management InformatIon system also holds schedule, scope
changes, rIsk assessment and actual results.

The InformatIon Is communIcated to managers at dIfferent levels of the organIsatIon
dependIng upon the need. Let us fInd how a project management InformatIon system
Is used by dIfferent stakeholders.

The four major aspects of a !|$ are -
a. !rovIdIng InformatIon to the major stakeholders

b. AssIstIng the team members, stakeholders, managers wIth necessary InformatIon
and summary of the InformatIon shared to the hIgher level managers

c. AssIstIng the managers In doIng what If analyses about project staffIng, proposed
staffIng changes and total allocatIon of resources

d. HelpIng organIsatIonal learnIng by helpIng the members of the organIsatIon learn
about project management

Usually, the team members, and not the systems admInIstrators of the company,
develop a good !|$. DrganIsatIons tend to allocate such responsIbIlIty by rotatIon
among members wIth a well desIgned and structured data entry and analytIcal format.

. roject Munugement xtruteglex-Internul & externul

A project proposal Is prepared by a group of people IncludIng the project manager.
ThIs proposal has to contaIn the strategIes adopted to market the product to the

0esIgn Phase
ased on the Inputs receIved In the form of project feasIbIlIty study, prelImInary
project evaluatIon, project proposal and customer IntervIews, followIng outputs are

¤ $ystem desIgn specIfIcatIon
¤ !rogram functIonal specIfIcatIon
¤ !rogram desIgn specIfIcatIon
¤ !roject plan

InspectIng, TestIng and 0eIIvery Phase
0urIng thIs phase, the project team works under the guIdance of the project manager.
The project manager has to ensure that the team workIng under hIm Implements the
project desIgns accurately. The project has to be tracked or monItored through Its
cost, manpower and schedule.

The tasks Involved In these phases are:
¤ |anagIng the customer
¤ |arketIng the future work
¤ !erformIng qualIty control work

Post CompIetIon AnaIysIs Phase
After delIvery or completIon of the project, the staff performance has to be
The tasks Involved In thIs phase are:
¤ 0ocumentIng the lessons learnt from the project
¤ AnalysIng project feedback
¤ !reparIng project executIon report
¤ AnalysIng the problems encountered durIng the project
µ.Ż. Wbot ore tbe vorious SCHo soft wores ovoiloble in project
monoqement? Fxploin eocb in brief.

IntroductIon to SuppIy ChaIn honItorIng (SCho)
t Is possIble today to establIsh a monItorIng system alIgned wIth an organIsatIon's
supply chaIn. $upply ChaIn |onItorIng ($C|o can be an add·on to exIstIng EF!
systems. $C|o makes It more effIcIent to master dIffIcult to manage supply networks.

DbjectIves of SCho
¤ !reventIon of stock·out and over supply
¤ Early warnIngs and elImInatIon of bull·whIp effect
¤ DptImIsed allocatIon In bottleneck sItuatIons due to network·wIde Inventory and
demand transparency
¤ ElImInatIon of tIme lags In the InformatIon flow
¤ $ynchronIsatIon of demand InformatIon
¤ $mooth and secure supply wIth mInImal safety InventorIes
¤ ncreased speed and flexIbIlIty of supply networks
¤ FeductIon of non value addIng cost due to trouble shootIng efforts and
admInIstratIve efforts to manage and control materIal flow
¤ 0ecrease In premIum freIght
¤ AvoIdance of scrap due to obsolescence In case of engIneerIng changes or end of
To meet Its objectIves, $C|o runs on certaIn prIncIples

Now that we know the purpose of $C|o, how do we set It up: Let us lIst the steps
Involved In InItIatIng $C|o.

The maIn steps for the set up $C|o Include:
a 0etermInatIon of the potentIally crItIcal part of the supply network crIterIa
b |appIng of structures such as hIgh shortage rIsk and effect, long lead and reactIon
tImes, hIgh total Inventory cost, and frequent engIneerIng changes

The maIn features of such a system are -

I PeIeases and IteratIons pIannIng - t Is a sImple way to create project plan. A
methodology for IteratIons plannIng Is gIven later In thIs sectIon.
II 0ashboard - t Is a quIck project status reportIng tool.
III To-0o IIsts - These lIsts help In IdentIfyIng and documentIng the Integrated
Iv Integrated ÇA - The qualIty analysIs Includes bug trackIng, test cases management,
user story·to·bugs traceabIlIty, QA stats and charts.
v TIme TrackIng - t Is an effIcIent way of creatIng more accurate estImates of tIme.

Support Software
HavIng learnt the basIcs of applIcatIon software, you would have a faIr Idea of how
and to what extent project management processes could be automated. However, the
challenge of "makIng thIngs work" remaIns unchanged. hIle software vendors are
confIdent of "makIng It work", two yawnIng gaps stIll remaIn:
1. usIness processes whIch are not covered In such software
2. ntegratIon of multI vendor supported software applIcatIons

The enterprIse Is normally In a dIlemma - whether to look at the same vendors to
support such customIsatIon or not. ThIs normally works out too expensIve for theIr
comfort or wIthIn theIr tIght budgets.

$everal software vendors have seIzed the opportunIty wIth offerIngs that substantIally
fIll these gaps effectIvely at a fractIon of the costs quoted by the major vendors. The
other carrot whIch these vendors offer Is a unIlateral transfer of the facIlIty to
customIse themselves whIch Is seen as a huge advantage.

The varIous support software that may be used for managIng projects are:
4. !LN
5. |$ ECHANCE $EF7EF 200J

he W roject:-
t Is a consortIa of InstItutIonal reposItory solutIon, combInIng open source and
proprIetary $oftware
Why Arrow!
Arrow Is preferred support software because It:
¤ !rovIdes a platform for promotIng research output In the AFFD context
¤ $afeguards dIgItal InformatIon
¤ Cathers an InstItutIon's research output Into one place
¤ !rovIdes consIstent ways of fIndIng sImIlar objects
¤ Allows InformatIon to be preserved over the long term

¤¤Allows InformatIon from many reposItorIes to be gathered and searched In one step
¤ Enables resources to be shared, whIle respectIng access constraInts
¤ Enables effectIve communIcatIon and collaboratIon between researchers

The vIsIon of project APPDW:
"The AFFD project wIll IdentIfy and test software or solutIons to support best
practIce InstItutIonal dIgItal reposItorIes comprIsIng e·prInts, dIgItal theses and
electronIc publIshIng."

What dId the APPDW project set out to achIeve!
AFFD project wanted to be a solutIon for storIng any dIgItal output. TheIr InItIal
focus was on prInt equIvalents such as thesIs and journal artIcles among others. t
provIded solutIon that could offer on·goIng technIcal support and development past
the end of the fundIng perIod of the project.

What Is APPDW now!
t's In a development stage combInIng Dpen $ource and proprIetary software such as
Fedora, 7TAL, Dpen Journal $ervIces (DJ$. t Is not a centralIsed or hostIng solutIon.
Every member has theIr own hardware and software.


AFFD wanted a robust, well archItected underlyIng platform and a flexIble object·
orIented data model to be able to have persIstent IdentIfIers down to the level of
IndIvIdual data streams. t accommodates the content model to be able to be versIon

$Ince the begInnIng of the project AFFD has worked actIvely and closely wIth Fedora
and the Fedora CommunIty. The AFFD project's TechnIcal ArchItect Is a member of
Fedora AdvIsory oard and sIts on Fedora 0evelopment Croup.
ThIs assocIatIon Is reInforced by 7TL$ nc. 7TL$ !resIdent Is a member of Fedora
AdvIsory oard and 7TAL Lead 0eveloper sIts on Fedora 0evelopment Croup


7TAL refers to AFFD specIfIed software created and fully supported by 7TL$ nc.
buIlt on top of Fedora. t currently provIdes:
1. 7TAL |anager
2. 7TAL !ortal
J. 7TAL Access !ortal
4. 7ALET - eb $elf·$ubmIssIon Tool
5. atch Loader Tool
6. Handles $erver (CNF
7. Coogle ndexIng and Exposure
8. $FU / $F $upport
9. 7TAL archItecture overvIew

7TAL Is part of creatIve development of AFFD InstItutIonal reposItorIes. 7TAL has
the followIng features:
1. nclusIon of multImedIa and creatIve works produced In AustralIan unIversItIes
2. LImIted exposure natIonally or InternatIonally
J. AddItIon of annotatIon capabIlIty
4. nclusIon of datasets and other research output not easIly provIded In any other
publIshIng channel
5. eIng developed In conjunctIon wIth the 0AFT (AFCHEF !roject
6. ExploratIon of the research·teachIng nexus tools that wIll allow value added
servIces for reposItorIes
7. ntegratIon wIth or development of new tools that wIll allow value added servIces
for reposItorIes (for Instance the creatIon of e·portfolIos or C7s of research output of
IndIvIdual academIcs

IIN - erxlxtent IJentlflerx unJ lnklng Infruxtructure
There has been a growIng realIsatIon that sustaInable IdentIfIer Infrastructure Is
requIred to deal wIth the vast amount of dIgItal assets beIng produced and stored
wIthIn unIversItIes.
!LN Is a partIcular challenge for e·research communItIes where massIve amounts of
data are beIng generated wIthout any means of managIng thIs data over any length of
The broad objectIves are to:
1. $upport adoptIon and use of persIstent IdentIfIers and shared persIstent IdentIfIer
management servIces by the project stakeholders

2. !lan for a sustaInable, shared IdentIfIer management Infrastructure that enables
persIstence of IdentIfIers and assocIated servIces over archIval lengths of tIme

J. 0eploy a orldwIde $Ite ConsolIdatIon $olutIon for Exchange $erver 200J at

4. Add !Icture

5. Use |Icrosoft Exchange $erver 200J to consolIdate more than 70 messagIng sItes
worldwIde Into seven physIcal locatIons

Mlcroxoft MoJel nterprlxex (MM):-

¤ |axImIsIng the number of management tasks performed centrally
¤ 0ecreasIng the number of sItes through the consolIdatIon of the smaller locatIons
Into a smaller number of F0Cs
¤ FeducIng the total number of Infrastructure and applIcatIon servers
¤ $tandardIsIng Infrastructure and devIces worldwIde

¤ ConsolIdatIon of 75 taIl sItes Into 6 regIonal data centers (F0Cs usIng local storage
area networks ($ANs
¤ Key Focus Areas
¤ !roactIve, detaIled monItorIng and analysIs of AN bandwIdth utIlIsatIon and latency
¤ EffectIve but flexIble approach to project plannIng, schedulIng, and cross·group
¤ CoordInatIon and control of deployment of successIve pre·release versIons of DffIce
$ystem 200J (IncludIng Dutlook 200J

ßusIness ßenefIts
¤ Four percent overall dIrect cost savIngs
¤ Key enabler of the |Icrosoft |E InItIatIve whIch through fIscal year 200J has
produced mIllIons In overall consolIdatIon savIngs IncludIng U$E

IT ßenefIts
¤ mproved server utIlIsatIon
¤ mproved server management
¤ $trengthened securIty
¤ ncreased relIabIlIty

µ.4 list tbe vorious steps for Risk monoqement. Also exploin 6BH
onJ its key feotures.

PIsk hanagement Process
$o far you studIed the detaIled procedure to estImate rIsks and Its Impact. ThIs sectIon
focuses on practIsIng the same.

The followIng are the sImple steps whIch can be followed:
I. 0etermIne scope of the rIsk sessIon.
II. $elect the team and moderator.
III. The moderator explaIns the rIsk process to new team members.
Iv. dentIfy rIsks (potentIal future problems.
v. raInstorm areas of rIsk, for example, weak areas such as unknown technology.
ThIngs whIch are crItIcal are extremely Important to the effort. $uch as the tImely
delIvery of a vendor's database software, creatIon of translators, or a user Interface
that meets the customers' needs.
vI. dentIfy thIngs that have caused problems In the past, such as loss of key staff,
mIssed deadlInes, or error·prone software.
vII. Femove InvalId or Irrelevant stuff.

Current problems should be treated as problems, not rIsks. The focus should be to
mInImIse the rIsks. $takeholders may adopt varIous strategIes to prevent the rIsk but
rIsks are unavoIdable. FIsks vary from one project to another project. A contIngency
plan has to be prepared to handle the rIsks.

The fIgure 11.6 shows the steps to handle the rIsks.
IdentIfy PIsks: The followIng are the questIons that you should ask to IdentIfy the
correct rIsk. ou should crItIcally analyse the dIfference between a rIsk and a
problem. For each rIsk Item:

0oes the team understand the rIsk Item: f necessary, splIt Into separate rIsk Items,
e.g., 0Isk may overload under condItIon . 0Isk may overload under condItIon .
0Iscuss and determIne Its scope.
¤ hat would the consequences be If the probable rIsk Item occurs:
¤ 0etermIne what the Impact would be If the worst happens, usIng a scale of one to
ten as descrIbed earlIer.
¤ 0etermIne the lIkelIhood of the rIsk Item to occur, usIng a scale of one to ten.
¤ 0etermIne the prIorIty of the rIsk Items through quantItatIve analysIs (Impact x
lIkelIhood. Focus on the Items wIth the hIghest prIorIty.

AnaIyse PIsks: AnalysIs of rIsk and Its Impact Is very Important. There are many
models avaIlable. ou may customIse any of them for the specIfIc needs. $oftware may
be used for the purpose of analysIs.

hItIgate PIsks: !roper mItIgatIon plan Is a must In order to handle the rIsks arIsIng
In the project. The plan should focus on hIgh prIorIty Issues. $elect the most Important
rIsk Issues, such as the top 2 or J, or top 20º. raInstorm on actIons that could be
taken to reduce the lIkelIhood of the rIsk Item occurrIng. raInstorm on actIons that
could be taken to reduce the Impact If the rIsk Item does occur. 0ecIde whIch actIons
to pursue. $elect a person to be responsIble for each actIon chosen. 0ocument the
InformatIon In the rIsk management plan.

PevIew PIsks: EstablIsh how often rIsks should be revIewed (once a month Is typIcal.
FIsk revIews can be Incorporated Into exIstIng project status and phase revIews.
Update the lIst based on rIsk revIew sessIons.
ControI PIsks: t refers to controllIng the devIatIons In a project whIch may be one of
the reasons to Induce a rIsk element In the project. ControllIng the rIsk ensures that
the project Is lIkely to be completed as per the plans and headIng towards the goals
set for the project. t Is preferable to work In a structured mode to handle rIsks In a
project. The fInal goal should be to complete the project on tIme and as per the
schedule wIthIn the gIven budget and lImIted resources wIth the desIrable qualIty.

CIobaI 0eIIvery hodeI
The term Clobal 0elIvery |odel Is typIcally assocIated wIth companIes engaged In T
consultIng and servIces delIvery busIness. These companIes adopt C0| sInce they
execute a technology project usIng a team that Is dIstrIbuted globally. hIle the
commonly understood meanIng of the term ImplIes globally dIstrIbuted resources, the
term Itself has acquIred a broader defInItIon. t Is one of the latest trends In project
What Is C0h!
The Clobal 0elIvery |odel (C0| enables an Industry or busIness to plan, desIgn and
delIver products and servIces to any customer worldwIde wIth speed, accuracy,
economy and relIabIlIty. C0| enables Its customer to leverage varIed locatIons across
the globe that provIdes optImIsed value for every component of delIvery.

Let us dIscuss each key feature of C0|.
StandardIsatIon - t Includes IngenIous desIgn and development of components and
features whIch are lIke to be accepted by 90º of world·wIde customers. C0| heavIly
depends on Clobal $tandards of 0esIgn focusIng on hIghly standardIsed methods and
processes of manufacture or development. t adopts plug·and·socket concepts wIth
mInImum adaptable joInts or connectIons.
hoduIarIsatIon - C0| requIres product or solutIon to be splIt up Into smallest possIble
IndIvIdual IdentIfIable entItIes. These entItIes wIll have
!roject |anagement UnIt 14 $IkkIm |anIpal UnIversIty !age No. 282

lImIted IndIvIdual functIonIng capabIlIty but they can become powerful and robust In
combInatIon wIth other modules.
hInImum CustomIsatIon - C0| mandates only mInImum changes or modIfIcatIons to
suIt IndIvIdual customers.
haxImum hIcro StructurIng - C0| encourages splIttIng of the !roduct |odules further
Into much smaller entIty IdentIfIable more through characterIstIcs rather than
applIcatIon features. These |IcrobIal EntItIes are standardIsed even across |ultIple
|odules. ApplIcatIon of these |IcrobIal EntItIes rest wIthIn multIple !rojects or
!roducts or even as add·ons to suIt customer needs later.

SpecIaI Features of C0h
n addItIon to the features dIscussed above, some of the specIal features of C0| are
¤ A global presence wIth a knowledge of the local language and culture (It helps In
better understandIng of customer requIrements
¤ A global access ImplyIng that the organIsatIon has access to resources of varyIng
costs (It helps In delIverIng servIces to Its customers at an optImal cost, typIcally a mIx
of costlIer 'on·sIte' resources combIned wIth cheaper 'offshore' resources
¤ A global delIvery model ImplyIng that potentIally, a fIrm can work round the clock
for Its customer, handIng off work from one locatIon to another at the end of the 'day
¤ UnImagInable speed of response and IntroductIon
¤ Common pool of |IcrobIal Components
¤ Largely Independent of skIll sets requIred at delIvery stages
¤ HIghly automated processes
¤ QualIty Assurance as a concurrent rather than a controlled !rocess
¤ Near·$hore development, manufacture and delIvery for better logIstIcs
¤ |appIng of economIcal zones rather than geographIc zones
¤ ContInuous floatIng of vIrtual Inventory to save tIme and efforts

µ.S A. lmportonce of Joto monoqement in project monoqement-

The PoIe of EffectIve 0ata hanagement In the Success of Project hanagement
0ata management consIsts of conductIng actIvItIes whIch facIlItate acquIrIng data,
processIng It and dIstrIbutIng It. AcquIsItIon of data Is the prImary functIon. To be
useful, data should have three Important characterIstIcs - tImelIness, suffIcIency and
relevancy. |anagement of acquIsItIon lIes In ensurIng that these are satIsfIed before
they are stored for processIng and decIsIons taken on the analysIs.

There should be data about customers, supplIers, market condItIons, new technology,
opportunItIes, human resources, economIc actIvItIes, government regulatIons, polItIcal
upheavals, all of whIch affect the way you functIon. |ost of the data go on changIng
because the aforesaId sources have uncertaInty Inherent In them. $o updatIng data Is a
very Important aspect of theIr management. $torIng what Is relevant In a form that Is
avaIlable to concerned persons Is also Important. hen a project Is underway dataflow
from all members of the team wIll be flowIng wIth the progress of actIvItIes. The data
may be about some shortfalls for whIch the member Is seekIng InstructIons. A project
manager wIll have to analyse them, dIscover further data from other sources and see
how he can use them and take decIsIons. |any tImes he wIll have to Inform and seek
sanctIon from top management.

The management wIll have to study the Impact on the overall organIsatIonal goals and
strategIes and convey theIr decIsIons to the manager for ImplementatIon. For
example, Ill of |aterIals Is a very Important document In !roject |anagement. t
contaIns detaIls about all materIals that go Into the project at varIous stages and has
to be contInuously updated as all members of the project depend upon It for provIdIng
materIals for theIr apportIoned areas of executIon. $Ince InformatIon Is shared by all
members, there Is an opportunIty for utIlIsIng some of them when others do not need
them. To ascertaIn avaIlabIlIty at some future poInt of tIme, InformatIon about orders
placed, backlogs, lead tImes are Important for all the members. A proper |$ wIll take
care of all these aspects. EF! packages too help In IntegratIng data from all sources
and present them to IndIvIdual members In the way they requIre. hen all these are
done effIcIently the project wIll have no hold ups an assure success.

q.S . Wbot is tbe siqnificonce of reviewinq R0l?

Feturn on nvestment (FD Is the calculated benefIt that an organIsatIon Is projected
to receIve In return for InvestIng money, tIme and resources In a project. IthIn the
context of the revIew process, the Investment would be In an InformatIon system
development or enhancement project.

FD InformatIon Is used to assess the status of the busIness vIabIlIty of the project at
key checkpoInts throughout the project's lIfe·cycle. FD may Include the benefIts
assocIated wIth Improved mIssIon performance, reduced cost, Increased qualIty,
speed, or flexIbIlIty, and Increased customer and employee satIsfactIon.

FD should reflect such rIsk factors as the project's technIcal complexIty, the agency's
management capacIty, the lIkelIhood of cost overruns, and the consequences of under
or non·performance. here approprIate, FD should reflect actual returns observed
through pIlot projects and prototypes.

FD should be quantIfIed In terms of money and should Include a calculatIon of the
break·even poInt (E!, whIch Is the tIme (poInt In tIme when the Investment begIns
to generate a posItIve return. FD should be re·calculated at every major checkpoInt
of a project to see If the E! Is stIll on schedule, based on project spendIng and
accomplIshments to date.

f the project Is behInd schedule or over budget, the E! may move out In tIme; If the
project Is ahead of schedule or under budget the E! may occur earlIer. n eIther
case, the InformatIon Is Important for decIsIon·makIng based on the value of the
Investment throughout the project lIfe·cycle.

Any project that has developed a busIness case Is expected to refresh the FD at each
key project decIsIon poInt (that Is, stage exIt or at least yearly.

f the detaIled data collectIon, calculatIon of benefIts and costs, and capItalIsatIon
data from whIch FD Is derIved was not requIred for a partIcular project, then It may
not be realIstIc or practIcal to requIre the retrofIt calculatIon of FD once the project
Is added to the revIew portfolIo.

n such a case, It Is recommended that a memorandum of record be developed as a
substItute for FD. The memorandum should provIde a brIef hIstory of the program, a
descrIptIon of the major benefIts realIsed to date wIth as much quantItatIve data as
possIble, and a summary of the process used to IdentIfy and select system

$ome of the major benefIts experIenced by sItes that Installed the InformatIon system
that would be Important to Include In the memorandum are:
a 0ecommIssIonIng of maInframe computers.
b FeductIon/redIrectIon of labour.
c ElImInatIon of redundant systems.
d AbIlIty to effectIvely upgrade all sItes wIth one standard upgrade package.

n each case above, IdentIfy the specIfIc sIte, systems, and labour Involved In
determInIng the cIted benefIt. dentIfy any costs or dollar savIngs that are known or
have been estImated.

The memorandum wIll be used as tool for respondIng to any future audIt InquIrIes on
project FD. For the !roject |anagement FevIew, It Is recommended that the project
leader replaces the text on the FD document through:
a A note statIng whIch stage of Its·cycle the project Is In.
b A bulleted lIst of the most Important poInts from the memorandum of record.
c A copy of the memorandum of record for the revIew reposItor

q.6 Compony implements CHHl level-ŸŻ. To moke furtber
cbonqes it JeciJes on stortinq o new Jivision in tbe orqonizotion.
lt JeciJes to oJvonce tbe existinq project monoqement. Wbot ore
tbe steps to be followeJ by tbe orqonizotion to Jrive project
monoqement to o new borizon?

The concepts of project management keep evolvIng as new horIzons become
promInent. Let us look at some of them.

ßeIIevIng In dIscontInuIty and not In contInuIty wIth IncrementaI Improvements:
ContInuIty or status quo Is a functIon of quantum of changes. ncremental
Improvements are valId only when the rate of change Is not excessIve. |odern domaIns
and development processes are hIghly dynamIc. !roject management today demands
dIscontInuIty and greater flexIbIlIty, wIth no hurdles to move Into the future. An open
mInd towards the unknown Is the key. |embers are not expected to be rattled by
sweepIng changes demanded by the dynamIcally changIng objectIves.

DwnIng the probIems and sharIng the soIutIons: ExperIence Is gaIned through
keepIng an open mInd to problems. ExperIence Is now not judged by number of years
of servIce but by the number and complexIty of problems owned and solved. The fIxed
mould mentalIty of passIng the buck and expectIng credIt for dIscoverIes Is not
apprecIated any more.

ßreakIng the status quo mentaIIty: ThIs ImplIes that future Is not an extensIon of the
present and therefore It needs to be tamed. ExcessIve focusIng on future may not
however be apprecIated. A proper balance Is a must. n most cases, a conflIct between
a present - centrIc manager and a future centrIc project leader can only be solved by
the InnovatIve predIctIve approach of a member - It Is usually the member who Is
more aware of future bugs and clIent centrIc problems.

SteppIng out of comfortabIe zone: |omentarIly, a member mIght feel more
comfortable to stay In the comfort zone and refraIn from rIsks. However, he or she
should remember that a team leader has emerged by steppIng out of the comfort
zone. Dn the other hand, If a member decIdes to step out of the comfort zone and be
InnovatIve and contrIbute then thIs would amount to emergence of a future leader.
!romotIons are not tIme bound any more.

Human capItaI bypassIng fInancIaI: Human capItal has left fInancIal capItal far
behInd. A member should therefore apprecIate and maIntaIn self realIsatIon of hIs
Importance In the organIsatIon. However, to sustaIn credIbIlIty, the member should
remember that hIs or her value Is not related to the level or the salary but on the
quantum of output, agaIn not on the volume of codIng but on the value of the work
done to the product. CombInIng these two concepts of human capItal and value, the
concept of return on the tIme Invested has replaced return on Investment when It
comes to valuatIon.

TransformIng work cuIture from 5 to 7 dImensIons: ConventIonally we lIve among
the fIve dImensIons - , , , tIme and mInd. e need to add passIon and joy If we
aIm any substantIal progress. t Is Important for a member to decIde to do what he or
she wants to do. Then the gap between wIsh and realIty Is narrowed and the results
Improve. A project could well become a work of art.

PeaI number of encounters repIacIng number of years of experIence: The
experIence level Is now judged by the number of encounters of major problems solved
rather than the number of years. ExperIence Is then counted as wIsdom. The secret
formula for a member Is to buIld an Inventory of encounters meanIngful to hIs or her
own dream or passIon profIle.

SeekIng meanIng out of change: Change could be a threat or an opportunIty. f
change Is resIsted, It Is essentIal for the entIre team, through extraordInary team
effort and braIn stormIng, to weIgh consequences before draftIng of a plan to match
proposals for changes. The key lIes In extraordInary Inter personal skIlls and

0etachment from the fruIts of resuIts: To act Is wIthIn one's control. To get a
reactIon or a reward Is not wIthIn hIs or her purvIew. Too much attentIon to these
factors would result In drop In productIvIty and further hInder personal progress. The
team members should rather analyse and dIscuss among themselves and let results
speak for themselves. Dne should apprecIate that there Is every chance that a leader
or a manger can be Issued marchIng orders If he or she faIls to recognIse results of
IndIvIdual performances. After all, It Is hIs responsIbIlIty to buIld a second lIne and
move up the ladder hImself. Dne matures by quIckly tIdIng over temporary
dIsappoIntment wIth non·recognItIon and just contInues.

|ost organIsatIons now encourage "presentatIon" by members as well as self
assessment reports. Dn the flIp sIde, thIs may be one of the reasons for heavy
turnover, but the member should remember that he or she Is enterIng another
organIsatIon wIth greater maturIty and perhaps better chances of movIng up.
|anagements now tend to constantly watch the balance between retentIon and

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