Understanding the Importance of HSUPA in driving the uptake of profitable applications

Svend Lauszus Director, HSPA Marketing&Sales
1 © NOKIA Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

High Speed Downlink Packet Access Taking WCDMA to the Next Stage
• Higher data performance
• •

• Higher network efficiency
• • •

Downlink data rate: 1.8-14 Mbps Low latency: 100 ms

Higher spectral efficiency Higher Iub efficiency than R99 Higher Baseband efficiency

Fast New HSDPA

New adaptive modulation and coding
Data rates are optimized dynamically during the session according to radio link quality. This ensures highest possible data rates to end-users.

Efficient scheduling in BTS

Fast retransmission in BTS

Efficient
2 © NOKIA Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

BTS schedules data transmission instead of RNC. This results in multi-user diversity gains.

Data retransmission is handled by BTS. UE combines correct bits from original transmission and retransmission (and HARQ). This provides fastest possible response.

High Speed Uplink Packet Access Additional Performance Gains
• Higher data performance
• •

• Higher network efficiency
• • •

Uplink data rate: 1-5 Mbps Low latency: 50 ms

Higher spectral efficiency Higher Iub efficiency than R99 Higher Baseband efficiency

Fast New HSUPA

New Higher order modulation
Data rates are optimized dynamically during the session according to radio link quality. This ensures highest possible data rates to end-users.

Efficient scheduling in BTS

Fast retransmission in BTS

Efficient
3 © NOKIA Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

BTS schedules data transmission instead of RNC. This results in multi-user diversity gains.

Data retransmission is handled by BTS. BTS combines correct bits from original transmission and re transmission (and HARQ). This provides fastest possible response.

HSDPA - UE Categories
• HSDPA is using QPSK and 16QAM modulation with multicode transmission to achieve high datarates • Theoretical peak bit rate up to 14.4 Mbps • 1.8 (or even 3.6) Mbps capability expected initially
HSDPA Category 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Modulation QPSK only QPSK only QPSK/16QAM QPSK/16QAM QPSK/16QAM QPSK/16QAM QPSK/16QAM QPSK/16QAM QPSK/16QAM QPSK/16QAM QPSK/16QAM QPSK/16QAM Inter-TTI 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Transport Block size 3630 3630 7298 7298 7398 7398 7398 7398 14411 14411 20251 27952 5 Codes 0.9 Mbps 1.8 Mbps 1.2 Mbps 1.2 Mbps 1.8 Mbps 1.8 Mbps 3.6 Mbps 3.6 Mbps 10 Codes 7.2 Mbps 7.2 Mbps 15 Codes -

Some early chipsets targeted for use as pc-cards - 14,4

Mbps (theoretical) 10.1 Mbps 14.0 Mbps

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Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

HSUPA - UE Categories
• HSUPA is using BPSK modulation with multicode transmission to achieve high datarates • Theoretical peak bit rate up to 5.76 Mbps • 1.46 Mbps capability expected initially
HSUPA Category 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 Transport Block size 7296 14592 2919 14592 20000 5837 20000 20000 11520

Codes x Spreading 1 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF2 2 x SF2 2 x SF2 2xSF2 + 2xSF4 2xSF2 + 2xSF4

TTI 10 10 2 10 10 2 10 10 2

Data rate 0.73 Mbps 1.46 Mbps 1.46 Mbps 1.46 Mbps 2 Mbps 2.9 Mbps 2 Mbps 2 Mbps 5.76 Mbps

5.76 Mbps (theoretical)

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Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

Network Infrastructure Cost per subscriber per month

EUR

GPRS EDGE WCDMA HSPA

100

200

300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Served MB per user per month (MB/User/Month)

1000

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Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

• Efficient Scheduling • Higher Order Modulation • Fast Retransmissions

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Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

Fast Scheduling Reduces Noise Variance
• Faster scheduling reduces noise rise variations ⇒ Less headroom needed ⇒ Cell capacity and user data rates are increased • A first estimated increase in the cell capacity is 1520% for the same noise rise outage
Operation point can be increased because variance is reduced.

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Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

Uplink Cell Troughput
• HSUPA gain up to 50% higher cell troughput

1800 1600 1400 1200 kbps 1000 800 600 400 200 0 R99 RNC scheduling BLER=1%
9 © NOKIA Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

HSUPA Release’99

HSUPA round robin

HSUPA proportional fair

Uplink Average User Throughput with 21 Users Per Cell
• HSUPA gain up to 50% higher user throughput in loaded cells
120 100 kbps per user 80 60 40 20 0 Release 99 Fast retransmit Node B scheduling Fast proportional scheduling HSUPA Release’99 +9% +24% +43%

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Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

HSDPA Data Performance Single User Bit Rate in Macro Cell
4000 3500 3000 2500
kbps

3.6 Mbps close to cell center Median data rate 770 kbps (at 0.7x distance)

2000 1500 1000 500 0
Release ’99 DCH
HS DP A

Approx 300 kbps at the cell edge

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Distance from BTS [relative to cell radius, 1=cell edge]
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HSUPA Data Performance Single User Data Rates in Macro Cells
3000 2500 2000
kbps

1.4 Mbps close to cell center Median data rate 700 kbps (at 0.7x distance) Approx 300 kbps at the cell edge
HS UP A

1500 1000 500
Release ’99 DCH

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Distance from BTS [relative to cell radius, 1=cell edge]
12 © NOKIA Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

Video Streaming Application Bit Rates
• • • • Minimum bit rate for good quality video approx 50-60 kbps Very good quality with approx 100-150 kbps No clear benefit from higher data rates in mobile display Video quality is also affected by the streaming encoding even with the same bit rate 200 150 kbps 100 50 0 GPRS
13 © NOKIA Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

EDGE enables good quality video streaming

WCDMA / HSUPA enables very good quality video streaming

Very good quality Good quality Low quality EDGE WCDMA HSUPA

Content Upload times
120 100 kbps per user 80 60 40 20 0 EDGE WCDMA 64 kbps WCDMA 384 kbps HSUPA 208 s 380 s 4 MB MP3 music file 300 kB high quality photo 100 kb short video clip

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Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

Hybrid ARQ Gain
• Fast L1 retransmissions allow to operate at BLER =10% while maintaining the same RLC retransmission probability as with Release 99 BLER=1%
Vehicular A channel profile, 50 km/h, 64 kbps, 10 ms TTI 10 Effective required EbNo to meet BLER target [dB] 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 HARQ Type I HARQ Type II/III

1% 10%

Sensitivity1gain of 0.5…10 dB
10

-2

10 BLER target

-1

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Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

Higher Data Performance Round Trip Time Evolution
Release 99 200 ms
200 180 160 140 120 ms 100 80 60 40 20 0 Today HSDPA HSDPA+HSUPA

Round trip time of 32-Byte packet

HSDPA <100 ms HSUPA 50 ms

Internet Iu + core RNC Iub Node B AI UE

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Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

Why Round Trip Time is Important (1)
– Web Page Download Example
UE
1 2 3 4 DNS* query and reply TCP connection establishment HTTP request and reply (text) HTTP request and reply (pictures)

DNS server

Web server

Minimum 3 to 4 round trip times required for page download

• Web page download involves several signaling messages • Each message exchange takes minimum 1 round trip time • Download takes minimum 3 to 4 round trip times even for a small page • Several TCP connections may be required in a single page
*) DNS = domain name server
17 © NOKIA Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

Why Round Trip Time is Important (2)
– Web Page Download Example
TCP slow start Max bit rate used only after TCP slow start

Bit rate Download with long round trip time
1

2

3-4

Time

Download with short round trip time
1 2 3-4

Faster download even if max bit rate is not increased

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Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

Higher Data Performance Outlook Synchronization
Outlook offline synchronization [No mail download]
45 40 35 Download time [s] 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 10 50 100 200 300 500 Round trip time [ms]
19 © NOKIA Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

Lower round trip time clearly improves performance. Bit rate does not affect performance since no emails are downloaded
128 kbps 384 kbps 1 Mbps

Why VoIP Performs Better in HSPA than in DO
• More flexible HARQ scheme
• •

HSPA has adaptive and asynchronous HARQ. DO has synchronous H-ARQ scheme. HSPA has own control information for each transmission or retransmission. DO control information is only carried in the beginning of the transmission as a preamble.

• More flexible control channel design
• •

• More accurate C/I reporting
• •

HSPA uses accurate C/I report. DO uses DRC reporting and the base station must follow modes compatible with the reported DRC.

These differences are significant when small packets are transmitted with low delay requirements, like VoIP. The differences are less important with large TCP packets without guaranteed delay requirements.

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Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

Summary Nokia High Speed Packet Access Solution
• Different - Major New Functionality
• • • • • •

New architecture

Downlink peak datarates 1-14 Mbps New adaptive and higher order modulation and coding Efficient Node B based packet scheduling Fast Node B based retransmissions Improved latency, Round Trip Time 50 ms Higher uplink datarates 0.5-5 Mbps Maximum efficiency

• Growth - Engine for Traffic Growth
• • •

Improved spectral efficiency (new modulation) Improved baseband efficiency (new scheduling) Improved Iub efficiency Investment follows revenue

• Evolution - Investment Protection
• •

Backwards compatible Gradual introduction possible

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Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus

Thank you!

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Importance of HSUPA / SLauszus