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It is described as essentially factors for development. Adeyemi (1984) and Ogili (2001) contend that the best strategy for effective communication in educational instructions is guaranteeing continual use of skills by the prospective learners in the production of prototype materials. Ogili (2001) and Offor (1998) enumerated four factors involved and embedded in the process of effective communication as: (a) the encoder or sender (b) the message to be sent (c) the channel for carrying the message and (d) the receiver or decoder Effective Communication Effective communication is the utilization of ideas. ideas. All these are encoded simultaneously and the message functions as a unit. acts. films. Here the source encoder constructs a message concerning a wide range of objects. The relevance of effective communication lies in the various levels of the learning materials and equipment. designing. situation or experiences.Effective communication according to Eze (1998) enjoys a complete model. classrooms. graphs. The value of educational instruction lies in its ability to actively assist learners to learn faster. refer to a variety of materials such as: photographs. line drawings. understand deeper. carrying out and evaluating human learning and communication. and newspapers. Ogili (2001) asserts that learners generally remember: (a) 10 percent of what they read (b) 20 percent of what they hear (c) 30 percent of what they see (d) 50 percent of what they hear and see (e) 70 percent of what they say (f) 90 percent of what they say as they do a thing. physical stimuli and vocal stimuli. posters. techniques. The total message that is encoded consists of at least three principal factors. The message is transmitted to a receiver (decoder) who responds in some way to its verbal. books. verbal stimuli. objects. models. physical and vocal elements. taking into account its dynamism and influence (Udenta. Strategies for effective communication in educational instructions: (a) Visualisation (b) Audio (c) Face-to-Face (d) Participatory (e) Funds (f) Teacher and the Environment Visualisation Strategy Visuals are things you are able to see. which include physical and verbal factors. 1998). objects. signs. to ensure a two-way process. devices and people for planning. . retain longer and apply accurately what has been learned as compared with other existing approaches. slides. Ezeanya (2001) summarised effective communication as essentially messages sent and received and confirmation of their receipt and interpretation is returned from a sender. paintings. charts.
The significance of visualization in effective communication includes the following: (a) makes the message clearer (b) breaks the monotony of print (c) helps the learner to remember that the information better (d) increases attention (e) helps to make learning more real (f) motivates the learner (g) makes the printed materials more attractive (h) communicates to learners in all languages. .
relevant strategies for communication are vitally important. tap recordings. Print Media Strategy for achieving results is by increasing the motivation and mobilisation. records. Implementation level includes: . cartoons. articles. transparencies. microforms models and puppets. official documents.Direct teaching Audio materials include radio. maps.News and information . billboards. In order to achieve effectiveness in educational instructions.Ogili (2001) opines that educational instructions call for effective communication or revolution. (c) Printed materials: textbooks. The various forms of educational media include the following: (a) Graphic materials: graphs. flannelboards and chalkboards. 35mm films. short stories and pictorial stories.Reports of activities . Ezeanya (2001) reiterates that effective communication in educational instruction is very necessary because it can supply a concrete basis for conceptual thinking. Types of programme include talks. (e) Audio materials: Radio. posters. analysis. . (f) Others are: magic boards. telephone records and tape-recording. (b) Display materials: cloth-board. encyclopaedia. offer experience which stimulates self activity on the part of the learner.support teachers . telephone. which can be used for instructional processes alongside the teacher. globes and cartoons. telephoto. (d) Projected materials: 16mm films. textbook and chalkboard. newspapers. charts. diagrams. documentaries (films) and spot announcements. plays. dictionaries. flat pictures.reinforce previous lessons . duplicated materials.private reading materials Electronic Media (Television) Strategy for achieving results includes mobilisation and motivation. Implementation level requires: . Types of materials include features. discussions.Appeals .
beliefs. Types of programme include drama. factories. interactive technique.Support Teacher . musical programme with commentaries. the sender may not express what s/he wants to say clearly. talks i. seminars. Therefore. one certainly sees the effects on learners. CONCLUSION In the struggles for national development. Eze (1998) affirms that face-to-face crystallises the specific objectives as: to inform. To be effective.e forum or debate. For instance. regular payment of salaries and allowances. persuade.Create enhancing mood . This in turn create enhancing mood. Ogili (2001) and Talabi (1980) contend that the use of electronic media in educational institutions should be well organised. or the room may be noisy.Reinforce previous lessons . encourage question and answer and give assignment for assessment. the uneducated cannot be left out without the devastating repercussions.Radio Strategy for achieving results includes – mobilisation and motivation. workshops. learners can come back to the classrooms to narrate their various experiences orally or in writing.Create means for participation (Ezeanya. Implementation levels include support the teacher by encouraging him to develop through conferences. The teacher should. . shops.Effective communication here depends on the learner assessment of teachers. Field trips that include short field trips to adjacent industries.1). museums. a variety of strategies to support and improve educational activities must be satisfied. under specified conditions to specific situations. Implementation guidelines include: . in a way a specified learning occur. enlighten and educate learners. After the trips. The additional modern approaches to Teaching-Learning Materials (TLMs) supports the Learner centred.Support written materials . Such field trips should be relevant to the curriculum and lesson otherwise it may end up a pleasure trip and a waste of time and resources. making the communication less effective. teacher as facilitation and formative type of evaluation. convince. quarries and other place of scientific and cultural reminiscent are good supplement to the teaching effort. . 2001) and Field Trips. entertain. teachers have to try to minimise these barriers to communication. selected and monitored by the teacher. In order to ensure effective communication in educational instructions.1 At any stage of this process things may go wrong. support written materials and at the same time create avenue for participation in decisionmaking Instructional Approaches When specific effort is made to modify the environment. collaborative work. therefore. appropriate strategies must be involved to liberate. or the receiver may not understand the words the sender is using. Instruction is described as the process whereby the learner’s environment is deliberately manipulated to enable learner respond positively. actuate or stimulate. Hubley has shown us that communication is a complex process (Fig. attitude and personality.
listen to each other) About the content ¥ Does the teacher emphasise important knowledge? (the main messages are clear and emphasised. posters.We do this in a number of ways Ð for example. students can see the teacher. the most important way to overcome the barriers is two-way communication (Fig. moves around. neat. However. We have all heard the saying: ÔWhat I hear. a chalkboard. 3). Pictures. not too fast. by only using words which the students should be able to understand. not too much crammed onto one aid) ¥ Are the teaching aids skilfully used? . Either way. and clarify it) ¥ Are the teaching aids well prepared? (only contain highlights/ main points. written posters and practical demonstrations improve communication and we should use them as much as possible. and expect the students to write down what they say and to learn it (this style encourages superficial learning – and rapid forgetting!). Person-to-Person Communication: Presentation Skills Some teachers like to talk. If teachers really attend to the body language of their students they will know when they arebored or confused. We are all familiar with the different kinds of non-verbal communication (Fig. Other teachers see their role as one of helping the students to learn at a deeper level . what I see. This kind of communication is usually subconscious Ð we use it without thinking about it. different colours are used) ¥ Are the teaching aids easy to read and understand? (letters and pictures are large enough. I forget. The overhead projector is particularly useful. or pictures and diagrams. I remember. that is why we say that Ôit is difficult to lie in body languageÕ. We can use these to prepare aids for our lessons: summaries of important facts. these teachers will do a better job if they communicate well with their students. About the style of presentation ¥ Does the teacher speak clearly? (loud enough. faces the class. unnecessary detail is left out) ¥ Is information presented in a logical sequence? (bits of information follow logically after each other Ð easy to understand and remember) About the place where the teaching is happening ¥ Istheplaceconducive togoodcommunication? (enough light. not too hot/ too cold) About the use of teaching aids ¥ Are the teaching aids relevant? (the aids only deal with the subject matter of the lesson. An important element of communication in teaching is the use of teaching aids. I knowÕ.to understand new ideas and concepts so well that they can apply them in a work situation. by making sure that the room is quiet and well lit. because it allows us to face our students while using it. eye contact with whole class) ¥ Does the teacher speak understandably? (uses words that the students should be able to understand) ¥ Is the speed of presentation right? (the students must be able to absorb the material that is presented) ¥ Is there two-way communication? (the teacher checks regularly if the students have understood) ¥ Is there evidence of a good relationship between teacher and students? (teacher and students respect each other. avoids mannerisms like ÔumÕ) ¥ Is the teacherÕs non-verbal communication suitable? (appropriate gestures and expressions. by speaking slowly and clearly. This means getting regular feedback from the receivers (the students in this case): are they really understanding what we are trying to put across? Communication does not only take place by means of words. From the body language of their teachers students pick up whether They are confidenta nd enthusiastic.nonoisefromoutside) ¥ Are the students comfortable? (adequate seating. what I do. or an overhead projector. Most of us have access to paper. non-verbal communication (or body language) is equally important. 2).
using the simplest word that will say what you want to say) About the layout/ presentation ¥ Is it legible/ easy to read? (handwriting neat.the students donÕt know) ¥ Does it present information in a logical sequence? (information logically connected. boring. pictures or diagrams included) . roneo copies or photocopies clear) ¥ Is it well spaced and not too full? (a page crammed full of print is discouraging. not Ôchildren should be regularly fedÕ) ¥ Are the readers likely to understand the words? (no jargon. uses a pointer. comprehensive. one idea per sentence) ¥ Are active verbs used as much as possible?* (Ôfeed children regularlyÕ.(the teacher handles them with confidence. does not mix them up) About the content ¥ Does it emphasize important knowledge? (makes clear what is important . bold font used for emphasis. so it is easy to understand and to learn) ¥ Is it scientifically accurate and up-to-date? (information is true. in line with current thinking) About the style of writing ¥ Are the sentences short? (not more than 20 words. difficult to read) ¥ Is it striking and interesting? (different letter sizes.
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