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Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for lecture of Introduction to linguistics


Lecturer Nurul Khasanah M.pd


A. What is language? Language is any means of conveying or communicating ideas; specifically, human speech; the expression of ideas by the voice; sounds, expressive of thought, articulated by the organs of the throat and mouth. This implies that all human languages have certain feature in common. One feature we have noted above is that language is a system. Another such feature is that every language has a dual structure. Means that in all human language. There two levels of structure of systematic relationships. In other words each language is a system consisting of two subsystems. One is the subsystems of meaningful units. The other is the subsystem of sounds. Which have no meaning in them selves but which form the meaningful units? Notice that language is speech: it is a system of sound related to a system of meanings. Another feature of human language is that is productive or creative. This refers to the ability of native speakers to understand and produce any number of sentences (which they have never heard before) in their mother tongue. An important characteristic of language is recursion. This mean sentence may be produce with other sentences inside them. This may be done for example by relativisation (the use of relatives clauses): This is the boy that found the dog that chased the eat that.Another example of the process of recursion is conjunction (use of co-ordinating conjunctions): Cheng went into the shop. (And he) asked for the manager. (And he) made a compliant. (And he) Also, language is arbitrary. The relation between a word and its meaning is a matter of conversation: the animal called dog in English is called anjing in Malay and aso in Filipino. There is no necessary connection between the sounds people use and the objects to which these sounds refer. Language is a special phenomenon. It is a means of communication between individuals. It also brings them into relations him

with their environment. Language is therefore socially learned behavior. Skill that is acquired as we grow up in society. All languages are equally complex. Each language is part of the culture that procedure it and is adequate for the needs of the people who use it. Any language therefore. Is as good as any other in that it serves the purposes of the particular culture. Words may be created or borrowed as the need arises. No language is in intrinsically better or worse than any other. How does a human language differ from animal language? Animal too communicate with one another. They bark, rattle, hoot, and bleated.and to some extent. These noises serve the same purposes as human language. One difference is that the animal systems of communication can procedure only a limited number of messages and animals can not produce new combinations of noises to meet the needs of new situations as human being can.1 B. The History of linguistic Although the word linguistics was in use at least as early as 1837 and linguistics as early as 1835, neither term was used with any great frequency until the 1930s, when the structuralism movement first become popular in the movement first become popular in the United States. During the 1930s, and 1940s, Linguistics was a term widely used by scholars who studied the structure of contemporary languages. Since the prevailing goal during those years was to employ scientific precision and objectivity was the scientific study of language . So long as the word was used almost exclusively by specialist among whom there were no major theoretical differences, the meaning remained fairly constant. By the mind 1950s the word was no longer the exclusive property of specialist and during the 1960s the term came to the attention of the general public through the controversy over websites third new
Boey, Lim Kiat. An Introduction to linguistics for the language teacher. Singapore. Singapore University Press.1975.2-3.

international dictionary (1961) and through the introduction of new subject matter into the English program of most elementary and secondary schools in the United States. When words pass form the technical vocabulary of specialist to the everyday vocabulary of the general public, well-defined, precise meanings give may to less exact and even new meanings which vary from speaker to speaker. We have seen this process apply to inferiority complex, extrovert, seminar, martyr, tragedy, and a great many more words which no longer have just their original technical meanings. Linguistics is no exception as a word that is used in various ways. Because of this lack of consistency in meaning, it is essential that any book on the subject, especially one which is called linguistics and the English language, begin with a definition of the term. Most linguistics are still concerned with precision and objectivity in language study, but basic differences in theory are so pronounced among linguistics today that there is no general agreement as to know to attain these goals. To some linguistics it seems pretentious and inaccurate to speak of their discipline as a science. Probably the only definition that a great many linguistics would accept today is that linguistics is the study of language. This definition includes the study of the structures of individual languages such as English, German, or Navajo as well as the study of language in general. It also includes all approaches with which the person studies language traditional, structural, and transformational, tagmemic, stratification, and others.2 C. The scope of linguistic 1. General linguistic generally describes the concepts and categories of a particular language or among all language. It also provides analyzed theory of the language. Descriptive linguistic describes or gives the data to confirm or refute the theory of particular language explained generally.
Liles, Bruce L. Linguistics and the English Language, an Transformational Approach. California. Goodyear Publishing Company. 1972.1-2.

2. Micro linguistic is narrower view. It is concerned internal view of language itself (structure of language systems) without related to other sciences and without related how to apply it in daily life. Some fields of micro linguistic: a. Phonetics, the study of the physical properties of sounds of human language b. Phonology, the study of sounds as discrete, abstract elements in the speaker's mind that distinguish meaning c. Morphology, the study of internal structures of words and how they can be modified d. Syntax, the study of how words combine to form grammatical sentences e. Semantics, the study of the meaning of words (lexical semantics) and fixed word combinations (phraseology), and how these combine to form the meanings of sentences f. Pragmatics, the study of how utterances are used (literally, figuratively, or otherwise) in communicative acts g. Discourse analysis, the analysis of language use in texts (spoken, written, or signed) Applied linguistic is the branch of linguistic that is most concerned with application of the concepts in everyday life, including languageteaching. 3. Macro linguistic is broadest view of language. It is concerned external view of language itself with related to other sciences and how to apply it in daily life. Some fields of micro linguistic: a. Stylistics, the study of linguistic factors that place a discourse in context. b. Developmental linguistics, the study of the development of linguistic ability in an individual, particularly the acquisition of language in childhood.

c. Historical linguistics or Diachronic linguistics, the study of language change. d. Language geography, the study of the spatial patterns of languages. e. Evolutionary linguistics, the study of the origin and subsequent development of language. f. Psycholinguistics, the study of the cognitive processes and representations underlying language use. g. Sociolinguistics, the study of social patterns and norms of linguistic variability. h. Clinical linguistics, the application of linguistic theory to the area of Speech-Language Pathology. i. Neurolinguistics, the study of the brain networks that underlie grammar and communication. j. Biolinguistics, the study of natural as well as human-taught communication systems in animals compared to human language. k. Computational linguistics, the study



implementations of linguistic structures.


Boey, Lim Kiat. (1972) an introduction to linguistics for the language teacher. Singapore: Singapore University Press. Liles, Bruce L. (1972) Linguistics and the English Language, a Transformational Approach. California: Goodyear publishing company.

phonetic adj phonetic [fnetik] relating to the sounds of (a) language He's making a phonetic study of the speech of the deaf. n sg phonetics the study of the sounds of language. n singula n pl (a system of) symbols used to show the pronunciation of words. PHONETIC A. Introduction of phonetics B. The sound-producing system C. Voiced and voiceless sound D. Places and manners of articulation E. Vowels

Linguists have shown that language is primarily speech and modern approaches to language teaching include the teaching of pronunciation. Language teachers. Therefore need to have some knowledge of phonetics. The science which analyses and records sound and the element of speech. And their use and distribution in connected sentences. Definition of phonetics. The developmental process envisioned above involves an activity which could very well be called the study of phonetics. Since phonetics ordinarily disregards non-significant sounds and since this

developmental process is essentially a process of abstracting from the continuum of what we call speech sounds the individual fractions of sound which have significance we may say that applied phonetics is the study of significant speech sounds. Such a study recognizes, but does not deal at length with, the following in sequence: (1) stimuli to the nervous system;(2) neural response; followed by (3) muscular action of frequently very generalized nature, but typically centered in what are called the organs of speech; (4) resultant sound waves, (a)in the air, (b) in the tympanum of the listeners ear,(c) in the ossicular chain of the middle ear, (d) in the end lymph of the cochlea; (5)nerve current to the brain, interpreted there

as acoustic phenomena(speech as heard). Phonetics maybe defined as a study of (3) above, the action of the vocal organs in speech, and of (5) above, speech as heard.(chapter 3 gives minimal details relating to this definition)

PHONOLOGY A. Introduction to phonology B. Minimal pair and set C. Phonemes and allophones D. Phonetics and phonological transcription MORPHOLOGY A. Introduction to morphology B. Morphemes C. Inflectional vs. derivational affixes D. Word formation SYNTAX A. Introduction to syntax B. Syntactic categories C. Grammatical & non grammatical sentences D. Phrase structure rules E. Transformational rules