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Biospherics is the study of all kinds of biospheres: an exciting and essential new science, first envisioned by Vladimir Vernadsky

(Russia) in the 1920 s. Biospherics differs from systems ecology in that it deals with materially closed systems and thus complete biogeochemical cycling. Biospheres, as a class of objects to study, are defined as energetically open, materially closed life systems, natural or artificial, and capable of long term self-renewal.
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Biosphere 2, modeled after Earth, the first biosphere; hence its name, covers a 1.27ha area of the Sonoran desert in Arizona, enclosing an approximate vol ume of 200,OOOm3. The glass-enclosed mesocosm was designed and built to serve as a materially-closed and durable environ mental research apparatus, consisting of five model ecosystems, representative of Earth's natural tropical and sub-tropical biomes, includ ing desert, rainforest, savanna, mangrove-marsh, and ocean coral reef. The system also included an intensive agriculture biome and a crew habitat that would support 8 crew members for a 2 year mission that would see them become completely sealed from the surrounding environment, and thus creating the world's first largescaled, materially closed system

Self-sustainability

is the ability to manage life by having sufficient resources. including Water, Energy,

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Chances of long-term humanity survival are greatly increased if not all are dependent on the same ecosphere that encompasses the entire planet. The best way to increase chances of survive! is to develop closed self-sustainab/"e ecosystem habitats of the smallest possible size, taking the Earlh as a model and downsizing as much as possible. Much like the Earth getting energy from the Sun to sustain its ecosystem - the miniature version should also be powered by the Sun (or alternative.ly a closed-in energy source that lasts comparably long).

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Energy enters the biological system as light enerqy, or photons, is transformed into chemical energy in organic molecules by cellular processes including photosynthesis and respiration and ultimately is converted to heat energy. This energy is dissipated, meaning it is lost to the system as heat; once it is lost it cannot be recycled.
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Energy is captured from the Sun by plants and is passed th rough ecosystems. Energy collected by the Sun by plants is consumed by animals or humans and used for metabolism, growth and reproduction. Plant and animal waste and biomass created from this energy is broken down by decom posers into constituent parts, which can be used by plants to create more tissues.

Renewable energy comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewables., with 100k coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heati ng, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, soter, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 2.8% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 19%, with 16% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18% of the country's automotive fuel. In 2001, the first Brazilian wind atlas was published, estimating Brazil's wind power potential at around 143 GW at 50m. In 2008 and 2009, new measurements carried out in several states indicate that the real potential is considerably higher, at more than 350 GW. This compares to the country's total power generation capacity of 113.4 GW at the end of 2010. Large unpopulated land areas, a coastline of 9,650 km and excellent resources help secure Brazil's prime position as a potential wind energygi ant.

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Brazil is home to the world's largest waterway system in terms of volume: the Amazon River is 4 087 miles long, more than half of which is located within Brazil's borders. The waterway carries about 20 percent of the world's freshwater discharge to the Atlantic Ocean, and the land area covered by its tributaries nearly triples in size over the course of a year.
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Map of Water Resources

The Guarani Aquifer; located beneath the surface of Arqentina, Brazil, Parag uay and Uruguay, is one of the world's largest aquifer systems and is an important source of fresh water. Named after the Guarani people, it covers 1,200,000 km2, with a volume of about 40 000 krn", a thickness of between 50 m and 800 m and a maximum depth of about 1 800 m. It is estimated to contain about 37,000 krn?of water.
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A solar thermal collector is a solar collector designed to collect heat by absorbing sunlight. The term is applied to solar hot water pane Is, but may also be used to denote more complex installations such as solar parabolic, solar trough and solar towers or si mpler installations such as solar air heat.
Egypt's first Scheffler Community Kitchen at EI Sherouk Farm near Alexandria,

The concentrati ng reflectors track the movement of the sun; refle.cting the Iight of the sun and concentrating it on a fixed position. In some configurations the reflected and concentrated sunlight enters a nearby kitchen directly to strike a cooking pot or frying surface. In other configurations, the concentrated sunlight is used first to create steam which is transported by pipes to a nearby kitchen.

The Cuisine Solaire Pour Tous, or Solar Kitchen, the collective kitchen of Auroville, takes its name from the huge solar bowl that is incorporated to harness solar energy for cooking. The ferrocement base of this stationary bowl is already built and faces south. It is 15 meters in diameter and 7 meters above ground level. The sun's rays, trapped by a huge hemispherical mirror, focus on a cylindrical boiler which follows the sun's position by means of a , computerized tracking device. On a clear day, sufficient steam at a temperature of 150°C can be generated in this boiler to cook two meals a day for 1,000 people.

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Typical of heat engines, the general cycle consists of compressing cool gas, heating the gas, expanding the hot gas, and fi nally cooling the gas before repeating the cycle.

renewable energy source that generates power by using parabolically arranged mirrors to reflect sunIight 0 nto a sma II focal receiver, thereby heating a gas chamber connected to a piston and drive shaft. The drive shaft powers a generator whi ch pro duces electri city.

A Stirling engine is a heat engine

operating by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas, the worki n9 flui d, at different temperature levels such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work.
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Envelope Power Greenhouse (EPG) is a light-weight structure covered with a special f1uoropolymer foil. The foil is transparent for the full spectrum of the solar radiation including the UV-portion, thus no need for pesticides commonly employed in conventional greenhouses. In addition, the UV-radiation provides the aroma thus greatly improving the quality of the produce. The optical system mounted in the roof of the greenhouse concentrates the direct solar radiation onto receivers thus extracting heat from the greenhouse protecting it from overheati ng; the heat generated at a high temperature level is captured in vegetable oil as the heat-carrying medium. An insulated pipe system transports the oil to a hot-oil storage tank. Sunvention testbed - Tamera Solar Village SunPulse is a low-temperature Stirling engine to pump water. It is powered by unconcentrated solar radiation and thus works independent of the hot-oi I storage tank. The system pumps about 4.m3 (1,056 gal) water from 10m (33ft) depth. Part of the pumpi ng system is a hydraulic ram which in combination with Sunpulse can pump water from up to 60m (197ft) depth.

Hot Oil Storage stores hot oil at a temperature of up to 220°C, A tank with 2,000 liters of oil has the capacity to store about 75 kWh of useable heat. This saves about 50.0 kg (1,100 Ibs) of wood used in energy-inefficient fire places. This energy is enough to provide 500 people with heat for cooking, to lift water from wells and to generate electricity for about two to three days. In periods of no sunshine the oil can also be heated up with biomass ..The Stirling engi ne, the cooking stove or the system to generate hot steam for disinfection are all powered by the hot-oil storage tank. Medium-temperature St irl ingeng ine transforms thermal energy into mechanical work - and this already at temperatures of 150°C (300°F). The Stirling engine provided with 50 kWh of heat energy generates electricity of about 1 kWhe for about 10 hours. The mechanical work generated by the Stirling engine can also be used for corn milling, to pump water or for cooli ng.

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Commonly hybrid energy systems use solar, wind; and hydro energy sources, although most of the renewable energy available on earth consists of different forms of solar energy. A system using a combination of these different sources has the advantage of balance and stability. A balanced system provides stable outputs from sources such as these and minimises the dependence of the output upon seasonal changes; furthermore, it optimises utilisation of the different renewable sources of energy available.

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Microhyd ropower systems usually generate up to 100 kilowatts (kW) of electricity. Most of the hydropower 10kilowatt systems are used by homeowners and small business owners,including farmers.

The Pelton wheel uses the concept of jet force to create energy. Water is funneled into a pressurized pipeline with a narrow nozzle at one end. The water sprays out of the nozzle in a jet, striking the double-cupped buckets attached to the wheel. The impact of the jet spray on the curved buckets creates a force that rotates the wheel at high effi ciency rates of 70ok90°;b. Pelton wheel turbi nes are available in various sizes and operate best under low-flow and high-head conditions.

The Turgoimpulse wheel is an upgraded version of the Pelton. It uses the same jet spray concept, but the Turgo jet, which is half the size of the Pelton, is angled so that the spray hits three buckets at once. As a result, the Turgo wheel moves twice as fast. It is also less bulky, needs few or no gears, and has a good reputation for troublefree operation. The Turgo can operate under low-flow conditions but requires a medium or high hea.d.

Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAVVTs) are a type of wi nd turbi ne where the

main rotor shaft is set vertically and the main components are located at the base of the turbine. VA\J\/Tsoffer a number of advantages over traditional horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAVVTs). They can be packed closer together in wind farms, allowing more in a given space. VAWTs are rugged, quiet, omni-directional, and they do not create as much stress on the support structure. They do not require as much wind to generate power, thus aI/owing them to be closer to the ground. By being closer to the ground they are easily maintained and can be installed on chimneys and si milar tall structures.

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ROPATEC 20kW

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Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Organic waste such as dead plant and ani mal material, animal dung, and kitchen waste can be converted into a gaseous fuel called biogas. Biogas originates from biogenic material andis a type of biofuel

The biogas digester is the syste m co mponent where the ani mal, human and other organic wastes are introduced, usually as a slurry with water, to break down anaerobically. A storage container is used to hold the gas produced, from which it is piped for burning as a fuel. Variable volume storage (i .e. flexible bag or floating drum) is easier, cheaper and more energy efficient than high pressure cylinders, regulators or compressors. When the digester is emptied, the spe nt effl uent is drie d for later reuse as a fertilizer.

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When the algae are grown1 the w.ater is drained and the rest sent through a highspeed centrifuge to separate the crude oil. Other byprod ucts of th is process can be used as animal feed.
A photobioreactor is a bioreactor that incorporates some type of Iight source to provide photonic energy input into the reactor. Photobioreactor refers to closed systems, having no direct exchange of gases and contaminants with the environment. A photobioreactor can be described as an enclosed, illuminated culture vessel designed for controlled biomass production of phototrophic liquid cell suspension cultures.

Algae can provide a source of biofuels by pumping nutrientladen water th rough plastic or glass tubes that are exposed to sunlight, called photobioreactors.

CLEPSYDRA URBAN FARM
It is estimated that by 2030 AD nearly 50% of the world's population may live in urban areas. As a consequence of this many millions of acres of productive farmland are expected to be lost to housing and other usage. Any further encroachment of natural habitat for other creatures may result in serious degradation of the eco-system. In addition to the loss of farmland, the new urban sprawl also creates urban wastelands like: roof tops brown fields and unused paved spaces. Abundance of fresh, healthy fruits and vegetables can be grown organically and inexpensively in contai ners vi rtually anywhere -- at the edges of parking lots; along railroad tracks; on back porches; on rooftops; in patios; in driveways; in vacant lots between buildings; in brown fields or areas where there is a concern about soil pollutants; in areas where soil nutrition is lacki ng -just about anywhere there is a bit of space, sun and access to water.

Aqua Farms offer sustainable & organic closed-loop urban farming systems on large commercial scale and availability. Aqua Farms combine a commercial-scale fish farm with a vertically integrated vegetable garden to reduce greenhouse gas emissions & provide sustainable and orga nic fresh food for an urban & progressive clientele of ecologically conscious consumers. In the Aqua Farm system, the nutrients from the fish farm are broken down by bacteria and other little helpers to provide a fertile ground for plant growth. At the end, the system is closed-loop, completely organic and sustainable in its use.

Fish farm provides nutrients for vegetable garden. Vegetable garden cleans' water for the fish farm

Although hydroponics and fish farms produce high yields, they're also high-maintenance. Soil-free hydroponic systems require frequent nutrient replenishment, and fish tanks need constant flushing of fouled water. But pair the two in one "aquaponic" system", and the flaws become virtues: The fish waste becomes plant fertilizer, while the plants clean the dirty water.

Hydroponics, combining two Greek words that mean "water working," is a system that allows gardeners to grow more plants in a given space and that produces larger plants in a shorter time, the ideal medium for urban farming. Hydroponics allows the production of vegetables without soil in containers with water, or in low-cost natural substrates (sand, rice hulls, pumice stone, etc.). It allows the growth of a wide variety of vegetables such as lettuce, tomatoes, carrots, garlic, watercress, auberqine, beans, parsley, radish, leek, strawberries, melons, flowers, aromatic and medicinal plants, etc. It offers the advanta ge of using places that have not previously been considered appropriate for food production (courtyards, sma II gardens, walls, balconies, rooftops).

Hydroponics Systems
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NUTRITIENTS
Most soils have produced food for hundreds of years. The minerals in those foods were eaten generations ago. Now depleted, the produce grown is less nourishing and healthy. Fertilizers may increase growth rates, but the minimal amounts of minerals left in the soil may become, to a large part, insoluble and unabsorbable because of mode agricultural practices.
Humic substanc·es are considered nature's own best medicine for plants, animals, humans, and the Earth itself. This lowly soil substance

has the ability to clean up the Earth's environment, neutralize radiation and deadly toxins, heal the agricultural lands, fuel the spark of life in living organisms, disarm and kill infectious pathogens. Fulvic acid is a Humic substance or extract. Fulvic acid is the end product of nature's Humification process, which is involved in the ultimate breakdown and recycling of all once-iivinqmetter, especially plants. Fulvi.c acid contains all of the phytochemical protective substances, amino acid peptides, nucleic acids, etc., from the original plant matter, highly concentrated, refined, transformed, and enhanced by the actions of innumerable microscopic plants, such as
fungi.

An EARTHSIP is a type of passive solar house made of natural and recycled materials, Designed and marketed by Earthship Biotecture of Taos, New Mexico, the homes are primari Iy constructed to work as autonomous buildings and are generally made of earth-fi lied tires, using thermal mass construction to naturally regulate indoor temperature. They also usually have their own special natural ventilation system. Earthships are generally Ofr.. he-grid homes, minirnizinq their reliance t on public utilities and fossil fuels. Earthships are built to utilize the available local resources, especially energy from the sun. For example, windows on sun-facing walls admit lighting. and heating, and the buildings are often horseshoe.-shaped to maxi mize natural Iight and solargain during winter months. The thick, dense inner walls provide thermal mass that naturally regulates the interior temperature during both cold and hot outside temperatures.

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Five Principles of Sustainable Building Integration: 1. Water Creation, Collection, Filtration, Recycling, Redundancy 2. Power Production, Reduction, Redundancy 3. Design Modular, Closed Loop Systems, Disaster Proof 4. Garden Double-Attached Greenhouse, Food, Quality Air 5. Environment Zero Footprint, Fully Integrated, Living Filter
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Greywater, water that has been used and is unsuitable for drinking, is used within the Earthship for a multitude of purposes once it is reclaimed. First, before the greywater can be reused, it is channeled through a grease and parti de f Iter/di gester an d into a deep rubberlined botanical cell, a miniature living machine, within the Earthship. This filter with imbedded plants can also be used to produce food (fruit trees). Oxygenation, filtration, transpiration, and bacteria-encounter all take place within the cell and help to cleanse the water. Within the botanical cell, filtration is achieved by passing the water through a mixture of gravel and plant roots. Because of the nature of plants, oxygen is added to the water as it filters, while nitrogen is removed.
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The Saudi Bio-Dome that promotes "bringing the rainforest to the desert' has been ear marked for a central location in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia and will encompass a hotel, residential units and retails space within a rainforest environment and a 200ft waterfall. It would house 1OOOIS of species of plants, trees and marine life within its proposed aquarium, house among the flora & fauna.

Eco-city 2020 is a proposal for the rehabilitation of the Mirniy industrial zone in Eastern Siberia, Russia.
The project would be located inside a giant man-made crater of more than one kilometer in diameter and 550 meters deep that used to be one of the world's largest quarries. The idea is to create a new garden city that will be shielded from the harsh Siberian environmental conditions characterized by long and severe winters and short hot summers. The new city would attract tourists and residents to Eastern Siberia and would be able to accommodate more than 100,000 people. The planned city is to be divided in 3 main levels with a vertical farm, forests, residences, and recreational areas. One of the interesting aspects of the proposal is the glass dome that will protect the city and would be covered by photovoltaic cells that will harvest enough solar energy for the new development. A central core houses the majority of the vertical circulations and infrastructure along with a multi-level research center. The housi ng area is located in the first level with outdoor terraces overlooking a forest in the center of the city.

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vacation home. Featuri ng a transparent roof, the Remistudio Ark Hotel allows natural light into it to provide heat. Wind turbines are used as a way to create energy along with a solar panel roof. Gutters from the roof collect rainwater which can also be heated using any & all means of the self-reliant capsule.

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Boris Petrovic. Whole Earth System Scientist and
Noospheric Philosopher. engineer of tele-automation systems, a researcher into Testa's 'World system", Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere and magnetic reconnection. Boris is an associate of The Serbian "Nikola Tesla Society in Belgrade, the Tesla Science Foundation in Philadelphia and founding member of the Noosphere Forum. Through cooperation with the International Scientific Research Institute for Cosmic Anthropo-Ecology in Novosibirsk and the Foundation of the Law of Time in Oregon he works on the study of cosmic consciousness, access to intensified consciousness and altered states, including non-linear time and telepathy. Research of res la's wireless energy transfer, in his Belgrade laboratory, uncovers the potential energy field of "instantaneous locality" that underlies our reality, and facilitates communication with Earth's cosmic neighborhood. Currently, he is involved in ecological and cultural projects in biosphere design and self-sustainable communities, promoting the integrated model of self-sustainable habitat in Portugal- the Tamera Solar Village and working in Brasilia through the Brazilian Ecovillage Movement focusing on new models of living systems and long-term survival of the human species and civilization. He is the Director of the Noosphere Technology Center in Itiquira, Brazil.
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eMail: boris@noosphereforum.org Contact: +5561 99849663

In partnership with: Noosphere Spiritual Ecological World Assembly (Russia)