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# 6 GEODETIC CODES AND PARAMETERS The 4 main geodetic concepts in this chapter are ellipsoid, datum, projection and

grid system. A geodetic datum includes an ellipsoid as one of its defining components. A grid system includes a datum and a projection among its defining components. The way in which geodetic datum, ellipsoid, grid and projection are inter-related is shown in Figure 6-1. Figure 6-1 Concept Relationships The codes identifying ellipsoid, datum, projection and grid are listed in Tables 6-1, 6-2, 6-5 and 6-6. It should be noted that the grid codes in Table 6-6 are allocated to both grid systems and grid categories. A grid category includes a number of different grids, with variations in geodetic datum and/or zone of application. The most obvious example is Universal Transverse Mercator. .1 Ellipsoid Codes The parameters (semimajor axis a and inverse flattening 1/f) are purely to assist ellipsoid identification. The abbreviation "Alt:" is used to denote alternative codes originating from DIGEST 1.2, which are included for backward compatibility. In some cases, ellipsoids have come into existence as part of a datum definition. As a result, some ellipsoids are known by the same name as the datum, although the codes will differ. Note the presence of special codes: NO for no ellipsoid, ZY for other known ellipsoid and ZZ for unknown ellipsoid. Table 6-1 Ellipsoid Codes Ellipsoid Ellipsoid (followed by parameters a, 1/f) Code Airy (1830) AA (6377563.396, 299.3249647) Alt: AAY US - Modified Airy AMAlt: UK - Airy Modified AAM (6377340.189, 299.3249647) Australian National AN (1966) (6378160.000, 298.2500000) APL 4.5 (1968) AP (6378144.000, 298.2300000) Average Terrestrial System 1977 AT (6378135.000, 298.2570000) Airy (War Office) AW (6377542.178, 299.3250000) Bessel (Modified) BM (6377492.018, 299.1528000) Bessel 1841 (Namibia) BN (6377483.865, 299.1528128) US - Bessel 1841 (Ethiopia, Indonesia, Japan, Korea) BR UK - Bessel (1841) Revised (6377397.155, 299.1528128) Clarke 1858 CA (6378235.600, 294.2606768) Clarke 1858 (Modified) CB (6378293.645, 294.26000000) Clarke 1866 CC Alt: CLK (6378206.400, 294.9786982) US - Clarke 1880 CD Alt: CLJ UK - Clarke 1880 Modified

(6378249.145, 293.4650000) Clarke 1880 (Cape) (6378249.145, 293.4663077) Clarke 1880 (Palestine) 6378300.782, 293.4663077) Clarke 1880 (IGN) (6378249.200, 293.4660208) Clarke 1880 (Syria) (6378247.842, 293.4663517) Clarke 1880 (Fiji) (6378301.000, 293.4650000) Clarke 1880 (Unspecified) (-,-) Danish (1876) or Andrae (6377104.430, 300.0000000) Delambre 1810 (6376985.228, 308.6400000) Delambre (Carte de France) (6376985.000, 308.6400000) US - Everest (India 1830) UK - Everest (1830) (6377276.345, 300.8017000) US - Everest (Brunei and E. Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak)) UK - Everest (Borneo) (6377298.556, 300.8017000) US - Everest (India 1956) UK - Everest (India) (6377301.243, 300.8017000) UK takes 1/f as 300.8017255. US - Everest (W. Malaysia 1969) UK - Everest (Malaya RSO) (6377295.664, 300.8017000) US - Everest (W. Malaysia and Singapore 1948) UK - Everest (Malaya RKT) (6377304.063, 300.8017000) Everest (Pakistan) (6377309.613, 300.8017000) Everest (Unspecified) (-,-) US - Modified Fischer 1960 (South Asia) UK - Fischer 1960 (South Asia) (6378155.000, 298.3000000) Fischer 1968 (6378150.000, 298.3000000) Fischer 1960 (Mercury) (6378166.000, 298.3000000) Germaine (Djibouti) (6378284.000, 294.0000000) Hayford 1909 (6378388.000, 296.9592630) The original version, based on a=6378388, b=6356909. Helmert 1906 (6378200.000, 298.3000000)

CE CF CG CI CJ CL DA DB DC EA EB EC

ED EE EF EV FA FC FM GE HA HE

Hough 1960 (6378270.000, 297.0000000) IAG Best Estimate 1975 (6378140.000, 298.2570000) Indonesian National (1974) (6378160.000, 298.2470000) US - International 1924 UK - International (6378388.000, 297.0000000) Krassovsky (1940) (6378245.000, 298.3000000) Krayenhoff 1827 (6376950.400, 309.6500000) No ellipsoid NWL-8E (6378145.000, 298.2500000) Plessis Modified (6376523.000, 308.6400000) Plessis Reconstituted (6376523.994, 308.6248070) Geodetic Reference System 1967 (6378160.000, 298.2471674) Geodetic Reference System 1980 (6378137.000, 298.2572221) South American (6378160.000, 298.2500000) Soviet Geodetic System 1985 (6378136.000, 298.2570000) Ellipsoid Junction Soviet Geodetic System 1990 (6378136.000, 298.2578393) Struve 1860 (6378298.300, 294.7300000) Svanberg (6376797.000, 304.2506000) Walbeck 1819 (Planheft 1942) (6376895.000, 302.7821565) Walbeck 1819 (AMS 1963) (6376896.000, 302.7800000) World Geodetic System 1966 (6378145.000, 298.2500000) World Geodetic System 1972 (6378135.000, 298.2600000) World Geodetic System 1984 (6378137.000, 298.2572236) World Geodetic System (Unspecified) (-,-) US - War Office 1924 (McCaw) UK - War Office 1924 (6378300.000, 296.0000000) World Geodetic System 1960 (6378165.000, 298.3000000) Other Known Ellipsoid

## Unknown Ellipsoid 6.2 Datum Codes

ZZ

Arc 1960 (Kenya) Arc 1960 (Tanzania) Arc 1960 (Mean value: Kenya, Tanzania) Arc 1935 (Africa) Ascension Island 1958 (Ascension Island) Montserrat Island Astro 1958 Astro Station 1952 (Marcus Island) Astro Beacon "E" (Iwo Jima Island) Average Terrestrial System 1977, New Brunswick Australian Geod. 1966 (Australia and Tasmania Is.) Australian Geod. 1984 (Australia and Tasmania Is.) Djakarta (Batavia) (Sumatra Island, Indonesia) Djakarta (Batavia) (Sumatra Island, Indonesia) with Zero Meridian Djakarta Bekaa Base South End (Lebanon) Belgium 1950 System (Lommel Signal, Belgium) Bermuda 1957 (Bermuda Islands) Bissau (Guinea-Bissau) Modified BJZ54 (China) BJZ54 (A954 Beijing Coordinates) (China) Bogota Observatory (Colombia) Bogota Observatory (Colombia) with Zero Meridian Bogota Bern 1898 (Switzerland) Bern 1898 (Switzerland) with Zero Meridian Bern Bukit Rimpah (Bangka & Belitung Islands, Indonesia) Cape Canaveral (Mean value: Florida and Bahama Islands) Campo Inchauspe (Argentina) Camacupa Base SW End (Campo De Aviacao, Angola) Canton Astro 1966 (Phoenix Islands) Cape (South Africa) Camp Area Astro (Camp McMurdo Area, Antarctica) S-JTSK, Czechoslavakia (prior to 1 Jan 1993) Carthage (Tunisia) Compensation Godtique du Qubec 1977 Chatham 1971 (Chatham Island, New Zealand) Chua Astro (Paraguay) Corrego Alegre (Brazil) Conakry Pyramid of the Service Geographique (Guinea) Guyana CSG67 Dabola (Guinea) DCS-3 Lighthouse, Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles Deception Island, Antarctica GUX 1 Astro (Guadacanal Island) Dominica Astro M-12, Dominica, Lesser Antilles Easter Island 1967 (Easter Island) Wake-Eniwetok 1960 (Marshall Islands) European 1950 European 1950 (Western Europe: Austria, Denmark, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Netherlands, and Switzerland) European 1950 (Greece) European 1950 (Norway and Finland)

ARSA ARSB ARSM ART ASC ASM ASQ ATF ATX AUA AUG BAT BAT1 BEK BEL BER BID BJM BJZ BOO BOO1 BRE BRE1 BUR CAC CAI CAM CAO CAP CAZ CCD CGE CGX CHI CHU COA COV CSG DAL DCS DID DOB DOM EAS ENW EUR EURA EURB EURC

CD CD CD CD IN CD IN IN AT AN AN BN BN CG IN CC IN KA KA IN IN BR BR BR CC IN CD IN CE IN BN CG CC IN IN CG CD CD CD IN IN HO IN IN IN IN

European 1950 (Portugal and Spain) European 1950 (Cyprus) European 1950 (Egypt) European 1950 (England, Channel Islands, Scotland, and Shetland Islands) European 1950 (Iran) European 1950 (Sardinia) European 1950 (Sicily) European 1950 (England, Channel Islands, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Shetland Islands, and Wales) European 1950 (Malta) European 1950 (Mean value: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, & Switzerland) European 1950 (Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria) European 1950 (Tunisia) European 1979 (Mean value: Austria, Finland, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland) European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS89) Oman (Oman) Observatorio Meteorologico 1939 (Corvo and Flores Islands, Azores) Fort Thomas 1955 (Nevis, St Kitts, Leeward Islands) Gan 1970 (Addu Atoll, Republic of Maldives) Gandajika Base (Zaire) Geocentric Datum of Australia (GDA) GDZ80 (China) Geodetic Datum 1949 (New Zealand) DOS 1968 (Gizo Island, New Georgia Islands) Graciosa Base SW (Faial, Graciosa, Pico, Sao Jorge, and Terceira Island, Azores) Greek Datum, Greece Greek Geodetic Reference System 1987 (GGRS 87) Gunong Segara (Kalimantan Island, Indonesia) Gunong Serindung Guam 1963 Herat North (Afganistan) Hermannskogel Provisional South Chilean 1963 (or Hito XVIII 1963) (S. Chile, 53S) Hjrsey 1955 (Iceland) Hong Kong 1963 (Hong Kong) Hong Kong 1929 Hu-Tzu-Shan Hungarian 1972 Bellevue (IGN) (Efate and Erromango Islands) Indonesian 1974 Indian Indian (Thailand and Vietnam) Indian (Bangladesh) Indian (India and Nepal) Indian (Pakistan)

EURD EURE EURF EURG EURH EURI EURJ EURK EURL EURM

IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN

EURS EURT EUS EUT FAH FLO FOT GAA GAN GDS GDZ GEO GIZ GRA GRK GRX GSE GSF GUA HEN HER HIT HJO HKD HKO HTN HUY IBE IDN IND INDA INDB INDI INDP

IN IN IN RF CD IN CD IN IN RF IA IN IN IN BR RF BR BR CC IN BR IN IN IN CA IN RE IN ID

EA EC EF

Indian (1954) Indian 1954 (Thailand) Indian 1960 Indian 1960 (Vietnam: near 16N) Indian 1960 (Con Son Island (Vietnam)) Indian 1975 Indian 1975 (Thailand) Ireland 1965 (Ireland and Northern Ireland) ISTS 061 Astro 1968 (South Georgia Islands) ISTS 073 Astro 1969 (Diego Garcia) Johnston Island 1961 (Johnston Island) Kalianpur (India) Kandawala (Sri Lanka) Kertau 1948 (or Revised Kertau) (West Malaysia and Singapore) KCS 2, Sierra Leone Kerguelen Island 1949 (Kerguelen Island) Korean Geodetic System 1995 (South Korea) KKJ (or Kartastokoordinaattijarjestelma), Finland Kusaie Astro 1951 Kuwait Oil Company (K28) L.C. 5 Astro 1961 (Cayman Brac Island) Leigon (Ghana) Liberia 1964 (Liberia) Lisbon (Castelo di So Jorge), Portugal Local Astro. Loma Quintana (Venezuela) Luzon Luzon (Philipines except Mindanao Island) Luzon (Mindanao Island) Marco Astro (Salvage Islands) Martinique Fort-Desaix Massawa (Eritrea, Ethiopia) Manokwari (West Irian) Mayotte Combani Mount Dillon, Tobago Merchich (Morocco) Midway Astro 1961 (Midway Island) Mahe 1971 (Mahe Island) Minna Minna (Cameroon) Minna (Nigeria) Rome 1940 (or Monte Mario 1940), Italy Rome 1940 (or Monte Mario 1940), Italy, with Zero Meridian Rome Montjong Lowe M'Poraloko (Gabon) Viti Levu 1916 (Viti Levu Island, Fiji Islands) Nahrwan Nahrwan (Masirah Island, Oman) Nahrwan (United Arab Emirates) Nahrwan (Saudi Arabia) Naparima (BWI, Trinidad and Tobago)

INF INFA ING INGA INGB INH INHA IRL ISG IST JOH KAB KAN KEA KCS KEG KGS KKX KUS KUW LCF LEH LIB LIS LOC LOM LUZ LUZA LUZB MAA MAR MAS MAW MCX MDT MER MID MIK MIN MINA MINB MOD MOD1 MOL MPO MVS NAH NAHA NAHB NAHC NAP

EA EA EA EA EA EA EA AM IN IN IN EC EA EE WO IN RF IN IN CD CC CG CD

IN CC CC CC IN IN BR IN CB CG IN CD CD CD CD IN IN BR CD CD CD CD CD CD IN

North American 1983 North American 1983 (Alaska, excluding Aleutian Islands) North American 1983 (Canada) North American 1983 (CONUS) North American 1983 (Mexico and Central America)) North American 1983 (Aleutian Islands) North American 1983 (Hawaii) North American 1927 North American 1927 (Eastern US) North American 1927 (Western US) North American 1927 (Mean value: CONUS) North American 1927 (Alaska) North American 1927 (Mean value: Canada) North American 1927 (Alberta and British Columbia) North American 1927 (Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Quebec) North American 1927 (Manitoba and Ontario) North American 1927 (Northwest Territories and Saskatchewan) North American 1927 (Yukon) North American 1927 (Mexico) North American 1927 (Central America - Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) North American 1927 (Canal Zone) North American 1927 (Caribbean, Barbados, Caicos Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Grand Cayman, Jamaica, Leeward Islands, and Turks Islands) North American 1927 (Bahamas, except San Salvador Island) North American 1927 (San Salvador Island) North American 1927 (Cuba) North American 1927 (Hayes Peninsula, Greenland) North American 1927 (Aleutian Islands East of 180W) North American 1927 (Aleutian Islands West of 180W) Revised Nahrwan New French or Nouvelle Triangulation Franaise (NTF) with Zero Meridian Paris North Sahara 1959 Ocotopeque, Guatemala Belgium 1972 (Observatoire d'Uccle) Old Egyptian (Egypt) Ordnance Survey of Great Britain 1936 Ordnance Survey G.B. 1936 (England) Ordnance Survey G.B. 1936 (England, Isle of Man, and Wales) Ordnance Survey G.B. 1936 (Scotland and Shetland Islands) Ordnance Survey G.B. 1936 (Wales) Ordnance Survey G.B. 1936 (Mean value: England, Isle of Man, Scotland, Shetland, and Wales) Old Hawaiian Old Hawaiian (Hawaii) Old Hawaiian (Kauai) Old Hawaiian (Maui)

NAR NARA NARB NARC NARD NARE NARH NAS NASA NASB NASC NASD NASE NASF NASG NASH NASI NASJ NASL NASN NASO NASP NASQ NASR NAST NASU NASV NASW NAX NFR1 Alt: FDA NSD OCO ODU OEG OGB OGBA OGBB OGBC OGBD OGBM OHA OHAA OHAB OHAC

RF RF RF RF RF RF RF CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CC CD CG CD IN HE AA AA AA AA AA AA CC CC CC CC

Old Hawaiian (Oahu) Old Hawaiian (Mean value) Oslo Observatory (Old), Norway Padang Base West End (Sumatra, Indonesia) Padang Base West End (Sumatra, Indonesia) with Zero Meridian Djakarta Palestine 1928 (Israel, Jordan) Potsdam or Helmertturm (Germany) Ayabelle Lighthouse (Djibouti) Pitcairn Astro 1967 (Pitcairn Island) Pico de las Nieves (Canary Islands) SE Base (Porto Santo) (Porto Santo & Madeira Islands) Provisional South American 1956 Prov. S. American 1956 (Bolivia) Prov. S. American 1956 (Northern Chile near 19S) Prov. S. American 1956 (Southern Chile near 43S) Prov. S. American 1956 (Columbia) Prov. S. American 1956 (Ecuador) Prov. S. American 1956 (Guyana) Prov. S. American 1956 (Peru) Prov. S. American 1956 (Venezuela) Prov. S. American 1956 (Mean value: Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, & Venezuela) Point 58 Mean Solution (Burkina Faso and Niger) Pointe Noire 1948 Pulkovo 1942 (Russia) Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands) Qatar National (Qatar) Qornoq (South Greenland) Rauenberg (Berlin, Germany) Reconnaissance Triangulation, Morocco Reunion 1947 RT90, Stockholm, Sweden Santo (DOS) 1965 (Espirito Santo Island) South African (South Africa) Sainte Anne I 1984 (Guadeloupe) South American 1969 South American 1969 (Argentina) South American 1969 (Bolivia) South American 1969 (Brazil) South American 1969 (Chile) South American 1969 (Columbia) South American 1969 (Ecuador) South American 1969 (Guyana) South American 1969 (Paraguay) South American 1969 (Peru) South American 1969 (Baltra, Galapagos Islands) South American 1969 (Trinidad and Tobago) South American 1969 (Venezuela) South American 1969 (Mean value: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela)

OHAD OHAM OSL PAD PAD1 PAL PDM PHA PIT PLN POS PRP PRPA PRPB PRPC PRPD PRPE PRPF PRPG PRPH PRPM PTB PTN PUK PUR QAT QUO RAU REC REU RTS SAE SAF SAG SAN SANA SANB SANC SAND SANE SANF SANG SANH SANI SANJ SANK SANL SANM

CC CC BR BR BR CF IN CD IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN CD CD KA CC IN IN BR CG IN BR IN CD SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA

Sao Braz (Sao Miguel, Santa Maria Islands, Azores) SAO IN Sapper Hill 1943 (East Falkland Islands) SAP IN Schwarzeck (Namibia) SCK BN Soviet Geodetic System 1985 SGA SG Soviet Geodetic System 1990 SGB SG Selvagem Grande 1938 (Salvage Islands) SGM IN Astro Dos 71/4 (St. Helena Island) SHB IN Sierra Leone 1960 SIB CD South Asia (Southeast Asia, Singapore) SOA FA S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) SPK KA St. Pierre et Miquelon 1950 SPX CC Stockholm 1938 (Sweden) STO BR Sydney Observatory, New South Wales, Australia SYO CB Tananarive Observatory 1925 TAN IN Tananarive Observatory 1925, with Zero Meridian Paris TAN1 IN Tristan Astro 1968 (Tristan da Cunha) TDC IN Timbalai 1948 (Brunei and East Malaysia - Sarawak and Sabah) TIL EB Timbali 1968 TIN Tokyo TOY BR Tokyo (Japan) TOYA BR Tokyo (Korea) TOYB BR Tokyo (Okinawa) TOYC BR Tokyo (Mean value: Japan, Korea, and Okinawa) TOYM BR Trinidad 1903 TRI CA Astro Tern Is. 1961 (Tern Island, Hawaii) TRN IN Undetermined or Unknown (see Note 1) UND Voirol 1875 VOI CG Voirol 1875 with Zero Meridian Paris VOI1 CG Voirol 1960, Algeria VOR CG Voirol 1960, Algeria, with Zero Meridian Paris VOR1 CG Wake Island Astro 1952 WAK World Geodetic System 1960 WGA WS World Geodetic System 1966 WGB WC World Geodetic System 1972 WGC WD World Geodetic System 1984 WGE WE Yacare (Uruguay) YAC IN Zanderij (Surinam) ZAN IN Other Known Datum ZYX Note 1. In the case of an unknown or unspecified datum, it is potentially dangerous to assume a default of WGS 84. Unless the application is small-scale mapping and the zero meridian is known to be Greenwich, such an assumption could cause significant positioning errors. Table 6-3 Codes for Vertical Datums Vertical Datum Reference Code Geodetic (see Note 1) GEOD Mean Sea Level (see Note 2) with identification MSL Example: Mean Sea Level Singapore Note 1. In the geodetic case, all elevations in the dataset are referenced to the ellipsoid of the specified geodetic datum, which means they are ellipsoidal heights. Note 2. In the mean-sea-level case, all elevations in the dataset are referenced to a particular determination of mean sea level. Table 6-4 Codes for Sounding Datums

Sounding Datum

Code

Approximate Lowest Astronomical Tide Approximate Mean Low Water Springs Approximate Mean Low Water Tide Approximate Mean Low Water Approximate Mean Sea Level Chart Datum (Unspecified) Equinoctial Spring Low Water Highest Astronomical Tide Higher High Water Large Tide Highest Normal High Water Higher High Water Highest High Water High Water High Water Springs International Great Lakes Datum 1985 Indian Spring High Water Indian Spring Low Water Lowest Astronomical Tide Local Datum (arbitrary datum defined by local harbour authority) Lower Low Water Large Tide Lowest Low Water Springs Lower Low Water Lowest Low Water Low Water Low Water Springs Mean Higher High Water Mean Higher Water Mean High Water Mean High Water Neaps Mean High Water Springs Mean Lower Low Water Springs Mean Lower Low Water Mean Low Water Mean Low Water Neaps Mean Low Water Springs Mean Sea Mean Tide Level Nearly Lowest Low Water Neap Tide Spring Tide VALUE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Other Known Sounding Datum Unknown 6.3 Projection Codes and Parameters

ALAT AMLS AMLT AMLW AMSL CD ESLW HAT HHLT HNHR HRHW HTHW HW HWS IGLD ISHW ISLW LAT LD LLLT LLWS LRLW LTLW LW LWS MHHW MHRW MHW MHWN MHWS MLLS MLLW MLW MLWN MLWS MSL MTL NLLW NT ST VILB ZYX ZZZ

Table 6-5 provides the allowable projections and their codes and parameters for the Dataset Map Projection Group. These codes and parameters are necessary for conversion of geographic coordinates to/from grid coordinates (as used on a map). Also needed are Easting False Origin and Northing False Origin, as well as the geodetic datum. The abbreviation "Alt:" is used to denote alternative codes originating from DIGEST 1.2, which are included for backward compatibility.

Note the presence of a special code ZY for other known projection. Table 6-5 Projection Codes and Parameters Projection Proj'n Parameters Code 1 2 3 Albers Equal-Area AC Longitude of Std. Parallel Std. Parallel Conic Origin Nearer to Farther from Equator Equator (Lambert) Azimuthal AK Longitude of Latitude of Proj. Equal-Area Proj. Origin Origin Azimuthal Equidistant AL Longitude of Latitude of Proj. Proj. Origin Origin Bonne BF Longitude of Latitude of Proj. Scale Factor at Proj. Origin Origin Proj. Origin Equirectangular (La CC Longitude of Latitude of True Carte Central Meridian Scale Paralllogramatique) Equidistant Conic CP Longitude of Latitude of Proj. Latitude of with 1 Standard Central Meridian Origin Standard Parallel Parallel Cassini-Soldner CS Longitude of Latitude of Proj. Proj. Origin Origin Gnomonic GN Longitude of Latitude of Proj. Proj. Origin Origin Hotine Oblique HX Scale Factor at Latitude of Proj. Longitude of 1st Mercator based on 2 Proj. Origin Origin Point defining Points Central Line (Note the 5th and 6th Longitude of Latitude of 2nd Parameters shown 2nd Point Point defining right.) defining Central Central Line Line Equidistant Conic KA Longitude of Latitude of Latitude of with 2 Standard Central Meridian Origin (see Note Standard Parallel Parallels 5) Nearer to Equator Laborde LA Longitude of Latitude of Proj. Scale Factor at Proj. Origin Origin Proj. Origin Lambert Conformal LE Longitude of Std. Parallel Std Parallel Conic (see Note 1) Origin Nearer to Farther from Equator Equator Lambert Equal-Area LJ Longitude of Latitude of Proj. Meridional Central Meridian Origin Mercator MC Longitude of Latitude of True - (see Note 6) Central Meridian Scale Miller Cylindrical MH Longitude of Radius of Sphere Central Meridian (see Note 2) French Lambert MJ Longitude of Latitude of Proj. Scale Factor at Proj. Origin Origin Proj. Origin New Zealand Map NT Longitude of Latitude of Proj. Grid Proj. Origin Origin Oblique Mercator OC Longitude of Latitude of Azimuth of Reference Point Reference Point Great Circle at on Great Circle on Great Circle Reference Point Orthographic OD Longitude of Latitude of Proj. -

4 Latitude of Origin (see Note 5) Latitude of 1st Point defining Central Line -

Latitude of Standard Parallel Farther from Equator Latitude of Origin (see Note 5) -

Polar Stereographic

PG

Polyconic Relative Coordinates Hotine Oblique Mercator (Rectified Skew Orthomorphic) Robinson Sinusoidal

PH RC RS Alt:RB

Proj. Origin Central Meridian (Longitude straight down from Pole on map) Longitude of Central Meridian X-Scale Factor Longitude of Proj. Origin

## Scale Factor at Proj. Origin

RX SA

Oblique Stereographic SD Space Oblique Mercator Transverse Mercator Van der Grinten SX TC VA

Longitude of Central Meridian Longitude of Central Meridian Longitude of Origin Application Code (see Note 3) Longitude of Central Meridian Longitude of Central Meridian Longitude of Proj. Origin

## General Vertical VX Near-Side Perspective

Other Known ZY Projection Note 1. The parameters of the Lambert Conformal Conic projection are based on the version derived from 2 Standard Parallels. Where the projection is derived from a single standard parallel with a scale factor, data producers need to compute the equivalent parameters for the 2-standard-parallel case. Note 2. This radius can be omitted if the chosen sphere has the same surface area as the chosen ellipsoid. The radius R which has that property may be derived from the ellipsoid parameters as follows: Compute e2 and e from e2 = 2*f - f2. Qp = 1 - ((1-e2)/(2*e))*Ln((1-e)/(1+e)). R = a*Sqrt(Qp/2). Note 3. Application Code: 1 = "Landsat, USGS equations". 2 = "Landsat, EOSAT equations". (Other values to be added as and when required.) Note 4. These parameters combined with the Application Code determine the mathematical parameters used in the projection. Note 5. The Origin included here is the point where Easting False Origin and Northing False Origin are applied, rather than the Projection Origin. Note 6. For this projection, the Latitude of Origin (in the sense of where to apply Northing False Origin) is the Equator. 6.4 Grid Codes

Azimuth East of North for Central Line (Skew X-Axis) at Proj. Origin Radius of Sphere (see Note 2) Radius of Sphere (see Note 2) Latitude of Scale factor at Origin Origin Vehicle Number Orbital Path (see Note 4) Number (see Note 4) Central Scale Latitude of Factor Origin (see Note 5) Radius of Sphere (see Note 2) Latitude of Proj. Height of Origin Perspective Point above Surface (in metres) -

Table 6-6 provides the allowable grids and their codes for the Grid System field. To assist the process of matching datums and projections to grids, datum codes and projection codes are shown in the last 2 columns. It should be noted that some of the entries are grid categories, that is to say there is more than one possible grid. This can be due to more than one possible datum or more than one possible zone, or indeed both. In a small number of cases, a grid category covers zones which use different projections. Grid categories are marked with an asterisk (*). In the context of a DIGEST dataset, the possible ambiguity of a grid category is resolved when the datum, projection and the values of the projection parameters are specified. Zone number may also be specified to improve identification. Note the presence of special code MS for other known grid. Table 6-6 Grid Codes Grid Description Grid Code Datum Proj'n Code Code Aden Zone AD LE Afghanistan Gauss-Krger Grid AF TC Air Defense Grid AG Air Support Grid AI Alabama Coordinate System * (see Note 2) AJ TC Alaska Coordinate System * (see Notes 1 and 2) AK Algeria Zone * AL MJ Albania Bonne Grid AM BF Alpha-Numeric (Atlas) Grid AN Arbitrary Grid AO American Samoa Coordinate System * (see Note 2) AP LE Argentine Gauss-Krger Conformal Grid * AQ TC Artillery Referencing System AR Arizona Coordinate System * (see Note 2) AS TC Map Grid of Australia 1994 (MGA94) * AT GDS TC Australia Belt * AU TC Arkansas Coordinate System * (see Note 2) AV LE Australian Map Grid * AW TC Azores Gauss Conformal Grid AX LOC TC Azores Zone AZ LOC LE Baku 1927 Coordinate System BA Bavaria Soldner Coordinate System BB Belgium Lambert Grid * BC Baltic Region Transverse Mercator Grid BD EUT TC Belgium Bonne Grid BE BF Brazil Gauss Conformal Grid * BF TC Soldner-Berlin (Mggelberg) Grid BL RAU Borneo Rectified Skew Orthomorphic Grid * BO RS British West Indies Grid * BW TC California Coordinate System * (see Note 2) CB LE Canada British Modified Grid CD Ceylon Belt (Transverse Mercator) CE IND TC Canary Islands (Spanish Lambert Grid) CF Chile Gauss Conformal Grid * CG TC China Belt * CH TC Canary Islands Zone CI LE China Lambert Zone CJ LE

Colorado Coordinate Zone * (see Note 2) Connecticut Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Caspian Zone Costa Rica Lambert Grid Crimea Grid Crete Zone Cuba Lambert Grid * Caucasus Zone Cape Verde Islands Zone British Cassini Grid * Czechoslovak Uniform Cadastral Coordinate System Cyprus Grid * Czechoslovak Military Grid Danube Zone Dahomey Belt Denmark General Staff Grid Delaware Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Dominican Lambert Grid Denmark Geodetic Institute System 1934 Cape Verde Peninsula Grid East Africa Belt * English Belt Egypt Gauss Conformal Grid * El Salvador Lambert Grid Estonian Grid Estonial lambert Conformal Grid Hungarian Unified National Mapping System (EOTR) Egypt Purple Belt Egypt Red Belt * Egypt 35 Degree Belt Fernando Poo Gauss Grid Fiji Grid Florida Coordinate System * (see Notes 1 and 2) French Bonne Grid French Guiana Gauss Grid French Somaliland Gauss-Laborde Grid French Indochina Grid Franz Josef Land Zone French Lambert Grid * Formosa (Taiwan) Gauss-Schreiber Coordinate System French Equatorial Africa Grid Gabon Belt * Gauss-Boaga Grid (Transverse Mercator) Gabon Gauss Conformal Grid Geographic Reference System (GEOREF) * Guadeloupe Gauss-Laborde Grid Colombia Gauss Conformal Grid Sweden Gauss-Hannover Grid Georgia Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Gauss-Krger Grid (Transverse Mercator) * Greece Azimuthal Grid

CK CM CN CO CQ CR CT CU CV CW CX CY CZ DA DB DC DD DE DJ DK EA EB ED EE EF EL EO EP ER ET FA FB FC FD FE FF FI FJ FL FO FS GA GB GC GE GF GG GH GI GK GL

OCO

## NAS NAH OGB

LE LE LE LE LE LE LE LE LE CS CS OG LE

HER GRK

TC LE BE TC TC TC LE EUT HUY LE TC TC TC

OEG

BF TC

LE MJ

EUR

TC TC TC

BOO

TC TC TC TC

German Army Grid (DHG) * Ghana National Grid Greece Bonne Grid Greece Conical Mecklenburg Coordinates Greece Conical Mecklenburg Coordinate (New Numbering) Greenland Lambert Grid Guinea Zone Guam Coordinate System Guatemala Lambert Grid Guyana Transverse Mercator Grid Haiti Lambert Grid Hawaii Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Hawaii Grid Honduras Lambert Grid Hong Kong New System Cassini Grid Hungary Stereographic Grid Hong Kong Colony Grid Idaho Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Illinois Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Indiana Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Indonesia Mercator Grid Indonesia Polyhedric Grid * Iowa Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Ivory Coast Azimuthal Grid Irish Cassini Grid Ivory Coast Belt Irish Transverse Mercator Grid Iceland New Lambert Zone India Zone * Iberian Peninsula Zone Iraq Zone * Iraq National Grid Italy Zone * Ivy - Found on an HA in Marshall Islands Iceland Zone Jamaica Foot Grid Japan Plane-Rectangular Coordinate System Japan Gauss-Schreiber Grid Jamaica National Grid (metric) Johore Grid Austria Gauss-Krger Grid Bulgaria Gauss-Krger Grid Katanga Grid Kansas Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Kentucky Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Finland Gauss-Krger Grid German Gauss-Krger Grid Kenya Colony Grid Korea Gauss-Schreiber Coordinate System Louisiana Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Lithuania Gauss-Krger Grid

GN GO GP GQ GR GT GU GV GW GY HB HC HD HE HF HG HR IA IB IC ID IE IF IG IH IJ IK IL IN IP IQ IR IT IY IZ JA JB JC JM JO KA KB KC KD KE KF KG KH KJ KK KL

NAS

TC TC BF LE LE LE LE LE TC LE TC LE CS

LOC

HKO LOC

## TC TC TC MC LE EUR IRL HJO CS TC LE LE LE LE TC LE LE LE

HJO

LE CS TC TC LE LE TC TC CS LE TC

Kwantung Province Grid Turkey Gauss-Krger Grid Kwangsi Province Grid Luxembourg Gauss-Krger Grid Lambert Conformal Conic Grid * Latvia Coordinate System Levant Zone Levant Stereographic Grid Liberia Rectified Skew Orthomorphic Grid Libya Zone Lithuanian LKS-94 Grid Sirte (Libya) Lambert Grid Malaya Grid * Malta Belt Maldive-Chagos Belt Madiera Zone Mediterranean Zone * Maine Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Malaya Rectified Skew Orthomorphic (Yard) Grid Martinique Gauss Grid Maryland Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Massachusetts Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Mexican Lambert Grid Michigan Coordinate System * (see Notes 1 and 2) Mecca-Muscat Zone Minnesota Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Madagascar Grid (Laborde) Mississippi Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Morocco Zone * Other Known Grid Missouri Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Mauritius Zone Montana Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Mozambique Lambert Grid Mozambique Polyconic Grid Northwest Africa Zone New Jersey Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Nigeria Colony Belt * National Grid of Great Britain Northern European Zone * Nebraska Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Numeric Grid New Hampshire Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Niger Zone Netherlands Stereographic Grid (Old Numbering) North Korea Gauss-Krger Grid Netherlands Stereographic Grid (New Numbering) Netherlands East Indies Equatorial Zone British Metric Grid (Lambert) * Nord de Guerre Zone * New Mexico Coordinate System * (see Note 2)

KN KT KW KX LC LD LE LF LG LI LK LL MA MB MC MD ME MF MG MH MI MJ MK ML MM MN MO MP MQ MS MT MU MV MW MX NA NB NC ND NE NF NG NH NI NJ NK NL NM NO NN

TC EUR TC

EUR

MJ RS LE TC LE CS TC TC LE LE TC RS TC LE LE LE LE LE LA TC MJ TC LE LE LE PH LE TC TC TC LE LE TC LE

EUR EUT

LOC

KEA

TAN

MER

OGB

PDM TC PDM MC MJ TC

Nevada Coordinate System * (see Note 2) New Sierra Leone Colony Grid * New York Coordinate System * (see Notes 1 and 2) Netherlands East Indies Southern Zone New Zealand Map Grid (NZMG) Nicaragua Lambert Grid * Niger Belt North Carolina Coordinate System * (see Note 2) North Dakota Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Netherlands East Indies Equatorial Zone U.S. Yard Grid * New Zealand Belt * Northern Malaya Grid Norway Gauss-Krger Grid * Ohio Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Oklahoma Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Orange Report Net Oregon Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Palestine Belt * Panama Lambert Grid Palestine Civil Grid (Cassini) * Paraguay Gauss-Krger Grid Peiping Coordinate System of 1954 Pennsylvania Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Polish PSWG 1992 Grid Peru Polyconic Grid Philippine Plane Coordinate System Poland Gauss-Krger Grid Poland Quasi-Stereographic Grid Philippine Polyconic Grid Portugal Bonne Grid, Old Portugal Bonne Grid, New Portugal Gauss Grid Puerto Rico & Virgin Islands Coordinate System * Puerto Rico Lambert Grid Qatar Cassini Grid Qatar Peninsula Grid (or Qatar National Grid (TM)) Russian Belt * Reunion Gauss Grid Rhode Island Coordinate System * (see Note 2) Romania Bonne Grid Soviet Coordinate System of 1942 * Romania Lambert-Cholesky Grid Rikets National Grid * Romania Stereographic Grid Pulkovo Coordinate System of 1932 South Africa Belt (yards) * Senegal Gauss Conformal Grid (Belt) South Africa Coordinate System (South Africa Belt (English feet)) * Senegal Belt South Carolina Coordinate System * (see Note 2)

NP NQ NR NS NT NU NV NW NX NY NZ OA OB OD OE OR OS PA PB PC PD PE PF PG PI PJ PK PL PP PQ PR PS PT PU QA QU RB RC RD RE RF RH RK RI RT SA SB SD SE SF

TC

GEO

LE NT LE LE LE LE LE TC TC LE LE LE TC LE CS TC LE TC PH PH TC PH BF BF TC LE LE CS TC TC TC TC BF TC TC SD TC TC TC TC LE

OSL

NAS

EUT LUZ

APL

LIS

QAT EUR

PUK STO

Sahara Zone SH South Dakota Coordinate System * (see Note 2) SI South Libya Zone SJ Sarawak Grid SK Spain Lambert Grid SL EUR Southern New Guinea Grid * SN South Georgia Lambert Grid SQ South Syria Lambert Grid SR Spanish North-Morocco Lambert Grid SS Svalbard Gauss-Krger Grid SV Svobodny 1935 Coordinate System SX Seychelles Belt SY Spitzbergen Zone SZ Tanganyika Territorial Grid TA Tashkent 1875 Coordinate System TB Tennessee Coordinate System * (see Note 2) TC Texas Coordinate System * (see Note 2) TD Tobago Grid TE MDT Trinidad Grid TF Trucial Coast Cassini Grid TG Trucial Coast Transverse Mercator Grid TH Turkey Bonne Grid TI Tunisia Zone * TN Uganda Cassini Coordinate System * UA Unidentified Grid UB Uruguay Gauss-Krger Grid UC Utah Coordinate System * (see Note 2) UD Universal Polar Stereographic System * UP (Note: 61 is recommended Zone Number for Northern Polar Zone, -61 for Southern Polar Zone) U.S. Polyconic Grid System US NAS Universal Transverse Mercator * UT (Note: 1 to 60 are recommended Zone Numbers for Northern Zones, -1 to -60 for Southern Zones) Vermont Coordinate System * (see Note 2) VA Virginia Coordinate System * (see Note 2) VB Venezuela Modified Lambert Grid VE Vietnam Azimuthal Grid VI West Malaysia Rectified Skew Orthomorphic (Metric) Grid WA Switzerland Bonne Grid WB Switzerland Conformal Oblique Cylindrical Grid WC West Virginia Coordinate System * WD Wisconsin Coordinate System * WE Wyoming Coordinate System * WF Washington Coordinate System * (see Note 2) WH World Polyconic System WP Yugoslavia Gauss-Krger Grid (Not Reduced) YA HER Yugoslavia Reduced Gauss-Krger Grid YG HER Yunnan Province Grid YU * grid category, covering more than one possible grid Note 1. In this case, not all zones use the same projection.

LE LE LE CS LE LE LE LE LE TC TC LE

LE TC CS CS CS TC BF MJ CS TC LE PG PH TC TC LE

RS BF OC LE LE TC TC PH TC TC

Note 2. For US State Plane Coordinate Systems, the recommended grid zone number is the 4-figure code given by (a) FIPS PUB 70-1 for grids on North American Datum 1927 and (b) NOAA Manual NOS NGS 5 for grids on North American Datum 1983.