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1. Deming stresses that higher quality leads to higher productivity, which in turn leads to long-term competitive strength.

Discuss how this TQM concept is applicable to academics? W Edwards Deming was an American statistician, considered the father of the modern quality movement. He is best known for reminding management that most problems are systemic and that it is management's responsibility to improve the systems so that workers (management and non-management) can do their jobs more effectively. Deming argued that higher quality leads to higher productivity, which, in turn, leads to long-term competitive strength. The theory is that improvements in quality lead to lower costs and higher productivity because they result in less rework, fewer mistakes, fewer delays, and better use of time and materials. With better quality and lower prices, a firm can achieve a greater market share and thus stay in business, providing more and more jobs. This is also true when applied to education and academics. Academic institutions should institute a vigorous program of education and self improvement. Deming's philosophy is based on long-term, continuous process improvement that cannot be carried out without properly trained and motivated employees. This point addresses the need for ongoing and continuous education and self-improvement for the entire organization. This educational investment serves the following objectives: (1) it leads to better motivated employees; (2) it communicates the company goals to the employees; (3) it keeps the employees up-to-date on the latest techniques and promotes teamwork; (4) training and retraining provides a mechanism to ensure adequate performance as the job responsibilities change; and (5) through increasing job loyalty, it reduces the number of people who "job-hop."

2. What principles/concepts in the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Awards may be adapted in the educational setting? The Malcolm Balridge National Quality Awards is governed by Guiding Principles. Some of the principles may contribute significantly to educational setting. Under Governance:

>Ensuring the Foundations governing body members have the requisite skills and experience to carry out their duties, which can include;

Orientation of new Board members to their responsibilities by sharing copies of bylaws and other organizational documents, adopted policies, and examples of communication tools such as annual reports; Reimbursing Board Members for expenses by considering the appropriateness of fees in relation to responsibilities, time commitment and the federal guidelines for public charities; and Requiring that Board members sign a conflict of interest policy to ensure that personal interests of Board Members and staff do not conflict with the Foundations mission and purpose.

Under Stewardship: >A) Creating a compensation policy for all staff; B) Ensuring that expenses are reasonable and adhere to federal guidelines for foundations.

Under Accountability and Communications: >Ensuring that organizational resources are effectively used to serve the mission. Accordingly, the Board holds the Executive Director responsible for good management and program implementation but must hold itself accountable for the quality of the organization's governance. Through periodic performance assessments via a selfassessment questionnaire the Board will identify ways to strengthen its operations in service to the organization and its mission by seeking clarity about its own effectiveness. Under Respect: >Encouraging feedback from trustees and constituents concerning the effectiveness of funding strategies and program operations.