4^

5fem fork Hatt QfoUege of ?l0ricultu«
Jit Qlornell
atljata,

IntoerHttH
H. ^.

ffitbtarg

TT i60.H26™""'""™'""-"'""^
j]a"']y
''''Jjj

boy; a modern handy book of pra

3 1924 003 590 134

Cornell University Library

The
tine

original of

tiiis

book

is in

Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924003590134

THE HANDTBOY

BOOKS BY
8vo.
Cloth.

A.

NEELY HALL

IHiistrated with hundreds of full-page

and working drawings by the author and Norman P. Hall

THE BOY CRAFTSMAN

.

.

5
(

P""

»'^'^i-6°
1.82

Postpaid
"^* ^

HANDICRAFT FOR HANDY BOYS \ ^""^^
(

^°°
2.25
i .60

Postpaid
'Pri'^e

THE HANDY BOY

^
.

.

net $

I

Postpaid

1.82

LOTHROP, LEE & SHEPARD

CO.,

BOSTON

THE HANDY BOY
A Modern Handy Book of
Radical andPtofitablG RsiiniGS

5j/A."NkclvHaU

.Author of"jm Bay Craftsman "Handicraft far Han(fy Boys"Etc

_

yfwi over six nunarcd illustratifins and working-orawings by uia aumor andNormanPHall

BOSTON

LOTHROP. LEE &- SHEPARD CO.

Norwood. The Handy Boy. Bervrick .A.S. j^oriBOoS Press & Smith Co. U. Lee & Shepard Company.Copyright.. All rights reserved. Published. Mass. by Lothrop. August. 1913. 1913.

and why he should be encouraged in the pursuit of playtime pastimes which will develop practical business The handy boy becomes — handiness. by who did not bother about making kites. was one of the boys of yesterday boats. accurate worker. tree-huts. by applying handy methods to the making and doing of hundreds of worth-while training the things in which he will be intensely interested. a man. and will be of infinitely more value to him because knowledge once applied is not easily forgotten. INTRODUCTORY NOTES a handy man a skilled mechanic. constructing conveniences for and building and the like. and that naturally will appeal more to the boy's sense of the practical than instruction which he could not possibly use for years to come. with the right kind of encourage- . it Such instruction as contains can be put to immediate use. but any boy who will employ a portion of his spare time to experimenting. Handiness comes more naturally to some boys than to others. Clumsiness is simply a lack of the knack of doing things gracefully. wagons. who. and the boy with a tendency to be clumsy must overcome it by properly applying himself. not handy. Many boys of today are growing up with no desire to do more than what is prescribed for them to do. That is why it is so important for a boy to learn to be handy. and would now have the enjoyment of making the things he would like to make if he but knew how. The man of today is who excuses his inability to do this or that admitting that he the house. a thorough.Do Something and Be Something. " The Handy Boy " has been especially planned with a view to boy in the ways of doing things handily. can acquire it. but he might have had just as good a time doing something useful. and to working out handy boy ideas. Per- haps he had a good time.

Technical World Magazine. N. May 31. The contained in " into selected after much study The Handy Boy " have been what boys most enjoy making and doing. Boys' World. . The Ladies^ Home Journal. The Boy Craftsman. The American Boy. Besides developing a boy's handiness. and the juvenile publications. and Youth's World. and Handicraft for Handy Boys. and mechanical toy making. electrical There is woodworking. camp craft. as in The Boy Craftsman and Handicraft for Handy Boys. and other forms of indoor and outdoor handicraft in " The Handy Boy. Thus the handy boy through " The Handy Boy " is encouraged to depend upon his own resources. a knowledge of which the author has gained through years of working with boys. and through corresponding with lished in newspapers in every part of the United States of his handicraft articles published in many many of the hundreds of thousands of readers of his handicraft articles pub- and Canada." and. Good Housekeeping. and will inhim an ambition to make the best possible use of his time suggestions always. the material at hand is used wherever possible in all constructive work. 1913. while suggestions are provided by which whatever money is needed for tools and materials may be earned. Illinois. H. prepared to do something and be something worth while.vi INTRODUCTORY NOTES ment and suggestion might become handy men of tomorrow. and of his handy books. The Delineator. A. " The Handy Boy " will train still in him to think for himself and to use his ingenmty. The Ladies' World. Boys' Magazine. Woman's Home Companion. Oak Park.

Bench and Tool . Oily Rags and Waste.ONTENT PART CHAPTER The Handy terial I AUTUMN AND WINTER PASTIMES I Boy's Back-Yard Workshop — Building Ma— Drawing the Plan — A Workshop with a Lean-To Roof — Staking out the Workshop — The Way to Test the Comers — The Foundation — The Post Supports — — The Floor Joists — The Floor Boards — The Wall FrameThe work—Plumbing the Framework — The Roof Rafters — The Roof Boarding — A Covering of Boards — Shingling — Shingle Gauge-Board — Tar-Paper — Boarding up the Walls — The Door and Window Frames — The Outside Trim — A Workshop with a Gable Roof — The Framework — To Determine Pitch of Roof — To Lay Out Length of Rafters — The Ridge-Pole — Putting up the Rafters — WindowFrames — A Home-Made Window-Frame and Weight-Box — A Door— Frame — A Batten Door — A Wooden Latch and Latch-String Hip-Roof — The Wall Construction — Siding — A Workshop with a The Roof Framing — Painting — Installing a Stove — Care of ShavLocation of the Small Shop — Determining Home Workshop — A Size of Workshop Sills ings. CHAPTER II The Handy Boy's Work .Chest A Home-Made Work-Bench The Framework 31 — The Sliding-Stick — A Packing-Case Work-Bench and Tool-Cabinet — The Bench-Vise — Fastening the Work-Bench to the Floor with — — The Bench-Vise .

viii CONTENTS — An Excellent Tool-Cabinet — A Good Rack for Bits and — A Tool-Chest — Selection Tools — The Most Important Tools — List of Tools for a Medium-Sized Tool Hinges Chisels of Outfit. 78 CHAPTER V For the Handy Boy's Room The Ideal Book-Case —A Room —A Writing-Desk Desk Stool —A Combined Desk and Book and Magazine Rack A —A . . CHAPTER HI The Handy Boy's Handy Ways of Doing Things 46 — — of Nails to — Starting Holes Hard Wood — Supporting Short Nails with Pincers — What to Do When Nails Bend — Withdrawing a Nail — Right and Wrong Nailing — How Hold your Haromer — Clinching Nails — Toe-Nailing — Blind-Nailing — Screws and How to Drive Them — Fastening Cleats or Battens with Screws — Driving Screws into Hard Wood — Countersinking Screw-Heads — Spacing Screws — Withdrawing a Rusted Screw — Locking a Screw — Handy Boy Hardware — Junk Boxes — Hinges and Hinging — Attaching Hinges — A Home-Made Depth-Gauge — Drilling Hinge Screw-Holes — The Nail Pivot Hinge — A Home-Made Box-Hinge — Ornamental BoxHinges — Gauging with a Rule and Pencil — Gauging with a CarpenSquare and Pencil — Dividing a Board into a Number of Equal Parts — A Jack-Knife Plumb-Bob — A Spinning-Top Plumb-Bob — A Plumb-Board — A Home-Made Level — A Post-Hole Digger — Boring Large Holes — Cutting Slots — Cutting Large Wooden Disks — A Depth-Gauge Boring Holes — A Hatchet-Head Anvil — Cutting Wire — A Makeshift Wrench — A Small Pipe Wrench — To Keep Tools from Rusting — To Remove Old Sash Putty — To Remove Kinds of Nails Sizes How to Acquire Handiness — Nails and How to Drive Them Use Driving Nails into Thin — Wood in to ter's for Specks of Paint from Glass — Soldering. .92 — Blacking-Case. CHAPTER IV The Handy Boy about the House Making Things Plate.Warmer A Dryer Cabinet —A — A Pot — Additional Shelves a Clothes Closet — — A Window Refrigerator — A Windmill ClothesSoap-Grater — A Broom-Rack — A Bath-Room Toiletto Sell for Shelf.

Handy Boy Clocks An Electric Alarm-Clock Flash-Light . CHAPTER VII . Electric-Bell shoe Electro-Magnet.CONTENTS CHAPTER VI ix PAGE PRAcncAi Gifts for the Handy Boy to Make Materials for Making Gifts Methods of Finishing 102 — — A Thermometer-Board— A Key-Board — A Spool-Holder — A Spool-Rack — A Simpler Spool-Rack — A Paper-Spindle — A Necktie-Rack — A Match-Box — A Post-Card Rack — A Calendar-Board and Pen-Tray — A Letter-Rack... . CHAPTER DC Electrical Toys for Handy Boys 131 — The Windlass — The Hoisting Cables — How the Derrick Works — A Toy Shocking Machine — The Induction-Coil — The Primary-Coil — The Secondary-Coil — The Handles — An Interrupter — How the Interrupter Works — A Toy Motor Truck — The Wheels — Electric An Electro-Magnet Derrick — The Electro-Magnet — The Derrick . —A Unique Mantel Clock —A -113 Clock CHAPTER The Handy Boy Electrician Vm . — The Light Outfit. 124 — — — — — — — A Larger Sal-Ammoniac A Home-Made Sal-Ammoniac Battery — Another Form Carbon Element — A Home-Made Bi-Chro— The Bi-Chromate Battery Fluid — Amalgamating mate Battery a Zinc Pencil — A Home-Made Plunge-Battery — Methods Con— necting Battery Measurements — The Volt — The Ampere — The Ohm — Binding-Posts — A Home-Made Switch — A Double-Pole Knife-Switch — A Home-Made Push-Button — An Electro-Magnet — A Home-Made Outfit — The Horse— — Cell Marvelous Achievements Obtained with Electricity Spare Time Experimental Work The Means by which Electricity may be Produced The Common Forms of Batteries The Dry-Battery Cell The Sal-Ammoniac Battery Cell The Bi-Chromate Battery Cell A Plunge Battery A Gravity Battery Cell The Storage Battery — — Cell of Cell of Cells Electrical .

— — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XIII 208 of the The Handy Boy's Moving . The Steering.Picture Theater A Development Moving-Pictures at Home —A Splendid — Proscenium — The Panorama Show The Picture Stage Framework — .Jack — A Cricket-Rattle — The Turtle Toy — How to Make The Simple Construction of Small Mechanical Toys the Turtle Crawl. CHAPTER XI Mechanical Toys foe Small Handy Boys 185 — A Buzz-Saw Whirligig — Operating the Whirligig — The Clog-Dancer — A Toy Jumping.CONTENTS The Upper Shaft The Belts The Battery The Seat and Canopy-Top The Seat-Arms The Levers.Wheel — — — — — — CHAPTER X Mechanical Toys for Handy Boys i68 The Water-Wheel Motor Case Pulleys The Shaft Mounting the Wheel The Upper Shafting for Gearing A Toy Merry-Go-Round The Revolving Platform How the The Base The Center Pulley The Horses and Riders The Control Lever Horses Gallop The Pulley Supports Belts The Tent A Toy Aeroplane How it Works The Center Support The Aeroplane Model The Aviator The Suspension-Cords A Toy Water-Motor — A — — — — — — The — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Pylon. CHAPTER XH Handy Boy Ideas for Christmas What the Handy Boy can Do 193 at Christmas Time A Santa Claus The Balloon CoverAirship The Car The Balloon Framework The Rudder The Propeller ing — The Stays and Guy-Ropes How to have the Airship Enter A Santa Claus Fireplace The Fitting The Mantel-Shelf Fireplace The Mantel-Framework The Hearth The Upper Frame the Mantel-Framework in Place The Battery Christmas Tree Light Outfits The Covering Material The Lamp Connections A Lamp Outfit The Cell Connections Purchasing Lamps and Sockets The Circuit Lamp Outfit Switch — — - — — — — — — — — A Christmas Tree Standard.

How — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XVII Handy Boy Snow Tunnels 252 The Tunnel Tunnel Framework Installing a Semaphore Tracks Rolling Large Snow Balls Walls A Telltale Construction of the Semaphores Signal System Lanterns for Coasting after Dark.CONTENTS xi — The Picture "Film" Guide Sticks — Attaching the Pro— The Picture " Films " — Preparing a Scenario — Preparing the Pictures — Scenery — A Street Scene — A Roof Scene — A Forest Scene — The Captured Dog Scene — Pivoting Figures for Moving — The Imitation Moving-Picture Projector. Rollers scenium CHAPTER XIV The Handy Boy Magician One-Boy Show Patience and Practice A Side-Table A Larger Table A Magic Wand The Egg-and-Handkerchief Trick The Climbing Bar of Silver The Marked Coin Trick The Chinese Paradox Making 14 Coins InBreaking a Match. CHAPTER XV More Handy Boy Magic The Paper Shower Trick A Clown AsThe Magician's Patter The Cabinet Trick Turnsistant—The Hand-Untying Trick The Disappearing-DoU Trick The Cabinet ing Paper into Coffee A Packing-Box Table Performing the Doll Trick. A New — Coasting Idea — The — — — — — — . The Doll — — — — — — — — 233 — CHAPTER XVI Newspaper Playhouses for Handy Boys 245 A Log-Cabin PreNewspapers are Prepared for Building Building the Cabin Walls The Roof Frameparing a Paper Log Tepees for an Indian Village A Kettle The Stick Chimney work The Make-Believe Camp-Fire Other Things The Kettle Tripod which can be Built with Paper Tubes. then Restoring It Transforming crease to 20 Magic Splendid Material 220 for — — a — — — — — — — — — the Contents of a Glass.

265 Boy with a Mechanical Turn of Mind Recent Developments The Materials Used in Building Models The Wells Model Aeroplane The Fuselage The Thrust Bearings The Bow Hooks The Main Plane The Elevator The Fin The Propellers Preparing Propellers The Propeller Blank The Propeller-Shafts The Motors The Nealy Model Aeroplane The Fuselage The Thrust Bearings The Elevator The Main Plane The Propellers The Propeller-Shaf ts The Motors The Selley Model Aeroplane The Fuselage The Planes The Propellers The Models Built by Percy Pierce The Hydro-Aeroplane. . and Other Ideas The Egg-Beater Motor Winder in Winding Position to Take It for . The Right Sort Lumber PART II SPRING AND SUMMER PASTIMES CHAPTER XIX Handy Boy Model Aeroplanes . Sport for the A — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XX The Handy Boy's Motor Winder. .. Slide for CHAPTER XXI Handy Boy Kites The Sticks . 284 — How Winds the Motors — Care — Launching Models — The Wells Distance Measuring Instrument — The Graduated Stick — The Tripod — The Sight Plate — The Hair-Line — Flags — Operating the Measuring Device — Model Aeroplane Contests — Rules Governing Model Contests — Stability in Model Aeroplanes.. the Sticks 296 — Framing Popularity of Tailless Kites — The — The Conyne Kite Bridle — Covering — The the Kite Frame- .xii CONTENTS CHAPTER XVllI PAGE Handy Boy Coasters 258 of — A Double-Runner Coaster — The Sled Runners — The Connecting Cross Braces — The Sled Seat — The Handle-Bars — Runner Shoes — A Single-Runner Coaster — The Runner — The Seat Board — Runner Shoes..

in the — — — — — — — — — Signs — Stone-Heap Signs — Your Watch as a Compass — Getting Woods. 34° —A of a Tree-Hut over a Ground Hut Ladder — The Platform — The Framework — The Aerial Floor . CHAPTER XXIII Handy Boy Scout Craft . .Huts The Advantage Foundation . 323 " Hikes " A Scout Knapsack Material for Knapsack DuffleKnife Sheaths A Flexible Rubber Packing the Knapsack Bags Getting a Drink without a Cup A Folded Paper Cup Cup Knotted-Grass Twig Signs Blazed Trails Signs of the Trail Lost.CONTENTS xiii — Flying-Line — The Malay Kite — The Kite-Sticks — The BowStick — Framing the Sticks — Covering the Framework — The Bridle Attachment — The Box-Kite — The Kite Sticks — The Side Frames — Covering the End — Assembling the Kite — Attaching the Bridle — Kite-Reels — A Simple Kite-Reel — A Good Hand Kite-Reel — A Body Kite-Reel. work Cells PAGE CHAPTER XXII Handy Boy Camp Craft The Handy Boy is not Long for 312 a Tenderfoot in — Materials Making Things Take Along Camp — The Wall Tent — A HomeMade Wall Tent — A Burlap Tent — The Wall Supports the Wall Tent — The Upper Portion the Tent — The Lean-To Tent — A Screen — Making a Lean-To Tent — Trenching Around Outside Tent — A Backwoodsman's Camp Cot — Making an Open Fireplace — A Campfire Crane — A Sheet-Iron Camp Stove — A Camp Cooker — A Log Bridge — A Pier — A Refrigerator — A Wash-SheU — Flash-Lamp — A A Camp Broom — A Camp Shovel — An Camp to in of of Fire of Fireless Electric Camp Candle-Stick. 336 How the Flashes The Lantern Box Dark The Key ConnecThe Key Lever Stick The Shutter are Made Operating The Candle Light The Back of the Lantern Box tions The Morse Code. . the Lantern — — after — — — — — — — CHAPTER XXV Handy Boy Tree . — — — CHAPTER XXTV The Handy Boy's Signal Lantern Communicating .

362 — Skatemobile Races Skate — A Popular Skatemobile Type of Skatemobile — The Reach-Board — Separating the RoUerSkate Wheels — How the Skate Wheels are Attached — The Hood — The Handle-Bars — A Seat — Other Forms of Skatemobiles — A HeadHow the — How . . 356 — The Wagon-Bed — The Bow Wheels — The Stern Wheels — The Tiller-Post and Connections — The Mast-Step — The Mast — A Qat-Boat Rig. .the Skatemobile Came to be Invented is Made with but a Single hght.xiv CONTENTS — The Floor Boards — How to Construct the — Erecting the Walls — A Board Roof — The Window Opening — The Door — A Newel-Post at Top Ladder — A Dumb-Waiter — The Dumb-Waiter Car — The Lifting Cables — The Shaft-Opening ^ The Cable Sheave — The Counterbalance for the Car — The Upper Lifting Cable — The Lower Lifting Cable — The Wire Guides — A Railing for Protection. A Fair Substitute for a Sail-Boat Tiller. CHAPTER XXIX Handy Boy Roller Sb:ate Sails . . . — — — CHAPTER XXVII The Handy Boy's Sail -Wagon . 368 — The Square — The Covering — The Rope Stays — Fastening the to the Spreader — The Hand— The Three-Comered — Handling the Straps — Method Holding the The Connecting Socket — The Cloth — Method A New and Delightful of Sport Sail Sail Sail Sail Sail Sail of Sail. CHAPTER XXVIII Handy Boy Skatemobiles . . Joists — The Struts Walls in Sections of CHAPTER XXVI The Handy What Lifting Boy's Aeeial Conveyor it 351 be Used for How it Operates The Device for Raising and Lowering the Cable Ends Attaching the Cable The may — Rope — The Conveyor Car.

CONTENTS CHAPTER XXX XV PAGE The Handy Boy Gabdener A Home-Made Wheelbarrow 374 Barrow Wheel A Wooden Wheel The Framework of the Wheelbarrow The Legs The Wheelbarrow Box The Umbrella Bower A Small Trellis A Trellis for Sweet Peas Flower-Boxes A Window Flower-Box Painting the Flower-Box A Plant-Box. — — The — — — — — — — — — — Index 385 .

.

161. 273. 205. Fig. 203. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. 202. Fig. 322. Fig.) An Electro-magnet Derrick Hoisting a Load of 284 Brads . 195. Fig. Fig. 163. 27. Fig. — Workshop shown 12 — A Workshop with a Hip Roof — Additional Shelves a Clothes Closet — A Radiator Plate. 162. 221. 227. 220. 197. Fig. Fig. Fig. 204. will Electric ] 162 of Electric J • • • • is in 186 . 206. 228. this . Fig. 198. Fig. Fig. 196. Fig. 1 60. Fig. 17.Warmer — A Window Refrigerator — A Windmill Clothes-Dryer — A Thermometer-Board — A Key-Board — A Spool-Holder — A Spool-Rack — The Three Parts the Spool-Rack — A Necktie-Rack — A Match-Box — A Post-Card Rack — A Pen-Tray and Calendar-Board — A Letter-Rack — A Unique Mantel Clock — A Clock Flash-Light — Dry-Battery — Sal-Ammoniac Battery — Gravity Battery — Storage Battery — A Home-Made Battery and Push-Button — The Shock from Toy Make your Friends Dance — A Toy Motor Truck — Top View Motor Truck — The Buzz-Saw Whizzes when you Twist the Cord Himself a Circus 323. 229. Fig. 287. Fig. Fig. 194. Fig. Fig. Fig. — The Eccentric Clog-Dancer 324. Fig. 225. for 19 27 79 104 of 108 118 Cell Cell Cell 126 Electric-Bell. Fig. Fig.LIST OF HALF-TONE ILLUSTRATIONS PART I (In addition to nearly 600 text illustrations. — Pull the String and Jack Jumps Comically Interior of in Fig. Fig. 286. 226. Frontispiece FACING PAGE Fig.

— Winding the Rubber-Strand Motor with the Egg-Beater Winder Fig. — Building the Walls of the Log-Cabin 408. Fig. Fig." Rising from the Water 451. — At the Start A Race the Lincoln Park Skatemobile Club Fig. 449. Fig. 270 his Pierce's 2 282 Pierce's Pierce's Fig. — An Egg-Beater Motor Winder 453. — A Play Indian Village with Newspaper Tepees is ) 190 246 ) and Kettle 248 Tripod PART Fig. Fig. Fig.— Several Makes of Illinois' 26s Field. S4I. " Hydro No. Fig. his also his . — The Wells Distance Measuring Device 452. 425. 340 for Off. — Whirling the Cricket-Rattle Makes Chirp a Jelly Mould 329. Fig. — A Newspaper Log-Cabin 401. — Harry Wells Launching Yard Workshop Model 448. 6. Fig. — Ready Fig. — Percy 454. — Completing the Platform S42. — The Crawling Turtle's Shell 400. I 284 Fig. of Illinois II Fig. Chicago 426. — The Wells Model Aeroplane BackModel. Fig. Fig. Fig. — Percy — Percy Inclosed Bi-Plane Model 450. 564. 563. Fig. 328. Fig.XVUl LIST OF HALF-TONE ILLUSTRATIONS FACING PAGE it Fig. of 366 . a View of 427. — Hoisting Building Material Inspection 543. — Launching Model Aeroplanes from the Hand — A Contest the Model Aero Club at the Aero Club Aviation at Cicero. — Arthur Nealy Launching " " Pelican No. of 362 all Figs. 424. — Skidding at the Turns Makes Skatemobile Racing the More Thrilling Skatemobiles 569-572.

PARTI Auiiimii and Wnter Pastimes .

.

!EJ i^ .

you vicinity. BuUding Material. and the buUding contractor it anxious to get quickly out of his way. demon- your ability as a A workshop structure need not be of elaborate design. be studied. Secit ond-hand Irnnber can be purchased cheaply. where a building is being wrecked or altered. a small stove. with 6 feet 6 inches head-room at the lowest point. New lumber is not necessary. You can get along with a shop which measures 8 for such a shop feet square inside. no matter if because every handy boy should be familiar with the proper method will of erecting a small frame building. perhaps. and often can be had is for the cost of hauling it away. shoiild but the workshop plans not for immediate use. and provide comfortable working-space. Maybe you not need to draw upon this knowledge until some years later. and the material required wUl not make the construction expensive. summer cottage. and if you know to how to do the work yourself you wiU save a great deal of Besides. money. may uncover such a bargain in your not as easy to handle as Second-hand lumber is. With a little watchfulness. nor of proportions larger than are necessary to house your bench and other equipment. new . or garage of similar construction.2 THE HANDY BOY The Handy Boy " the great chapter of " building. but more likely than not you wiU at some time have occasion to build a hen-house. construction of a small will A many of you boys not be able to build a shop at present. strate you wiU have an opportunity handy-man. boathouse.

your building will have a first-class appearance. considering the saving in the cost. can be placed on unexposed portions. the old nailin place. 3 and it requires some little time to separate pieces that are nailed together.THE HANDY BOY'S BACK -YARD WORKSHOP material. little decayed. when a couple of coats of paint are added. extra but the work is well worth while. . and badly cracked ends of boards that are to be used upon the outside. and carefully putty holes all and cracks when you have naUed the boards Then. —A Back-Yard Workshop with a Lean-to Roof. The best preserved material can be sorted out for exposed places. I. Cut away broken. and to withdraw nails. and aJl of the remainder that is usable Fig.

the first thing to Draw a Plan upon the of the Workshop. ruler represent i foot of the Let every ^ inch workshop. 2. 4—'— 3'-2"-located a place to it.THE HANDY BOY You must take into consideration the quantity of material at your disposal. also the amoimt I* 3-2"FiG. then yoiir . in Determining the Size of your Workshop. When you have do is of ground space available. just as you want This can be done with a ruler and pencil. 3|5--2'-Q"~. for the building. — Draw your Workshop Plan Like This.

so that you space is left. in thickness. etc. see Chapter Handy Boys. so the material will come within your cost limit. Lumber foot is is sold by the 1. and 12 feet long contains 8 board Boards. A board reckoned as a piece or less. and carefully checked over it is to see that no mistakes have been made. and 12 feet long contains 4 feet." " s of Handi- . 12. board and a piece 2 inches thick. Then draw a picture of the front of your building exactly to scale (the Front Elevation) tion). Draw size the walls 5 inches thick. 14. know how much working . the tool- and the stove just if you plan to have one. 4 inches wide.^ 5 plan will be drawn to a scale of yi inch to the 2 Figure shows a workshop plan. 16. 4 inches wide. after you have studied over the following building construction and learned what material list is required for a floor. you can now for figure very closely how much is material will be required your building. Then the size of the building can be reduced or enlarged upon. and 20 foot lengths (pieces of greater length ' craft for For further information about Working-drawings. i inch. that to say.THE HANDY BOY'S BACK -YARD WORKSHOP i foot. will the work-bench. a simple matter to estimate the amount of limiber needed. roof. also a picture of one side (the Side Eleva- If these drawings have been carefully made. walls. and I 12 inches long. feet. and other stock material. and indicate the door and window openings as shown. Also draw to the correct cabinet. With a of the material prepared. Upon this basis a piece inch thick. come in 10. 12 inches wide. studding.000 feet (board feet). 18.

The la5dng out of the workit shop plan upon the spot selected for care. building an attractive addi- tion to the Staking Out the Workshop. three lengths with little can be cut up into two or In buying. so the opposite be parallel. plainness. 3 First drive a stake into the ground at one comer of your run parallel to a sidewalk or a building {A. Fig. angles to the walls adjacent to The proper way surveyor's transit of staking out a small building. 3. lengths that will cut up to the best advantage.. — How to Stake Out and Square the Comers little of a Building. Fig. However plain this building is upon the outside. were of a more pretentious Vines trained over the sides will relieve their Fig. i is The workshop shown building. it is are usually special stuff). If the building is to . it it wiU serve your purpose exactly as well as though design.6 THE HANDY BOY and etc. must be done with The walls will must be located exactly. 3). in Fig. 3). best to so plan your building that your boards. of the simplest type of and its lean-to or shed roof requires less material and less time to build than any other kind. order the or no waste. then another at an adjacent corner (B. is not at hand. when a and 4. is shown in Figs. and make the back yard. and so each waU will be at right corners it.

Along the cord AB measure a distance this point (£) tie of 4 feet from the nail in stake A. — By Placing the Stakes as Above. and connect the two with a cord. Fig. if The reason in win be perfectly you have learned mathe- matics the rule governing right-angle triangles square of the hypothentise (long side) equals the — viz. and drive stakes into the groimd to mark them (C and D. 4. 3). and run cords from A to D and from B to C. they will be exactly parallel. Connect C and D with a cord tied to naUs driven into their tops. nail Also measure a distance of 3 feet along AD. from A. and hold the end of the cord tied at E over to this point {F). drive these stakes at equal distances Drive a nail into the top of each stake to mark the exact comers. the sum of the . they do not Interfere with the Framework Corners. necessarily be right angles but the comers corrected. 7 fence. and at a cord to cord cord AB. Fig. Now. if the angle formed by cords AB and AD is a right angle. If you have made the opposite cords of equal length.THE HANDY BOY'S BACK -YARD WORKSHOP from it. the length" of the cord exactly 5 feet. With a rxile measure off as accurately as possible the positions for the other two comers. is will not and must be is The Way to Test the Comers by what known as the three-four-five rule. between points for this E and F wiU be clear.

of cord move stake D until by means of cord EF you prove that the angle at correct. Then you may be certain that the other two corners are right angles that is. is you it is find that the angle too great or not great enough. The original corner stakes can The Foundation. and connect them to the new stakes. it is neces- sary to correct only the opposite angle at stake C. is If the soil on the site of your buUding high and dry. and then undo the Hnes. as the latter would interfere with the framework. Drive nails into their tops in Hne with those l)dng flat in the comer stakes. In chan- ging the position of stake D. 4). and has not recently been disturbed (so there will be Httle chance of settlement). the floor of as small a building as your workshop may be placed directly . With A exactly right. before starting the framework. it but. provided you know by checking up — measurements that your Hnes are of the right lengths. and sighting across the tops of the stake is an easy matter to get the new nails exactly in line with those in the angles comer stakes. be careful not to alter the length AD. but it is weU to test two opposite by the three-four-five rule. The cords represent the outside Hnes of your building. By upon the nails. is done by driving two stakes into the ground at each corner. it ground. then be puUed. in line with and about 12 inches away from the corner stakes (Fig.8 THE HANDY BOY If squares of the other two sides. one at a time. wiU be necessary This to substitute other stakes for the corner stakes. to be certain that you have not changed them.

rest a level After placing them on the of chips of on them and by means wood raise the low ends until the pieces are level.THE HANDY upon the ground to be BOY'S BACK -YARD WORKSHOP but if 9 surface. After digging the post-holes. the ground is low and likely more or less damp.-. try the two-shovel method of digging described on page 69. on 6-inch fence-posts. the joist posts. and tamp it down solid with the end of a stick. and at the center. throw in the loose earth around them.-:-6" FENCE POST Fig. also. and setting the posts in them. a post-auger with which to dig post-holes. so their bot- tom ends wiU extend below the frost line. For a building 9 feet square the sills should be 4 inches wide and 4 inches deep. post tops. to receive Sills. or is filled-in ground. The The tops of the posts should be sawed off square and level. and be supported at 2each end. customary to set Post Supports from 3 to 4 feet in the ground. One sill must be on the same level as the other. should be supported upon sills set on Figure 5 shows It is this construction. so place a . s- — A Floor Constructed upon Sills that are Supported upon Posts. The earth wiU pack better if you pour water in with it. If you haven't ^"rff' .. Two by-4S spiked together will do.

use a home-made the one shown Toe-nail the siUs to the posts with i6-penny spikes (see Toe-Nailing. or thereabouts. as shown. This wiU give you a solid platform is to work upon. page 53). joist and 2-by-4S can be used fit Notch the ends to over the siU plates. and in notching the ends of the floor joists the depths of the notches should be varied accordingly. If the floor joists are 9 feet. make and 151. Use i6-penny 2 inches thick. or space the 2-by-6s 12 inches The best method of fastening the joists to the siUs is fit by notching their ends to over the siUs. so as to bring all of the tops to the same level. If the floor is laid directly upon the ground. Floor Joists. if one proves to be lower than the other. 2-by-6s placed 16 inches on centers on will support your floor. 6.10 THE HANDY BOY on sill straight 2-by-4 across each pair of ends. in length. and. rest your level the center of the length of these 2-by-4S. Six-inch matched flooring best. 2-by-8s. level like you can in Fig. it is shown sill in Fig. In lajdng these boards. 5. 2-by-4S placed flatwise will be sufficient for plates. use either centers. block up case its ends. as shown in Fig. as for floor joists. as . spikes for fastening together is aU material generally a slight variance in the widths and thick- nesses of such stuff as 2-by-4S and 2-by-6s. In you do not have a page 68. Lay the Floor Boards as soon as you have spiked the floor joists to the sflls. carpenter's spirit-level. if the joists are much longer than this. do not drive them very close together. and then There toe-nailing them through the sides.

to put to- gether the framework of one raise it into position. 7. 7).THE HANDY allowance must be BOY'S BACK -YARD WORKSHOP any ii made for swelling to prevent possi- bility of the floor buckling. is the wall framework of one-story buildings. 16). 6.^ The Framework of the Workshop Shown in Fig. i. and brace temporarily (Fig. waU flat upon it the floor (Fig. The Wall Framework. 2"X4"PLATE Double 2"x4" Rafter 2"X4" PLATE 2"X4- FLOOR -JOIST Fig. — Put Together the Wall Framework Flat upon the Finished Floor. . Fig. Z"x4' <i The usual way ( of constructing Rafters >v.

fitting floor If them between the and the rafters. and you make the head- room at the rear of the shop this. and the plates above the doorway and Figure 7 shows above and below the window opening. Plumbing the Framework. then nail strips across the cor- shown in Fig. the top plates. the corner posts. and then set up the side wall stvds after the roof rafters have been put on. and so on. Test each corner of the frame. Then the frames are The floored-over joists make a frames. Use 2-by-4S and bottom for the wall stuis. to prevent the frame from twisting in place mitil out of shape. As soon it as a wall frame has been raised into position. higher than to give the roof its proper pitch. it is best to make the front and rear wall frames in this way. untU all four walls are in place. as it is the pieces together. this Make the front frame much higher than the rear wall frame. I roof. splendid platform on which to build up these For a small buUding with a lean-to in Figs. then sawed through and after all the removed framework has been put up fit (Fig. 6). all Leave these diagonal braces of the framework has been put in place and fastened. the front wall frame is is how put together.12 THE HANDY BOY make a second wall then and raise that into position. should be plumbed vertically . 16. the ceiling height at the front should be 2 feet 6 inches. as you to be sure that ners. or 3 feet. square. The bottom plate extended across the doorway. 6 feet 6 inches. such as is shown and 6. plumbed and fastened together. is your building 9 feet long.

on page 68 and shown The Roof Rafters are spiked to the top plate of the front and rear wall frames. 150. laid A Covering of Boards in the same direction that the rafters run. under side of the shingles and dry them out after Use 6. as It is very them about i inch shown you ^ the shop interior photograph (Fig. important to leave this much space between the boards if shingle the roof. —a Good Board Roof. so the air will reach the rains. lay the roof boards across the rafters. then plumb one end of the frame and naU the brace to it. then the other end. 8.or 8-inch common pine for these boards. placing apart. 6. with a second layer of boards laid over the openings between .THE HANDY BOY'S BACK -YARD WORKSHOP One end 13 before the braces are nailed in place. Double the end rafter as shown in Fig. or metal. and the nails in the other started. and spaced about 3 inches apart. It wiU be easiest to have some one fasten the braces while you attend to plumbing. the roof is to be shingled or covered with composition roofing paper. Fig. is The de- making and handling scribed of a home-made plumb-board in Fig. of each brace can be fastened. The ends of the rafters should be trimmed to fit the plates. 17). If The Roof Boarding.

of the roof should be laid double thickness. makes a good and it is a covering that can be put on quickly boards. A square first equals 100 square feet. Four ^-thousand bunches I'j/i of if shingles will laid cover approximately squares of roof. — How to Frame a Board Roof. 10. and project the same . or a space 10 feet square. or eaves. and the shingles of each succeeding row must overlap the joints between the shingles of the preceding row. — Gauge-Board for Laying Shingles.14 THE HANDY BOY roof. with 4^^ Fig. Shingling. as it is (Fig. ping the joints of the lower layer. inches of their surface exposed to the weather. The row of shingles along the lower edge. Project the first row of shingles i inch or so beyond the shingles the wall of the building. g. with the upper layer lap- FiG. 8). 9. them. To provide supports for these necessary to fasten purlins between the rafters shown in Fig.

BEVELEOSIOING between flooring and . Cover the upper ends of the top row with a board and the roof wQl be completed. then lay the edges of the next row of shingles against the upper edge of the board. The frame- Siding -Building- work may be boarded up. The tarpaper will be plenty with[^ good enough it out daubing tar. Fasten the paper with roofing-nails and tin-caps (See Fig. Move this board from row to row until the entire roof has been shingled. or sheathed. with I up the -BeVELED-i Boarding Walls. 10).orbev- Sheathing -WATERTABLE -Base eled-siding (Fig. tack this gauge-board to with one edge even with the lower edge of the shingles. the layers The paper should be laid across the roof. shiplap. 11). except that a lap of 3 or 4 inches is sufficient. A board 4^ inches wide A Shingle Gauge-Board for getting the edges of the shingles in straight lines (Fig.THE HANDY should be used as BOY'S BACK -YARD WORKSHOP 15 distance over the side walls. page 56). with Paper • Ship-lap matched fiooring. 61. As soon as the first double it. drop-siding. The only difference ?*^^owng SHIP-LAP DROPSIOING Fig. row of shingles has been laid. with lapped the same way as in shinghng. Tar-Paper makes a good roof covering that can be put on cheaply. II.

set in place. drop-siding. must be i fitted The shop shown in Fig.i6 THE HANDY BOY is ship-lap in the edges. 12 sheathed with ship-lap. around the walls just below the roof boarding. Use 6-inch boards and run them around the base. of course. or shingles on top of the paper. Drop-siding differs from ship-lap in the shoulder of the upper rabbet. it is to insure greater floor- customary to put on ship-lap or matched this. then to tack building-paper over and fasten drop-siding. Beveled-siding described on page When two thicknesses of boards are used. warmth. and around the door and window . and then sided with beveled-siding placed on top of the paper. beveled-siding. This makes a neater covering than an exposed 26. flooring Ship- lap is more generally used than beveled for sheathing. then covered with heavy building-paper. Before the second covering is put on. 23. has a wall covering of drop-siding. while is first the shop in Fig. for the outside trim. first. ing. and ship-lap has two rabbeted edges. however. and fitted close against the door and window openings. up each comer. Flooring has a totigued and a grooved edge. also. The Door and Window Frames must be gestions for these Sug- wiU be found upon page between the The Outside Trim must or shingles be put on. then the outside trim should be nailed in place. The building- paper should be lapped around the corners. which is off instead of cut square. because the sidiag trim. for is surface. and the beveled-siding cut to fit between the trim.

.

varied as shown in Fig. for a water-table (Fig. a cap must be fastened on top strip of the base-board. The studding is in this framework is spaced 16 inches on centers. away from each end of the plates one-half of their thickness. floor. then all four walls are built up on the one at a time (Fig. 14 and 15). The floor is framed and floored over. raised into position. 13. except where door and window openings occur. diEfers The Framework. — The End Wall Framework. (Figs.i8 THE HANDY BOY If siding is to openings. 12) has more to it than one with a lean-to roof. — The Side Wall Framework. for a distance equal to the width of the adjoining plate. This must be beveled on top strip of siding should so as to shed water. 16). other than that of the little very in construction (Fig. The halved-joint consists in be spiked to them cutting (Fig. A Workshop with a Gable Roof (Fig. where the spacing . so that the end plates can be lapped over the side plates and Fig. ii). and Fig. 15. 16). 14. 13). first. be put on. roof. fitted The style bottom be on to this water-table. and braced The ends of the top plates are halved.

Fl(J. — IXTKKIUR UF WuKKSHOP SHOWN I>' FiG. 17. IJ .

.

J9 .

Starting at the point A. in a building 9 feet wide. and cut oflf their ends at the proper angles to meet the ridge-pole and wall plates. the roof has a }^-pitch. which rises 3 feet if with the same span of 9 feet would have a J^-pitch. by dividing the height the roof into the span (the distance between the rafter supports). When you easy matter have decided upon the roof's pitch. which far enough from . 19. tion is shown in detail in Figs. 4 feet 6 inches. The method shown of laying out the rafters for a ^-pitch roof is in Fig.20 THE HANDY BOY To Determine the Pitch of the Roof. a }4-pitch. it is an To Lay Out the Length of the Rafters. A carpenter's steel square is necesis sary. 16. Thus. i8. The first The pitch to which the proportion obtained rises. with a roof which rises 2 feet 3 inches. A roof Fig. — How the Wall Framework is Raised and Braced. 19 is thing is to determine the pitch of the roof. The and roof construc20.

place the square upon the rafter with the 6-inch mark on the tongue (short end of square) at A. then 3NE-QUARTERPITCH 9-0 SPAli__^ Fig. 19). is feet. . 18-20. and the 12-inch mark on the blade (long end of square) at B (see " First Position. Mark these points on the rafter. K-6H." in Fig. then to D and 2 E (" Fourth Position You have now measured up peak of the roof. which of the building. Figs. move come the square along the rafter until the points at A and B it B and C Second Position Third Position ") "). 6 inches short of the center To locate the point upon the rafter which . — How (see " to Lay Out Gable-Roof Rafters.THE HANDY BOY'S BACK -YARD WORKSHOP 21 the end of the rafter to allow for the overhanging eaves. which is 3 inches lower than the and horizontally 4 feet. then move to the points C and D {" "). 18.

you can get a couple of window-sash for about $1. then those and then the intermediate ones. Weights are not necessary. you cannot pay out this much. of the rafter is notched to fit over the Figure 20 shows how to lay out this cut with the steel square. 13). When the author buUt a back-yard work- . and make yoxu" own frame. and the 6-inch mark on The point line F will be the center of the Square the FG across the rafter. comes at E. sash. Window-Frames. or without. If weighi-boxes. A window-frame with weights. sash-cord. and for a small window openafford to ing. The lower end wall plate. either with a weight- box. or hinge it to swing open. though very convenient. glass. will cost about $3.50. Saw off the rafter }4 inch inside of line FG.22 will THE HANDY BOY be both the peak of the roof and the center of the building. also the of 6 inches. because you can nail the upper sash in place. and inch thick and 5 inches wide. as shown. Double the end rafters with a second rafter (Fig. way to lay out an eave projection The Ridge-Pole is used to simplify the matter of fastening it the upper ends of the rafters.00. 18). building. Putting should be a board i Before Up the Rafters. ridge-pole. first. Spike the rafters at one end of the building to the at the opposite end. sHde the square up until the 3-inch mark on the tongue of the square the blade comes at F. lay boards across the top wall plate for a scaffolding to stand upon. and fix the lower sash to slide open sideways. to allow for the thickness of the ridge-pole (see Fig.

THE HANDY BOY'S BACK -YARD WORKSHOP shop. Fig. he found a couple of old sashes. 22.Elevation Fig. 21-23. 23 when a boy. 21. you This proved to be a very satisfactory arrangement. The . Figure 22 shows a section through the building wall with the frame in place. made his own window-frame. 23 -PLATE Sectional. fastened the upper sash permanently and made a side pocket for the lower sash to slide into. Figure 21 shows a sectional elevation of A Home-Made Window-Frame not difficult to and Weight-Box that is put together. if Figs. - These Details Show How to Construct Window-Frames Cannot Buy Them. Section Fig.

N the windowrstop. of the sash. The sUl is tilted slightly to shed rain water. to allow plenty room for the sash-weights. of must be at least 2)4 inches. its set even with the inside face of the studs. a strip ^2 inch square. Sash-weights can be purchased from any hardware dealer. These openings provide a means of getting at the weight-boxes to repair sash-cords. and if is a continuation of the same is window head. and the outer edge projects beyond the outside face the frame. which holds the lower This strip must extend down the jamb of the frame. Each must be just a trifle heavier than one-half the weight it nicely. The boards D and E form if the inside and outside walls is of the weight-box. also. D will also . I represents the outside Z. and to the stud back of the weight-box.do for the window-trim. Board F is the window-stool. The tance between the jambs of the frame (B) and the stud each side of the frame. of the walls. which separates the two sashes at the strip across the jambs. NaU boards D and E to the window-frame. G is the apron. The dis- upper slots are cut to receive the sash-pulleys. Figure 23 shows how to start of The pieces removed from the inner edge the jamb boards {B) are sawed out on a bevel. H is the head trim. so as to balance . and the workshop board not plastered or boarded up on the inside. is and / and K the outside window trim. and board sheathing. so they can be fitted back into place.24 sill THE HANDY BOY (A) is a piece of 2-by-8 cut to fit between the studs at inner edge is the sides of the window opening. sash in place.

Build this Make it of matched boards. wiU be plenty 59) 115-117. and fasten shown. not. you set your studding at the proper places for the door-jambs. page 59. page If 58). with a hasp Latch-String (Figs. Screw or nail the end battens in place. and guard are shown Fig. A Batten Door is plenty good enough. to padlock when you away from the in position in The and latch. 24. catch. the old-fashioned Wooden Latch and enough. and should tied to the run up and through a hole bored through the door near the top.THE HANDY A Door-Frame BOY'S BACK -YARD WORKSHOP if 25 may be eliminated altogether. fasten if it upon the good inside face of the door. you can get a rim door-lock (Fig. 25). page are fastened upon the outside shop. and across the head These strips and the sill form stops for the door to nail strips against. 26. also Hinges and Hinging. iii. shown screwed jamb stud is provided as The button a means of . Hinge the door with T-hinges (see Fig. strike up each side stud. tied to in detail in Fig. in place. and place it so the inner edge comes to about the center of the side studs. and a nut or some such thing should be to the outer end to catch hold of to raise the latch. The latch-string should be a screw -eye or nail in the top of the latch. Then plate. so it Be sure to run the diagonal in the same direction in relation to the hinged edge as is it will brace the door properly. Make a siU out of a piece of 2-by-6. Figure 24 shows one hinged in place to the stud door-jamb. door upon the floor. then cut the diagonal batten to fit between them.

ic ^ Fig. The outside trim must be put on before the siding. 25. with beveled-siding. Catch. Fig. 25. — A Batten Door with Wooden Latch and Latch-String. and a wooden cap must be nailed on top of the base-board of this trim to form a water-table. Siding. and then PLATEJ IWALL PLATE[ | i^ 1 I I — fe LATCH ^i ± CATCH GUARD STUD. — Details of Wooden Latch. This workshop building has walls sheathed on the outside. 24. 26. then covered with building-paper. — A Rim Door Lock for Inside Face of Door. and Guard. 24.26 THE HANDY BOY When this is turned down. its locking the door from the inside. Fig. Fig. Fig. Then . 26. the latch cannot be Ufted. -STUD in Fig.

Fig.— a Workshop with a Hip Hoof. 27. .

.

% inches wide. for the reason that there are so different lengths of rafters many aU not is and different bevels to cut. A carpenter could give you all of the assistance necessary in two hours' time. though it might be difficult for most of you boys. with a Hip-Roof more ornamental for a back yard than one with either a gable-roof or a lean-to A hip-roof involves considerable more time in its construction. the exterior will be plastered with cement stucco. inasmuch as it will only be necessary to lath the studding with wood lath as a founda- . if Perhaps your father might lend a you want to put a hip-roof upon your shop. A block of wood 4^ inches wide should be used for a gauge for getting the same amount of lap on each piece. BOY'S BACK -YARD WORKSHOP fit 27 the siding must be cut to between the trim boards. Ulti- Narrow. matched-and-beaded ceiling has been used. 27 the method in which the framework boarded up. Such a roof difi&cult for one to frame who has had practical experience in carpentry. which allows a lap of inch. is A Workshop roof (Fig. mately. and this will be done easily. which makes a neatly sealed interior. of which must be figured carefully. You will notice that this is done upon the inside of the studding instead of the outside. or perhand. Siding of the above Beveled-siding (Fig. haps he will get some one to help you.THE HANDY be nailed in place. A is imique feature of the little building is shown in Fig. 27). width is customarily laid with i 4^ inches exposed to the weather. and 1 1) comes «. and is about }4 inch thick on one edge and beveled down to y^ inch thick on the other edge. without help.

to furnish for the inside boards. and the center jacksteel- on each side. diagonally. can be laid out by means of the square method shown in Fig. comer nailing surfaces The Roof Framing. rafters The hip-rafters. two posts are set at right angles to one another. — The Framework of the Workshop Shown in Fig. Fig. In the case of the hip- the distance across comers. tion for Instead of stucco. instead of a comer-post. 28). must be . of course. The only difference between this building is The Wall Construction of and that of the workshop with the gable-roof HIP-RAFTER JACK-RAFTERSi at the corners (Fig.28 THE HANDY BOY the stucco. rafters. 28. 19. where. 27. drop-siding or beveled-siding could be nailed on.

and blocked up on top with a to the roof. 29. after the latter have been spiked in position. to give a sUght kick-up is This shown in Fig.Detail of Raiter Ends. Painting. and in the larger de- drawing. putty the nail holes. down to the eaves. and the putty will stick better than . any hght color. side of the rafters should be boarded with matched-and-beaded ceiling so the ceiling will match the The exterior of your workshop should be given coat. two coats of paint — a priming coat and a finishing or The it first coat may be of white-lead. to ^"'. tail triangular strip. Fig. and the proper length and bevels can then be determined easily. strip SHINGLES- the shingles also. from the peak of the roof •WALL PLATE. and be. to tween the shingles and make the roof metal flashing with red-lead upon both Paint this prevent it from rusting. sides. After has dried. The holes will then be partly fiUed with paint. The under walls. rafters BOY'S BACK -YARD WORKSHOP 29 The upper ends of the shorter jack- can be located upon the hip-rafters. must ROOF BOARDSv Then a must be of tin or galvanized iron nailed over each hip.THE HANDY taken as the span. The roof boarding must be beveled at the hip ends. tight. 28.^Q- cover the jomts be- . The eave end is of each rafter is curved to make it ornamental.

30 if THE HANDY BOY pressed into dry holes. and the roof shingles should be lapped over edges just the same as though the piece of tin were a shingle (Fig. for . and as far away from the stove as possible. with a piece of heavy galvanized iron large enough for the stove legs to stand upon (Fig. outside of covered cans. and extend a stove-pipe through the roof. Be your very careful to stove. A tin collar must be cut to fit over the its to make the roof water-tight. and tack it in place. 12). Protect the beneath the stove. be sure to keep the pipe at least ^ inch away from any top of the pipe. or out through a wall. Whatever metal flashing has been used upon the roof should be given a coat of paint of the color used for the trimmings. wood. workshop ceiling. If you Install a Stove for heating your workshop. Fasten a second tin coUar around the stove-pipe. close against the floor. to eliminate any possibility of the wood catching fire. keep shavings from accumulating around oily rags or and do not allow waste to remain when exposed to the air in a warm place there is always danger of them catching fire Keep bottles of benzine and turpentine spontaneously. 17). corked.

.

you can saw as is the ends of the legs as much necessary to make it of a comfortable height.32 THE HANDY BOY neighborhood. and you find the bench too high. you can probably get such material as you need from the carpenter foreman on the job. 30. —A Handy Boy's Work-Bench. 24 inches wide. The bench 2 feet illustrated is 5- feet long. . If suit your working space. you are off short. These dimensions may be altered to Fig. and 8 inches high.

31) rails 2 feet 6 inches long. Cut the four legs {A and F. and iG and ing H 23 inches long. Then and place the legs rails A upon the fasten- floor. it is essential to test all foxir comers of the frame.3 The Framework. before nailing these pieces together. the rails B and C 4 feet long. fit Trim the comers of the pieces so they will as in the illustration. may be square. C 4 or 5 inches above the at the lower ends. then . flatwise. comers. B at the tops as shown. The frame thus made must be square Fig. — Framework of the Work-Bench. and connect them with B and C. The ends of rails G and H should be nailed to legs F. in order that the completed bench so. The diagonal rails braces D and E C in the should then be cut and fastened to B and manner shown. 31. Fig.HANDY BOY'S WORK -BENCH AND TOOL CHEST - 7.

tempoleg. Then isn't and cut If this hole through the jaw. finish the cutting with a chisel fully page The hole should be made it }4 "ich larger than the diameter of the screw. An iron bench-screw can be purchased cents. 32).34 THE HANDY BOY When stood upon its legs. and the large leg. to of about the length of the Nail it. bore a number of small holes. piece should be planed smooth. Some . and fasten it to the framework (Fig. as shown. front legs with to the face of the an equal projection over each bench end. 30). Fasten may be cut from an 8-inch or a lo-inch board. Cut the bench-top and first screw or nail them in place. 153. 31). the framework should look like it does in Fig. directly in front of the left-hand with the top about }4 inch above the bench-top. next. the bench. locate the hole for the bench-screw. 31. it it with the ends cut on the diagonal. to legs A. pieces the length of the apron. Cut the apron. at a hardware store for 50 and with one is of these in hand the construction of a good vise a simple matter. the apron. your largest bit enough to bore this hole. 8 inches legs. (see Fig. The Bench-Vise. off This board should be 5 feet long. The jaw of the vise should be about 2 inches thick. The front edge of the and should be placed even with the face of the apron so as to make a flush surface for the face of the vise. wide. and should be enlarged on the back of the socket that leg as much as is necessary to receive the threaded comes with the bench-screw (Fig. and rarily. and then 71). or wide board that extends across the face of the bench (Fig.

would not be possible to close the vise entirely. of the jaw and keep the jaw In screwing shut the is vertical. near the bottom of the jaw. Trim off the top of the Adsejaw flush with the bench-top. leg. for the sliding-stick io run through 32 and 33). bore a hole through the jaw. vise. 32. the peg can be adjusted to the proper hole to keep the lower end of the jaw directly under the upper portion. and when this is the case it of course becomes necessary to block out it the iron socket. The Pvirpose of the Sliding- Stick is to guide the lower end Fig. and through the bench (Figs. — Details of the Bench-Vise. then withdraw the nails with which you fastened the jaw to the bench. of course the upper portion does not grip the work but with the shding-stick and peg arrangement. After the screw has been slipped through the hole in the jaw. the tendency for the in. 33. After attaching the bench-screw. lower end of the jaw to push and then squarely. instead of setting it into the leg. otherwise. Figs. the coUar on the handle end should be screwed to the face of the jaw. 32 and 33. A piece of a broom-handle 14 or 15 inches long will do .HANDY BOY'S WORK -BENCH AND TOOL CHEST - 35 bench-screws are not threaded their entire length. and bevel off the face edge as shown in Fig.

A pin should be provided to the holes in the sHding-stick. as shown in Fig. The purpose of this adjustable peg is to support the end of long pieces of work placed in the vise. 34 is very easy to build. and a peg should be cut to fit Fig.- - A Packing-Case Work-Bench and Tool-Cabinet. Several holes should be bored through the work-bench apron. by means fit of a wooden or iron pin. 30. A Packing-Case Work-Bench and Tool-Cabinet like the one illustrated in Fig. them. 34. then fasten one end through the hole in the jaw. and several lengths . and this must be adjusted for each different width of work to the proper hole to keep the jaw vertical. as it re- quires only two boxes which can be purchased for 15 or 20 cents apiece.36 THE HANDY BOY Bore a number of holes through it for the sliding-stick. a so-cent bench-screw. and. % inch on centers.

— View of Back of Work-Bench boxes will be needed. The packing-cases should be about 20 by 20 by 30 in size for a bench similar to the one shown in Fig. One box factory for will do for a small bench.HANDY woodshed. wUl not if matter there is a difference in the widths. and be perfectly satis- many purposes. and it one is deeper than the other rear. can be allowed to project at the . One large packing-case would make inches a good electrical work-bench. 35. but if you make a vise two Fig. 34. can probably get boxes of store. You this size from a near-by dry-goods It The boxes should be if of equal length. BOY'S WORK -BENCH AND TOOL CHEST - 37 of boards which can likely be picked it up in the basement or should not cost over one dollar.

work is when placed Cut the diagonal brace F to fit between strips B and C. and with the apron board Strips A. shown in Fig. bydriving in additional nails. even with E across the front. This board should run from the upper left comer as of the bench down to the lower right comer. 34 and 35). is to re- them wherever boards show signs of loosening. beFig. 36. it forms the should be main working and board E same width. in order to brace the bench properly. saw for the Vise Sliding-Strip. 36). and C need not be more than 3 or 4 inches wide. after getting the boxes. 35. 36. as shown in Fig. it Board of the D should be 10 or 12 inches wide. and. — The Board G fore nailing Forms a Pocket it in place. is con- structed at the left end of Cut the vertical fit board G to between the ends of the left-hand packing-case (Fig. as held forms the surface against which in the vise. Then place them on end.38 THE HANDY BOY The first thing to do. as surface of the bench. with the board D across the top. the front. with strips B and C across the back. B. a piece i}4 inches wide and . and nail it to the back of the bench. and connect them side by side with strips enforce A upon the bottom (Figs. The Bench-Vise the bench.

to receive the iron socket (Fig. 37). handle end of the bench-screw to the face of the jaw. 2 inches thick. to the front of the bench. The The vise-jaw should be 6 or 8 inches wide. Cut bored a wooden peg to the holes. This enlarging can be done after- wards with a chisel. 34) are an adjustable peg end of long pieces of work. The for holes shown in the apron board to support the E (Fig. temporarily. bore a number of small holes through it }4 inch apart. and nail it to the left edge of the lower end of the jaw. bore straight through through the apron E. 38. at the proper it will slide fit height so through the opening in board G. 3 7 and 38. and screw the iron plate on the Fig. 37. cut Vise. 38). of the bench. This opening forms a pocket for the sliding-strip of the vise. For Figs. is and about 6 inches shorter than the height best way to bore the hole for the bench-screw to nail the jaw. with the top its proper even with the bench-top. a piece of board 3 or 4 inches wide and 18 inches long.HANDY BOY'S WORK BENCH AND TOOL CHEST - - 39 6 inches long out of the lower end. in position. Screw the iron socket to the inside face of board G. the sHding-strip (Fig. and then to it. and through board G. (5ENCM-SCREw|i havQ to be cut larger than 'Socket that through the jaw. . will The hole through G |l. — Details of Bench- Fig.

battened together for the door. into one is to hinge a door upon the and provide racks and hooks for tools. is This an excellent way of making the bench soHd and preits sliding venting it. made by notching it edge of a strip of wood and screwing of a grocery to the A Tool-Chest is easily made out box or small packing-case. Bits Figure 34 shows A Good Sack the door. of the The front pair are shown attached to the bottom bench and to the floor. for and Chisels. 14 inches wide. win do. Screw a hinge-hasp to the door. and then hinge the door to this strip (see Hinges and Hinging.40 THE HANDY BOY Figures 34 and 35 show how to Fasten the Work-Bench to the Floor with Hinges. then you cabinet padlocked if may keep your you wish. the only thing to consider being which surface screws. and 10 . over the floor while you are working at One pair of hinges on the back. and aU that convert it is necessary to front. but nail better to a narrow hinge-strip to the face edge of the packing- case. and another pair on the front. page 58). and the rear pair to Either method of the back of the bench and to the floor. attaching them may be used. and a hasp screw-eye to the packing-case. Box boards may be The door may be hinged it is directly to the end of the packing-case. will provide the best hold for the hinge The right-hand packing-case wfll make An Excellent Tool-Cabinet. about 28 inches long.

it should be hinged to the remaining portion of the side as shown (Fig. 39). Set the cover upon the top of the box.HANDY BOY'S WORK -BENCH AND TOOL -CHEST box that is 41 inches deep. nailing the strips to the edges as illustration. as Hinge the cover in place shown in Fig. by throwing the hasp over the staple. and make a rim shown for the cover. and at nail a band of 2-inch strips around the box. The This solid chest is and 40 has a drop-leaf in front. 39 shown front. and slipping a . of strips 2 inches wide Then cut a number in the and H inch thick. Select a in sound condition. an improvement over the common form with a in Figs. 40. then. One of the side boards of the box should be re- moved for the drop- leaf (Fig. Fasten a hinge-hasp to the cover. This will form a ledge for the cover to set upon. and Fig. and renail all the boards to reenforce them. re- without having to move the tray. because you can reach down under the tray and get a tool in the bot- tom of the chest. as shown in Fig. locate this point where the lower edges of the rim come. 39. 41). — The Complete Tool-Chest. and a staple to the narrow band strip nailed to the drop-leaf. 42. Batten together the cover boards upon the under face with two battens.

wiU be also. but the drop-leaf chest-handles (Fig. about one-half of the width of the should be box.42 THE HANDY BOY padlock through the staple. The tool-tray should be made a trifle shorter than the Fig. inside length of the box. and a small strip tacked to each end of the box. and screw one to each end of the box. inside. or sash-lifts (Fig. 102). and 2 or 3 inches deep. Hooks and pockets may be fastened to the inside of the . for a cleat to support the tray. 103) for handles. drawer-pulls (Fig. 40. not only will the cover be locked. Procure a pair of page 57). loo. — The Tool-Chest Opened.

give the chest a coat of shellac. the same with which built a play-house in my back yard were when seven other tools Fig. and there are also there which — How to Hinge the Cover.HANDY BOY'S WORK BENCH AND TOOL CHEST - 43 cover. years old. 41. making a you haven't any regular woodstain on hand. It is far better to tity of own a few tools of the best quality than a quanpoor quality. given to me or purchased by me when still a boy. and those with which a boy can . The Most Important Tools. and the bottom of the chest may be partitioned off with strips for the planes. — Box with the Side Board Removed Drop-Leaf. The first cost is greater of course. first In my tool- cabinet are the saw and hammer I I ever had. etc. 42. for but such tools as he has should be good ones. which are tion in good condi- and in use. he does not require a complete tool outfit. When a handy boy first works upon his piece of carpentry. but last with proper care they wiU a life-time. if it. Selection of Tools. saws. to hold small tools. AAThen the stain has soaked in. Stain the chest any color you wish to have stain out of oil paint thinned with turpentine. Fig.

yi inch. J^ inch. ^ yi inch. and bit- get along very well at the start. he win be glad to give you advice about the selection . As you progress in your work. )/i Wooden Mallet 20-inch Cross-cut 22-inch Rip-saw I Cold-chisel I I I I I I I I I I Saw I I I I I I I I Jack-knife Compass-saw Key-hole saw Back-saw Coping-saw or Bracket-saw i8-inch Fore-plane 14-inch Jack-plane Draw-knife Spoke-shave Half-round wood-file Wood-rasp Flat Metal-file Slim Taper-file Rat-tail File g-inch Smoothing-plane Ratchet-brace with 8-inch sweep Auger-bits. smoothing-plane. and inch ^ % inch. I Nail-set T 2 and i inch Gouges. several small sizes Expansive-bit Brad-awls of different sizes Gimlets of different sizes Countersink-bit Automatic-drill Marking-gauge Pair of Wing Dividers Level Pair Cutting Pliers I I 1 Wrench Oilstone I Spiral-ratchet I I Hand Screw-driver Screw-driver Grindstone I Oiler Screw-driver Bit If you know likely of a friendly carpenter in your neighborhood. chisel. cross-cut saw. I have made out the following LIST OF TOOLS FOR A MEDIUM-SIZED TOOL OUTFIT I I Hammer Tack-hammer S Firmer Chisels. and i inch Bevel 1 2 2 I I Wood-drill Bits. screw-driver. inch. you wiU have a good because a knife is indispensable in any kind of carpentry. to aid in the selection of these.44 THE HANDY BOY hammer. and square. bit brace. Of course it is supposed that jack-knife in addition to these tools. are the following: a hatchet. % inch. additional tools wiU be required. yi inch. inch. I I I I I I I Folding-rule Try-square Carpenter's Steel Square ^ inch. and. yi inch. I 2-ft.

" and " Working-drawings " in the of " Wood Finishing." and chapters upon " Elementary Manual Training.HANDY BOY'S WORK BENCH AND TOOL CHEST - 45 of your tools. invaluable material for the untrained ." aU handy boy. reliable You can than that " con- depend upon Chapter more of the average hardware dealer. " Handicraft for is Handy Boys. 2 of the author's " The Boy Craftsman tains suggestions on " there are The Proper Handling of Tools. and perhaps pick them out his opinion as being for you." comwhich panion volume.

the proper methods of nailing materials together. This chapter has been prepared for the purpose of showing methods of doing a large number of things handily. One of the tant things for a boy to know. He knows just how works systematically. is simply a lack of the knack of doing things gracefully. in carpentry. its The material has been selected because of general useapplicable to fulness to boys. . and thinks out the cause and effect of each tool operation while working. It is and handles his tools like a trained me- a pleasure to watch him work. never given the matter to strike a nail square Perhaps you have much 46 thought." most imporis How to Drive Them. it it is with a feeling of confidence in his ability to carry through to a successful to go about it.ff=ltaa4n CHAPTER III THE HANDY BOY'S HANDY WAYS OP DOING THINGS When a handy boy tackles a job. but any boy can acquire Clumsiness it who will employ a por- tion of his spare time in experimenting and working out handy boy ideas. Handiness comes more natural to some boys than to others. completion. beyond taking care upon its head to make it drive straight. and can be overcome by a boy who properly applies himseh. chanic. yet the greater part of it is ideas presented in following chapters of " Nails and The Handy Boy.

make as small holes as pos- Copper or galvanized nails should be used for outside off. nails. hard. the wrong position for the naU. and where the wood. but it is it 47 Straight nailing must be mastered. than to place the right position. You will have need of wrought-iron and brass but you wiU use the common wire nail for rough work. little wire.HANDY BOY'S HANDY WAYS OF DOING THINGS of course. A bent nail is easily withdrawn. where it wiU do the most good. copper." of putty limited. Thin wood is more easily split than thick wood. as between that of thick. because there is is not so strong a bond between the wood fiber of thin. Sizes of Nails to Use. and very dry wood. Kinds of Nails. . naU to use always depends upon the working material. and " green " wood. work where wire nails would rust through and break Figures 55 to 61 show the common forms of nails. to drive the heads below the surface wood and. sel- but a board spHt as the result of improper nailing can dom be made is to look " as good as new. NaUs are made and of wrought-iron (bright brass. split a piece of wood while naiUng. the result of one of three conditions — too large a nail. or carelessness in driving the nail. in doing so. and very dry wood more easUy than wood which not thoroughly seasoned. to drive a it no in more necessary cannot split naU straight. soft wood more easily than hard size of The wood. soft. it The magic power and too much dependence should not Almost every it is be placed on time you to conceal poor workmanship. and galvanized). and the brad and finishing-nail (smaU-head wire naU) for the better kind of work where you wish of the sible.

and so on. is Following 2-penny Nails ( a List of the Standard Sizes of Nails: i inch long) . /[-penny 4 pounds Through abbreviation. penny was substituted. and never has had.. and then in some mysterious manner per thousand. penny.48 THE HANDY BOY Nails are known as 2-penny nails. 6-penny nails. as The term penny has not. 2-penny weighed 2 pounds per thousand nails. according to length. any bearing upon the number of nails sold for a is often supposed. etc. 4-penny nails. the term penny having evolved from the old EngMsh method of reckoning nails by the weight in pounds of a thousand nails nails -^- thus. the word pound became pun.

and making withdrawal necessary after it all. splitting the wood.HANDY BOY'S HANDY WAYS OF DOING THINGS Wood also. . start with a thin nail with- block. 49 Holes Should be Started in Hard when small wire nails are used. is going to become of the just as likely as not The point its of a bent nail wiU break out of the side of your work. it is possible to " drive home " a nail after it begins to bend. These holes should be smaller than the nails. should be removed by of driving back its point with a naU-set. and then substitute thjcker blocks as the draws. so the naUs wiU not have to be driven with force enough to make them bend. and generally quickest to withit hammer out straight or replace it with another nail. By striking it just right. Besides increasing the leverage. or the square end the head can be gripped with a a wrought-iron nail. Figure 53 shows how to get an increase of leverage in Withdrawing a Nail. For a very long nail. to hold conveniently between your When draw it a Nail Shows a Tendency in. this should also be done when the nails you use are too short fingers. When a nail does break out of the side of a board. to prevent bending. but before doing so you must figure on what point. Figure 54 shows a simple method of Supporting Short Nails with Pincers while driving them. after having been driven part way at once. by slipping a block of wood beneath the hammer head. such blocks pro- tect the surface of wood from injury by the hammer head. it is to Bend. until pair of pliers or the claw of a hammer.

Figs. 44. 43-52- — Right and Wrong Methods of Nailing. and 45 show examples of Right and Wrong Nailing. . possible to withdraw naUs without bending Figures 43. To avoid splitting a board.so THE HANDY BOY it and make them.

and line. down between the same wood fibers. Figure 45 shows one of the worst possible forms of naila tit-tat-toe arrangement. consider the lower board as well as the upper in Fig. is inclined to it likes to have every- thing square and in drive nails in this fashion. from the first nail driven to possibly the end of the board. Any boy who has learned exactness. Another tendency of the beginner in is to use too many nails in. fills It is so much fun to drive them that he often every available spot. thinking that line up. By staggering the nails as indicated in the right is method. with the nails wedging ing — apart the grain of both upper and lower pieces of wood. You must one. its A naU acts as a wedge. grain. tendency is to wedge apart the Under favor- able conditions. without considering how . one place. wiU look nice to have the heads Notice how the naUs are staggered in the right method.HANDY when and BOY'S HANDY WAYS OF DOING THINGS it. for example. the if Taking the case shown split the naUs would not upper piece placed in a row as shown. the probability that the wood will split in the direction you are nailing. one nail will simply compress the grain sufl&ciently to make room is two or more nails in a for its passage. because they extend across the grain. so that no two in rotation foUow the same grain. 43. 51 driving a series of nails through do not place the nails in rows lengthwise of the grain. the trouble entirely obviated. but if you drive row between the same wood fibers. but there would be a strong tendency because the nails drive for the lower piece to spUt.

that the wood becomes weakened. bringing the head down square upon the nail-head. and never mind the . to which wiU be subjected. to handle the entire thought When you have once learned hammer upon properly. if you have it. Fig. 54. always concentrate your the nail-head. Hold your the Hammer close to the handle end. light the heaviest blows. any. and the strain. — including if the kind it and size of material. to Support Short Slender Nails while Driving Them. use long. That gives maximum amount of leverage. often to the extent that it will spht when put under any strain. 53. because there are so many conditions to consider Fig. heavy strokes. and enables you to strike After starting the nail with short. This is a fault to overcome. strokes.52 THE HANDY BOY many are necessary. — How — How to Withdraw Nails. separating so many fibers of the wood. because too many nails in one spot are as bad as too few. There is no fixed rule for determining how many nails to use in a given area of wood surface.

Figure 47 shows the right and wrong way of clinching. instead. when you chnch them across the If grain. screws. points will then bend over and drive tight up against the wood. your work. 49). Nails should never be so long that their points wiLL protrude from the under side of a piece of work. BOY'S HANDY WAYS OF DOING THINGS 53 The hammer will strike squarely just as long as you keep your eye and thought upon the nail-head. the ends will not lay flat. you clinch a nail by If hammering over Fig. Chnching should not be done on parts of nice work which wiU be exposed to view. When you chnch nails in the direction of the grain. the middle portion of the nail wiU drive and the point will stick up (Fig. This form of nailing consists in driving In Fig. however. a bent nail. 50 is nails diagonally into pieces of work. the ends will drive into the wood.HANDY hammer. if there is any possibility of nails not holding. bend it over a nail as shown in In this way the point wiU sink into the wood. or a damaging blow upon the surface Clinching Nails. shown an to nail instance where toe-nailing is the only possible way . you do not do in. its end. 48. The instant that you shift your eye to something else. unless you wish to clinch them for the purpose of riveting the pieces together. this. and then driving the nail The so the point will strike its hard surface (Fig. use The ends of nails can be cHnched by laying the work upon the side of a hatchet. so to speak. 46). watch out for a mashed of finger. Figures 50 and 51 show two examples of Toe-Nailing.

so the screw will thread it. Of these you will have little use for others than the flahhead screw. so the screw wiU not bind in it. If necessary. and eliminates the danger of splitting the wood. while Fig. wood wiU into split. Screws wiU drive into is. they are soaped. way into the wood and take a good hold on When it is you Screw Cleats or Battens across wide boards. is close up It is sometimes convenient to toe-nail for a piece of work. as shown in Fig. that pushed into a . and the hole in the lower board should be a its trifle smaller than the screw. Figures 62 to 66 show common varieties of screws. 51 shows how toe-nailing against another. When fastening together hard wood. in which the nail-heads are concealed upon the edges of the boards. best to bore the holes in the upper piece considerably larger than the screw. makes trifle the driving easier. in carpentry. and if the screws can- enough in the holes in the the cleats or battens to take care of it. To Drive Screws hard wood easier if Hard Wood. Screws and the How to Drive Them. The hole in the upper board should be a larger than the diameter of the screw. 52. place washers beneath the screw-heads to support them. because the shrinkage in the width of wide boards amounts to a good not shift deal. when the nails at is hand are too long Blind-Nailing a form of toe-naUing generally used upon tongued-and-grooved hoards. It driU holes for the screws before driving them.54 THE HANDY BOY done to drive one board the ends of two uprights to a horizontal piece. or very thin wood. and round-head finishing-screw.

are shown illustrations of aU the On more common pieces generally known. before driving them. striking its When a screw has become head a few blows with a hammer helps to loosen it. together with the names by which they Boys' work is often of so unusual a character that hard- . Screws can be driven far enough below the surface of soft wood. and thus making them drive easier. or the wood will The rules given for naUing also apply to driving screws (see Figs. so that the top in the screw pages 56. fits and drive slot. 82. 43 and 45). To Lock a Screw in a piece loose. of the screw-holes with a countersink-hit. unless holes have been drilled first. 57 and 59. under the heading of Handy Boy Hardware. so the it heads can be concealed with putty. wiU not work take a smaU staple such as it shown in Fig.HANDY BOY'S HANDY WAYS OF DOING THINGS 55 piece of soap so as to coat the threads with grease. down over the screw. rusted. along the same grain. Countersinking Screw-Heads. of hardware which a boy will have are occasion to use. there is less danger of twisting their threads and breaking them off. A red-hot iron held to the head of the screw for of wood. so the heads wiU Do Not split. but for hard wood win be necessary to bevel the tops drive below the surface. To Withdraw a Rusted Screw. or countersunk. so is it a few seconds also helps. By soaping slender screws. Drive Screws too Close Together.

s? CUT.HOOK§ Figs.RUGTACK TACK HEAD JACK J 8oO 81 NETTING- MATTING R STAPLE STAPLE DOUBLE-POINTED TACKS 84 CUP-HOOK 83 'iwmfflwc J ^ 85 SCREW -HOOKS STAPLE CUPrHOOK SCREW.GIMP-ROUND. S6 . $$-&& — Handy Boy Hardware.^ 55 62 WROUGHT-IRON-NAIL FLAT-HEAD SCREW COMMON-NAIL ct 56 63 ROUND-HEAD FINISHING-SCREW -r« WASHER - w 69 67^ 57 FINISHING-NA CARRIAGEBOLT BRAD 59 ESCUTCHEON- 58 FLATHEAD MACHINE-SCREW 64 & MACHINE-BOLT PIN 60 70 ROOFING ROUND HEAD SQUARE' HEXAGONAL NAIL& MACHINE-SCREW NUT NUT TIN CAP ^ 72 65 Shingle-nail '^^ BURR • COPPER RIVETS ref 7r! .

89-103. . SASH-Llf^X Boy Hardware S7 — Handy (Continued).CHEST-HANDLE Figs.

and it will not take long to accumulate a good of small boxes are better variety of junk. which saves time when to looking for a certain piece. or the cover. 128 to 140 show the different methods of fastening them upon doors and box covers. and these is illustrations will be helpful in sugof gesting just what needed. 128 the hinge is is screwed upon the face of a door. large enough to screw one flap of the hinge to. hinged in the same manner. filled with miscellaneous hardware of every some of which was originally saved is by his grandfather. Every repair made about the house wiU contribute an odd scrap of hardware to your collection. resorted to for This collection of odds and ends always when something out is of the ordinary is needed it a certain part of a piece of work. The author has a number boxes. which the simplest and quickest method cover there is of attaching itj and Fig. because pieces of a similar nature it can then be kept together. 133 shows how a boxIn each instance. and every handy boy should start one if he has not one already. and wanted. A number than one or two large boxes. as shown in the illustrations. must be a hinge-strip alongside of the door. which he calls his Junk Boxes. Figures 129 and 130 show how .S8 THE HANDY BOY it is ware must be adapted to purposes other than what intended for. Figures 104 to 114 show all forms of hinges which a boy wiU ordinarily use. seldom fails to supply what Such a collection is invaluable to the experimenter. comes the Hinges and Hinging. description. In Fig. and Figs.

106 105 BROAD Back-flap HINGE 107 SQUARE BACK-FLAP NARROW Butt 108 TABLE HINGE 109 LOOSE-PIN BUTT-HINGE114 111 T-HINGE 112 BOX HINGE <#Qi*||i{^||!3^ 113 BOX HINGE BOXHINGE US . 104-127. .HINGE-HASP &• STAPLE O 126 II HOOK 127 O OT-S BARREL-BOLT I 119 HOOK-AND-EYE Figs. — Handy Boy Hardware S9 (Continued).

of a door. 130. in order to have width enough to drive in all of the screws. strip. the inside edge of the flap is shown it is in Fig. butt-hinge (Fig. or as in Fig.6o THE HANDY BOY is the same form of hinge sunk into the edge of the door. as shown in Figs. When the door is made of thin material. These methods are used cabinet doors. 109). 114) are best for fastening and the box hinge and box to edges of doors (Fig. in hinging and into the door-jamb. neces- sary to place the hinges either as shown in Fig. 140 shows a method of screwing the hinges to the inside face of the cover. 105). The recesses for . This scheme is often used upon width cabinet doors. and the broad butt-hinge and broad and square back-flap hinges (Figs. 106 and 107) for fastening upon faces of doors and box covers. 129 and 130. not exposed as is In Fig. in Fig. and to the top edge of the box. The narrow (Fig. when the doors must be made the stile full of the cabinet opening. Attaching Hinges. and a hinge-strip or cannot be it is used. so there will be a tight joint between the door and the jamb when the door is shut. Figure 137 shows an appUcation of this method of hinging a box-cover to a hinge-strip. 104). 140. 130 it is screwed to a hinge- or stile. 128. and Fig. when it is desirable to conceal the hinges as much as possible. and so that the screws may not split the wood. 129. they When hinges are screwed to the edge must be sunk into the wood. the loose-pin butt-hinge (Fig. By using a hinge with a flap narrower like that than the thickness of the door. covers. 129 the second flap of the hinge of the cabinet. screwed to the side whUe in Fig.

138
Figs. 128-140.

J39

— How

to

Hinge Doors and Box Covr

61

62

THE HANDY BOY

the hinge flaps must be laid out accurately upon both the

door and the jamb, in order to get them at the same heights,

and they must be cut
close properly.

to the proper depth, so the door will

Figure 141 shows

how

to place the hinge

upon a door and
shows how to

mark

its

location with a knife,

and

Fig. 143

gauge the depth of
the recess with

A Home-Made
Depth-Gauge.

The

gauge
of

is

nothing

more than a block

wood with a
it

flat-

head screw
into

driven

to the proper

depth so the distance

between the block

— How to Lay out Position Hinge. — A Depth-Gauge. Fig. 143. — How to Use the Depth-Gauge.
Fig. 141.
Fig. 142.
of

Fig. 143.

and the top
screw-head
is

of the

equal

to the desired depth
(Fig. 142).

The

re-

cess

must be a
and

trifle

deeper than the thickness of the

flap,

because there
is

is
if

a space between the flaps when the hinge
this is

folded,

not taken care of by sinking the
there will be a wide joint between

flaps that

much more,
is

the door and the jamb.

On the

other hand,

if

the hinges are

sunk too deep, or one
will

sunk deeper than the other, the door

not close properly, as the edge will bind against the

HANDY

BOY'S

HANDY WAYS OF DOING THINGS
set,

63

door-jamb.

With your depth-gauge properly
If

and with

careful cutting,

there wUl be no trouble in getting the

depths uniform.

you should happen

to cut a recess too
it

deep, a piece of cardboard can be used to block
if

out, while,
it

not deep enough,

it is

an easy matter to trim
first,

a

little

deeper.

Fasten the hinges to the door,

then set the

door in position, and mark the places for the hinges upon
the jamb; proceed in the same
box.

way

in hinging a cover to a

There wiU be no
of work,
if

difficulty in screwing hinges to the face

you watch out

for

two things

— to

get the

knuckle

(the encased center pin of the hinge)
it

over the

exact center of the joint, and to get
joint.
If

parallel with the
will bind.

the hinges are put on crooked, they

It is best to
Drill

the

Hinge

Screw-Holes, after marking their exact

centers.

This

prevents the

screws

from working the

hinges out of position, as they often

do when the holes are

not started

first;

besides, it lessens the chances of the

screws spHtting the wood. along the same

Several screws driven in a row

grain are likely to spHt the

wood; that

is

why

the screw-holes in hinges are staggered

when

there are

three or

more

in each flap.

The strap-hinge (Fig. no), and the T-hinge (Fig. in) are used upon heavy work, such as shed doors, etc. The long
straps extend over a greater area than the flaps of the butt-

and the screw-holes are spread out so the screws do not follow along the same grain of the wood; therefore, the
hinge,

64

THE HANDY BOY
is less

screws take a firmer hold, and there

danger of the

wood around them splitting. more weight than a T-hinge

The

strap-hinge wiU carry

of equal size, of course,

on

account of having two long straps.
Figure 134 shows a good method of attaching a box cover

with T-hinges.

Strap-hinges might be put on in the same

manner.

The Nail Pivot Hinge shown in
of

Fig. 135
will see

is

a novel method
illustration

hinging a smaU
it

door.

You

by the

that

consists of a nail driven through the shelf

above and

below the door, into the ends of the door.

Set the door in

the opening, and wedge in a folded piece of cardboard both

above and below

it,

to hold

it

in position;

then locate the

positions for the nails so they

wiU come exactly over one

another, and drive

them into the door ends. Home-Made Box-Hinge that is easy to make A

is

shown

in Fig. 136.

It is cut out of a piece of tin or brass of the
it.

shape shown, and has three holes punched through

The

upper end

is

fastened to the edge of the cover with small

tacks driven through the upper pair of holes, and the lower

end

is

pivoted to the end of the box with a tack driven

through the single hole.
tion of

The dotted hnes indicate the the cover and hinge when the cover is open.
112

posi-

Ornamental Box-Hinges (Figs.
nickel

and

113) are

sold in

and brass

finish,

and are used upon fancy boxes.
are tacked to the back of a

Figure 138 shows

how they

box having a cover with a rim, and Fig. 139 shows how one flap may be bent to fit over the edge of a cover with-

HANDY
cover.

BOY'S

HANDY WAYS OF DOING THINGS

65

out a rim, and be nailed to both the edge and top of the

Gauging with a Rule and Pencil.
wishes to rip a
strip,

When

a

carpenter

say

2

inches in width, from a board, he
his left hand,

holds his folding-rule

upon the board with
first finger

as in Fig. 144, with his

even with the 2-inch

measurement;

then,

holding his pencil with the point

Fig. 144.

— How

to

Gauge with a Rule and

Pencil.

against the end of the rule, he slides the rule along the

board, and scribes a line that
inches

is

parallel to
is

and exactly

2

away from

the edge.

This

easy to do, as soon as

you get the knack of holding the first finger against the edge of the board, and the pencil point against the end of the
rule;

and

this is easily acquired

with practice.
Figure 145

Gauging with a Carpenter's Square and Pencil.

66

THE HANDY BOY
steel sqtiare.

shows how gauging can be done with a
square can also be used for the purpose.

A

try-

Such operations as the above save considerable time over that of measuring off a nxmiber of times the width of the
strip

to be cut,

and then

connecting the points with

a straight Hne; and the expert

mechanic

is

always

quick to adopt every timesaving operation possible,

because time
him.

is

valuable to

Another time-saving operation
is

that of
a

Dividing

Board into a

,FiG. 145.

— How to Gauge with a Carand
Pencil.

Number of Equal Parts, as shown in Fig. 146. When
a board
is

penter's Square

of

an odd width,

it

requires a minute or

two to

figure out the divisor that of equal parts desired,

will divide it into the

number
,

and

then several more minutes to lay off the fractional

.

/

measurements acInstead
of

curately.

doing
takes

this,

the mechanic
rule,

his

or his
Fig. 146.

large square,
it

and places

— How to Divide a Board into Equal

across the board as in

IHANDY BOY'S HANDY WAYS OF DOING THINGS

67

the illustration, with one end at one edge, and the inch divi-

sion-mark equal to some multiple of the number of divisions
desired, at the other edge.

Then

the division points are

quickly laid

off,

and

lines ruled
is

through these points.

The

board in the illustration

divided into four equal parts,
of the rule

and to get the points the end
the opposite edge.

was placed at one

edge of the board, and the 8-inch mark, (a multiple of 4) at

Then

the divisions were laid off along

the rule, 2 inches apart.

A
of

Jack-Knife Plumb-Bob.
it is

When

putting up a framework

any kind,

important to get the uprights plumb.

With

nothing

else at

hand, a very good plumb-bob can be

made
i

by tying your

jack-knife to the end of a cord (Fig. 147).
this plumb-line

Then, holding the upper end of

about

inch

away from
until it

the top of the upright, allow the knife to swing
rest;

comes to a

have the distance between the cord
knife,

and the upright,

just

above the

measured, and

if

the

measurement does not correspond to that at the top (i inch), The shift the upright until the two distances are equal.
upper end of the plumb-line should be supported on the

end of a rule or stick held upon the top
Figure 148 shows

of the upright.

how

to fasten the cord to the knife.

Pass the cord around one end, between the blade partitions,

and open one blade and close it on the cord; then bring the cord to the other end and tie a square knot, as shown. Tie
the knot close to the knife-end, and be careful to center
exactly on the knife-end.
it

A Spinning-Top

Plumb-Bob.

A regular plumb-bob is of

the

68

THE HANDY BOY
down
to

shape of a boy's top, tapering
tom.
line

a point at the botis

When

suspended, the point of the bob
line,

in

an exact
be

with the upper end of the

and

so,

by its

use, a point
will
di-

can very easily be located on the grotmd that
rectly imder another point above.

A

weU-balanced top

win do

excellently for such a

bob

(Fig. 149).

The plumb-

Fio. 150.

— A Plumband
148.

Fig. 151.

Board.
Figs. 147

—A

Fig. 149.

—A

— A Level.

Spinning-Top Plumb-Bob.

Jack-Knife Plumb-Bob.

may be tied to a double-pointed tack driven into the top, or may be wedged into the peg hole. A Plumb-Board such as is shown in Fig. 150 does the same
line

work as the
to handle.

jack-knife plumb-bob, but

is

more convenient

A

bolt-nut

is

used for the plumb-bob, and the
is

upper end of the plumb-line

attached to a nail driven into

HANDY

BOY'S

HANDY WAYS OF DOING THINGS
its

69

a board close to one end, in the center of

width.

The

edges of the plumb-board should be straight and parallel.

In the exact center of the lower end of the board, cut a
notch, and fasten a wire guard over the plumb-line several
inches above this notch, as shown.

When
by the

your plimib-

board

is

placed against an upright, you can determine
is

whether or not the upright
plimib-hne

plimib

position of the
It should line

when the bob comes

to a rest.

up with the exact

center of the notch.

A

level is necessary for setting horizontal pieces of
if

a

framework, and

you haven't one,
shown
is

A Home-Made

Level such as the one
excellently.

in Fig. 151

win serve your purpose

This

nothing more

than a plumb-board fastened to a triangular framework.

The board
sides of the

A

must have a

straight

bottom edge, and the
right

plumb-board

B

must be placed exactly at

angles to the bottom edge.

The

diagonals

C

are braces to

keep board

B

vertical.
tie

Nail the upper ends of pieces

C

to

the back of B, and

the lower ends to the top of board

A

with the blocks D.

Instead of cutting a notch in the lower

end of board B, cut a round hole through the center of the
board, just above board A, and notch the upper part of
this, as

shown.

A

nut, top, or

any small weight, may be

used for the bob.

A
for

Post-Hole Digger.

AH

boys, at one time or another,

are in need of a post-hole auger, with which to dig post-holes

framework supports, yet post-hole augers are not always

available.

With a

spade,

it is

necessary to dig a very large

and as you it force Holes. then push the away from one another. 152. and hft. It is only occasionally that a i boy needs to bore a hole larger than inch in diameter. so hardly necessary for him to own a . hole in order to get two spades. down Then push the spades into the ground with your foot. but. The wire loop will act handles Fig. placing one spade each side of the spot where -you wish to dig the hole. or any of the other parts for it is which broom- handles are used. each spade has been pushed down as far as you can push drop the wire loop over the two handles. 152. with the blades facing in. The size of the wire loop can be regulated to suit the width of Boring Large Holes. • How to Dig Post- as a fulcrum. Make a wire loop to slip over the spade handles. the blades will press against the loosened earth and hold between them while they the hole.7° THE HANDY BOY down to a desired depth. one at a time. When it. drum. deep hole very easily by following the scheme shown in Fig. the handle ends apart. a i-inch hole being plenty large enough to receive a broom-handle axle. having you can make a small. are being raised out of the hole.

In this A shows the size of the hole it to be cut. First. to ing-Tube Cut Large Round Holes. 153. 153. with a The Cutting the slot is of Slots is done similarly (Fig. then the wood between the holes is split out (C) and then the sides of the . B shows the step in cutting — boring a ring of small holes inside of the circle. marked out {A)\ then a hole is bored at each end. chisel. circle after the third operachisel. slot are trimmed up to the finished line (Z?).HANDY bit larger BOY'S than HANDY WAYS OF DOING THINGS illustration. Large holes can be cut as shown in Fig. and one or more between them (5). iss- — A MailDepthBoring for Fig. If the ends of . — How to Fig. Cut Gauge Holes. 154- — How Slots. first 71 this. tion — trimming up to the and D shows the finished hole. step — C shows the second the holes with a splitting out the wood between Fig. 154).

they must be squared up with the chisel. reached vil. The tube should be cut off to the proper length so its top will extend to the lower end of the bit-brace when the depth of the hole has been reached.. and the work is described on page 375- When You A will boring holes part way through a board. 155). Then it wiU only be necessary to keep an eye on the top of the tube. 156. etc. it is some- times necessary to bore the holes just so far. of doing the circular cutting is illus- trated in Fig. and a piece of a mailing-tube will serve the purpose (Fig. need for Boring Depth-Gauge such holes. then the head will furnish a flat surface on which to of straighten nails. in connection with' the details of a wheelbarrow's construction. 156. —A Hatchet-Head Anvil. . bench-vise as shown in Fig. place of a hatchet in your Fig. 584. Cutting Large now and then to The easiest method Wooden Disks. A Hatchet-Head AnWhen in need an anvil. and no farther. page 375. Every boy has occasion cut out wooden wheels for various purposes.72 THE HANDY BOY the slot are to be square. and stop boring when the brace has that point. and the top edge the blade wiU present a sharp edge over which to bend wire and metal.

times until breaks.Wrench. 158. which the FiG. is smooth jaws the —A wrench alone. To Keep Tools from Rustcom- ing. is A good way to prevent them from which you keep them to rub them occasionally with kerosene or a piece is If the location in very damp. it consists of with two nuts turned with flat sides facing each other. nuts. An ordinary monkey-wrench can A Small Pipe-Wrench. by slipping be used as a file between the piece (Fig. place an open can or pan containing unslaked lime in the bottom of the tool-chest or tool-cabinet.HANDY placing giving it BOY'S HANDY WAYS OF DOING THINGS Wire can be cut quickly and easily 73 Cutting Wire. fitted see. of pipe to be turned and one jaw of the wrench The rough file surface of the wiU enable you to get not possible with of a good grip upon the pipe. 157. it by and a few sharp blows with a hammer. This will . Small Pipe. 158). then bending back and forth a few it it upon the edge of the hatchet-blade anvil. Figure 157 shows A Makeshift Wrench which can be used for such work as tightening Fig. rusting of suet. Tools are subject to rust even though kept in a paratively dry place. As you wiU a carriage-bolt. etc. —A Makeshift Wrench.

when they become leaky. To Remove Specks of Paint from Glass. and the paint has hardened. and then go ahead and do it. the putty will soften and come off easily. will also be able to mend the wash-boiler. In replacing a broken pane it is an old window-sash. with a fresh supply.74 THE HANDY BOY The lime must be replaced once in a while absorb the moisture and keep the contents of the chest or cabinet dry. squirt this along the putty. To Remove Old of glass of Sash-Putty. Every handy boy should know how to solder. giving the penny a circular motion. The sash should be taken out of doors to do this. and is of course the only way to get the of anything to find out how it should be done. but so he tea-kettle. often hard to remove fill the hardened putty. the specks are easily removed by rubbing a penny over them. once you get the knack knack of it. others are very difficult to solder. Soldering. A small . copper are about all and brass. and these the metals you will have occasion to solder anyway. for his mother. and then light it. It is easy to solder. When a window- pane has been speckled with paint. But if you will an oil-can with benzine or gasoHne. Soldering outfits can be bought very cheaply. not only so he can solder together pieces of metal in his electrical and other experimental work. Some metals have never as yet been successfully sol- dered. but you wiU have no trouble soldering tin. and pans.

and allow the acid to eat as much of the zinc as it will. 159) can be bought for as as 10 cents. to use what Rosin . to A it soldering-fluid is make the solder flow readily and commonly used in place of rosin and leaves the metal and zinc. The rosin acts as a flux. more WIRE SOLDER expensive The solder The is may be of either the wire or bar form. it wiU Tin- not work soldering One-half the secret of success in in having a well-tinned soldering-copper. . as a flux. and a little small coil of wire-solder (Fig. and —A Soldering Outfit. Then will pour the acid into another jar containing is about twice the quantity of water that there acid. known as " haK-andis which composed bar Fig. The stick. Solder of equal parts of tin lead... is must be tinned. .HANDY BOY'S HANDY WAYS OF DOING THINGS 75 outfit. store. a box of rosin. because fluid is cuts the grease This made of muriatic acid cents' and is easy to pre- pare. soldering-copper is used to spread the solder. consisting of a soldering-copper. Get a few pour a worth of muriatic acid at the drug- little into a small jar containing broken pieces of zinc (broken pieces of old battery zincs will do). be ready for use. clean.^. and the solution otherwise. and is better in instances where metals are greasy.. best is . . kmd half. The soldering-copper satisfactorily. isq. just as and one as a of these will serve a boy's purpose weU set.

thus melting the rosin into a liquid and coating every portion of the copper's surface with solder it. for off. and at the same time bring the end of As the solder melts. then place the copper in the flame of a gas-burner. If the hole to be soldered is large enough to require a patch. or ia a stove or a furnace. When on the this tin. vsdth then place some rosin upon all sides of a piece of rub the point and the rosin. it is First. and quickly brighten the copper over up its heated surface tin. put some rosin or soldering-fluid and then. Then put soldering-fluid over the edges of the holes. it is important to brighten the tin it around the hole by rubbing with sandpaper or a file. the point of the copper must be worked around slowly. to spread it over the hole and smooth it out. with the heated copper solder in the left. fire. it You may not be able to tin the entire copper before has cooled.76 THE HANDY BOY is ning an easy operation. it Heat until it is somewhat hotter than your mother heats her it flat-irons. has been done. it. With the soldering-copper properly it tinned. in which case you will have to reheat done the tinning Suppose your of a pan. be careful not to heat will first to a red heat. but be careful not to get it red-hot. and the . in your right hand and the the solder touch the hole with the point of the copper. then rub the upon the surfaces. down against the copper. brighten its edges and also the edges of the tin patch. if this is melt and drop soldering job is repairing the bottom First of all. file the sides and point of the copper until bright and clean. remove from the a file. With the copper heated.

77 edges of the tin patch. solder to flow around the edge of the patch and under until the solder has set. Hold down the patch .HANDY and BOY'S HANDY WAYS OF DOING THINGS and allow the it. place the piece of tin over the hole naelt the solder.

This will appeal to every housewife. to the comforts of the family. which suggests a good opportunity to earn money. and the . and orders from satisfaction. if fill you receive a few them to start with. is to make the articles and have them in use in your house then your mother's friends wiU see them. or small houses are provided with only one closets usually are not so large nor is and the numerous but that there single shelf is usually floor. provide these conveniences for his And he can not only own house or apartarticles for neighbors ment. but take orders for duplicate as well.n CHAPTER IV THE HANDY BOY ABOUT THE HOUSE A HANDY and add BOY Can make many little conveniences for the house or apartment that wiU help to lighten housekeeping. and they are easy to carry Figure i6o shows a novel scheme for providing Additional Shelves for a Clothes Closet. the closets of apartments shelf. The easiest way in the world to get such orders . The out. will and these to complete your work be recommended to others. The it placed about 5 feet 6 inches above the which leaves a space of 4 or 5 feet between 78 and the ceiling. suggestions upon the following pages are very prac- tical for the house or apartment. a shortage of storage space. Ordinarily.

Fig.— Additional Shelves FOR A Clothes Closet. —A "Windmill Clothes-dryek. IIJO. 1(J3.— a Kadiator Plate- W. Fig. 161. ie2.VRMER. Fig.Fig.— a Window Refrigekator. .

.

there will stiU very be a large enough opening through articles to which to put up the packages and So much for the upper shelving. and can be puUed out at any time. inches wide. is In the illustration you closet. a piece of board to side of the closet. Across the top of the fastened from side slippers. and . 160. to which their ends are nailed. Nail the boxes to the sheK and to each other. and. wall base-board. you can get boxes this deep. 160). Splendid shelving can be made by standing boxes one on top of another as in Fig. By placing another board across the ends of these side shelves. and there can be no objection to putting these up in even a rented apartment. be stored. may be on which to keep shoes. and save cutting them. As a rule closet shelves are not more than 12 but you may make the new shelving 16 or 18 if inches wide. These shelves extend over to the top of the door trim. you will have provided a shelf which extends around is the four walls of the closet. to keep them in position. Perhaps you can pick out boxes of the right size at the grocery store. will notice that there a shelf at each side of the of boxes extending from the top row out toward you. because they are not nailed to the wall. The appearance of the shelving will be better if you cut the boxes down in length so they will fit fairly snug between the plastered walls (Fig. unless the closet small. so they will hold more.THE HANDY BOY ABOUT THE HOUSE greater portion of this is 79 is useless if additional shelving not provided.

Then fasten strips between these crosspieces sides of and the ends of the box. cing them so that is when the frame placed upon the radiator the cleats will come between the FiG. radiator may be made to do service as Plate-Wanner. using boards 6 inches then fasten two crosspieces between the with sides. Fasten the box in place upon the radiator with wire at- . 161). and tack a double thickness of screen wire to the upper faces of these strips.- Detail of Bottom of the Plate-Warmer Shown in Fig. 164. i6i. by providing it with a box such as is shown wide. as shown. Make the box frame a couple of inches larger than the top of the radiator. in Fig. to form a ledge. and between the the box. This curtain- pole will A A more than double the available hanging-space. i6i. iron sections. and hinge a board to this for a cover (Fig. 2 Nail a strip inches wide across the back of the top of the box. 164. and screwing the upper ends of the uprights to the front edge of the original closet shelf. even the bottom spa- edges.8o THE HANDY BOY and a pole for coat-hangers rubbers. as in the detail of Fig. may be made by supporting a broom-handle or curtain-pole between two short uprights. for a hinge-strip. Stretch the screen wire as tight as possible.

of and then cut the strips E and nail them the strips C to form the front of the shdes. 28 inches long. and should be cut long enough to extend about 8 inches above the top of the upper box. The arrangement for lifting the front consists of a cross- . about }i inch more than the thickness of the cover boards. as shown. The box is not fitted close up of to the window glass. to the edge The cover boards are fastened together with battens. which are fastened to the bottoms. Next cut the strips D and fasten them to strips C. and.THE HANDY BOY ABOUT THE HOUSE 8i tached to screw-eyes in the bottom of the center crosspieces (Fig. are joined together with strips A and B (Fig. Two boxes of equal length and depth should be procizred for the refrigerator. as this would prevent the opening the upper sash. a front is provided and so connected with the sash that the raising of the latter will raise the front of the refrigerator. This will be understood by examining the detail drawings (Figs. Where the kitchen sure. to form the back of the slides. to keep the dirt and snow from blowing into the box. Figure 162 shows a practical scheme easily carried out. Those shown in the detail illustrations were 13 inches wide. The boxes 165). and by the slide The latter strips should project on the front strips C. 164). and 10 inches deep. 166 and 167). and passed under the lugs which separate or pantry has a north or west expo- the sections of the radiator. A Window that is Refrigerator will afford excellent satisfaction during cold weather.

The front of the refrigerator will drop when been the if is lowered. has fitted loosely it enough so that win not bind when the wood becomes and if wet but. — Section of tlie Sliding Front.sash the front of for the purpose of lifting the refrigerator. upon the outer window-sill. — Detail pleted refrigerator of Window Refrigerator.82 THE HANDY BOY 2 inches thick fastened to the battens. is there any re- difficulty as a sult of the end edges sticking. This is clearly shown sash it in Figs. and secure Sliding Through Window and Front. in Fig. swells. so ||iow that these wiU pull it down. Set the comFig'. 162. bar about and two nails driven into the window-sash. 167. Shown Fig. the bar can be wired to the nails which into were the driven window. 166. 165. 166 and 167. 167. — Detail Fig. it with wires from . Fig.

A 2-by-4 will serve the purpose. otherwise. and the wood it should be given a good coat of paint to keep in condition. of the windmill. Small cracks should be puttied. they should be covered with heavy paper. A Windmill Clothes-Dryer. Shown when not a breath whose sails of air is stirring. its little fleet of yachts. — Detail in Fig. to keep dirt.THE HANDY BOY ABOUT THE HOUSE the front corners to the window-frame. and. except Fig. its will top may be used for a support. The clothes-dryer shown in Fig. a practical toy that wiU serve the laundress excellently If there is on wash day. sail It is form the paddles around the circular course continuously. 163 has been in use for a number of years. If there are 83 any large cracks in the boxes. of the Windmill Clothes-Dryer. . 163. A hole should be bored through each end of each compartment for air-vents. rain and snow from blowing in. you put up a post. 168. have to Set it a clothes-post in the center of the yard. The clothes-dryer may be mounted upon a dothes-post.

169. The base shown is in Fig.84 THE HANDY BOY 18 about inches into the ground. which to fit the blocks C. but you can get pieces inches thick they wiU of course be so much the stronger. and then brace it at the base with diagonal pieces. to block B. dryer. the arms of the 2 windmUl feet long. but aU the more substantial being so well braced. and drive the nail E into Either the the each block near the inner bolt end. and bore a ^-inch hole through center for the king-bolt D. 163 is for more or less elaborate. then connect naUs . Cut the arms 6 and bevel their ends as fit shown at A (Fig. cutting the lower ends to the base-board B. Cut the blocks 2J/2 C about inches inches wide by long. Cut the base block its B 8 inches square. 8 Nail blocks C of to the upper ends the arms. The upper ends the arms should be about 24 inches higher than the lower wiU determine the angle of the bevels. shown in Fig. Fasten with only one bolt or screw. first. Strips I inch thick and 2 inches wide if may be used for. or screw of lower ends arms Fig. 169. of and the upper ends ends. — Plan spacing the arms as of Windmill Clothes-Dryer. 170).

-Detail of FiG. Figure 172 shows it. weU to make them as shapely They can be a' cut quickly. and should be (Fig. 170. to over the mast. as shown in Fig. The Wire Brace. twisted back on themselves at one end as shown in Figs. 170 and 171. justing when adthe arm dis- FiG. with the dimensions marked upon flat Make the bottoms enough to provide a naihng surface for fastening to the blocks C. for would be necessary it is for sailing in water. a top view of huU. tances between the arm ends should be measured carefuUy. Fig. then fasten the bottom ends securely with a second bolt or screw. 171. all and the arms shifted from side to side until these are the same. 174. and fasten wire loops both boom and gaff. Cut the mast hull.THE HANDY BOY ABOUT THE HOUSE 85 E on each opposite pair of arms with the wire brace F These wires should be cut about 12 inches longer than the distance between the nails. ends to the proper level. .- Arm and Base. 171.. the sake of appearance. then a nail can be slipped through one of the loops and be used as a lever to twist the wire to take up the slack. 170). Fig. 170. The huUs fectly as of the Uttle yachts need not be made as perbut. G and the hoom E each about the length of the and the gaf I about to the ends of fit 7 inches long. as possible.

to and also into each of the arms at N and sUp clothes-lines through. The peg / 173) is (Figs. pro- vided you mount them with their bows headed in this di- — Details of Yachts for Windmill Clothes-Dryer. and fasten a small cloth pennant to the mast-head. 172-174. because after nmning through . boom. in mounting the base block B. Brace the mast as shown. FiGS. By arrangement. down the mast. 172. Use heavy muslin strong linen and attach the the mast. the wind blowing. (Fig. Bore a f^-inch hole in the top of the post to receive the end of the bolt. 170). 170). j-gction (Fig i6q) ^'' °* ^ . 172 and necessary to prevent the boom from this swinging over the port side of the yacht. and. place several washers between it and the post.86 THE HANDY BOY brad driven through the mast. Screw }4- inch screw-eyes into the ends of blocks C {M. just below the proper A heights for the sliding boom and sails to gaff. and gaff sticks with thread. counter no matter which is way Fig. It is not necessary to cut a it clothes-line into pieces. will prevent the loops from for the sails. sail the yachts wQl always clockwise. Pivot the base block B to the post support with a f^-inch carriage-bolt about 5 inches long. Fig.

as in one piece. and the right size of perforations with the end of a screw-driver. 177 requires but little description. tin to the frame. A Broom-Rack. made and aU of the dimensions for that are .THE HANDY BOY ABOUT THE HOUSE one row of screw-eyes it 87 may be all is run down to the next row below. The construction of the broom-rack it is shown in Fig. A Soap-Grater such as shown in Fig. — A Laundry it. perforated piece of tin tacked to The tin from a tomatocan be made can wiU do. 176. Tack the The wood of the soap-grater should be shellacked or painted. because requires nothing more than a frame made similar to that shown in Fig. Lay the piece of tin it upon a board. You can complete one in it less half an hour's time. with a Fig. Soap-Grater. 175 is a very handy laundry convenience boiler for grating soap for the washthan on wash day. and so on through the screw-eyes. 175 and 176. 176. and drive the screw-driver through into the board. Figs.

Fasten together the cover boards with battens screwed across them near the ends. as shown. and hinge this to one side of the cabinet. and then cut out the wood between with a small saw. and Fig. To the top of the box nail a board large enough to make . 177 —A Broom-Rack. screws. when stood on end. of a door. portion.88 THE HANDY BOY in Fig. Figs. and using the lower for the door. 178. marked for H (Fig. shown To cut the slot. Figure 179 shows A Bath-Room Cabinet that can be ToUet- made out of a grocery box and a few additional box boards. in' The box shown is the illustration 16 inches wide and 18 inches high. by sawing through the ends and sides of the box. first bore a i-inch hole at each end of the space. its inside depth has been reduced to 4 inches and 178. and in putting up the rack screw it to the kitchen chair-raU or to the back Fig. 178. Bore a hole at the three places 178). 177.

for used. on which to support the two shelves.THE HANDY BOY ABOUT THE HOUSE a projection of 89 i^ inches over the front and ends. fasten another board of the same size to the At the back of the cabinet. Fig. Fig. — Toothbrush-Rack. similar to that shown be The hole shown for in the side is bored to receive a stick for a towel-rack. — Bracket Towel-Rack. Fig. Fig. 181. and between this and the bottom board screw two brackets cut in Fig. 180. — A Bath-Room Toilet-Cabinet. i8o. 180. 179. placing them so the spaces be- tween the shelves will be the same. 179. and bottom. Fig. Nail two cleats to each side of the cabinet. which a broom-handle may Fig. The ends of the towel-rack may be allowed to pro- ject 6 or 8 inches beyond each end bracket. Figure i8i shows how . 181.. fasten a board 4 inches wide to the under side of the bottom board.

kettles. and. unless the pantry contains lower cupboards.90 THE HANDY BOY Screw a mirror to the front of the door. Hill nil Fig. is A pot-closet seldom provided in an apartment. and another objection to this arrangement that . the housejiiLi i^s&MJsmM. is untidy. The toilet- cabinet will look best painted with white enamel. To set cooking utensils upon which is where they will catch the particles of dust fitting blow in under the none too well pantry door. to prepare a toothbrush-rack for the inside of the cabinet door. —A Pantry Shelf for Pots and Kettles. Give the wood several coats of the enamel. keeper has a hard problem in finding suitable places to keep her pots and the floor. 182.

and in the under side of the shelving. so each end can be supported upon the top of the base-board. and support the front edge from the pantry shelving. The wires should be attached to screw-eyes set in the board near its ends. which floor to high enough above the provision can be admit a broom or mop beneath. Figure 182 shows how by adding is A Pot Shelf at the height of the base-board. By suspending the shelf in this way. they must be moved. as shown in the illustration. A board Nail 10 or 12 inches wide should be obtained for the shelf. the back edge of this board to the top of the base-board. made for the pots and kettles. there wiU be no obstruction beneath. the wire hangers will not be necessary. by means of wire hangers. If the shelf can be placed across one end of the pantry. .THE HANDY BOY ABOUT THE HOUSE each time the pantry floor is 91 washed or brushed up.

—a is Writing-Desk. and catalogues that of boats. with a wide drop-leaf to write upon.CHAPTER V FOR THE HANDY BOY'S ROOM Every handy boy constructing home-made it how poor poses. school papers. his up his room and and no matter working material may be he usually manages takes pride in fixing furniture for it. athletic goods. The drawer 92 really because the one in this desk does not pull out. 183. is need for your bedroom. you Fig. but reached . 183. etc. A the Writing-Desk like one in Fig. plenty of pigeon-holes in which to place letters.. wish to keep near at hand. to transform into things that are practical for his pur- The handy boy's room containing such furniture approaches nearer to the ideal than one up entirely with fitted store furnishings. is just what you misnamed. and a drawer for writing materials. toys.

and E (Fig. (Fig. 185). cut two strips of wood 3 inches wide and of a length equal to the inside depth of the packing-case. and of the width of A and B plus the thickness of the side of the box. i8s. equal to one-half the inside depth of the box. grocery. 186). Fig. Fasten a brass ring to board E. each of and 185 . near the front edge. A small packing-case from the storeroom. and the latter should be nailed in place to the top edge of strips A and B. Board E should be hinged to the edge of board D. Fig. and nail it to the top of the box (the desk front) on a level with strips ^ and 5 (C. it serves the same purpose.FOR THE HANDY BOY'S ROOM 93 by raising a hinged-leaf (E.— First Steps in Ma- which should have a width king the Writing-Desk. strip eqiial to the length of the box. goods and a few boards from the kindling all pile or another box. 184 Fig. However. wiU be needed for the desk. The lower compartment is covered with boards D Figs. or drystore. After renaiUng boards that show signs of loosening. by . Fasten these in the ends of the box as shown at A and B Then cut a 184). i86). and besides being easier to construct is handier to get at when the drop-leaf is open.

187. A desk mortise lock (Fig. 187. using as thin wood as you can get for the purpose. The front drop-leaf {F. but the lower far row can extend out pigeon-holes leaf must be kept enough back it of the hinged- E so they wiU not interfere with opening. to catch hold of in lifting the leaf means (Fig. Figure 183 will furnish you with a suggestion as may space them in how it may be done. — Detail of Lower Compartment. 186. support with pieces of brass chain (Figs. Partition off the box into pigeon-holes. but you any other way that you wish. 120). 121). fastened to screw-eyes screwed into the . To keep the drop-leaf from dropping below the proper it writing level. The top to to the front of the desk. can be purchased at a hardware store for 15 or 20 cents.94 THE HANDY BOY of a small staple. 187) should be made from the cover boards. and Fig. — it should be hinged to board C as shown in Fig. or a half-mortise lock (Fig. Fig. Fig. or tape. 92 and 93). i86). The Completed Desk with Drop-Leaf Closed. battened together on the inner face. and by examining any piece lock of cabinet work having such a you will understand how the lock should be put on.

and and cracks. The height of the opened drop-leaf of a desk should be that of a table — usually 2 feet 5 inches. tack either a piece of table oilcloth or heavy wrapping- paper over the inside face of the boards. for shoes. as shown in Fig. time. inches wide. 183. the last constructive detail necessary to transform the packing-case into an attractive desk will have been completed. Fasten two horizontal braces between the legs. 95 To conceal the roughness of the boards used for the drop-leaf. then cut two wooden blocks of legs. wiU rest The shoes wiU brace more solidly upon the legs and. one in front and the other in back. at the same the floor than would the four narrow legs. Nail them to the four corners as shown in Fig. and nail one to each end pair of the proper The shoe blocks should be wiU be a projection of dimen- sions so there about i inch outside of the legs. This dimension the four leg must be used strips. Cut enough boards These boards of the proper dimensions to i form a around. in case you printing. When they have been nailed in place. These strips should be 2>^ inches wide. Drive all nail heads below the surface of the wood. remove it with sandpaper box is — . If the stamped with a manufacturer's trade-mark or other that is. being careful to get the lower projecting portions of equal lengths. in determining the length of strips should These be 2}^. then all joints putty up these Kttle holes. 183. desk-top with a projection of inch over the box all will conceal the tops of the leg strips.FOR THE HANDY BOY'S ROOM battens of the drop-leaf and the inside of the desk-top.

A Combined Desk and Bookcase 1 88. for the bookcase. most convenient. about 30 inches long. or varnish the wish to wood. if it it will look al- most as well as had been made and of new boards. is such as is illustrated in Fig. as school-books. because two thorough coats will be opaque enough to conceal these blemishes. If inch less in depth. of This piece furni- home-made can ture be entirely conof structed boxes and box boards. of diction- and other books reference close can at be kept hand while lessons are being prepared. Renail aU boards that show signs of coming loose.96 THE HANDY BOY stain. 12 inches deep. . and if the wood is carefully put together fin- and then neatly A Combined Desk and Bookcase. are needed of the and a box approximately i same be length and width. ished. and replace them with boards from another box. 20 inches wide. Two grocery boxes or small packing-cases. for the writingsizes. but desk. a ary. and remove any pieces that are badly spHt or that have knot-holes in them. it will you cannot get boxes of the right an easy matter to cut down larger boxes. shellac. If you use paint this will not be necessary.

across the ends. The end of of the writing-desk box should be screwed to back even with the back the side of the bookcase. or you Nail strips 3 inches wide around the bottom of the lower box for a base. Figure 189 shows how the outer end of the desk is supported upon uprights.FOR THE HANDY BOY'S ROOM 97 Set the boxes of the bookcase one on the other. Then divide each box with a shelf haK-way between the ends. Cleats may be nailed to the sides of the boxes to support the shelf boards. form with that around the bottom and the same time will make a more soUd support than two ends of the uprights would. Before nailing them to the desk. . 189. and screw them together. These uprights should be 3 inches wide and as long as the bookcase is high. win make at the a base that uniof the bookcase. These strips is — Detail of Desk End. and the top about 8 inches below the top of the bookcase. and another between the rear one for a foot-rest. A board may be extended from the top of this end support over to the bookcase base. end to end. can nail through the sides into their ends. with its the bookcase. and by fastening a horizontal strip between the two end uprights. fasten the lower ends at the proper distance apart with 3-inch strips nailed to their sides and Fig.

Fasten a crosspiece between the base sup- . 190 has a soap-box seat. Stool in Fig. 188). supports of the writing-desk just described. either a piece of oil- Tack cloth or heavy wrapping-paper over the inside of the dropleaf. Divide the desk into pigeon-holes by vertical and horizontal partitions. — A Desk constructed similar to the end Stool. 190. narrow strip for a drop-leaf. and hinge the drop-leaf drop-leaf The outer portion of the of chains fastened must be supported by means to small staples driven into the under side of the desk-top and into the drop-leaf battens. port. Fit a between the bookcase and the front end supfor a hinge-strip.98 THE HANDY BOY in Fig. and the base strips about i}4 inches wide and ^i inch thick. the top of the desk and the bookcase. Make the uprights i}4 inches wide and i inch thick. to cover the joints be- tween the boards and make a smooth writing The Desk surface. Cigar-boxes. with one end removed and the cover nailed on. as shown will make a good shelf. to this. Fasten together the cover boards of the desk box with two battens placed near the ends. 189. will do excellently for the top row of pigeon-holes (Fig. and legs FiG. close up against the desk bottom.

and the bottom cup- board to hold supply catalogues. wide. and odds and ends. Finish the woodwork of the stool to match that of your writing-desk. with the lower ends projecting 4 inches below the box. ox imitation leather. and the edges of the front pair projecting the box.FOR THE HANDY BOY'S ROOM ports for a brace.^^'--A Book and Magazine Rack. then for a finish fasten gimp around the edge with large tacks. and fasten them to the box ends with . and. 99 The top of the seat should be padded with doth or excelsior. Book and Magazine The top shelf of the rack shown in Fig. after cutting the four comer feet uprights about 3 3 6 inches long and inches ^'°. cretonne. Procure a grocery box for the lower cupboard. and then covered with denim. screw or nail them to the ends of the box. i inch beyond the front of Cut the center side strips 8 inches shorter than the comer uprights. out of some packingcase boards. A Rack. 191 may- be used for books and magazines. The covering material should be brought down over the sides of the seat and be tacked in place.

for a drop-leaf. and hinge this to the lower edge of the box. A A leg. Nail the face of each strip. 193. —A Blacking-Case. apart. Trim off the corners of the tops of the corner uprights as shown. 193. . rower as the thickness of the wood. soap box of just the right size for (Fig. as shown in Fig. Cut two strips for each making one 3 inches wide and the other as much nar- FiG. 192 and 193. wide strip to the edge of each narrow and then fasten one leg to each comer of the box. Figs. Blacking-Case 192). Space the shelves at equal distances Batten together the cover boards of the box compartment. Suspend it its outer edge by means of two chains. or cleats may be screwed to the uprights to support their ends. 192. two pieces may be battened together on the under side for each shelf.lOO their THE HANDY BOY bottoms even with the box bottom. to support when is open. If "you cannot get boards that are wide enough for the shelves. Fig.

One of these pieces should it. . and the Fasten a block of wood to other should be hinged to the inside face of the hinged board. for a foot-rest. of the proper size form a projection of i inch over the sides of the box. the sole of your shoe for a pattern for this block. and the other and pohshing rags. Use (Fig.FOR THE HANDY BOY'S ROOM The top should be made to of loi two pieces. Divide the inside of the box with a center partition 192). so one half of the box may be used for cans of shoehalf for brushes polish and bottles of dressing. be nailed in place.

.

the pretty markings of the grain. metal strip holding the The little thermometer can be . a couple of coats of wax it should be rubbed over the surface to give finish. The Thermometer-Board practical little article that illustrated in Fig. and. because it conceals. and reaUy detracts from their appearance. The a scroU-saw. then the stain should be has dried. with aU the necessary center-line dimensions for laying it out. of The thick. such as oak. after it 103 free from saw and plane markings. is. this is the easiest way to get both sides alike. Bore a small hole up. near the top. ^ inch of this. back board should be made Figure 199 shows a pattern wood about First. 194 is is a very needed in every house. more or less. draw the as shown. a semi-gloss Complete instructions accompany these prepared open-grained wood. You may screw a small brass screw-eye into the top of the board instead of boring the hole. stains. then there danger of splitting the wood. for hanging before Do be this less you have cut out the end. An it is often filled after has been stained. then lay off the measurements each side of the line. but fiUing is unnecessary for small articles. will through the board.PRACTICAL GIFTS TO MAKE The woodwork should be sandpapered smooth. that fills the wood is brushed over with a liquid which up the grain flush with the surface. or a coping-saw — — it off with a wood file and sandpaper. and applied. if you wish. curved ends should be cut with a small saw and then be smoothed a bracket-saw.

following the measure- .— Detail of Thermometer-Board Shown in inch thick.I04 THE HANDY BOY store. 194. in The Key-Board shown should be Fig. Fig. purchased at any large stationery store. may be necessary to alter the dimensions of the board. Lay off the positions for the hooks. and cut with your plane. The thermometer for this size of board should be about ^ inch wide and dar If 5^ inches long. inch wide around the face edges. of a piece of wood by the other dimensions ^ a shown in the pattern (Fig. After off laying out. and the caleni^ inches wide by i^ inches long. because the margin around them should be about the same in the as it is photograph (Fig. this piece. Fig. 195 made 199. As the glass bulb and upper end of the thermometer generally project a trifle beyond the be nec- back of the metal strip. or department and will cost 15 or 20 cents. cutting. Fasten the thermometer and calendar-pad to the board with brads. and a small calendar-pad can be purchased for a few cents at the same place. and planing up mark it bevel %. find a you cannot thermometer and it a calendar of these proportions. 200). it will essary to hollow out places in the board for them to set into. 194).

r. . A TlIEKMOMETEK-Bt_)ARD.— The Thhee Parts oe the Si'MuL-KArK. 1!I4. —A Spool-Rack.l8.Fig. Fig. 1. Fig.iT.

.

201. Bevel its top edges. A Spool-Holder such as shown — Detail of Key-Board Shown in Fig. each within easy reach when wanted. made of wood not over inch thick. when the rack placed upon a table. The upper and lower is shelves of the rack are pivoted so as to turn on the base block. 83. by which it to hang H Fig. by this arrangement. and even cigar-box wood is not too thin. 201. Bore a hole in each large enough This nail forms an axle for a 4^-inch naU to shp through. great convenience to mother or because it will hold many as twenty-six of her spools of thread. 195 in Fig. and r^^ r^ ^'i^ i-. A as Spool-Rack like the one shown in Fig. 196 will be appreciated by any woman who crochets.PRACTICAL GIFTS TO MAKE ments given in Fig. and. 1 about ^" in '' ' ' ' ' length.^ '^'1^ . because it not only allows the thread to unwind off freely. page I 56. up. lar to that The screw-hooks should be simi- shown inch in |^ i^'l^ '^ Fig. 197 will be a sister. . The pattern for the end pieces The spool-rack should be is ^ also shown in Fig. 200. 105 and then start the holes in these positions with a brad-awl. for the spool to turn upon. The base of the holder should be made of the size shown in Fig. 200. Screw screw- eyes into the top edge of the board. but prevents the spool from rolling on to the floor.

198) 3 inches square. nails. nail. while The rack is heavy enough thread is unwound from a spool.io6 THE HANDY BOY may be turned until the size of either shelf is thread wanted nearest. and bevel the upper edges of each.< . The center pin of block ^ or is a 4-inch wire the pins of block B are 2>^-inch nails. . B 6 and C 5 inches square. and the pins bore holes of block C are 2-inch Q". With a gimlet > drill. A (Fig. to keep its position Cut the base block inches square.

"V|'^ ^ 18"- FiG. 207. 207 then . 202.. of splitting this the rod. sharp point. 198). . or a piece of a small flag-stafif. for Bore a ^-inch hole through each bracket before cutting out the pieces. -ni Rod S ECTION ^g Bracket M. to support C. receipts. The necktie rod may be a cabinet-maker's dowd-stick. the two end brackets by the details of the same drawing. etc. for safe keeping.PRACTICAL GIFTS TO MAKE tween blocks be 107 B and C. so wiU pierce papers A Necktie-Rack. wiU lessen the danger when boring. The it must be easily. A A Simpler Spool-Rack than the above may be made by omitting the upper block C file Paper-Spindle on which to grocery biUs. off The upper rack must lifted off to slip on or the spools from the lower rack. Bevel the face edges of the back board as shown. 202 by the pattern of Fig. tie-rack shown in Lay out the back board of the neckFig. — Details of Necktie-Rack Shown in Fig. may be made similar to base nail pin of this A of the filed spool-rack (Fig. to a long.

them through the them on the of cigar- Screw the two hanging screw-eyes into the top edge of the back board. The Match-Boz shown box wood. centering centers of the rod brackets. partition ^ inch wide and Bevel the face edges of the front and base and bore two ^-inch holes through the back pieces as a provision for hanging up the box. 203. pieces. 208. using short finishing-nails coat the rod ends with glue. in Fig. and shp holes in the supports. front. i Cut the ends and the center 15-16 inches high. -CENTER-LINE' I \^ \ k^-R Fig. Small bevels like those on the back and base pieces are best made by wrapping a piece of sand- . then Fasten the rod brackets to the back board 11-16 inch from the ends. 203 is made out Figure 208 shows the pattern for the back. — Details of the Match-Box Shown in Fig. and bottom pieces.io8 THE HANDY BOY and glue.

'M'I. —A Necktie-rack. liCKi. L!03."). 20i.— a Pen-tray and Calendar-board. —A Match-box.Fig. Fig. 'JO.— a Post-card Rack.r-rack. Fig. Fic. .— a Lettb. Fig.

.

A The Uttle rack in Fig. post-card rack is a good Figure 209 shows the completed base of the rack. to receive the bottom edges of the end pieces. a few brads through the base The rounding of the comers of the end pieces can be done easiest with a . for kitchen use. but it solid rack to mortise the base as indi- cated in the drawing.PRACTICAL GIFTS TO MAKE paper around a block of wood and using the block a plane. fasten them together with glue and small is brads. and hoUday cards received by the family. 209. 109 like After the pieces have been cut and sandpapered. reach for showing to friends. — Details of Post-Card Rack Shown The in Fig. 204 is handy for keeping together the souvenir post-cards. This match-box of good proportions Post-Card Rack. also the pattern for the end The base may simply be naUed makes a more to the end pieces. with the dimensions for cutting. the cards will be within convenient ^^ Fig. if placed upon the library table. and. pieces. 204. birthday cards. gift for sister. and also drive into them. Glue the ends in the mortises.

and the front and bottom A'- of the pen-tray. THE HANDY BOY Lay the pieces flat upon a board. and then pare line. 205 will by any owner of a writing-desk. and it is an attractive article for a library table. The Calendar-Board and Pen-Tray appreciated in Fig. These pieces should h H . Figure 210 shows the pattern for the calendar-board.no chisel. down the corners untU you reach the finish Smoothbe up the edges with sandpaper.

PRACTICAL GIFTS TO MAKE so there vdll be about the III same margin of wood around the pad that there is on the board illustrated. Fasten the pad at each of its upper two corners with a tack. and the rack illustrated in Fig. A Letter-Rack is a convenient article for the writing-desk or library table. 206 is of a t .

. The sectional drawing in Fig. with glue and brads. 211 shows the correct spacing for the partitions. laying off the measurements each side of these. Fasten the end pieces to the partitions. first.112 THE HANDY BOY and 211. then fasten the base to their bottom edges. drawing center-lines across the irregular pieces.

but keep on ringing until he gets up and turns Just such off the lever that shuts off the electric current. this is shown in You wiU tric see by examinit ing the details of this elecclock that is very simple to make. If you own a clock of a different kind. it should be of the common round form shown in Fig.CHAPTER VII HANDY BOY CLOCKS The best kind of a clock for a sound-sleeping is boy who alarm- has difl&culty in awakening on time an electric clock which wiU not only arouse him. a clock as Fig. Figure 213 for the front a pattern of the 113 and back wooden case illustrated. In . — An Electric Alarm-CIock. is Fig. 212. you can change the design of the wooden case to suit it. of Almost any kind an alarm-clock can be used. but for a clock designed similar to that in Fig. 212. 214. 212.

then lay off the measurements each thick wiU do for mate- side of this. wUl hole. case must be deep enough to hold a dry of the battery will govern the is and the diameter width of the side and top pieces. Box boards ^ inch The opening for the clock should be cut through each piece before the pieces themselves are cut out. ample space The lengths of the side . 3 inches for a dry battery of standard size. 212). 214. — Patterns of Clocli Attached. center-line as draw a shown. rial.114 THE HANDY BOY first order to get the sides of these pieces alike. this ^—K3'^ Fig. — Back Piece with Fig. so as to leave as much margin around the hole as possible. The wooden battery. 213. Front and Back. lessen the danger of splitting the wood in cutting the Bevel the face edge of the hole cut through the front piece (Fig.

the clock is exactly as deep as the wooden clock-case. and in line with . as drive the nails D and E into the edge at shown in Fig. 215. The supported upon a narrow shelf fast- ened to the back piece (A. if not so deep. 214). should be screwed to the inside of the shown in Fig. using finishing-naUs for the nailing. right angles. and you must take this into If consideration when fastening the clock to shelf A. F into the its side of the case l4 inch below block C. Fig. fasten the case to The neatness of your work wUl depend a great deal upon the accuracy with which the ends of the side and top pieces are alarm-clock is cut. it will have to of the be blocked out from the back piece. as electric-bell bottom of the case. through its center to the side of and screw the block the case. other and to the front piece. so be careful in preparing them. held to the shelf The bottom by wiring the in the legs to nails. Fig. as shown. and it. then cut the base piece of the proper size to make a projection of ^ inch outside of the case aU around. 214). Cut the wooden block C a trifle smaller in diameter than the inside depth of the case (Figs. 215). the ring at the top of the back of the clock can be screwed to the wooden back clock is {B.HANDY BOY CLOCKS and top pieces will 115 be determined by the front and back Fasten the side and top pieces to each pieces already cut. The face of the alarm-clock should be set flush with the inside face of the front of the wooden case. 215 and 217). on a line with the Drive nail center of the alarm-clock (Fig. The battery should be placed and the face. 217.

Use ordinary bell-wire for these connections. when nail E is pushed up. — Rear View of Clock. page 139. 216. to the right-hand side of the clock-case (Fig. 216). C will turn.ii6 THE HANDY BOY and 217). Now. win be closed. — The Clock-Case Interior. and then connect one binding- FiG. post of this switch with one of the battery binding-posts. Also connect one of the bell binding-posts with nail D. and the other binding-post with the second binding-post of the battery. and the Fasten the . and when nail D strikes nail F the electric bell will ring. 215. center (Figs. 246. 215 Screw a switch. and the other switch binding-post with the naU F. Completed Fig. with block circuit the switch dosed. made like the one shown in Fig.

This lever {H.HANDY BOY CLOCKS rubber-band 117 G (Figs. 215 and 217) to nail E. If the Operate the Electric Alarm. It may be a piece of brass rod. Figs. key of your clock turns from right to left in unwinding. AH To BELL clock alarm-keys do not turn in the Fig. same direction. it and then fasten the board if in place with screws so or other can be removed easUy requires attention. and to anit other nail driven into the clock-case far enough below to stretch the rubber-band to about one-half again its length. 217-219. mechanism is All that required to complete the mechanism is a lever extending from the alarm winding-key of the clock far enough over to the left to strike nail E. the lever H will press nail E down instead . the beU. of Mechanism Required to when unwinding. 217. battery. 218. as shown in Figs. so that it will push up naU E and make connection between nails D and F. Fig. This rubber-band wiU break the soon as the pressure on nail electrical connection just as is E removed. and the to end of this post fit must be cut overthealarm-key and be wired to it. Fig. 216) large wire nail. 216). — Details Fig. Cut a small slot through the back board of the case for naU E to stick through. 218 and 219. or a in a must be fastened wooden post (/.

not do with the arrangement illus- so must be placed that the contact wUl be made when naU E is in this case. This must be of good proportions. it is of course only necessary to turn the switch lever so as to break the electrical connection. but for staining if may be used for working is an open-grained wood such as oak better you intend to put a stain finish on your work. the contact naUs D and F pushed down. if The dimensions can easily be altered. for which this case was designed was 4^ inches in diameter. whitewood. but the case has a greater inside width and wUl probably acconunodate any clock that you may have. But keep your clock far enough away from your bed. trated. Pine. how- necessary. and end pieces. made by The attractiveness of such a clock depends entirely upon the design used for the case. and simple.ii8 THE HANDY BOY and that will of up." A Unique Mantel Clock for the library can be enclosing a common alarm-clock in a wooden case. The alarm-clock than this. 222 shows the working-drawings for the face. Figure 220 shows a pleasing design. back. The opening of about in the front of the clock-case should be cut enough smaller than the clock so there wUl be a lap X inch aU around. and Fig. whUe the hole in the back of the case must be of the exact diameter of the clock because . To shut off the electric alarm in the morning. ever. or basswood material. throw off so there wiU be no temptation to the switch and then " turn over. clean-cut lines will look the best.

!. .. Fig.:.— a Cluck Flash-light.b. i.

.

fasten blocks in the four comers of the frame. in attaching it. 220. above and below the opening.HANDY BOY CLOCKS the clock is 119 fastened in this opening. — Details of Mantel Clock Shown in Fig. splitting the wood. To avoid nailing through the front of the case. 222. the thickness of the The face opening is beveled wood at that point. to reduce After cutting the end. to support the alarm-clock. so there be enough of margin around the opening to preclude the possibihty Fig. must also be fastened to the front piece. bevel their ends so they wiU fit together at the proper angles. top and bottom pieces. These holes should will be cut before the pieces are cut out. and then Blocks screw or nail these to the inside of the front piece. .

or any other easily worked wood. if Then it fasten side on the base pieces. and if you can get a piece of similar strips. Figure 223 shows the dimen- sions for all of these pieces. the case makes a very attractive base on which to stand a bedroom clock. and the top of a piece ^ inch thick. shown in the photograph (Fig. stain.120 THE HANDY BOY Clock Flash-Light tell is A a great convenience. together. with the small electric lamp mounted upon top. ends and bottom of the case should be strips of made ^-inch wood. there is is no projection on the and end The top screwed in place. 221 was finished with Mission-oak wood stain and then waxed. what time during the night. for by it is its aid you can a match. but if you wish to finish the of its wood with a decided grain. or on dark winter mornings. pine. 221. the base X"™ch wood. form it will save nailing on the additional base Coat the edges of the bottom. end. will look best on account The case shown in Fig. The battery-case may oak be of oak. and how the base put A piece of wall base-board having a projecting its piece cut upon lower portion was used in the construc- tion of the battery-case 221). A clock flash-light is not difficult for a handy boy to make. and nail them together with finishing-nails. and when the battery is neatly encased as in Fig. without getting out of bed and lighting Such a light as this would be an especially appro- priate gift for an elderly person who is wakeful at night. so may be removed to gain . is end. whitewood. The of sides. and base pieces are mitered. and side pieces with glue. strips. also how the ends of the side.

1 .

Lamp. so the bottom wiU not scratch whatever Light Outfit.122 THE HANDY BOY and wire connections. ordinarily be long which will enough to reach from the dresser or side- table over to the bed. Use roundDrill screw- access to the battery head blued wood screws as i^ inches long. 224. 9 feet of silk-covered double-conductor lamp-cord. stood upon. The Two dry-battery cells will cost 50 cents. a pear- . When you have finished the woodwork of the battery- Pear-shaped Push-button Fig. 223). so the screws will drive into place readily. Push-Button. case. — Battery. and Connections of Clock FlashLight. and holes of a smaller diameter than the screws. in the top edges of the side and end pieces. Cord. will cost about 20 cents. and space them shown in the plan of the top (Fig. through trifle the top piece. cut a piece of felt to fit the bottom and glue it is it in place. trifle holes of a larger diameter than the screws.

and a tungsten battery-lamp cents. another from the the push-button. Figure 224. and the Longitudinal and Cross Sections in show the proper wiring of the battery cells. 223). . will cost . a miniature lamp ceptacle 123 re- wiU cost 10 cents. Fig. The battery cells are connected Fig. The double cord leading to the push-button extends through the hole bored in the end of the battery-case. pushbutton. Run a wire from the cells to cells to the lamp receptacle. and. and battery-lamp. page 135). Bore a hole through the top of the battery-case of the size of the lower portion of the miniature lamp receptacle Plan of Top. if the lamp is made for very small voltage.HANDY BOY CLOCKS shaped push-button will cost 10 cents. one battery ceU only should be used. 223.30 cents. and bore a hole in the center of one end of the case just large enough for the lamp-cord to (see pull through. in series (see Connecting Battery Cells. outfit making the dollar total expenditure for the lighting about I and 20 The voltage of the lamp and battery should be taken into consideration when purchasing them. and coimect the second wire from the push-button to the lamp receptacle.

.

THE HANDY BOY ELECTRICIAN subject of 125 ^ home-made wireless telegraph outfits alone. We way frictional. see Chapter XIV of " Handicraft for Handy Boys. and our attention to generating use of batteries. where there is more or less of a steady drain upon the current. graph For making and erecting the apparatus for a small. dynamic (by induction). properties of two general classes — those They may be divided made for open-circuit circuits. practical Wireless TeleOutfit. ' cells electrically cell is connected. and will be found especially interesting by aU handy boys because of their leading up to electrical toy making." . Figures 225 to 228 show photographs of four t)7pes of batteries. There are a great many varieties of batteries. and every handy boy should famiharize himself with the The Common Forms into of Batteries. it is quite impossible to include in this chapter more than some elementary work. therefore. electricity There are four means by which duced may be pro- — chemical.. when used sin- a often spoken of as a battery. thermal. as that it. and the term battery should be applied only to a group of two or more gly. A single battery is in reality a cell. such as for operating etc. shall confine it is by chemical means through the the simplest shall for the beginner to produce batteries Then we make some apparatus which wiU supply current enough to operate. and those made toy motors. But the ideas which I am presenting are very practical for the beginner. though. for closed-circuit work. work. such as electric-beU circuits and telephone where the current is not drawn upon very long at a time.

A dry cell consists of a center stick of carbon. element will require boiling in hot water once in a great wfll deposit while. A complete sal-ammoniac cell. to remove the salts which upon it. tion. lowered into when the carbon and zinc elements are The top of the carbon cylinder is coated salts with paraflfine. and can therefore be placed a zinc case. because it contains no liquids to spill. The zinc fluid of this cell must be renewed and the carbon the element must be replaced when eaten away by the action of the solution. is The the com- monest form of wet-battery type. jar to fluid.126 THE HANDY BOY Cell (Fig. or electrolyte as it is called. with sal-ammoniac enough for . is a saturated solution of chloride (known as sal-ammoniac) this solution should I be poured into the ammonium Enough of come within inch of the top. and these can generally be obtained for the asking. at a garage. from the top of which pencil. It is of the open-circuit A sal-ammoniac is cell consists of a glass jar. 225) is The Dry-Battery the most convenient form of open-circuit battery to use. keep the from creeping out over the edge of the occasionally. it. Dry cells cost 25 and 30 cents apiece. fits suspended a carbon cylinder and a zinc through a porcelain bushing that The latter drops in a hole in the carbon cylinder. when grouped together. Sal-Ammoniac Battery Cell (Fig. to jar. Cells that have become too weak to spark an automobUe are often plenty strong for experimental work. and a compound filler. The battery in water. 226) cell. which is in is any one posipole. which gelatin-Uke chemical the other pole.

228. 22!).— a Home-Made Electric-Bell. 22(). Battery Cell. 227. Battery and Push-Button. Fig. 225.Ammoniac Cell. Gravity Battery Cell.Fig. Fig. Pig. Fig. Storage Battery. . Dry-Battery Sal.

.

for raising the elements out of the battery By this arrangement. solution is The preparation of this described on page 132. and only in the basement or workshop. the elements are protected from the fluid while the battery is not in use. The solution this is also destructful to clothing and carpets. the zinc should be rethe ceU is moved when not in use. is where a continuous even while the current required. and acts upon current is not being drawn upon. 127 Several forms of salare described further ammoniac ceUs that on in the chapter. and the zinc element is . A in a Plxinge Battery consists of one or more cells arranged framework provided with a drum and crank fluid. costs about 35 cents.THE HANDY BOY ELECTRICIAN one charge. 227) has a copper element of several thin strips of copper. are easy to make is The Bi-Chromate Battery Cell its sold in various forms. in place of the carbon used in the cells previously described. A Gravity Battery Cell (Fig. as the solution destroys the zinc it element more quickly. with the substitution of the bi-chromate solution for the sal-ammoniac. It is only necessary to remove the elements from the battery acting fluid is fluid when a bi-chromate or similar strong employed. but. This makes a much and it is stronger ceU than the sal-ammoniac ceU. the better form to use for operating small motors. Figure 239 shows a home-made plunge battery. but a sal-ammoniac jar and carbon and zinc elements may be used. and on accoimt should be handled carefully.

rent into There are various forms of storage series of batteries. connect the two elements with a wire and allow the current formed to pass through the solutions. and the lighter fluid. The gravity has a minimum amoimt polarization. which is saturated solution of copper sulphate (blue vitriol) in water. a saturated solution of zinc sulphate in water. keeps to the lower portion of the jar. and the crowfoot hangs over the edge of the jar. That why dry ceUs and sal-ammoniac not do for closed-circuit work. N9 action takes . The Storage Battery (Fig. to allow time for the destruction of the hydrogen bubbles. sets in the bottom a of the jar. but the common type consists of a plates placed in sheet-lead a water-tight compartment that contains a solution of sulphuric-acid and water. This is a two-solution The heavier fluid. keeps to the top. between 60 and 75 cents. destroys the bubbles of hydrogen gas which form around the copper element and slow up the flow of current. fluid. is is There more or less polarization in every battery cells will cell. The copper element cell. whence it derives the of crowfoot.128 THE HANDY BOY in the made name form of a bird's foot. it but merely discharges electrical energy which electric cur- has accumulated through the passing of an it. and this short-circuiting the may be two poles — that is obtained quickly by is. They must be given a cell rest now and of then. There should be a sharp line of separation between the two solutions. it The copper sulphate is the exciting and the zinc sulphate the de-polarizer — that is. 228) does not generate cell costs A elec- trical current.

Fig. and gradually return to their original state. Fig. the cells give up this stored energy. — A Home-Made Sal-Ammoniac Battery 231 and 232. 230. those used in automobiles costing fifteen dollars and over. . When the battery is drawn upon. Fig. 232. Battery glass Cell may be A tumbler wiU do for a jar. 230. 230. Cell. — DetaUs of Zinc and Carbon Elements. an old battery zinc pencil with several inches of the ^OFF <j»> J-CUT Fig. A battery of one of the forms of cells previously described. then they must be recharged. and the battery becomes charged. wiU serve most of the pur- poses of a boy experimenter. 231. Figs. Sometimes you can buy an old storage battery cheaply at a garage. Home-Made prepared as shown A Sal-Anunoniac in Fig. then a chemical change occurs. however.THE HANDY BOY ELECTRICIAN 129 place in the cells until the current passes into them. which will be plenty good enough for experimental work. or one of the following home-made cells. Storage batteries are expensive.

233) when more Cells. as in Fig. 232. 231). — Two Sal-Ammoniac Cells Connected in Series.I30 THE HANDY BOY off will eaten end cut do for the zinc element (Fig. readily if The crystals will dissolve more warm water is used. wiU do for the carbon element. voltage is needed. and the carbon from a worn-out dry-battery. put as much sal-anunoniac into a tumbler of water as the water will dissolve. A quart-size Mason fruit-jar. nected in series (Fig. a large tobacco used for or a wide-necked pickle bottle. 233. jar. a saturated solution of sal-ammoniac in water. can be . cut to a cor- responding length. and inserting a small it wad of between the lower ends of the carbon and another. but two or more cells may be con- FiG. zinc. This cell will not be strong enough for more than simple experimental work. to keep them from touching one Make that is. after wrapping a piece of bicycle-tape Fasten shown around the upper end of the carbon. together the zinc and carbon with rubber-bands. See Methods of Connecting Battery page 135.

Cut a round or square block of it wood for a top to the jar fFig. of Fruit. 236. also. 23s.Jar Battery Cell. Dip this top in melted parafl&ne. Figs. — Details Fig. and brush the edges of the jar with paraffine. the little upon wiU be sufficient to it support it. 234. and . of the zinc and carbon to stick through. If you use a zinc lugs similar to the one its sides shown in Fig. Fig. This wiU prevent the fluid salts from creeping out. with the point of a naU. 234-236. To support the carbon. 234. driU a hole through just below the connection thumb-nut. 236).THE HANDY BOY ELECTRICIAN A Larger 131 Sal-Ammoniac Cell. Use a full-length zinc pencil and an old dry-battery carbon for the elements (Figs.^ Fig. 234 and 23 s). and make holes in for the ends .

As carbon is very the hole must be drilled very carefully. the. 237. Fig. — Arc-Lamp Carbon Element. 238. 237). (Fig. others. 234).132 slip THE HANDY BOY a match through the hole brittle. through which to stick a match for support The connecting wire Cell is also run through this hole. and remove the cop- coating from file them with a sandpaper. 238. 237. as shown end of i}4 Thread in Fig. just below the top. 238. allowing the upper the center piece to project about Fig. similar to those of the sal-ammoniac Mason fruit-jar may be used to hold the battery The Bi-Chromate Battery Fluid is made up of bi-chromate . Fig. — Another Fruit-Jar Battery. Bi-Chromate Battery has a zinc and a carbon element and a tiunbler or fluid. or Then of bind /IW-HOLE five the Arc-lamp Carbons pieces around a cen- ter piece. 238. Fig. is Another Form of Carbon Element shown in Fig. (Fig. inches above the With the drill point of a nail a hole through the center carbon. street- Pick up some arc-lamp carbon ends from around corner per lamp-poles. A Home-Made ceU.

239). 239) to the ends of the of the rack. to support the winding right length so drum C. Nail the uprights A (Fig. Pour the acid into the water slowly. Dip the zinc into the solution.THE HANDY BOY ELECTRICIAN of potash. the solution. and if the heat forms too quickly your glass bottle is likely to split. A grocery box can be cut down to a convenient size for the rack. 133 and water. when the nearly cool. add the bi-chromate of potash. the zinc should be removed when the cell is not in use. As the bi-chromate solution attacks the zinc element of a cell even when the current is not being drawn upon. first add the acid to the water. battery illustrated contains two bi-chromate with an arrangement by which the elements of the raised out of. first. sulphuric acid. with a rag dipped in the solution rub the mercury on to A Home-Made Plunge Battery (Fig. and make them C will be the length of . in the following pro- portions: 4 ounces of bi-chromate of potash 4 ounces of sulphuric acid I quart of water In making up this solution. — never solution of the add is the water to the acid. Label the bottle in which you put this solution POISON. then it. the zinc should be amalgamated by rubbing a thin coat of mercury over its surface. because the combination two creates a great deal of heat. Amalgamating a Zinc Pencil. cells can be and lowered into. The plunge cells. — and then. To reduce the eating away of a zinc pencil used in a bi-chromate solution.the carbons above .

and drive the 239). Fig. drum from slippmg through the screw-eyes! FiG. . — A Home-Made Plunge Battery. near the ends. 240) through drum C. 239. nghts A for drum C Screw screw-eyes into the tops of upto turn in (B.134 THE HANDY BOY the battery jars. wooden pins D to prevent the (Fig. Fig. -Detail of Drum and Crank for Lifting Battery Elements. 240.

the zinc of the ceU next to that in the parallel connection all of the carbons are connected to one wire. or four are connected in the same way. and that in the series-parallel connection of cells 10 ORV-CE. by a combination of both ways. and the end of the nailed to the end of the crank (Fig. Methods of Connecting Battery Cells. two. but. parallel (also Battery cells may be connected in or known as multiple). You will notice that in 5 DW-CELLSWmEOIN*SERIES" the series coimection. 240). — Five cells are shown in the illustrations. . ceUs are connected in parallel. known as series-parallel.THE HANDY BOY ELECTRICIAN ^35 A is spool forms the crank handle E (Fig. of course. 241. three. This is pivoted with a nail to the crank F. The Three Methods of Wiring Battery Cells. 239). and aU of the zincs to the other wire.WIREDIN"SERIES-PARALLEr one-half of the number are connected in series in each of two sets. checks crank.LLS. series. and. drum The button G is screwed to one edge of the upright A at the crank end. 239. the car- bon of one cell is connected to it. i T Figure 241 shows these connections. the when turned to the position shown in Fig. The board H supports the battery elements. and then the end Fig. raising cord is attached to nails driven into its and the edges and to drum C.

one set would be exhausted by the other. In connecting should be an equal number of cells in each set. the amperage wiU be doubled (40 amperes). which are the three most important ones for a boy to understand in connection with his experimental work. the cell (1. while. otherwise. however.5 volts). and two combined series. These are the rated capacities of dry-cells. and the am- (20 amperes). There are Electrical many Measurements to be learned. cells (100 amperes). number and amperes secured with sets of five. is and would quickly exhaust cells in series-parallel. or amperage. voltage will equal that of only one but the current strength. if (20 amperes. will equal the combined amperage of aU the. and the ohm.136 THE HANDY BOY of these three One what the ceUs. . if all cells are the cells are connected in parallel. but the current in amperes will cell equal only that of a single ahke). Then coming to the series-parallel method. am going to explain only the the ampere. methods is is always used. according to Figure 241 shows five dry- voltage and amperage of volts required.5 volts). each set of five cells wiU have a combined voltage perage of one cell of the five cells (7. If the cells are con- nected in all the set wiU have the combined voltage of the cells (7. but when the two sets are connected parallel.5 volts). Four or amperes about the maximimi amount which there should be used. but I volt. would be an excessive amount of current to draw from a 5 single cell. amperes. Twenty it.

offers resistance to the flow of electricity in the same way that the sides of a ditch offer resistance to water flowing through that ditch. while others have high resistance. The Ampere is vuiit of current strength. Binding-Posts. This pressure which makes electricity flow is known the as voltage. but for home-made apparatus a boy . the greater the voltage will be. carbon-rod. 137 Volt is the unit of electrical pressure. The Ohm is Any conductor of etc. wire. copper comes next. The greater the volume that flows along a the unit of resistance. the greater the amperage wfll be. they were and in the same way some substances elec- used for trical electrical conductors have low resistance to currents. such as wire. trical These posts can be purchased at any elec- supply house. cessive and German-silver has such an used in the construction of ex- ance coils. and may be likened to the volume of water flowing through a ditch. iron has considerable. and the greater the pressure. Every piece of electrical apparatus ..electrical requires binding-posts as a provision for making connections. For example. amount that and other apparatus where it is resistis great resistance necessary. electricity.THE HANDY BOY ELECTRICIAN The will it. is Electricity not flow along a wire unless there in a pressure behind any more than water is a level ditch will flow unless there a pressure back of it. silver has the least resistance. If the sides of the ditch are if made of cement. sheet-metal. the water wiU flow more readily than of jagged rocks.

or copper. bent in half.138 THE HANDY BOY Figures 242 to 245 show in Fig. with a hole punched through to the base of it near each end for a small screw. Fig. Figure 243 shows a variation of this form of bindingpost. 242. with a screw-eye substituted for the round-head This illustration also shows binding-screw. The folded end of this metal plate should be nailed with brads your apparatus. Fig. The advantage of the screw-eye is that it can be turned by hand. 242 consists of can make his own binding-posts. for binding- screws. punched near each end its for screws. and it is fast- ened at eyes center to an apparatus. is connected to the folded end of the metal is down to hold the other wire between the ends of the plate. The binding-post in Fig. Screw- may be used in place of the screws shown. The one a Nut Nut Washer Fig. several simple forms. short strip of tin. Figs. brass. 244. 245 consists of a short machine- . Fig. 243. with brads. how the sta- tionary wire plate. 242-245. 245. 244 requires two short strips of metal. whUe an and how the screw-eye screwed ordinary screw requires the use of a screw-driver. — Home-Made Binding-Posts. Use a small round-head screw for the binding-screw. The binding-post in Fig.

and C should be of tin or brass. B. 139 and two nuts. come upon the under then sUp the washer over the upper end. to be connected to it. two nuts on to One of the apparatus wires should be connected between the washer and the lower nut. 247 shows details of its various parts. and screw it. should be fastened between the two nuts. A Home-Made A switch is convenient for opening and closing an electrical circuit. 246 and 247. made Fig. 247. Drill a hole of the diameter of the machine-screw through the base of the apparatus for which the binding-post will is required. Figs. RuG-TACK: Fig. Switch. Figure 246 shows a simple home- made switch. The binding-post plates B and C are similar to one of the bind- ing-posts previously described. and slip the screw side of the through so the head base. Strips A.THE HANDY BOY ELECTRICIAN screw. and Fig. motor. or other apparatus. as it saves discon- necting one of the wires. and the wire from the battery. a washer. Tack the tips on strip A . 246. — A Home-Made Switch.

Punch two holes through posts D. 248 and 249. and as it it has two sets of binding-posts. and cut the handle F from the end of a broom-handle. and H are made and should be bent into the forms shown in the detail drawing. A close Double-Pole Knife-Switch easy to make. G. and one of posts hole through G.I40 THE HANDY BOY wooden knob cut Fasten similar to to the sides of a D. connections are lever made is is at the binding-posts so the then. of tin. Make B out of strips of tin doubled Fig. . with a naU. Fasten F to the center of block E. and in half. can be used to open or two circuits with one throw of the switch lever (Figs. B The posts D. Figs. the bars 248 and 249). for screws. The bent out ends D and G form the binding-posts. The E. and drive the rug-tack electrical F through for a contact point. through plate C. and drive a screw through the other end of A.plate it B parallel to C. . and into the base block. the circuit closed. — A Double-Pole Knife-Switch. cut the blocks A E of equal size. 249. when A is swung over knob end strikes the contact point. and tack one end of strips to the ends of block E.

allowing just enough space between them for bars B to slide them. A Home-Made Push-Button. The tops of down between and make contact with posts G and H are bent away from each RUG-TACK SEALING-WAX (OR Solder) shghtly. made outfit electric-bell in Fig. shown in connec- tion with the homeFig. Figs. and screw the two binding-post to this block with small and the contact spring F. 252. 250-252. and at the same easily on them. 229. splendid A ^SHOE-POLISH CAN. passing the screws through the posts D. of posts G directly in line distances apart that posts D have been fastened. and then into block A. 250).THE HANDY BOY ELECTRICIAN Screw the ends of bars 141 B to the ends of block A. —A Home-Made Push-Button. then place posts H back to back with posts G. through the metal washers C. push-but- ton can be made This with a shoe-polish can is (Fig. . Cut a block }i inch thick and of the inplates E. other. through bars B. Fig. to guide the bars into the contact spaces between the posts. side diameter of the can. The screws should be driven in just tight enough so the bars wiU turn Tack the ends with posts D. 251.

142 THE HANDY BOY One end of the spring strip screws. wrapped with a When an electric . 254 and 255 show the making An electro-magnet consists of a center core of soft iron. Punch two holes through the side of the can to run the connecting wires through to connect to the binding-posts. File off its end re- and drop enough sealing-wax or solder on the maining end to keep the tack from slipping out of the hole in the cover. and details for Figs. for the button. or in some other way. Electro-Magnet. F is screwed down on The top of one of the binding-post plates. unless happens to be de-magnetized by being used in the construction of so it is subjected to a strong heat. Get a brass rug-tack short. The electro-magnet is many for a pieces of electrical apparatus. after once becoming magit netized. The difference of between an electro- magnet and the toy variety which every boy tains its is horseshoe-magnet with famUiar. passing around netic while the steel magnet retains mag- influence permanently. The free end of the spring is strip must be so bent that when the rug-tack button pushed the seahnginto contact with wax An or solder will press the strip down the screw-head of the binding-post plate. is that the electro-magnet reelectric curre'nt is its magnetism only so long as an it. Figure 253 shows a simple electro-magnet. that important boy to know how it. and the free end comes in contact with a screw in the other binding-post plate. to make one. other screw shown in each plate is a binding-post screw. coil of insulated wire.

Fig. some insulated electric-bell wire for the coil. out of the piece of slip these over the bolt as shown — one at the bolt-head end. several turns of insulated wire are wrapped about a the turns of the soft iron core. this magnet loses its magnetic influence the instant the current ceases to pass through the surrounding coil of wire.THE HANDY BOY ELECTRICIAN current passes over a wire. combine. 253. for the core of the CARDBOARd WA5HERS*' Fig. cardboard (Fig. and trifle a piece of heavy cardboard. Figs. 253-255. and ^ inch in diameter. the magnetic fields of aU or helix. a magnetic field the wire. . magnet. 255. 254). As I have said before. You will need a machine-bolt or carriage-bolt 2}4 or 3 inches long. 255 Cut three washers of a larger diameter than the bolt-head. -An Electro-Magnet. is H3 formed around and when coil. forming a very strong magnetic field which strongly magnetizes the iron core. and in Fig. the other two at the nut end. then screw the nut on to the end of the bolt.

Then screw the bolt-nut tight against the washers. end of the bolt. and again back to the even number of layers and so on. nails. Now connect the ends of the cell. first end. pierce the two at the nut end. Starting at this bolt. until six or eight layers of wire have been wound in place. and puU a length of 4 or of the wire out between the two washers. wind back to the starting point. then wind back to the washer at the head a second time. it is best to set in a small switch or push-button between the ceU and one wire of the magnet coU. starting point. Slip this the second hole in the inner washer. then. When the washer at the head end of the bolt has been reached. coil to the binding-posts of a battery and you will be surprised to find what a strong magnet the head of the bolt core has become. pocket- and scissors. 253). wind the wire around the keeping the turns even and each turn pressed close against the preceding turn. It is also more convenient to handle .144 THE HANDY BOY two holes through the inner cardboard washer of Before starting to wind the insulated wire upon the bolt. To use the magnet as a toy for lifting knives. as you did the wire ends in place (Fig. An will bring the free end of the wire end through it back to the double-washer end. to hold the The outer cardboard washer wiU prevent the nut from chafing the insulation on the wire ends. Then stick the end of the wire 5 inches through one of these holes. so things can be picked up or dropped by closing and opening the circuit. screws. and bring out be- tween the two washers.

or armature. if 145 the connecting wires are made of long enough so the cell does not have to be carried about. The making an electric-beU home-made push-button such as that shown in Fig. 256. 229. Figure 229 shows a photograph of just such a home-made outfit. and this magnet becomes magnetized and draws the bell hammer-arm. and Fig. towards its positive pole. passes along the insulated wire and through the coils of wire of a horseshoe electro-magnei. Then. and with a preceding pages. the horseshoe electro- . the instant that the armature is pulled it. the current from the bell battery Fig. : The working principle push-button is an electric bell is this When the pressed. a boy can prepare a complete beU outfit. — Detail of Home-Made Electric-Bell Outfit Shown in Fig. which is a form of electro- magnet described later. 256 shows a drawing of of it. 250.THE HANDY BOY ELECTRICIAN the magnet. away from the httle contact screw that presses against is the electrical coimection broken. An is Electric-Bell Outfit. and two salammoniac cells made in one of the ways described upon simple and very interesting work.

Of course the armature vibrates so rapidly that place. except if you cannot notice how the action takes you give the push-button a very The Horseshoe Electro-Magnet bell to light tap. — four J^-inch iron washers (washers having ^-inch holes). is the first portion of the make. Shp two washers upon each bolt. then the current flows through the magnet ture is and the arma- drawn away from the contact screw as before. of ordinary insulated bell wire. to the starting point. a positive and a It consists negative pole. and ^ lb. and the two different poles are obtained by winding the current the wire in opposite directions so as to flow aroimd the coUs in opposite directions. One washer forms each end of the coils. then carefully wind the wire around the bolt far as the from that washer as washer at the bolt-head end. This doses the circuit again. temporarily. coils. of two coils of wire wound around a U-shaped make core of soft iron. Slip a length of 4 or 5 inches of the end of the insu- lated wire through the hole of the washer at the nut end of the bolt. and the armature springs back to its former position resting against the little contact screw. then to the bolt-head end until the height of the and so on. Wind back again. back and forth .146 THE HANDY BOY loses its magnet magnetic influence. and screw the nut on to the end. just like those of a toy magnet. is These movements repeat as long as the push-button pressed. Buy two ^-inch or 5-16-inch carriage-bolts long for the iron cores — the two 2^ inches legs of the horseshoe. This magnet has two poles.

Fig. . 259. Make the yoke out of a strip of tin i inch wide and 3 inches long. and slip the yoke tight against the ends of the over the bolt ends. and with a nail punch holes through it 2 inches on centers. so the upper end of the can be brought out through the hole in the washer at the nut end of the bolt. — Details of Horseshoe [Electro-] Magnet for Electric-Bell. 147 Wind an even number coil of layers on the bolts. Figs. These two electro-magnets are connected at one end with a metal yoke. Fig. cell. Be sure to wind the wire on the two cores of in opposite directions. 259). 258. you will find that each core is magnetized. where you started. then screw the nuts in place again magnet coil ends (Fig. 260). 260. to form the horseshoe electro-magnet.THE HANDY BOY ELECTRICIAN washers has been reached. and that you have two electro-magnets. large enough for the magnet bolt ends to stick through (Fig. 258-261. Figure 258 shows one core com- pletely wound. Remove the nuts. If you now connect both ends each coil to a battery Fig.

and pound it down until it holds the wire securely. Now test it. 263) then fold the sides of the tab on the hammer end over the stem of the hammer. the hammer from a broken alarm-clock. . directions.148 THE HANDY BOY connect together the lower ends of the two will coils. end. of tin 5 inches long and i}4 inches wide. as Fold the sides of the piece over on to the middle . and . Punch a hole through the opposite end of the armature large enough . a' cell. It is in 262 and 263. To connect the upper end of each coU to coils If the have been put on in opposite through one coil clockwise. of tin cut Fig. the current will pass and through the other end will counter-clockwise. in the position shown in Fig. 261) with it which to hold position. — Plan from a tomato can. of Electric-Bell. over with a i-inch tab on the hammer shown. . Cut the piece all. and a %^-inch tab on the opposite end. 257. using a wooden cleat (Fig. and the horseshoe electro-magnet windings of the two be complete. in Details of the ar- mature are shown Figs. and the other end to repel (the negative pole). portion (Fig. Mount wide and the horseshoe magnet upon a base block 4 inches 7^ inches long. 257. made . and one magnet be fornid to attract (the positive pole).

257). block of wood cut similar to A Fasten block A to the base in the position shown in Fig. and screw it at this point to a small (Fig. Figs. Fig. 265. . under the end of D. Fig.STRIKER Fig.THE HANDY BOY ELECTRICIAN for 149 a small screw.FROM n i Fig. — Details of Electric-Bell. Figure 264 shows the details of the contact screw. 266. 263). Cut block B out of ALARM-CLOCK V_. near the pivoted Tack the piece of tin C to thQ base block. 257. and with brads to the base block. hard wood. with which f is combined one binding-post. Fold a small piece of tih in half for the second binding- . tack the nail the block strip of tin D to its top and face. ALARM-CLOCK TIN STILT- 263. 262-266. run through. FlG. with the armature exactly parallel to the magnet heads and about 3-16 inch away from them. 264. 262. and punch a hole through both C and D for the screw-eye binding-post to end of the armature (Fig.^»@^ BELL.

and connect the other coil end to the screw which holds the armature to block A (Fig. to such positions as wiU make the armature vibrate the steadiest and strongest. Moimt the bell from a broken alarm-clock upon a tin made like that shown in Fig. This binding-post base. 266. after mounting. . using a long enough screw to extend weU into the base block. because just enough will magnetism trical remain in the bolt-head. may be fastened almost any place on the Connect one of the upper coil ends to this binding-post. and possibly shift the position of the magnet. 265).ISO THE HANDY BOY Tack the lower portion to the base. to it. Place the beU stilt in such a position that the armature cannot closer be drawn than 1-16 inch to the bolt-head. after the elec- contact has been broken. to hold the armature fast the armature strikes the head. and pierce a hole through both portions for a screw-eye binding-post. if You wiU have to adjust the Httle contact screw. post plate (Fig. The wires leading from the battery connect to the two binding-posts. 257).

m .

152 THE HANDY BOY this little derrick. you use iron or steel of some sort for your loads. brads. and another mre should connect the switch with the dry-cell. (For base about 8 inches . build The Fig. and odd pieces of hardware for the purpose. Derrick. hoisting can be had with naUs and other smaU pieces of hardware from the floor to a table top.) Wide and lo mchcs long .CABLE the magnet coil should be connected to a dry-cell. of course. 253 of show details for making it. Cut the der. — The rick Electro-Magnet. and the other to a switch. details see Figs. and as the boom or arm of the derrick can be swung from side to side. 246 or that in Fig. Before making these connections. is of course possible to shown in Fig. carts and trains of cars. One end (HOISTING. 268. It is easy enough to get nails. provided. The derrick may be used for loading and unloading toy wagons. 268. Make the switch like the one shown in Fig. The Electro-Magnet to 255. tacks. loads can be swung from place to place in just the same way as with large derricks. 248. and raised and lowered. however. page 143. . and Figs. lift and by using very small tacks a much larger number. The it is Frontispiece photograph shows the electro-magnet derrick lifting 284 ^-inch brads. 253-255.

267). and it turns upon the slips axle D. of Boom. and for . or curtain-pole 153 The mast (B) 16 is a piece of broom-handle inches long. Fig. sticks H 18 inches long. separators I. Fig. Figure 271 shows a detail of the boom. which should be just long enough to allow clearance for the spool pulley J. 271. and fasten between them the — Detail — Detail — Detail of Mast. 270). Cut the side Fig. Screw-eye eral inches G is placed sev- above F to serve G-C ** the purpose of a pulley to guide the hoisting cables. 269. This is used to swing the boom from side to side. 270. The Windlass for raising the derrick boom. Figure 269 shows a detail of the mast. 270. close to the platform.ELECTRICAL TOYS FOR HANDY BOYS (A. Screw the lower ends of the boom to the mast. Fig. is made two spool-ends nailed together (Fig. which through holes in the plates E nailed to the end lever of the mast. of Pulley. and fits loosely in a hole bored in the base. of The pulley upon its upper end (C) Fig. at a point 2}4 inches above the base. The pulley is mounted on the axle K. The F sticks in a hole in the mast.

switch. . in the positions indicated. through. pulley. and M to M enough smaller than the dnuns N so they wiU turn Fasten a crank and handle to one end of each spool. 267). Cut four notches of flange each as shown. drums from sHding in the inner spool. then through screw-eye G. post L. of Derrick notches to lock the windlass (Fig. part way. stick Bore a hole through upright L for the axle cut axle spool easily. Fig. Fasten one end of the cable for raising the boom to a nail {P. 272. tie it securely to drum so wiU not slip around. Figure 267 shows how the dry-cell may be strapped to the base board in front of the mast. shown in detail in Fig. and how the wires that connect the electro-magnet. and drive a brad through each end of the axle to prevent the off. 268. 267).Detail Windlass. The other cable should be fastened between the nut and washer of the magnet. 272. and tied to the second dnmi. run up and over the boom pulley /. and cell should be twisted around the hoisting cable. and the . to the and pivot the catches so they Fig.IS4 THE HANDY BOY is hoisting the loads. may be thrown into the . The Hoisting Cables should be made of strong cord. then and nm this cord down through the screw-eye up and over the mast G and over to one it drum. as shown in Fig.

o s .

.

consists of an induction-coil. and that it is dropped by throwing circuit off the switch lever and opening the — which causes the electro-magnet The Kttle shocking to lose its magnetism. an for and a pair of handles. yoiu: derrick can be moved along a table-top. Use flexible wire if you can get By moimting for the wheels. and perhaps cause him to dance.ELECTRICAL TOYS FOR HANDY BOYS remainder of their length allowed to hang. but in our small shocking machine the handles can be dropped the instant the person holding them wishes to do so. Spool-ends may be used and can either be screwed to the edge of be fastened upon axles as the wheels the Electric Motor 291). 155 Be it. A Toy Shocking Machine. Tmck are fastened (Figs. all of which are easy . but strong enough to make your friend's arm and wrist muscles twitch. The shocking machine interrupter. or the base upon spool wheels. of the base. machine shown in Fig. 273 is a harmless toy with which you can have an endless amoimt of fun when entertaining friends. 290 and How the Derrick Works. is It is probably unnecessary to explain that a load picked up by throwing over the switch lever to the contact point and closing the circuit. The shock it produces is not severe. Large shocking coils contract the muscles to such an extent that it is impossible to let go of the metal grips imtil the current has been shut off. siure to cut to the wires long enough to reach from a table-top down the floor.

3 o 3 o 156 .be E .g a i .

To keep Slip the wire from slipping off the ends of the in bolt core. 30-gauge insulated magnetwire. and the other one next to the nut. Figs. 275 to 277. For the core buy a 5-16-inch carriage-bolt coils get inches long. and some No. stick the wire through inches to project and allow about upon the outside. Fig. and for the wire some No. cut two cardboard ends about i}4 inches in Fig. then commence wind- . This is shown in detail in Figs. 275. 275. 274). — Details 2% Fig. 157 cells The Induction-Coil is the first part to make. through one card5 board end. one of these on to the bolt next to the head.ELECTRICAL TOYS FOR HANDY BOYS a boy to make. of two sizes of wire upon an iron core. of Induction-Coil. 278. The Primary-CoU. and a wet or dry battery of one or two to furnish the current (Fig. Pierce a hole it. rCARDBOAROENDS' The coil has windings |. 275-278. diameter. as shown for Three layers of the coarse wire should be wound on first.or 24-gauge electric-beU insulated copper wire. 277.i|"x2fB0LT Fig. 20.

being very careful to get on evenly and smoothly. so that each turn of the follow- ing layer wiU show plainly against the stained layer be- neath it. the wire can be is wound almost as well by hand. 5 inches Cut a base block wide and 7 inches long. make the winding but with patience. or glue several layers of paper coil.iS8 THE HANDY BOY upon the core. There will be in the neighbor- hood of 175 turns in the three layers. or turns in all. while winding. There 1 Wind eleven layers on the coil. bevel . It difficult to keep track of each preceding turn. 100 A crank arrangement can be rigged up to easier. and on this account it is a good scheme to coat each layer with bluing after it has been woxmd on. Figure 277 shows the completed induction-coil. 276). Cut off the wire so there will be a 5-inch projection. and stick the projecting end through a hole in the cardboard end. the primary-coil (Fig. 277). and run the end of the eleventh layer out through the cardboard end (Fig. wrap the primary-coil with a layer of bicycle tape. arotmd the Then wind on the small wire as you did the coarser it wire. because of the fineness of the wire. to form The Secondary-CoU. should be about 100 turns of this wire to the layer. This completes Before winding the small wire on top of the primarycoil. and by doing the work slowly. When the opposite end of the bolt has been reached. wind back to the starting point. placing each turn close to the ing the wire preceding turn. then work back to the other end again.

similar to Fig. cut from a tin can. Make three binding-post plates out of folded pieces of tin. 284. 242. 284). shows how tabs The pattern for the tin covering (Fig. For the Handles take two pieces of broom-handle 3^ inches long. 243. Fig. Flexible wire better than . — Details of Shocking-Coil Handles. 285 Figs. Fig. and cover each with a piece of tin (Fig. 278. strapping it in place by means of two tin straps similar to that shown in Fig. 285) are prepared on the ends and holes punched through them for connecting with the induction-coil. 274). or 245.ELECTRICAL TOYS FOR HANDY BOYS the tdp edges to give it IS9 a trim appearance. The connecting is wires shotdd be 5 or 6 feet long. The projecting ends of the primary-coil connect with the battery. 284 and 285. 274). 244. secondary-coil wires to them and tack the third near one end of the induction-coil and connect one primarycoil wire to it (Fig. Tack two of these to the end of the base and connect the (Fig. 274). and mount the induction-coil to one side of the center (Fig. while the two ends of the secondary-coil connect with the handles.

Cut the base block A i}4 inches wide and 2}^ inches long. Such an interrupter may an be constructed electric-bell similar to the vibrating armature of Figs. 279 to 283. The shaft supports D should be prepared as shown bottom. -CONNECTWIREFROM PRIMARY-COIL HERE\ CONNECT Battery WIRE shown in 274. Make the shaft B 2^ inches long and of a diameter equal to the hole in a thread spool. and i^ . and debetter tailed in Figs. 262. and Fig. pages 148 and 149). 281. because more easily tiandled in tin covering to the passing the handles around. 263. Fasten the crank to the shaft with glue. and prepare the crank fit C to on the end.i6o THE HANDY BOY it is bell-wire for these. and 264. (see 257. but the form Fig. ^ inch wide at the top. and therefore An Interrupter must be inserted between the battery and one of the wires leading to the primary-coil of the in- duction-coil. or by driving a small brad through the two. and drive a brad into it for a handle. adjust. in Fig. 279. - is easier to make and Interrupter for Shocking-Coil. of the induction-coil is to raise the voltage The flow of current must be an interrupted one. in order to shock. ij4 inches wide across the inches high. Tack the The purpose of the battery. pieces of broom-handle. is suited to our toy HERE shocking machine.

283. slipping the shaft through one support. and must be long enough so each nail-head wiU strike Fig. fasten it after bending strip F as shown in Fig. The projecting arm F (Fig. Fig. The upper end upon the head of strip F must be bent so it wiU bear down as yet not con- of nail G. 281.ELECTRICAL TOYS FOR HANDY BOYS i6i Bore a hole through each. Drive the spool brads a trifle into the shaft to hold the spool in position. its end when spool E is revolved. and nail this upright to the end of base A. then through the spool. Drive a nail into base A. 282). is The wire from the primary-coil which . into a thread spool. and. 282. with brads upon the top of an upright made similar to H (Fig. of Interrupter. 283. and 279). Figs. 280 Fig. first mount this them equidistant from one spool upon the shaft (E. a Uttle below the top. at G. 280-283. and fasten these supports with brads to the sides of base A. spacing Drive eight brads another. — Details Fig. and then through the other support. and large enough so the shaft will turn easily. Fig. 279) is a strip of tin cut from a can.

Home-made easily operated cell electrical toys of a light construction are are ported. the person The strength of the current can be regulated somewhat by the speed with which the interrupter crank is turned.i62 THE HANDY BOY nected should be attached to nail G. of nail G. 274. slowly. Two cells will be enough. induction-coil Moimt it beside the it upon the base block. but when both are transas in the case of a wagon. little . nect the battery ceUs in series. as shown in Fig. hole punched through This completes the interrupter. and connect with the battery and the induction-coil. with a for a small binding-screw. Con- How the Interrupter Works. the construction must be very carefully worked out. when the motor and battery not carried by the toy. by a toy motor. wiU spring back into contact with the head is and each time the contact made. or the motor wiU not be powerful enough to drive the wheels. If the strip between it and the head it has been bent properly. 286 the axle bearings produce very is of light construction. When you turn the crank of the interrupter. E raises the end of thus breaking the electrical contact of nail G. Electric The Toy Motor Truck shown in Fig. each nail in spool strip F. Figure 283 shows how the binding- post plate is made out it of a doubled piece of tin. and one battery wire should be connected to a binding-post plate I fastened to the lower end of strip F. in passing it. The shocks are stronger and more distinct when the crank is turned holding the handles will receive a shock.

287. 28U. Fig. .Fig.— Top View of Electric Motor Truck.— a Toy Electric Motor Truck.

.

Then. Slip the Figs. 291). and ^ inch in diameter. spools. 289. Place them distances of the Fig. 288-290. and allow labels it to remain there until the paper have soaked off off or loosened sufficiently so they can be scraped with a knife. Figure 289 shows the front pencil axle. .ELECTRICAL TOYS FOR HANDY BOYS friction. six screw-eyes 5-16 inch in diameter for the bearings. and for axles. place the cigar-box in a wash-boiler or wash-tub of hot water. at equal from the ends strips. First. one at each the side. four lead-pencils. cut the two strips A (Fig. after the box has thoroughly dried. and fasten them to the bottom. 163 and the battery is light and of a powerful type. and steering-wheel post. The ends Wheels are made from the flange of the large Fig. several large thread spools for wheels and pulleys. 288 screw-eye bearings into these strips. Screw axle _ Fig. two small silk-thread spools. center portion of one — Details of Axle and Belt Shaft. or sticks whittled perfectly round belt-shaft. Get an oblong shaped cigar-box for the bed and sides of the truck. 290.

its puUey di- Wrap the spool pulleys with bicycle-tape. 288 supports a spool its pulley like the one on the front axle. Screw the toy motor to the cigar-box with rectly in line with the upper shaft pulley. Cut a strip of tin it about i inch wide and 8 inches and bend into a U-shaped hanger. so we must make a Two shown bi-chromate cells with glass tiunblers to hold the solution. The Upper Shaft shown in Fig. 287 the front axle. Battery. Cut an opening through the cigar-box large enough for the two tumblers to set long. truck to carry. and another belt extends from the upper shaft down to the pulley on Belts. then stick the pencil ends through the screw-eyes in strips A. dhectly over the front axle. prepared page 130. 233. Cut a hole through the bottom of the cigar-box for the belt extending from the upper shaft to the front axle to pass through. are of the best form. and glue is like the spool-end wheels on to them. in. The A dry battery is too heavy for the motor special battery. in Fig.i64 THE HANDY BOY on to this for of the large spools a pulley. Rubber-bands make the best belts. and 291. with the spool pulley omitted (Fig. 290). the upper large pulley is belted to the motor puUey. and screw-eye bear- ings should be screwed into the top edge of the sides of the box (Fig. to keep the rubber-band belts from slipping. its Slip a silkslip- spool on to each end of this shaft to keep ends from ping out of the screw-eyes. to support the . like those and zinc and carbon elements. The As you will see by Figs. The rear axle the front one. 287).

instead. ^^°- able to operate the motor — Plan Motor Truck Bottom. 291 sides of the box. 293. Slip the I6S hanger ends imder strips A. Make these in about the proportion to the cigar-box shown in Fig. 291.ELECTRICAL TOYS FOR HANDY BOYS tumbler bottoms. make the wires connecting it to the motor long enough so the truck can run back and forth across a room. . 292. because chromate solution attacks the zinc elements even when the current is not in use. When is Fig. truck only where there case is no danger of ruining anything in some If of the solution spills. Figure 287 shows how the battery ceUs are connected. Fasten the seat to the edge of the seat-back B . of Fig.Section through Bottom. bend them against the (Figs. 286. 292. 291. however. solution As the bi-chromate stains very badly. you can place the cell upon the floor and shop. A small switch can be fastened to the side of the truck to shut off and turn on the current. details are The Seat and Canopy-Top shown in Fig. but. it is advis- Fig. and fasten with tacks and 292). to it im- portant remove both pairs of elements and wash the bi- them off. as in the basement or work- you wish to use a dry-ceU instead of the pair of bi-chromate cells. its you can simply withdraw one pair of elements from shut off tumbler to the current. through playing with the truck.

of bent wire. A. — Pattern seat. or heavy writing- paper. down the cor- and lap and glue to T fi them form the turned- down canopy ends.t Fig. ^''staples — Details of Seat and Canopy-Top. and then fasten the side pieces the ends of the seat. Slash the ends as shown. T/pith their ends stuck into holes in the canopy uprights and front edge of the The Steering-Wheel is a section of a spool yi inch thick. rights with tacks. The Seat-Arms are pieces of Canopy-Top. 294. and Z? is nailed to the lower' ends of side 5q Fig. Run the . A to The dashboard E is nailed to the bottom piece D. Figure 294 shows the pattern for the canopyit Make of hght-weight cardboard. 293.i66 THE HANDY BOY with glue and brads. and is glued upon the end of a pencil or a stick. pieces top. Fasten the ends to the canopy up- . then turn ners.

293). D For sticks to the The Levers. .ELECTRICAL TOYS FOR HANDY BOYS 167 lower end of the pencil through a hole in the bottom of (Fig. fasten two smaU end of the bottom piece D with small staples.

.

300 and 301. A narrow strip should be removed from the top else board of each side of the box. — A Toy Water-Motor Operated — How to Make Pulleys. and Fig. The diameter of this should be several inches shorter than the height of the box. 298 a detail of the box case. a small strip should be nailed to the top edge of each end Fig. The Water-Wheel shown in detail in Figs. or board. 298. is in a Laundry Tub. 295.MECHANICAL TOYS FOR HANDY BOYS 169 completed water-motor. Fig. 296. After cutting the two circular side . to form outlets for the waste water. as shown in Fig.

The WaterMotor Case. 299. other. pieces of the wheel. — Betail of Water-Wheel. — Fig. 300. L- Fig. The Unes represent the centers of the wheel paddles and will be your guides in putting together the wheel. large enough for a Fig. Cut the . 297. draw the lines B and C at right angles to one an- and D and E at an angle of 45 degrees to these. Fig. • lines — Fig. The Completed Water-Motor.1 70 THE HANDY BOY and bormg a center hole through each broom-handle or curtain-pole shaft (A. — Cross-Section of Water-Motor. 298. 301).

To Mount the Wheel. then slip centered the shaft through holes A. one end piece to each paddle (Fig. drive screw Bore hole A through / into one edge. and 300) should be enough longer than the width of the motor case to allow for cutting a puUey G on one end. 301. and then nail the blocks to the ends of the wheel. 297. one of these for each end of the wheel. the center of the block. This cutting must be done very exactly. of pulley will not center on the shaft. AC. 299). cuts entirely around the shaft with a fine make two saw. 300). pins (Fig. inch between the wheel ends and the box is when the wheel mounted first nail in the case (Fig. drive the set-screws first slip it [into the case. Bore the hole about I K through the top of the motor case. J/2 etc. of the proper width to leave about case. and 171 make them a and trifle shorter than the lines AB. In assembling the wheel. prepare the pulley. inch inside of the line of the forward part of the . or your Drill the holes H for Make Block / (Fig. 299). then remove the wood between the cuts with a chisel. AD. 300) is for a short set-screw to keep the water-wheel from tiuming on the shaft. 299. first E — How to Lay Out To the Water-Wheel Ends. on the other end The Shaft F (Figs.. then nail piece. and driving a pin other end.MECHANICAL TOYS FOR HANDY BOYS paddles out of thin wood. and when properly / part way into the shaft. coxurse. through the Fig.

297 and are necessary only in case the water- motor tub. and Fig. — A Toy Merxy-Go-Round. Fig. The upenough per shafting can be placed high so the belt wiU clear the sides of the tub (Fig. drill the holes P for pins. This tubing wUl prevent the water from striking the top of the case and splashing. sets down cannot in a and the toy to be be operated belted directly to the pulley on the water- wheel shaft. 303 Fig. The Upper Shafting M and the uprights L 299) (Figs. from which you are going to obtain your water-power. Figure 296 shows Fig.172 THE HANDY BOY This hole should be of the exact size of the faucet wheel. 302. Cut the shaft M large enough snugly in the to fit holes in spools N and O. 302. of how you can prepare wooden . — Detail Lever Control. 303. 29s). and one end into it of a piece of rubber tubing should be slipped off so it will and the other end cut be of just the right length to reach the faucet.

306). Fig. The Revolving Platform of of the merry-go-round may be any size that is you wish to make it. or electric-motor. and Fig. joined together at .MECHANICAL TOYS FOR HANDY BOYS Pulleys for Gearing 173 down or increasing the speed of your motor. of Trigger for Making Horses Gallop. 304. Fig. ting wooden wheels shown are given on page 375. and the two supported Suggestions for cut- on two uprights nailed to a box base. or by means of a crank turned by hand. 302. This home-made mechanical may be operated by a water-motor. That is of the toy illusof trated 20 inches in diameter. in Fig. Toy Meny-Go-Round. and made two pieces of board 10 inches wide (A. 305. A toy. — Section — Detail through Merry-Go-Round. Fig. 295 suggests how one of these may be fast- ened to the side of a bicycle wheel. toy engine.

G long enough so they 307. 306. 307).174 THE HANDY BOY the center with the board B if (Fig.— Platform Detafl. and fit the four wooden pins equal G in holes bored at distances from pins center-pole C. save you the work of cutting the circular pieces. Cut Fig. Cut notches E in the ends. of the platform for the C—a piece of a broom-handle or curtain- Fasten the center-pole in a hole bored through The Base D. this be used for the platform you can would Fig. A barrel-head might find one. — Plan of Under Side of Merry-Go-Round Platform. A hole must be bored through the center tent center-pole pole. The base Z> is 8 inches wide and 18 inches long. . near one end (Fig. 306).

Base D sets upon another hose H which is of equal width but about one-half again as long. base pieces are not fastened together. but the two nails slots F D into board H in such are driven through a way that D will slide back and forth on H for a distance of E in board about l4 inch. 308. . — Horse and Rider. The purpose (Fig. The two Fig. 307). the reason for this is explained further on. of these pins wUl be understood later.MECHANICAL TOYS FOR HANDY BOYS will project 2 inches 175 above base D.

304 and 306). times upon cardboard. the center portion should be of ^-inch wood.176 THE HANDY BOY (Figs. 306. and 307) is about 5 inches The two outer pieces of this may be made of cigar-box wood. — DetaU for K. as are shown in Fig. 306). 309) . With a make eight a careful tracing of this drawing. 305. 309). and 306). 309. The Pulley I in diameter. 309. Made to Gallop by the N (Figs. After cutting out these cardboard horses and riders. to the ends of sticks The cords M attached J (Fig. then transfer it Make rider. which in turn should be driven into a hole bored in the revolving platform (Fig. paint the other side. and each axle should be Mount. full-size Figure 308 shows a pattern of piece of thin paper The Horses and Riders. 304). clothes of the and the face and boy with water-colors or crayons. The horses should be pivoted on axles K a trifle for- ward of their balancing point.slipped through a hole in an up- ing Horses. then tack each to a strip of similar strip wood Each drilled to / to (Fig. the markings of the horse. which are screwed to the imder side of the merry-go-round platform in such positions that they are operated by pegs G as the platform revolves (Fig. triggers The Horses 304. should have a hole it fit through a wooden axle Fig. right L. 304. Nail this pulley to the platform batten B (Figs.

Fig. to spring them back into the positions indicated by dotted triggers lines in Fig. 304.MECHANICAL TOYS FOR HANDY BOYS 177 run through holes in the platform. and 306). the horses rock when the strings are released. and tightening in the opposite direction. When forward. and belt pulley R to pulley 7. Use a strong twine for Belts. and are tied to tacks in the ends of triggers the rubber-bands iV^ (Figs. and pulley S to the water-motor. 306) wiU be of the puUey I. four galloping movements upon each revolution the platform. or electric-motor used for power. in the proper position so the center of one of the two spool pulleys mounted in line with the center upon the shaft Q {R. 302. then. loosening the pulleys it belt running over R and / when moved in one direction. and 306) are fastened to the projecting end of base H. 304. Triggers strike N must be very carefuUy pivoted. R to pulley shifts the point where Control Lever The U (Fig. puU upon strings M. after they shde past pegs G. when moved When this belt . Fasten to the opposite end of the triggers (Figs. 304. and 307) base D. on account of being pivoted forward of their centers of balance. 305 and 306). so just right. 306. pegs G win them The Pulley Supports P (Figs. 305. the horses Each pair of horses wiU go through of N rock back again. at nails T in the base H (Figs. 302. The /. and 306) are necessary to gmde the belt running from pulley it twists. toy engine. 302. backward and forward. 303.

V wiU This completes the operating mechanism of the merrygo-round. and attach the peak X to the top of the center-pole. Probably the triggers. More fun can be had with A Toy FiG. the belt slips aroimd puUey R. and the brought to a stop. has several features that they have not. but these are details that are easily taken care The Tent for the merry-go-round may be made of tin or cardboard.178 is THE HANDY BOY tightened. and when toy free. is slackened. of lever and screw the lower shde. portions will require adjustment to make the toy run smoothly. Figure it 310 shows how cut. form illustrated Fig. the merry-go-round is set in motion. and one or two other of. Start- . while the engine or motor runs Fasten the block V to the corner of base D (Figs. Lap and edges fasten the two W. 310. U to the edge of base H in the proper position back and forth so the nail in the edge of block in the upper hole in lever U. Aeroplane of the in — Tent Diagram. should be with a triangular piece out of sliced one side. 302 and end 307). 311 than with most of the forms of mechanical aeroplane toys sold in the toy because it stores. drive a nail into its edge.

how simple the operation of the toy The center-pole A runs the down through top of a grocery for box base. used the and has a its crank C upon lower end to turn by which The it. and to nailed the center-pole. our aeroplane rises several feet in the air. and is nailed Fig. Cross- piece D has a small screw-eye screwed into each end (Fig. The suspension-cords of the aero- plane nm through the screw-eyes in crosspiece D. — A Toy Aeroplane. it arm bored near the stick is B has a hole through one end for center-pole to through. and is flies around and around a center-pole Figure from which clearly it suspended.MECHANICAL TOYS FOR HANDY BOYS 179 ing from the floor or a table. (Fig. and nms through . 311. 312). and are joined at E then a single cord connected at E extends along arm 5 to a screw-eye at F. at its center to the outer end of arm B. 312 shows more is. 313).

wooden block G. the aeroplane simply runs along the floor or table. When revolved by turning crank C. by reaching up around to block revolve with the center-pole. then. and the aero- plane wiU gradually rise in the air until. at the center-pole H. 312. while the pole is flying revolving and the aeroplane its course. and block G is allowed to Fig. G is and sliding it down the center-pole.i8o it THE HANDY BOY in the and over to another screw-eye it is tied. when block G has . — Detail ofToy Aeroplane. the suspension-cord will puU with the block. to which How is the Toy Aeroplane Works.

To make the aeroplane descend. and fastening a spool near the other end for a . The Construction of the Center Support is A small grocery box should be used for the hose. for the crosspiece / (Fig.or 4-inch strip. of course. Block G should be allowed to turn with the center-pole. which to cut the arm and other Bore the hole for the center-pole through one side of the box. 313. be obtained for the and a board i inch thick will be needed out of pieces. and bore another hole of the same size through the center of a 3. boring a hole near one end for the centerfit in. cxirtain-pole 3 feet 6 inches long should center-pole. in the center of its length and near the top edge. Make pole to a crank as shown in Fig. Fig. 314.MECHANICAL TOYS FOR HANDY BOYS i8l been slipped down as far as it will go. this quickly you can cause simple. a piece of Fig. the aeroplane will be nearly as high as the under side of arm B. and by doing a spectacular descent. — Crank. it is only necessary to push up block G. 314. using a wooden strip 8 inches long. — Horizontal Arm. to keep the suspension-cord from winding itself about the pole. 312). equal to the inside length of the box.

312). and if you have a good photo- FiG. Cut block freely. 315. and 318 show how the framework of this may be made of wire. Figures 316. so will make a hole through its center large enough shp aroimd the center-pole tie and screw a screw-eye into one edge to the aeroplane suspension- cord to. G 5 or 6 inches square.l82 THE HANDY BOY Secure the crank to the center-pole with a nail. directly handle. 313). Soft iron wire known as stove-pipe . and the after nailing the crosspiece to the end of the arm. graph you can use it to copy from. 317. the purpose of which wiU be to keep the pole from dropping below that point. 3 feet long Cut the arm B about and its crosspiece D 6 inches long (Fig. — The Aeroplane Model. and bore a hole through the pole / for above crosspiece a wooden pin. fasten arm it to the center-pole (Fig. Figure 315 shows a is suggestion for a Wright biplane model that easily made. The Aeroplane Model may be patterned of after the tj^e machine you like best.

The rear end of each skid should (Fig. six coil. with the top and bottom sUghtly curved. to these frames. this is what you should have for the frame- Use a pair of pincers for bending the wire. Fig. 320. about 2 inches square. Lap the ends of the wire of each frame as shown. should be used for wheels. 316. 318). and the ends of the axle should be cut to . and bind with thread. or the sawed off ends of a spool. Make frames similar to that shown in Fig. 317. but the front upright should extend about I inch below the bottom of the frame. Fig 319. Figs. and the end be bent into a hook to support the wire skid (Fig. be bent into a loop to ho|d the wooden wheel-axle Button-molds. — Details of Aeroplane Model. ^ MOLD -Button Fig. 318). 316-320. Make the skids of the proportion and shape shown. connect them to the wire frames. The two center frames should be made similar Fig.MECHANICAL TOYS FOR HANDY BOYS and 183 wire can be bought at a hardware store at about 5 cents for a small work. 318. 319). and brace with a diagonal piece to the top of the frames (Fig.

as shown. run through the screw-eyes. 312 and 313) are attached to the aeroplane. and tied to block G. Figure 320 shows the pattern for the propellers. Cut it out. should be fastened to the two center frames. 311 and 312. third frame each end. Trace this upon a piece of thin paper. 321. and then transfer upon a piece of cardboard. may be built as shown in or glue five bands of paper alternate faces around the uprights of this as shown. the others left white. — Pattern of Aviator. 315. twist them have the proper warped surfaces for wire propellers. Cut these imtil they out of cardboard. or tower such as is used course. wheels from comuig Make long and the planes of cardboard. as shown in Fig. Space the wire frames about as shown in Fig. The Suspension-Cords (Figs. and sew the cardboard planes to each. bands should be painted The red. .i84 fit THE HANDY BOY them. Drive pins through the axle ends to keep the off. 316. mark an aeroplane's Figs. and glue the flaps to the lower cardboard plane. shown in Fig. and then from them to the Aviator. 315. Fig. bend out a flap on each side. The rear portion of the framework. about 2 inches long. cutting 2 them lo inches inches wide. Tack to of the A Pylon. The off Figure 321 shows a pattern for the aviator.

CHAPTER XI
MECHANICAL TOYS FOR SMALL HANDY BOYS

Those

of

you boys who have examined the

little

mechanare

ical toys sold

upon the

street corners just before

Christmas

probably have been surprised to find

how simply they

made, and perhaps
younger brothers,

it

has never occurred to you that you
for presents for

might make toys equally as good
sisters,

your

or cousins.

Most

of the smaller
re-

mechanical toys are not only easy to make, but they
quire materials which cost
little
it

and can usually be picked
which can be
is

up at home.

Sometimes

takes considerable thinking

and planning to discover

just the things

adapted to the various parts of toys;
part of the fun of toy making comes
in.

but that

where

A

Buzz-Saw Whirligig

is

an interesting toy

(Fig.

322).

Lay out a

disk about 5 inches in diameter

upon a

piece of

cardboard, locate the position for the spool-end on the
center of each face, and

make

four rings outside of this.

Divide the circumference of the disk into sixteen equal
parts,

and lay

off

the teeth as shown.

(Fig. 325.)

The

spool-ends used for centers should have two holes drilled

through them for the twisting cord to

slip

through, and

should be fastened to the disk with glue or brads.

A

cotton string

is

best for
i8s

i86

THE HANDY BOY
the
Whirligig.

Operating

After slipping

it

through the

holes in the spool-ends, tie the ends together.

To work

the toy, shp the
of each end,

first finger

of each

hand through the loop

and whirl the disk

in one direction until the

string

is

twisted from both ends as far as the center.
pull firmly
string,

Then

on the ends of the
will whirl

and the disk

in the opposite direction until

the string
twisted

is

untwisted and

up again in the oppo-

site direction.

As

the strings

twist, slacken

your hold upon

the ends, and when it has wound up tight pull again to make it whirl in the opposite direction. The disk should whirl very steadily when working right, and the knack of

making the

string twist so the
is

disk will do so
Fig. 325.

attained with

— Detail of Buzz-saw
Shown
in Fig. 322.

a

little

practice.
(Fig. 323)
is

Whirligig

The Clog-Dancer

is

an

easily

made

loose-jointed doll.
stiff

His dancing-stage

a

shingle or piece of

cardboard held on the edge of a

chair beneath your knee.

He

is

held by means of the

string attached to his head, so that his feet rest lightly

upon the
end

stage,

and he

is

made

to jig

of the stage

with the free hand.

by tapping the outer With a Uttle practice

Fig. 323.— The

DANCEK

IS

Ecckntric ClogA ClliCUS TN HIMSELF.

Fig. 324.— Pull

the string and Jack jumps comically.

MECHANICAL TOYS FOR SMALL HANDY BOYS
the figure can be

187

made

to

RING
jj)-BROOM-HANDLE END

go through the steps of the

most eccentric clog-dancer.

The more grotesque the
dancer's appearance
is,

*-SPOOL-END

the

more amusing

his dancing

-SPOOL
SPOOL- END
NAIL

will be, so the cruder

you
Fig-

make him

the better.

ure 326 shows the working
details for his construction.

BROOM-HANDLE

The

center part of a thread-

^

(6-1

N.LONG)

spool forms the head,

and a

2-1 N.LONG

spool-end and the rounded

end of a broom-handle form
the hat.

These three pieces

are nailed together.

The
If -I N.LONG

body

is

a piece of a broom-

handle,
nailed to
ders.

and
it

a

spool-end
2j-l N.LONG

forms the shoul-

Drive a nail into the

end

of the body, tie a string

to this,

and run the

string

up through the hole in the head, and out through a
hole in

2-iN.

LONG

the

hat;

tie

the
ring.
Fig. 326.

string to a fancy-work

The arms and legs are made of sticks whittled to

— Details

of

Body

of the Clog-

Dancer Shown

in Fig. 323.

THE HANDY BOY
the lengths marked in Fig. 326, and about
ter,
yi,

inch in diametheir ends

and are jointed by driving tacks into

and

connecting these with heavy Unen thread.
,_
,^

Figure 326 shows

how the feet and hands are cut, and how tacks
are driven into

them

for the thread connections.

Paint the clogarms,
his

dancer's body,

and

legs

white,

head, hands, and feet
black,

and mark

his

eyes, nose,

and mouth

upon

his face in white.

A Toy
is

Jumping-Jack

always amusing, and

Fig.

324 shows a sim-

ply constructed home-

made model. You will see by Fig. 327 how
the
figure
is

made.
is

The peaked
2-IN.WIDE
Fig. 327.

hat

half

a spool tapered
Jumping-

— Details

down
head, is

of

Body

of the

from the end to the
center
;

Jack Shown in Fig. 324.

and the

the center from a darning-cotton spool, shaped

one end for a neck, and with eyes, nose,
in

down at and mouth cut

on one

side.

Figure 327 shows the diagrams for the

MECHANICAL TOYS FOR SMALL HANDY BOYS
front

189

and back

of the body, the arms,

and the

legs.

These

are cut out of cigar-box wood.

Cut the neck
pieces.

stick

A

long

enough to run through the head and hat, with a square
block on the end to
fit

between the body

The

blocks

B

should be of the same thickness as block A.

Bore the

pivotal holes through the arms

and

legs in the positions

shown, using a small gimlet or red-hot nail with which to

do the boring, and
each as shown.

tie

a piece of heavy linen thread through
legs are pivoted

The arms and

on brads

driven through the front of the body

into the back.

body has been fastened together, bring the ends of the threads together, and tie to a small ring; also knot the threads close to the body to keep them together.
the

When

In painting Jack, you might provide him with a red coat,
blue trousers and a blue hat, white stockings, and black
.

shoes.

A

Cricket-Rattle

is

about the liveUest form of

rattle

ever devised (Fig. 328).
sister or brother,

After constructing one for your
will decide to

you probably
in this

make one

for

yourself.

For

this rattle, first

prepare a notched spool {A,

Fig. 330).

The notches

need not be cut as perfectly

as shown, but the notches in one end of the spool

must be

exactly opposite those in the other end.

Whittle the handle

B

to the shape

and

size

shown, cut the strips

C

out of cigar-

box wood, and prepare the block
in the edge of

D

as shown.

The groove
is

D is cut of just the right width to receive the
strip

end

of the

wooden

E.

The

length of

E

best deter-

mined after nailing the ends of strips

C

to D,

and slippmg

igo

THE HANDY BOY

the handle through the holes in strips

C

and spool A.

It

should extend from the groove in

D

into the notches in

A.

GROOVE
PIECE -OF-SHINGLE OR -OTHER THIN WOOD
it-IN.

CIGAR-BOX WOOD

6-1 N.

LONG

1

*

1

Fig. 330.

— Details

of the

Noisy Cricket-Rattle Shown in Fig. 328.

Make

it

as wide as the spool

is

high.

Paint the rattle red

or blue.

The Turtle Toy which crawls along the
alternately
its shell,

floor

when you

puU and

slacken a thread that runs through

has always been one of the most popular of mechan-

ical toys,

and you

will

be surprised to find

how

easily our

home-made model shown in Fig. 329 is put together. The shell is a small tin mold such as is used for molding jeUies. One about 4 inches long costs 10 cents. A mold having the
form of a bimch of grapes
turtle shell, as
is

a pretty good form for the
illustrations.

you

will see

by the

The

head, the

tail,

and the four feet are cut out

of tin

from

a can, and bent into the forms shown ui Fig. 331.

Then

Pig. 328.— Whirling

the Cricket-rattle makes

it

chirp.

Fig. 329,

Thb;

Crawling Turtle's shell

is

a Jelly Mould.

.

propel Cut a piece it of a lead-pencil a trifle longer than the spool. as shown in the small detail drawing. Before fastening the spool to the tin mold of the end a piece of heavy linen thread to its center. split into halves. Fig. it. to in Fig. Fig. bentover. Feet and Tail are Attached a Jelly Mold to Make Shown 329. remove the lead.MECHANICAL TOYS FOR SMALL HANDY BOYS slits 191 are cut through the narrow rim of the mold. and insert the rubber-bands in the groove. 332. and A thread spool 1% inches long forms the wheels on which the turtle runs. nail. slits. at by piercing the tin with the point of a the proper places for attaching them. and two rubber-bands z}4 inches long TAIL STRING RUBBER ^\ BANDS PENCII^' STRING Fig. Fig. then sUp the piece of pencil into the hole in the spool (Fig. 332). and the tab ends are pushed through the clinched with a pair of pincers. 332. 331. the Turtle — How Head. — The Spool Wheels and the Rubber-Band which Propels them. The rubber-band shell. 331. tie ends must project an equal distance beyond the spool-ends. and then .

As the rubber-bands Conalternately. and slackening the thread and the turtle will continue to crawl. pull and as the thread unwinds from the spool the rubber-bands will twist. Pierce a hole through the shell. then slacken the thread. untwist. the Turtle Crawl. the thread wUl wind tinue pulhng up on the spool again. and the turtle wiU crawl along the floor. sHp the free end of the thread tie it wound on the spool through this hole. place it To Make on the ring. tie them through the holes pierced through the sides of the mold. and to a fancy-work ring (Fig. wind about twenty turns about each side of the mold a trifle Pierce a hole through in front of the center.192 THE HANDY BOY it. 331). upon the floor. and after slipping pieces of string through the ends of the rubber- bands (Fig. 332). directly over the center of the spool. .

m .

to the bottom edges of the sides {A and B. shaped framework shown in Fig. so the ends will project the same distance beyond the ends of the box.194 THE HANDY BOY and several boards out of balloon covering. 333 upon these poles. Fig. one either side of the bicycle frame. which to cut the rudder. aiid then lash these cross- pieces to the frame with cord. 334). The car is mounted upon the bicycle frame (Fig. Remove the bottom boards of the box to be used for the airship car. and nail two poles lo feet long. supports. The Car. 334). 333. braces. The bicycle would be hard to balance after the balloon framework has been mounted . etc. —A Santa Claus Airship. Then construct the wedge- FiG. propeller. Fasten the two crosspieces C and D inside of the box. or four poles 5 feet long.

and wheels to BOX the them. Uprights / and / support . two umbrellas with cord as in Fig. Fig. so B you ought not to have any trouble in borrowing a couple. pieces fastened to pole made G by means by spUcing two hoops of the two cross- shown in the illustration. and bind their handles to a lo-foot pole (G. Framework. 334. is cannot be tied to the ends very well. so I their ends are about inch above fasten the !.333 on each Any line kind of small wheels will do for these outriggers. (Fig.HANDY BOY IDEAS FOR CHRISTMAS above it. but there a small eye in each through which you can run a needle and thread and sew each cord balloon. 33 5). 195 so it is necessary to fasten the outriggers shown in side of the wheel. Then connect shown the ribs of the Fig. in place. Pull the connecting cords until the umbrella rib ends are bent in Kne with the sides of the The it is center barrel-hoop rib is H is put in to keep the covering from sagging. Fig. ground. Open the um- brellas. The cords rib — Section through Airship Car. 335. 334) to the sides of the Nail uprights E and F box in with the bicycle saddle. and together. The Balloon The umbrellas used for the bow and stem of the balloon will not be damaged in the least.

Fig. pole when nailed in place to the ends of the box. . 337. Fig. M. muslin Two this. Sew the upper ends to the balloon and tie the lower ends to the car framework. Fig. G to the tops of uprights / in place as and /. — The Balloon Framework. L. and O shown. 335. for the cloth may be tightly aroxmd them and sewed to itself. and should be of the proper length to bring the of the balloon the car. then K. the xunbrellas stretched by sewing through them. — The Rudder. 337. N. 336. Use a heavy wrapping-twine or a clothes-line for The Stays and Guy-Ropes. Fig. help you put on Perhaps your mother or sister will The Balloon Covering. sheets or some unbleached may be used for It is not necessary to injure Fig. — The Propeller. 336. 335.196 THE HANDY BOY bottom about 30 inches above Nail nail braces the balloon framework. Fig.

HANDY BOY IDEAS FOR CHRISTMAS The Rudder of is 197 it shown in detail in Fig. then nail the crosspiece P to the top. The to center hole fit in. as in Fig. tie Run them the tiller ropes through the back of the car. then he should ride down an aisle to the front. At your Christmas entertainment. and two hooks {K) into the end of the car framework for the eyes to hook on to. 337. which are nailed to a block of wood cut similar to 5. and make the shaft of just the right length so Sknta Claus can reach the crank handily. 333. with a may to be fixed to look like a roof- chimney for him cUmb down. shown in block 5 is bored for the propeller shaft to As the airship will not travel fast enough neces- make shown the propeller turn by wind pressure. There should . so Santa Claus can turn it as he " flies. and to the bicycle handle-bar. 336. but leave the cord loose enough so the rod will turn easily. it is sary to fasten a crank upon the . 336). The Propeller (Fig." Cut a hole through the front of the car for the crank end of the propeller shaft to stick through. How the Airship should Enter. Make out two pieces the of board. 337) has two blades cut out of thin wood. and tie tiller ropes to its ends. where the stage or platform top. Screw two screw-eyes into the back edge of the rudder {Q. Santa Claus should be concealed back of the audience until the proper time for him to make his appearance. Bind the shaft to the under side of the bow framework of the airship with.end of the propeller shaft. fastening the pieces together with battens as shown. as shown in Fig. cord. Fig.

too. but saves of time in putting together. which will be by any portly Santa Claus whose two belted difficult. Get a packing-case Fireplace. due to a pillow or in at his waist-line. gifts. adjoining room. stoutness. room than of is necessary to conceal the woodwork around the doorway. One about 30 inches wide and 30 inches long a medium-sized doorway. but if about right for the doorway to be utilized . while if can be entered from the is a closet or coat-room doorway used. That will save considerable is work.198 THE HANDY BOY of the be some way for him to get out of the side or bottom his entrance through a chimney without the audience seeing him. the This not only reduces to a for the minimum is amount lumber required it framework. and distribute his pack of A 338 is Santa Claus Fireplace like the one illustrated in Fig. into the chimney-breast. Then. or come out of a fireplace built to one side of the room. then he can make doorway. If it makes climbing more or less the fireplace is built in a doorway between two rooms. is one of the simplest things in the world to build. and it account can be built as deep as you want or without farther extending the upper portion. the fireplace in convenient form to appreciated cUmb and out of. The fireplace is built in a doorway. Santa Claus can be hidden within the closet or coat- room The until he receives his cue to for make his appearance. and false construction an entirely new idea in of which has a of number on this improvements over the usual form Santa Claus fireplace.

'" -''• Fig. . 338. — This Santa Claus Fireplace 199 is Built in a Doorway.

and place pieces C between the lower nail uprights ends and pieces D about halfway up. Cut the uprights and this A 2 B (Fig. Cut these pieces 12 inches long. and connect uprights A to uprights cross- B by means of the crosspieces C and D. 339. — The Complete Framework way Fireplace out of 6-inch boards. 339) inches shorter than measurement.20O is THE HANDY BOY a large one you can increase the size of the fireplace to it. with the exception of the one. side so the top wiU form the front opening of the and the boards of the of the uppermost side box are re- moved. Fig. 339. of the Door- and Mantel. the packing-case stands upon one fireplace. first which is left on or re-nailed on to keep the ends of the box from spreading apart. Then . The Mantel Framework. whatever dimensions you wish to have As shown in Fig. An average height for a mantel is 4 feet 9 inches.

HANDY BOY IDEAS FOR CHRISTMAS
A
on a
line AAdth the front edges of the

201

to the ends of the packing-case, with their front edges

box

(Fig. 340).
is

The Mantel-Shelf
2

(£, Figs. 339

and 341)

a piece of a
2-inch pro-

by

8 plank cut to the proper length to
FiG. 341.

make a

Fig. 340.

Figs. 340 and 341.

-Detail of

Fireplace

and Mantel.

jection over the tops of uprights
shelf close to the wall,
it is

B
fit

(Fig. 339).

To

set this

necessary to notch the back edge,
it

as

shown

in Fig. 341, so

will

around the door trim.

Spike the shelf to the ends of uprights
the crosspiece

A

and B.

Fasten

between uprights A, halfway between the packing-case and the mantel-shelf, to nail the mantel

F

facing to.

202
Fitting

THE HANDY BOY
the Mantel Framework.

Set the mantel frameuse,

work

in front of the
off

doorway which you are going to
of uprights

and mark
to

the height and thickness of the wall baseboard

upon the lower ends
fit

B; then cut these uprights

over the baseboard, so their back edges will set against

the waU.

With the mantel framework
of

set in position, the height

The Upper Frame, which must

fit

between the

shelf

and

the ceiling, can be measured accurately.
this

Cut

strips

G

to
2

length

and

inches wide,

and the H,
in

j.c

horizontal strips
I,

and / equal
to

length

the

dis-

tance between
rights

up-

B

(Fig. 339).

After fastening the
strips

together

as

shown

in Fig. 342,

with strips

/ placed

flatwise so they will

pass in front of the

door trim, nail the

HANDY BOY IDEAS FOR CHRISTMAS
equal to the width of the mantel, and lay
close to the mantel.
it

203
floor

on the

The Covering Material
tar-paper, or

may

be heavy building-paper,

heavy wrapping-paper.
room.

The chimney-breast

should be papered or painted to look as nearly as possible
like the adjoining walls of the

A

picture-molding

may

be painted across the breast.
in imitation of brickwork

Paper printed

can be purcents a

chased in sheets 24 inches by 36 inches in
sheet,

size, at 6

and

it is

much

quicker to paste this upon the face of

the mantel, and upon the inside of the fireplace, than to

paint brickwork upon the covering material.

But

if

you
diffi-

cannot conveniently get
cult to

this,

you

will

not find

it

mark

off

the brick courses with a pencil and a long, the bricks 2 inches high and 8 inches
joints

straight stick.
long,

Make

and the mortar

between about }4 inch wide.

Paint the bricks red and the joints white or black.
the fireplace

To

give

brickwork a smoked appearance,
it.

it is

a good

idea to rub soot over
Christmas

Tree

Light
is

Outfits.

The

safest

way

to light
in-

a Christmas tree
teresting

with electricity;
Uttle

it is

also

the most

way, and as the

lamps can be obtained in
Ughted tree
is

different colors the electrically

much more

pleasing to look upon than one lighted

by

candles.

Festoons of lights can be purchased wired ready to hang

upon the

tree,

but every handy boy
it
is

will

wish to

whe

his

own

lamps, not only because
it is

interesting work, but

because

cheaper as well.

204
If

THE HANDY BOY
your house, or the church or school in which the Christis

mas entertainment
Fig. 34S-

to be held,

is

supplied with electric
is

Ughting, the simplest thing to do

to purchase

lamps and sockets th.a.tca.n be used
with
that

current

(Figs.

345

and 346), and attach a plug to the end of the wire that may be
screwed into one of the lightfixture sockets, just as the drdp-

cord of
Fig. 345.-

any

electric

lamp

is

conthere

nected (Fig. 344); but
Miniature
is

if

no

lighting current at

hand

Lamp.
Fig. 346.—

you wUl have
battery
cells.

to

depend upon

Miniature
Socket.

The Battery Lamp

Outfit

shown

in Fig. 343 consists of twelve miniature

lamps of
dry-ceUs.

I

candle-power each, and twelve

This outfit could be operated

with one-half as

many

cells,

but the drain

on them would be excessive and they
would soon be exhausted.
Another point
in favor of using twelve is that

by buying

them

in a

dozen

lot

you

will

save about

7 cents on each

cell.

No. 18 or 20 insulated

hell-wire

may be

used for the wiring of

the

battery outfit, but the silk-covered

double-conductor

lamp-cord ^

sold

for

the
Fig.

344.— A "Circuit"

purpose makes a neater appearance.

Lamp

Outfit.

HANDY BOY
The
Cell

IDEAS FOR CHRISTMAS

205

Connections.
cells

The battery
be wired in

should

series-parallel.
is

This

connection

de-

scribed under Methods of

Connecting

Battery Cells,

on page

135.

You

will

notice that four rows of

three cells each are con-

nected in
the
four

series,

and then

rows are con-

nected in parallel.

The

Lamp
in

Connections
parallel

are wired

each lamp

socket

being

connected to both wires

coming from the battery.
Space the lamps about 12
inches
apart,

and make

the connecting wires long

enough so the lamps can
be placed well out upon
the limbs of the Christ-

mas

tree.

Be

sure

to

scrape bare and clean the

ends of
will

all wires,

so they

make good
after

contact,

and

splicing

them

Fig. 343.

— A Battery Lamp

Outfit.

2o6

THE HANDY BOY
bicycle-tape,

wrap them with
tape.

or

electrician's

friction-

A

Switch should be set in between the battery

and the
These

lamps.

The

Circuit

Lamp

Outfit

is

wired differently.

lamps must be connected

m

series, as

shown

in Fig. 344,

and there must be
a multiple of

eight, sixteen, or twenty-four

lamps

eight.

Regular lamp drop-cord shoidd be
used for connecting the lamp
sockets; this can be

bought with

a

silk covering.

When

Purchasing

Lamps

and

Sockets, be sure to teU the dealer

whether you want them for a
battery outfit or a lighting-circuit outfit.

Also have him test
before leaving

the lamps
store,

the

because he will not re-

place broken or imperfect lamps

brought back to him.
Figure

347

shows

a

good

scheme

for

A

Christmas Tree Standard that

will enclose the cells of

a battery

lamp
Fig. 348.

outfit.

A

soap box will be

/^°-

Figs. 347 and 348.

— A Christmas
will

347.

We °
First

enough

for a

smaU

tree.

Tree Standard that
Battery
Cells.

Enclose

usual

make a tree Standard in the way (Fig. 348), using two

HANDY BOY IDEAS FOR CHRISTMAS
pieces of 2-by-4 of a length of the soap box.

207

equal

to

the

inside

width

Cut a piece out

of the center of each

equal to the width and one-half the

thickness

of

the

other piece, so one will interlock with the other; then nail
the

two pieces together and cut a hole

through

the

center large enough for the end of the tree (see Boring

Large Holes, on page

70).

Fasten this standard in the
of one side of the

bottom
it in

of the box;

remove part

box to
hinge

make a door
place,

large

enough to admit the battery

cells,

and provide a hook and eye

for fastening it shut.

Fit the cover boards to the box top, and cut a hole through

them

directly over that in the standard, for the

end of the

tree to

run through.
fastened to the top of the

The battery switch should be
box where
it

can easily be reached.

THE HANDY

BOY'S

MOVING - PICTURE THEATER

209

Fig- 349 will serve the purpose just as well.

Cover the box

front of this frame with tin-foil or colored paper.

Having a frame
similar to that

of the above proportions, prepare a

shown
Framethis

in Fig. 350 for

The

Stage

work.
48

Make
long,
If

about 18 inches high,
inches

and

8 inches deep.

you

Fig. 350.-

Make a Box

like this for the

Stage

Framework.

cannot find a box of
these dimensions

you can

easily cut

down a

larger box.

Notch one edge of the top of the box 1^2 inches from each end, making the notches i inch square {A, Figs. 350, 351, and 352); then prepare the
The
Picture Rollers.

Fig. 3SI.

— View from Rear before Front Frame

is

Attached.

and 353) 3 inches square, bore a i-inch hole through each, and screw or nail them to the stage framework so the holes will come directly imder slots A,
sockets
(Figs. 351

B

like this for Upper Tig. as The slots and sockets are made to receive the picture rollers. Prepare the two buttons D (Fig.353Fig. 356.2IO THE HANDY BOY shown in Fig. 356. of the picture "films " to. shown in Fig. 351) as of each. The roUers should be about 20 inches long. and then there should be one additional one. 352. Prepare a number of these rollers." Fig. which are cut from curtain-poles or the straight ends of broom-handles. — Socket Block Lower End — Broom-Handle RpUer with Cloth Strip Picture " Films. 351. — Crank for Turning Picture Fig. so as to project about 3 inches above the top of the stage framework when put in place. Tack a piece of cloth about 8 inches square to each roller (Fig. 354. bore a hole through the center and screw them to the top edge of the stage frame- . — Notch the Top Edge of Stage Framework for Fig. Rollers. — Button Holding Upper End of Rollers of Rollers. One wiU be needed for each set of pictures. for End of Rollers. for Attachment of in Position. 354. 355. 354) to pin the about 4 inches from the lower end end Fig.

and the cloth run over them smoothly Place these sticks enough even though they do not turn. so that is when the crank nail slipped over a roUer a naU can be slipped Suspend the through the holes to pin the crank in place. Prepare the cranks E (Fig. of a piece of string. and connect these screw-eyes with wire.PICTURE THEATER one end to lap over the 211 slots in the proper position for when they are turned horizontally (Fig. and a large spool pivoted near the other for a handle. 351). from the crank by means it. You can get along with one of these. but two wiU save the roller to bother of transferring from one a strip of pictures. size should be bored through each about inch from the upper end (Fig. not necessary for them to revolve. Attaching the Proscenium. set screw-eyes into its back and into the stage frameCenter the work. 355) should be bored through to the opposite side. close to the front edge of the stage framework. about 3 inches each side of where the front frame opening wiU come. 351) maybe pivoted in such a it is is way that they wiU revolve like the rollers. . of the i and a hole roUer. 355. 354).THE HANDY work BOY'S MOVING . end The same hole shown in the edge of the strip (Fig. In order not to damage the it picture-frame proscenimn in attaching to the stage frame- work. because their strip of pictures close to the will purpose merely to hold the front of the stage. as shown. 351) as shown in Fig. another to roll back The crank consists of a short strip of wood with a it hole equal to the size of the roUer bored through near one end. to prevent losing The though Picture "Film" Guide Sticks F (Fig.

" Films " should Picture be made of white cheese- cloth or musHn (old sheeting will do nicely). space above and below the picture strip may be filled in witli strips of white cloth or cardboard.212 THE HANDY BOY picture-frame on the stage framework as shown in Fig. 357. 357. and the matter of finding what was needed was often a harder job for a boy than making the stage and other equipment. Place your theater upon a table or packing-case with the framework close to the edge. but sets of scenery lijse those shown in Figs. 358-361 make the pictures more interesting. however. as you you Not many for years ago there was a scarcity of picture material panorama shows. there is . 357. Nowadays. The strips about 8 inches wide. and sew together as find necessary for the set of pictures many lengths plan. — The Completed Moving-Picture Theater. Cut the Fig. so the picture-frame wiU hang down The as shown in Fig.

and in other vehicles (all side-view pictures). simple. arrange the pictures one after another in some ridiculous manner. 213 of pictures from which to make in magazines and newspapers. after leaving a space of about 2 feet behind the dog. a lady pushing a baby carriage. a Hon. and one or two other animals might be shown springing at some of the pursuers or holding on to their coat-tails. and paste upon girls. then a butcher chasing after the policeman. suppose you choose " the A Dog Chase about Preparing " for your subject. you might start the chase with a small boy. and a tiger. Of course the subject must be something very Perhaps you can think of a set of pictures which you have seen at a moving-picture show that can be worked out in a simplified form. in automobiles. behind him a and follow- ing the motorcyclist a baseball player. poUceman running behind the boy. then Select a subject for your set of work out an outline of the scenes to be pic- tured. men. pictures. Black and white pictures are easily colored with crayons or painted with water-colors.PICTURE THEATER an unlimited assortment selections. some of which are in color. on foot. An automobile might be inserted. one of your cloth strips. and you wiU be .THE HANDY BOY'S MOVING . then have a motorcyclist. and. a doctor. Draw upon your imagination. As a suggestion for a starter. This is way to go the Pictures. then select pictures of boys. and women. Preparing a Scenario. For instance. Hunt up a picture of a dog it running as fast as his legs wiU carry him.

should be shown in this scene dashing down at the the street and in through the front door of the house left. The scenery may be prepared very Cardboard boxes for material. may be broken up goods store.214 THE HANDY BOY and able to produce something decidedly startling. is to prepare sets of scenery. of course. If the and if you haven't enough paper boxes at hand they can be had for the asking at any dry cardboard is colored. the open- ings were left as in Fig. fol- pursuers. A Street Scene with a house at the which makes a good setting lowed by its for the start of the dog chase. ingenious. By making scenery. it is possible to use one strip of pictures for several scenes. 358) The first shows left. Scenery. roughly with crayons upon cardboard. 357. and make them decidedly more interesting. and one which is easily carried will out. While it would be an unusual sight to see auto- mobiles and other vehicles going through houses. These add " at- mosphere " to your pictures. 358 to 361. paste white over one side for a working surface. The dog. in every- . up so the audience will not if He would strips of be seen. of these (Fig. Taking " the subject suggested above — A Dog Chase " — for example. of the picture-frame above and below the picture better idea. you might prepare the four scenes shown in Figs. funny. The picture-frame opening above and below the picture strip must be fiUed see the operator. The matter may be taken care of by tacking But a white cloth or cardboard to the back strip.

— Forest Scene. reached the roof tops.PICTURE THEATER The 215 it is not in moving-pictures. Allow the audience to imagine how the automobiles. Leave to your audience's Fig. .THE HANDY day life." how the dog got off imagination the question of up there. house effect of the figures actually going into the may be bettered by so the audience locating and cutting a window where shown. and motorcycles. BOY'S MOVING . — The Captured Dog. — Scenery for Moving-Picture Story Entitled " A Dog Chase. Figs. and then the pursuers should dash across the roof tops and one by one leap after the dog. Fig. will see the figures passing Figixre A roof. carriages. carrying the pursuers. In an instant the dog should be seen leaping the roof. 361. 358-361. it. 360. 359 shows Roof Scene with the dog sitting upon the edge of a This should be shown next.

and puUing down shows hot — How Figures mayand slightly. be Pivoted to the Scenery so they can be Moved. in the fourth all of and last scene is shown If The Captured Dog with in the chase the figures who took part any is and capture grouped around him. Figure 362 shows how the piece of cardboard upon which the dog is pasted should extend far enough below the dog's feet to provide a piece that can be pivoted to the by means of thread back of the roof scenery. and should be fastened how a fine thread to the head by means of which the operator can swing the dog down it out of sight to leap. 360) pursuers still upon its trail. directly below each figure. when it is time for The pursuers wiU not wiU. question tured." You a new set of figures for this fourth scene. by taking hold of the bottom of the cloth strip. is raised as to why by the actual capture not pic- you can explain that will require this exciting portion of the " film " has been censored the " Board of Censorship. 362. . The Forest Scene the dog with its (Fig.2l6 THE HANDY BOY picture showing a dog in a sitting position for the A must be selected runaway dog in this scene. but the operator leap from the roof as gracefully as the dog can make them appear to drop. Fig. it as it leaves the roof.

the are being Changed. place the table or set the theater for exhibition. 363. BOY'S MOVING . and parts will of figures. inside of box on which you . so they may be moved. your pictures appear very much more realistic. the group. as above." but you will find other pictures that will do equally as well. — By Placing the Moving Picture Theater Door may be Closed while Scenes in a Doorway.PICTURE THEATER and paste them.THE HANDY and a piece upon which wiU. By using this Figures. and Fig. Show its the dog in the center of Pivot its head to body with thread. When all is ready for a performance. attach a piece of thread so that by pulling it the operator may make method of Pivoting the dog raise and lower its head. Very 217 of cardboard of the size of the frame opening to arrange likely you not be able to secure pictures of the same characters used in the other " film.

" should be placed in back of the audience (Fig. Make the box like the Signal Telegraph Lantern page 336. 365. 363. Prepare card- board disk similar to that it two openings cut through it in the places shown.2l8 THE HANDY BOY a doorway. Moving-Picture Projector. to conceal the operator and the stage framework. the cloth covering can easily be put up. when the is turned. 364. 363). from which the pictures will be supposed to be projected upon the " screen. with an opening inches Fig. light The from this illuminates the pictures. front. 365. shown and in Figs. 2^ the in diameter cut Fig. so the audience wiU not you changing the The Imitatioii scenery. Effect. and pivot disk with a screw to the front of the lantern box so the openings will pass the hole in the lantern disk. — Disk for Producing the Flickering Light shown in Fig. By whirling this and thus intercepting the lantern rays intermittently. 365. 364. through a — The Imitation Moving-Picture Projector. and hang a sheet or drapery above and below the picture-frame as shown in Fig. Figure 364 shows a front view of the lantern. Fig. 528 529. with Fig. By using a doorway for the theater. and at the same time the door may be closed when you change from one see set of pictures to another. .

" and finishing this will add the touch of realism to your home-made moving- pictures.. THE HANDY BOY'S MOVING .PICTURE THEATER 219 the flickering effect of regular moving-pictures will be pro- duced upon your picture " screen. .

i .

our home-made table is a shallow box. 14 inches long and about this. 242. or a piece of —a Side-Table bamboo fishing-pole. for The open end slipping of the box forms a convenient pocket at things this into various times. and then causes an egg to slide out of one end of the fold into a hat. for Paint the The Egg-and-Handkerchief After exposing both sides of a handkerchief to the view of the audience. a Fig.THE HANDY BOY MAGICIAN used by magicians will have a more professional appearance. As shown in Fig. and described on page is A Magic-Wand a magician powers. carpenter's dowel-stick. is indispensable. 366. because without aid shorn of his magical A piece of a flag-staff. its of course. Trick. Larger Table is shown in Fig. and slash the lower edge of the side covering. A 396. ^ inch in diameter. for fringe. should be obtained wand black. and this you to like supported upon a broom-handle. and I advise the top of is make one. or piece of curtain-pole. sides of Cover the top and the box with red cloth. . 366. and end must be kept the view of turned away from the audience. or red paper. as shown. the boy magician folds the handkerchief. mounted upon a base made a Christmas-tree standard.

368. release your hold on the it fold the handkerchief in half. slide the comer held by the egg. of the thread through the holes. pierce a small hole through etch of the shell. 370). of white — For the Egg-and With and with a small piece Handkerchief Trick. the court-plaster can be put on so as to conceal the holes in the shell perfectly. turn the handkerchief about so the audience teeth the right may view the other side. end with a pin. right hand hand along the top edge and to the center. and the blown shell suspended on one one edge of a large 3 inches end of a thread attached to the center handkerchief (Fig. Run the end Fig. is The egg is blown. To blow the egg. care. by crossing the arms shown in Fig. Hold the handkerchief as shown in Fig. make it Hght. place a hat upon the side-table. toward you with the egg upon the inside of the Hold the folded handkerchief by the corners. 367).THE HANDY BOY This to is how the trick is performed. of The thread must be about shorter than the distance across the handkerchief. 367. In performing the trick. horizontally . Catch between your (Fig. court-plaster stick the thread to the shell. and then blow through one end until the contents have entirely run out of the hole in the opposite end. with the egg held and concealed as in the left hand. then. folding fold. 369. will and inform your audience that you cause an egg to drop from an ordinary handkerchief into the hat.

. 370. The bar of " silver " slides up or down a cord. 372). Cut the cord and slip B 8 inches long. 369. magician (Fig. . to fit and wooden plug each end (A Fig. Fig. Fig. the Egg-and-Handkerchief Trick is Performed. 373). cut a Figure 373 shows the construction of Take a 6-inch piece of a small mailing-tube. Figs.3 71) J 223 and allow the egg to roll out of the open end into the hat. The Climbing Bar of SUver. 368-371. tie a fancy-work ring to one end. the bar.THE HANDY BOY MAGICIAN (Fig. 371. responding to the commands of the Fig. — How Fig. 368.

He passes the coin among the audience to show that it is the same marked coin that was loaned to him. marks it '"^ "^""^ ^of Silver. and puts the cover on Then he walks over box to a table and finds the coin of a nest of three covered boxes. The it -The ^'^ Climbing Bar boy magician borrows a coin from some One in the audience. examining Fig. slip one end through a hole pierced near the bottom of the tube. then on cord B. knot that end outside of the tube. ^ ^°^ identification later. This is the explanation of how the trick is done.224 THE HANDY BOY the other end through a hole in the center of the top plug. cut cord C 12 inches long. Fig. 372. pull on cord C. and to slacken the cords to make the bar slide down. A slot . 373. Trick. of Silver. to show the audience that the cord slides Fig. 373. 372. through the tube freely. Fasten the plugs in the tube ends with glue or tacks. The Marked Coin Fig. inside of the inside tin can. you will see that it is only necessary to pull the ends of both cords to By make the bar chmb. and sHp the other end through the ring in the on cord B and then through a hole bottom plug. drops into a the can. and then cover the side and ends of the tube with tin-foil. first In exhibiting this trick.

376. just above the tin bottom (Fig. should be obtained for the nest of boxes Figs. size ond and the will fit second inside of the largest. which or cloth. each way (Fig. Fig. 375). and the covered can shaken to sliow the Fig. 375. 377). and as soon as the coin has been dropped within. . easily done with strips of paper Out of a small piece of tin. B. 374-377. [for the Marked Coin {A. to is Place the tube between the cover and front of each box. and C. graduated so the smallest will fit inside of the seclargest. The covers is must be hinged. — Apparatus Trick. bend a flat tube similar that shown in Fig. and pass a rubber-band around the rubber-bands the outside box. Three of pill boxes sizes. Through this tube the coin slipped into the inside box.THE HANDY BOY MAGICIAN is 225 is cut through the side of the can into which the coin to be dropped. 374). the coin is the can is so tipped that the coin sUdes out through the slot into your hand. 374. audience still that there. Fig.

378-380. 380. with the loops long. yet one of a most mystifying nature when cleverly performed. and the tube has been removed. and ask two take hold of the ends. This is a very simple trick. Figs.378). In appearance to the audience. nest of boxes covered with a handkerchief until Keep the after you have commanded the coin to pass from the can then. In addition to these cords. Thread the corks upon of the audience to the looped cords (Fig. 378). the coin and remove the tube. 379. then have each person hand you one . First. it is when you remove the handto slip in a simple matter. kerchief. Fig.226 will THE HANDY BOY not only keep the tube in place. the apparatus consists of three small corks threaded (Fig. upon two straight pieces of cord and two cords 18 inches in Fig. — Details of the Chinese Paradox. into the inside box. ' jP^ - ' ' — Fig. The Chinese Paradox. Fig. but will also spring the covers shut as soon as the coin has been passed into the inside box. looped as shown tied together with fine thread. 379. exhibit the three corks. 378. under cover of it. you must have two others of equal length. These looped cords must be concealed and be substituted for the other cords after they have been exhibited for inspection.

connecting the cord loops wiU break pulled. they are picked up one by one. placing them back „. 227 Taking the ends in Fig. — Trick: To Make 14 Coins Increase to 20. in order to impress the number of coins upon the minds of the au- dience. and dropped into a second plate. counted. your wand over your hand holding the corks. have increased to the number To prove his . then.. At the same time. To Make 14 Coins Increase to 20. each being counted aloud as dropped. and a member dience is of the au- then invited to count them for a third time. 381. satisfied as to the With everybody number of coins. Fig. will stiU retain the cord is end that he has been the mysterious part of the trick to those concerned in assisting you. first plate. 380. and declares that the coins of twenty. while each person holding. pass The thread when the ends are and the three corks This will be left in your hand.THE HANDY BOY MAGICIAN cord end and keep hold of the other one. the .. in .. the magician passes his wand over and around the plate. tie them together as shown Then grasp the three corks with one hand and ask the persons holding the ends to pull. In this trick fourteen coins (nickels and pennies will do) are dropped into a plate. as well as to the remainder of the audience. handed to you.

which is also the last one used. 383. Fig. and a piece i of of the Plate for Trick: to. 382. This is the secret of this interesting trick. 20. . he requests one of the audience to bring a hat to the table. To Make 14 Coins Increase the rim about inch in length should be removed a disk to (Fig. fit Out of a piece of thick cardboard cut inside of the rim. asks statement. 382). because the rim upon the bot- ^PaperCoins^ m^BM Figs. and glue the two remaining pieces to the bottom of the plate. then from the center of this remove a strip i inch wide. A piece of white paper of as nearly the color of the china as possible should next be fitted inside of the rim. On small the bot- tom of the first plate. the owner of the hat actually finds twenty coins. to form the bottom of the pocket. The cutting should be done with a metalfile. as left for shown in Fig. 384. / ^Cardboard SECTroN THROUGH "Plat — Details Fig. 382-384.228 THE HANDY BOY and after pouring the coins into the hat. there is a pocket which contains the extra six coins. To the surprise of all. ^ tom must be cut to make an opening to the pocket. that they be counted. and be pasted to the pieces of cardboard. with the space between the pocket. The an plate should be old one.

and during the performance of the trick the plate must be held with the open end it is of the pocket either level or tipped up. instead of the to the it amazement match being broken. But. 229 384 shows a sectional view of tKe plate and Of course the coins must be slipped into the pocket beforehand. behold the magi- cian's magic skiU! He of all. lines . 387. This trick little is not only a good one for a show. shakes out the handkerchief. because is wood heard to snap. and this he does. rolled up. Open one hem at one end. until time to turn the coins into the sleeves before exhibiting hat. and the person it who has snapped it will declare that he felt snap. Upon acknowledging that There the he is instructed to break it. a match placed in the center of a handkerchief. It is weU to roll up your coat this trick. feel It. the handkerchief and some one is is requested to take hold of it and that the match it is. and. A previous preparation of the handkerchief neces- The handkerchief should be a common one with a wide hem. but In full a capital stimt to is is view of the audience.THE HANDY BOY MAGICIAN Figure pocket. and slip one or more matches through the sary for the trick. so no one wUl suspect that the coins have been Restore is concealed there. is stUl there. To Break a Match. 386. as shown in Fig. is drops to the floor in a whole condition. then do at a party. as indicated by the dotted in Fig. opem'ng and along the hem. no question about the match breaking.

and to bring one of the matches in conceal the center the hem into position for the person summoned from the audience to break. more than three at the most. of the wrong match. 387. 385-387. but it is not wise to have Fig. because track of it is diflScult to keep them and prevent the breaking the Contents of a Glass. — Details of Trick: Fig. the In performing the method of rolling its up the center as to handkerchief after the match has been placed in is very important. To Transform before After demon- strating to the audience that a drinking glass upon the table white cardboard into them contains an inky fluid. This must be done in such a way match in the portion of the handkerchief held nearest yourself. 385. To Break a Match. then Restore It.230 THE HANDY BOY trick. This trick can be repeated as many times as you have unbroken matches in the hem. by dipping pieces of it and showing their blackened sur- . Figs.

of Trick: To Transform the Contents of a Glass. Besides the glass tumbler. and the pieces of . brought up over the side of the glass. he throws a napkin or it that he will proceed to convert the Uquid into water that is as clear as crystal. exposing to view a glass of clear water. To the top edge upon the side farthest from the audience. a piece of black rubber large Fig. the boy magician declares Whereupon. enough to of this. 389. 388). and removes the cloth. — Details Fig. 388. wood Of course the glass is fiUed with clear water to the height of the top edge of the strip of rubber. a piece of fine white silk-thread should be fastened. other cloth over the tumbler. makes a few passes over with his wand. fit around the inside is required. 388 and 389. Figs. and tied to a small chip of (Fig.THE HANDY BOY MAGICIAN faces 231 upon withdrawing them.

of their length When dipped into the tumbler.232 THE HANDY BOY and black two-thirds on the other cardboard that are dipped into the water are white upon one side. This is always a most mystifying trick when cleverly performed. side. and then. . if aU refuse. is lifted When end the cloth from the glass. drink it yourself. Ask some one among the audience its to drink the water to test purity. then. thus revealing the presence of the clear water. they are held with side their white toward the audience. the chip it. before is being withdrawn. concealed beneath the cloth (Fig. 389). their black side will see the turned so the audience blackened surface when removed. on the of the silk-thread is picked is up with and the piece of black rubber removed. and it is probable that no one win be wUling to take the risk.

m .

jar to pick it. After squeezing some of the water from the wad . and fans they dries. 390. picks in his right hand. directly and it must be pinned to your coat under the arm-pit of the right arm. THE HANDY BOY Then he tears the paper into strips. When you of paper of pulling reach down into the fruit. the wad. and drops the wad into a up a fan water. which you have dropped into up the wad make a pretence up your right sleeve with your left hand to keep it out of the water. particles of paper begin to fly out of the left hand. sleeve. ^^^^ ^j tisSUe-paper. it In a minute or two he removes wad. and taking in his left hand. but from a small sack of confetti. SO aS to be easily broken. prepared This sack must be -The Paper-Shower Trick. and in a few secfine bits of onds a shower of colored paper flutter in directions (Fig. left taken into the hand in this manner. and run your hand far enough up to enable you to take hold of the sack of paper and conceal it in the hand. informing the audience as he will does this that be surprised to see how quickly the wet paper Almost instantly. or paper bits which you have yourself. folds the strips fruit-jar containing this into a wad. Fig. aU Of course the paper does not come from the soaked paper wad. 390). in such it a manner that iThe sack is cannot be seen by your audience.234 colors.

the author saw a team of vaudeville magicians — one of whom was a clown — perform the Paper Shower of doing it trick. converting the paper into bits and making these by your magic. the 235 left wad it is supposedly transferred to the hand. instead of small pieces had seen his magician partner and. but one or two might be " given away " without hurting your reputation to any marked extent. A A magical if entertainment can be made uproariously funny the boy magician provides himself with Clown Assistant who attempts each trick as soon as it he sees performed. Quickly pick up the fan from the table. and squeeze the sack until the tissue-paper bursts and the confetti is exposed to the breeze from the fan. he dropped the wad into a pail water and jimiped up and down in the pail to mash the . and fan toward the left hand. and that you are fly. will prefer to he would not be a clown. The breeze of course blows the paper away from your hand. and the climax to the clown's method was the funniest thing of the evening. Perhaps you keep your tricks a mystery. a colored comicsection.MORE HANDY BOY MAGIC of paper. but in reality remains in the right hand. Not long ago. and expose else how some tricks are done. of colored paper such as he use. Of course the clown must get every- thing twisted about. but the audience must be impressed with the idea that the purpose of the fan is solely to dry the wet paper. after tearing these into strips and roUing the strips into of an immense wad. and a white news-section. The clown used a pink sporting-section of a newspaper.

236 THE HANDY BOY Then. and Fig. By by this time the audience were convulsed with laugh- ter the clown's funny antics. he proceeded to fan. and the little trick necessary to make possible the untying feat. on which he wore an unusually large glove. but imagine the uproar in progress when. hand. 392 shows how one wrist is first tied. behind which to conceal for several baskets full of paper. A member of the audience is requested to bind together the magician's wrists. and left. ties Hold your left hand before you while the person the rope about the wrist. Perhaps you could arrange a similar stunt on a small scale for your home magical entertainment. and holding a monstrous fan in his right hand. until after and from the a few seconds' time the stage was knee-deep with several hundred papers. and they came from above. an overhead drop over your overturning them. Then quickly shown place both hands behind make two or three twists in the ends of the rope with in Fig. 392. Then facing that person and the audience. the magician quickly unties his wrists and throws the rope upon the floor. taking the dripping wad in his left paper together. rolled papers. after the fanning process had been a few seconds. an avalanche of newspapers suddenly dropped upon the clown. yoxir right hand. from the right. behind with a rope. There were wadded papers. Figure 391 shows the two wrists bound together. folded papers. and a rope mechanism The Hand-Untying his back. Trick. as and bring the right . by providing stage. you.

391. slip is then the loop it. where a person.MORE HANDY BOY MAGIC wrist against the knot 237 on the left wrist in such a manner as to conceal the twists in the rope. Figs. 391 and 392. — The Hand-Untying Trick. it is turn your back away from the audience of course only necessary to turn the right wrist Fig. is when opened a few minutes the bound person discovered entirely freed from his bonds. Fig. bound hands and placed inside of a cabinet. will arotmd so as to undo the twists which you secretly made in the rope. is Cabinet Trick. if the person wishes to them. 392. . it the knots and remove the rope from is the hand. Several knots tie may be tied in the rope. and then. When you again. Then turn your back towards the audience and allow the right wrist to be bound to the left one. The door later. is closed. often employed in This hand-unt3dng stunt The feet. be plenty large enough to the hand out of all easy to untie left of With the right hand released.

The magician binds his assistant. a cover small enough to one can. the man hand hand out of the loop. places various musical instrvmients around him. cover. and after seating him in the cabinet. and an empty hat-box filled with cut paper. a napkin or towel. with hands and there. after training an assistant to do A cabinet framework can be con2 inch thick and inches wide. in this case. is still seated. When the the cabinet has been closed.238 THE HANDY BOY variation of the trick that is is A even more mystifying to the audience carried out in this way. or a couple of boxes for your Turning Paper into Coffee. yet assistant when the cabinet is opened a minute feet later. This it is is not as difficult as might be imagined. are the necessary pieces of apparatus. bound together just as he was when placed slips his right Of course. or any cloth that find. upon standards support. Trim about yi inch from the edge of the can with the exception of two little flaps which should be . then uses both hands to play the musical instruments. structed out of strips this I tricks can easily be carried out by the boy magician. and replaces his in the loop before the magician reopens the door. and can be covered with pieces of carpet. the musical instrimients begin to play. so the audience can see beneath You might use a piano-bench. In fact very simple magic. Two baking-powder cans of equal set into the top of size. you can The usual scheme is to support the cabinet it. These cabinet hand-imtying the hand-untying stunt.

the flaps is 239 The purpose of to support the cover in an iaverted position upon the rim of one of the cans. stepping back to your table on which the box of cut paper has been placed. 395). 393-395. then pass your lift off kin over the can. 393. Fig.MORE HANDY BOY MAGIC bent out sideways as shown in Fig. removing of the ends of the inverted cover by catching hold . hold the can down in the box. But instead can from filling it. As the inverted with paper. All is To begin this feat of turning the paper into coffee. — Details Turn- no one will suspect the sub- ing Paper into Coffee. after out the can containing the coffee. lift of removing this the box. set the cover in the top. and it the napkin. fill one of the baking-powder fill cans with hot coffee. stitution. and conceal the can then ready. pass the empty can among the audience for inspection. Before the performance. and announce that the transformation from paper to with coffee is magic wand over the top. Cover the napabout to take place. 394. box of cut paper. and scoop up fuls of cut it several hand- paper and drop into the can. Fig. then. of Trick: cover placed in the top of this can is filled Pigs. the cover inside with the cut paper of the (Fig. 395.

. magician places a woman inside of a cabinet that stands upon a table. 396) is a simplified It is performed cabinet extremely tricks. crosswise with it and places inside ties. and the cabinet empty. In the professional the act. and the utterance of some words of magic. of a sack. simple for a handy boy to carry out. then he closes the front. after first having exposed aU sides of the cabinet to the view of the audience.240 THE HANDY BOY If the coffee the projecting tabs. Then. it will still be hot. which he — The Disappearing-DoU Trick. Fig. places back on its standard. binds the cabinet lengthwise and rope. it removes the cabinet from the sack. has not been allowed to stand too long. he reverses his operations. and will always mystify an audience. and you might pour out to a little in a cup and pass it some one in the audience to sample. and opens the front. cuts the ropes. after the use of his wand. And is behold! the lady occupant has vanished. 396. The Disappearing-Doll Trick form of one of the often (Fig.

carried out similarly. of the box. A nail-head should be driven . for the Disappearing-DoU Trick. 397. 397-399. it Remove one end in doing so. 397 Fig. 399. 7 inches wide. This sides as shown at piece must be placed carefully so it will swing up into its former position in the end of the box. which smaller scale.MORE HANDY BOY MAGIC You will 241 understand this trick when I explain the disapis pearing doU stunt. but on a The Cabinet is shown completed in Fig. Figs. driving a brad through each side into the center of each end edge. and II inches long. — Details of Cabinet A (Figs. This should be made out of a box about 6 inches deep. being it careful not to spht and pivot between the •nail Pivot Fig. without showing any indication of being pivoted. 398 and 399).

Fig. It to give the appearance of a solidly fastened end.242 in. THE HANDY BOY each side of pivot-nail A. or in by means A Packing-Box Table constructed similar to that shown in Fig. Line the inside of the cabinet with cloth of a it bright color. Hinge the cover to the box with and the constructive part of the work wiU be The Doll used in the trick must have a small enough head and body to sMp through the rear opening in the end of the cabinet. make a small hole through the (C. and it stuffing in a httle cotton or cloth underneath to give appearance. 398 and 399). then the doll should be placed within. the cover closed. To provide for locking wiU not turn. for with a cord passed . and the cabinet heavy cord. back of the box and in the back edge of the for a strips end piece (D). padded The boy magician needs an must be a drapery fastened around the assistant for this trick. The illustration shows how the legs. of leather. The cabinet must be turned around so the audience tied with may inspect all sides. 396. raise the box about 6 inches above the stage floor. as at B (Figs. may be necessary to plane off a trifle of the back edge of the end piece to make the end so it it turn easily. finished. Upon the tying of this cord much of the success of the trick depends. 399). a soft. who of concealed. and push a small brad into these holes locking pin (E).either underneath a table^ legs. fastened to the ends of the box. Performing the Doll Trick. gathering around the edge.

This is the time for the assistant to act quickly. back by having the assistant replace it in the . 396). While passing the twine around the sides and ends. and a few magic words spoken. you will see by Fig. He must reach out from his position inside the table (Fig. withdraw the locking pin E (Fig. the If cabinet should be kept near the center of the table. you can bring into the cabinet. untied. occupant door in the stage floor. and then close and lock the pivoted end. remove the doll. the of the cabinet escapes similarly through a trap- the cabinet has been tied up and stood upon the The cabinet should now be placed inside of a small bag. the cabinet can be rested upon the edge of the table without arousing any suspicion. 399 that the pivoted end opens very easily when the cord tied lengthwise of the cabinet comes just to one side of the center of that end. then it should be taken from the bag. a cloth has been spread over the table.MORE HANDY BOY MAGIC around the box both lengthwise and crosswise. it After making the doll disappear. for all have seen the cord passed around the six sides. turn the pivoted end of the cabinet. after floor. the wand passed around it. it 243 will appear to the audience impossible for any portion of the box to open. and the empty interior exposed to the view of the audience. the audience can plainly see that there is no possibihty for the doU to dis- appear through a trap-door in the of the cord table. However. When both ends have been brought around to the top. 399). In the professional trick.

while the magician is tying it is and by preparing two cabinets. . same way that he removed the cord around it.244 THE HANDY BOY it. make the doll pass from one cabinet to the and back again. a simple trick to other.

m .

lay other sheets exactly over them. Fig. The tubes wiU on account flatten of being soaked with paste. that the three-quarter length logs B ] (Fig. 405) are one half-sheet in length. Quarter-Length roimd out these Place the tubes upon a Logs D. flat flattened portions.iami> (PpBish and roll it up into a tube. and coat them with Then. — lap and paste two paste. logs that the half-length (Fig. 402). To Prepare a Paper Log. one of the logs. then cover these with a coat of paste. starting at one edge. but ing by rollthem back and it FiG. 404. so they wiU remain straight and not become bow- . »ig> w. with the edge of one lapped about i inch over the edge of the other. and the quarter- length logs D A (Fig.246 THE HANDY BOY these diagrams that the full-length logs A (Fig. sheets of paper. smrface to dry. 402. 404) are C one full sheet in length. — The Half- Fig. itself i the edges of two sheets of newspaper together as shown in Fig. 402) are the length of two. — The Three-Quarter Length Logs B. — The forth to will be easy Length Logs C. for exam- ple (Fig. 403.'"^ ^'<hagg'B aaBartmsf and one half -sheet in length.^ !g*Ma. turn the paper over upon from end to end. 403) are one full sheet «gB. 405.

401.) .— Building the Walls of the Log-caein.Fig. (Showing liow Upright Paper Logs support tlie Corners.

.

or " post " to support the logs at those points. and at the four corners. This will give the Each side of the entrance. ends with a pair of end lay-out of the cabin. must be placed. through All of the tubes should be made of two thicknesses of paper. and in case any of them show signs of bending along the newspaper folds. 406.NEWSPAPER PLAYHOUSES FOR HANDY BOYS shaped. a paper upright. The logs for the cabin should Fig. log First place a front and a rear groimd upon the floor. reenforce them at those points with be about bands of paper. stiffness and to add . — How the Logs are Connected at the Comers with String. 247 Do not use any of them until and through. 3 inches in diameter. while the " sticks " for the chimney should vary from 3 inches to about i>^ inches in diameter. they are thoroughly dry. then cross them 6 or 8 inches from the logs. Building the Cabin Walls.

and the teenth tier forms the top of the side walls (Figs. j^^ ^^ about 12 inches nearer the center 14. Cut This last log crosses the center of the cabin. 407). and place log No. Fig. set the next tier of side logs (No. 15 to the other.logs than the side logs No. 406). and to the entrance posts with rubberwith string. No. lengthwise. Set side logs Bands. off end. ^^^^^^j ^^^^ ^^^ gj^j^ j^g Rubber- No. The cabin roof is completed by spreading sheets of newspaper across the log framework. 401. 401). ^___ The Roof Framework.248 THE HANDY BOY To hold these posts in position until to the cabin walls. fasten them to these side logs as shown. or The eleventh front log thir- forms the head of the doorway. tened in place with pins or with paste. Then cut off ^^ ^^^^ ^^^j j^^j. 400 and 406). 406). 14. 16 across their centers. bands (Fig.— Howthe Cabin Logs are Fastened to the with tier of tion (Fig. These may be fas- The walls. or may be built afterwards. 406) inside of the tops of the f o t J ^ f end logs No. each. the walls have been built up to the point shown in Fig. The iUus- . 14 comer posts. it wiU be necessary to place a chair or stool against The logs should be fastened to the corner posts with string (Fig. placed the thirteenth When you have end logs in posi- — _^ F1G. Stick Chimney is simpler to build than the cabin It may be constructed at the same time as the it cabin (Fig. 14 to the opposite one. and forms the ridge-pole of the roof framework.407. 15 to reach from one side log No.

408. .Fig.— a Play Indian Village with Newspapek Tepees AND Kettle Tripod.

.

Wire Handle and Paper-and-String Chain. — Diagram 410. Fig. you have a you and wish to keep the cabin intact. 410. is lower portion (to a height of about 2 feet) thick logs. — Paste the — The Fig. 409. may make and sisters extra "poles " for the tepees. Fig. 409. Some of the logs which were used to build the cabin may be taken for making or. of the Kettle Sides Side Flaps to the and Bottom Pieces. 408). if Tepees for an Indian Village (Fig. Fig. ones set a few inches inside of the lower The top the chimney should extend about 8 inches above the cabin roof. Fig. Bottom like this.NEWSPAPER PLAYHOUSES FOR HANDY BOYS trations 249 show clearly how the sticks are crossed. or you have brothers when neighboring . how the made with of and how the upper portion is built with thinner logs. 411. large pla37room. if The cabin and children the tepees would afford lots of fun to play with.

because come you could then play pioneering. bending the ends in Fig. village. to Bend up the pieces between the sides form flaps. or for your cabin to- camp. and the bottom made of two circular pieces of cardboard 10 inches in diameter (Fig. formed by fastening gether three paper poles at the top in the same manner that the tepee framework is put together. 410). by means of a paper chain (Fig. 411 so they will shown hook into holes punched in the sides of the kettle. and how these are crossed. A Kettle Tripod for like the your Indian is village. Probably you have made similar paper chains. then bend the (Fig. aroimd one of the bottom pieces.250 THE HANDY BOY in to visit you. one in Fig. 408. and in Figs. lap and paste them together. as shown diagram with the lower edge slashed for a distance of is 2 inches. folded in half. Tie the upper ends together. 410). slashes of the sides. then either pin or paste newspapers around the poles for a covering. The Kettle is made as shown of The sides of the kettle are made in the two sheets of newspaper (Fig. 409). Make as the handle out of a piece of wire. and paste the flaps to the cardboard Paste the flaps. 409 to 411. to second bottom piece over the under side of the conceal them. and spread the lower ends as shown. with a pioneer settlement and the Indian Figure 408 shows how thin tubes are stuck into the ends of the paper poles used for the tepee framework. but this one must be reenforced by threading the Suspend the kettle from its tripod . 408).

as shown in Fig. summer-houses. Tie one end of the cord to the of the tripod. and doll-swings. rail-fences.NEWSPAPER PLAYHOUSES FOR HANDY BOYS 251 paper Knks on to a piece of cord. . There are many Other Things which can be Built with Paper Tubes. because the chain in itself would not be stiff enough to support the weight of the kettle. by pasting bands of paper around the broken places. After the logs have once been prepared. 411. or will suggest for trees for a play forest. kettle handle. and the tubes may be for set up on end for telegraph-poles a play telegraph system. Other ideas themselves whUe you if are playing. including forts. they wiU last indefinitely. because they are easily repaired broken. and the other end to the top is The Make-Believe Camp-Fire size of those built of small tubes of the used for the cabin chimney.

.

build several if you coast down a hiU with a long tunnels along the slide as shown in Fig. it as shown The timnels may be built in the ordinary way of making if snow-houses. but two boys can complete it much quicker of Journal. or you own Fig. but they are much more substantial you .HANDY -BOY SNOW TUNNELS The Ladies' 253 he originally invented the idea and published the plans in One boy can build a tunnel unaided. 412. 413. course. a toboggan-slide. 413. — If you Own a Toboggan-Slide Build a Tunnel at the Foot of It. slope. Home and there to is always more fun building one with somebody If work with you. build a tunnel at the foot of in Fig.

take this into consideration in making the side frames. This will prevent the roofs from when the snow begins to melt. 414 col- Construct a Framework similar to that to support the roofs. then carried out to the spot upon lapsing Fig. to hold them in The roof or ceiling should be 12 inches above your head. 414). and banked around the base with snow place. — The Framework for the Snow Tunnel. 415). set which you are going to build the tunnel. Fig. . 414. Build the Tunnel Walls about 12 inches thick. but arch the ceiling as weU. which will make the height above ground between 4 feet 6 inches and 5 feet. as shown in the sectional view of the tunnel (Fig. up in position. The framework consists of two side frames (A and B. The frames may be made indoors. Not only round off the top of the roof. when you are seated upon your sled within the timnel. and pile plenty of snow upon the roof boards so a rounded roof can be made. with boards laid across the tops.254 THE HANDY BOY shown in Fig.

of the proper gauge for your sled run- FiG. This simplifies the matter of transporting the snow. ners." and in Fig. — A Sectional View of the Snow Tunnel. In Fig. 413 the semaphore at the entrance to the tunnel through which is passing is set at " Stop. the balls over to the site for the tunnel. To regulate the coasting so one it is boy wiU not collide with another.HANDY -BOY SNOW TUNNELS K and the roll 255 Snow is Soft Enough to Pack. roll it into large balls. Install best to Signal a Semaphore System. throughout the entire length of the tunnel." The semaphores are . 415. there they may be chopped up for building material. 412 the semaphore shown at the entrance to the tunnel which the boys are just entering the boy is set at " Safety. Make Deep Tracks in the snow. and bank the snow at either side of the entrance to guide the sleds into the tracks.

and of the shape in Fig. then bolt upright C. to shown Nail it 5 to A.. „ tiG. 417.. Fig. ^. Figures 416 and 417 show The Construction inches long. and between ^^^ . and cut the spectacle piece B 10 inches long. of the it Semaphores.ft The Semaphore Set .„ at " Stop. 416. B as shown. Each coaster should remain at the end of the sHde long enough to set the signals for the coaster following him. — Detail of Arm and Spectacle. with washers placed between the head of the bolt „ p„ 416. . 417. and then changed to " Stop " as soon as they are passed. Cut the arm A 20 and taper from 4 inches wide at one end to 3 inches wide at the BLACK other end. being first set at " Safety.2s6 THE HANDY BOY operated by each coaster as he reaches the foot of the slide. „ ." (Dotted S'lid B. will ^"^• Tighten the nut just enough so the arm pulled stand in a horizontal position until its down by the cord attached to end. — T. ^ ." to signal the next boy to start from the top. running the bolt through FlG. between ' B lines indicate Position of Arm when dropped to and C. Upright C should be fastened to the wooden framework of the tun- .

These may be candle lanterns similar to the Signal Telegraph lantern shown in Fig. sled " railroad " as complete as possible. shown in Fig. then carry the cords to the end of the Paint the arm of the semaphore black with a white band near the end. To make your you must place A as Telltale a few feet in front of your timnel entrance. and run these cords through two screw-eyes in C. 257 clear of the and should be of the snow roof. the next below by and the bottom one by white. at D. you may make and starch-boxes. set one upon the top of each timnel. or other small boxes. page 336. For Coasting after Dark. a number of pieces of rope about 24 inches in length so their ends will be just low enough to brush against lanterns out of the heads of the coasters as they pass under them. stretch a rope between two uprights. You may also make headlights for your . One of these you know is hung in front of every low railroad bridge or tunnel to warn the duck brakemen stationed upon the tops their heads. 413. at £. sleds. and the spectacle frame black with the two upper green. spectacle glasses indicated by red. 528. coasting slide. of freight-cars to To make and to tie it the telltale. with a piece of glass covered with red tissue-paper set in the fronts. and another through a hole in B. right length so arm A will swing Fasten a cord through a hole in ^.HANDY -BOY SNOW TUNNELS nel.

kind of wood will do. but straight-grained pieces are easiest to work up.OO T I CHAPTER XVIII HANDY BOY COASTERS A HANDY boy can little. is The Double-Runner Coaster shown in Fig. build himself a coaster that will be just as good as a bought one. and in a wide crack this shrinkage enough to of just make an ugly hoUow place in the sxrrface of your work. and as the material required the expense connected with the con- amounts to so struction is trifling. smaU but do not depend too Fig. and in that Almost any case no outlay whatever wiU be necessary. conceal nail-holes and Of course putty and paint wiU cracks. 418. with runners 258 the proportions that the average boy finds to his liking — 5^ inches . much upon " putty magic. — The Double-Runner Coaster. Perhaps just the right sort of lumber wiU be found in the basement or woodshed. and other defects that there are the better. 418 4 feet long and 14 inches wide." because putty shrinks is when it hardens. cracks. and the fewer knots.

419. 259 is This is a substantially constructed sled and prac- tical for all around purposes. 2-by-6- about 5^ inches wide. Fig. though often runs a trifle under or a trifle Whatever the measure10': 4-0"MiiWl. ment ingly. the other with it as a pattern.HANDY BOY COASTERS deep. mark out ends. A pattern for is The Sled Runners shown in Fig. is. 420 the foot-bar B. saw the ends square. you can vary the width of your runners accord- The notches along the top edge receive the ends of the connecting cross-braces {A. Fig. Fig. certain that and 421). then saw off on the diagonals of the bow and stern When you have completed one runner. to be off no mistakes have been made. 421. Figs. and After checking your measurements. 420. — Longitudinal Section through the Double-Runner Coaster. Lay Most it off the given measurements upon a piece of 2-by-6 with pencil and carpenter's square inch material is — or over a yard-stick. Cut the Connecting Cross Braces A 14 inches long. — CrossBrace. 419 — Pattern for Runners. 2 . this.

The ends of this are shown square oflf in the illustration. and cut the tongues on their ends to fit the notches in the runners. . and also drive nails through the side face of each runner into their ends. 422. oval iron strips. to keep it from slipping out of the screw-eyes. 418. Screw or nail the seat to the cross The Handle-Bars are two pieces of broom-handle. their ends are held and by screw- eyes screwed into the^sides of the runners.26o THE HANDY BOY inches wide. You by Fig. and 2 inches thick. Provide the Runners with Shoes of hoop-iron or of halfsatisfactory. Drive a nail through each end of each handle-bar into the runner. braces. Nail the braces to the runners. The Sled Seat should be a piece of board 12 inches wide and 2 feet 8 inches long. but at a small expenditure you can — Coasting on a Single-Runner Coaster. can improve the sli- ding qualities of the runners greasing them. strips which wiU be more The iron can be purchased at almost any large hardware store. as shown in Fig. but they may be curved or cut upon the diagonal if you wish to take the extra time to prepare them that way.

and be drilled for the screws with which they are to be fastened in You can get this done at a blacksmith's shop. and that is one why this unique form of sled is so it. or at a machine-shop. popular with boys ex- who have once himself. 422). learned to use Any boy can become pert in handling one after getting the knack of balancing . 261 to fit the ends of the runners. The iron binding strips Fig. It requires skiU to coast with The reason Single .Runner Coaster (Fig. with which large packing-cases are bound can be used. because it can be bent by hand.HANDY BOY COASTERS They must be bent place. also. 423. for runner shoes. — Detail of the Single-Runner Coaster. and holes for nails and screws can be punched through it with a nail. Hoop-iron is easy to put on.

and spike the bottom of B to the top edge of ^. front may be prepared in and back.262 THE HANDY BOY Make Figure 423 shows a detailed drawing of the completed single-runner coaster. and is nailed to the top of post B. . strengthen the connection between A and B. Brace the seat with two wooden brackets Runner Shoes nailed across post B. and B out of the same material 13 inches long. together with the triangular blocks D. 6 inches back of the center of its length. The side pieces C are 4 inches The Riuuier cut the upright wide and 16 inches long. A 3 feet long out of a piece of 2-by-4. the same manner as those described for the double-runner. The Seat Board F i& 15 inches long and 6 inches wide. and.

EARTE Spring and Summer PasiiiriGs .

.

and the developments have been quite 26s . and no scientific diversion has It is obviously ever received greater support. who are merely fascinated with anything that Store models painted in bright colors are best for this sort of chaps. or for aero enthusiasts flies. its flier. a sport for the boy of a mechanical turn of mind with inventive genius. But the interest boy with in of his practical ideas of his own. It is interesting to note that each model which has made a record product of tion. There is no room in junior aeronautics for idlers.CHAPTER XIX HANDY BOY MODEL AEROPLAIIES Model aeroplane designing. and wiU probably outlast their burst of enthusiasm. a handy boy's sport. the is boy whose model aeroplanes genuine. for itself has its been the both as regards design and construc- of and that no two records have been attained by models similar form. and flying is the latest of boys' pastimes. to the " would-be " model aviators who have been seized with a passing fancy. building. wiU have nothing but models leaving the store variety own planning and making. Thousands of designs have been evolved during the short interval of time since the innovation of model aeronautics.

and the other types have been abandoned almost entirely. Every taking successful inventor a thorough investigator of what has been accomplished along a line of work before it up. but the results of time have shown that the most successful models. what not to aeroplane and that is may know what to do and just the way in which model advanced. and adding improvements. which was at considered the better arrangement. instead of at the front. biplanes. of the model has far surpassed that of the large ma- and the bird-man has even had the opportunity to two from junior model is learn a pointer or designers. but and by borrowing the good points of other machines. he has been able to turn out a model having a greater degree of perfection. the develop- ment chine. and instead of having a single propeller. in order that he do. monoplane t5^e. and multiplanes. and making the longest flights. construction has designer has profited not only by those of others as well. There has been no patenting of ideas to retard the progress of model aeroplane construction. The first model designs followed the lines of the various forms of monoplanes. and distance this type of made with model. radical change that has Another come about has been the placing first of the propellers at the rear of the fuselage or body. Each successful by his own mistakes. Indeed. .266 • THE HANDY BOY by the man-carrying ma- as startling as those obtained chines. for the same space of time. are those of the the models having the greatest stability. attaining the greatest speed. duration. records have been AU of the starting.

or of . unofl&cial record of something over 3. to lessen weight and reduce air friction. more complicated construction than models which are now flying 2. while models have been made more and efl&cient fliers. the models of two years ago which if were considered remarkable they flew 300 feet or so. f^^t. 2. the " Pelican No. boys. effects. recently farther made a world's record of 2.HANDY BOY MODEL AEROPLANES most machines are now equipped with twin twin motors.500 feet and over.733 or 93 feet than one-haK mile.000 present writing is while the duration record at the 91 seconds. The chances are that these records will not stand long. Thus. which has made it neces- sary for the author to revise the above figures twice while preparing this chapter. and an feet. The fuselage. Think of it. with a continuation of the present activity in model making. The Materials now used are about the in model aeroplane construction of same as those out which the first models were is built. or body framework." built by Percy Pierce of the Philadelphia Model Aero Club. propellers 267 and To reduce the weight of models to a mini- mum. the tendency has also been to eliminate aU show and aU features that are not essential for strength and stability. One more interesting result of the developments of the past is two years that. their construction has become more were and more of simple. Even the skids are being omitted from models that do not rise from the ground. one of these later models of simpler form. generally constructed of pine or other soft wood. motor base.

Rubber-bands. the best The propeller-shafts are wood to cut promade of piano wire. or in blank form ready for cutting. alimainiun are built up. The expert model builder. and then the thread is coated with glue to hold it in place. joined end to end by looping one through the other. has been a prize winner. split wire. or other stiff wire. carpenter's dowel are sometimes aluminiun. and wire coated with varnish. Each of the three models for which working-drawings are given in this chapter. and the hearings of tin or brass. have been used for motors. Propellers can be purchased ready for mounting. having frames of wood. covered with silk. but more generally bamboo. or other light-weight stiff paper. such as are sold for the purpose by dealers in model aeroplane supplies. Almninum generally used for stays. The cloth covering material is sewed to the plane framework with strong linen thread or silk thread. bamboo is fiber paper. Straight-grained white pine pellers out of. though sometimes they are made of aluminum. however. or piano wire. AU joints of the fuselage and plane frames are bound with strong thread. and all are good examples for the beginner to pattern after. on account of its light weight. but flat rubber strands of single length. because . The propellers are generally cut out of wood. and the paper is fastened with glue. as have also the rubber strands from old golf-balls.268 THE HANDY BOY sticks. prefers to design and prepare his own propellers is from start to finish. are infinitely better and generally used. or bamboo. shellac or banana-oU. The planes made of very thin wood or aluminum.

/). with the smaller plane in front. in the photographs of The Wells Model Aeroplane. and detailed in the working-drawings of 12 Strands of^'xJ'rubber Fig.28. ^ . the monoplane type of model now in vogue is a modified form of the Bleriot machine. 424 to 427. and with twin propellers at the rear. shown Figs. As you will see by the photographs of Figs. turned stern foremost. 426 and 427. — Plan.HANDY BOY MODEL AEROPLANES they ts'pify the latest ideas in 269 model aeroplane construction.

428. and E are of the sizes fit marked in Fig. and Fig. Fuselage. and the end plates for coimecting the wire stays. Separators C. has g-inch propellers of 27 inch pitch. and is in every essential a speed machine. Figure 431 shows a dimensioned detafl of the thrust bearings. and its edges are reduced as shown offer less in the small section drawing of Fig. Fig. and have a hole pierced through the folded tip for the propeller-shaft to run through. D. or motor base. 430 so they wiU This piece is resistance to the air. fastened between sticks A with brads. These are cut out of brass. with their bow ends beveled off for a distance of i^ inches. They are cut oval-shaped as shown in the small section drawing in Fig. flew 1 6 feet beyond the fence of the i6o acre The model weighs but $}4 ounces. bent into the shape shown. Before fastening the separators in position. glued together. and of the proper length to between side sticks A at the places indicated on the drawing. 428) of straight-grained white pine cut to the dimensions marked upon the drawing. 430. and bound with thread.270 THE HANDY BOY Illinois' Club of it aviation field at Cicero. The first part of ^the model to make is the triangular sticks. or spars This consists of two side {A. Chicago. splines. where field. another . The stem ends is have a spread of 8 inches. 428). The Thrust Bearings for the propellers. 430 shows how they are bound to the ends of sticks A with thread. This separator fastened between sticks A . must be prepared. and are braced at that distance by the flatwise separator B (Fig.

— The ^yli. .Fig. 41^G.— Harry Wells launching his model.LLS Modkl Aekoplane. 4'J7. Fig. also a view of his back-yard workshop.

HANDY BOY MODEL AEROPLANES
stick

271

through one end for the brad to pass through that pins

A

to B,

and another through the other end
to.

to fasten

the end of the wire stays

The

small detail in Fig. 430

shows the end plates

for the wire stays.

These are made

no longer than
wire-stay ends.

is

necessary for the connecting holes for the
Pierce a hole through the center of each

plate for the brad to pass through which fastens sticks
Fig. 431.

A

^^-laSTRANDS

OF-

^"x^'RUBBER

Fig. 430.

Fig. 431. Fig.

— Detail — Detail 432. — Detail

Fig. 430.
of Fuselage of

and Motor

of the Wells

Model.
it.

Thrust Bearing, Propeller-Shaft, and Connections. of Bow Hook and how Rubber Motor is Connected to

to the ends of the separators.

The plates
the

are

bound

to sticks

A

with thread.

Bow Hooks support and are made upon motor,
The
piano-wire bent V-shaped to
(Fig. 432).

bow ends

of the rubber

the ends of a piece of heavy
fit

over the ends of sticks

A

Bind the wire to the

sticks with thread, coating

the thread with glue to

make

it

hold fast (Fig. 430).

The Main Plane has a framework built as shown in Fig. 433, with the front or entering-edge, and the rear ox following-

made of sticks of white pine or other light-weight wood, and the ribs and tips on the ends made of No, 16 gauge
edge,

272

THE HANDY BOY
sticks are cut

aluminum wire. The ends of the frame on their outer edge, to receive the ends

away

of the wire forming

the tips, and the ends of these wires, and the laps of the

wire ribs, are bound in position with thread-, and the thread

then coated with glue to hold

it in position.

The Elevator, or front plane, has a frarhework made as shown in Fig. 434. Its entering-edge is a stick, and its
following-edge, ribs,

and end
will

tips,

are

aluminima wire.

You

notice

made of No. by Fig. 434
Fig. 435-

16 gauge

that the

ii'xi'x

16"

wood

Fig. 433.

— Detail of the Main Plane Framework of the Wells Model. Fig. 434. — Detail of the Elevator Framework. Fig. 435. — Detail of Fin.
and are
its

Fig. 433.

center ribs cross the following-edge of the frame

bent up in the form of a

flat loop.

This loop rests against

the under side of the fuselage, and gives the elevator

proper angle for stability (Fig. 429).
to

The

tips are

bent up

add

stability.

The frames

of the

main plane and elevator are covered

HANDY BOY MODEL AEROPLANES
with china-silk, which

273

may either be sewed or glued in place,
it

and

this is given

a thia coat of shellac to make

air-tight

and
to a

taut.

The

covering must be put on smoothly to reduce
is

minimum what
it.

known

as skin resistance

— the

re-

sistance that the plane

makes to the

air while passing

through

The main plane and means of rubber-bands
fuselage,

elevator are held to the fuselage
slipped beneath

by them and over the
Figure 429

and unlike the planes

of the majority of models,

are fastened to the under side of the fuselage.

shows the approximate position of the elevator.
the

That

of

main plane

will

vary under different

air conditions,

sometimes being placed over the separator C, and at other
times closer to separator
fore,

B than is shown in Fig. 428.

There-

you must adjust your plane and elevator
is

this

operation

known as tuning — to

suit the condition of the

atmosphere, until you find the positions where they will
give the machine the greatest stabiHty.
in the successful flight of a

A

great factor

model aeroplane

lies in

properly

timing the planes, both laterally and longitudinally, and
of course the planes

must balance at

their centers, in order

to

make

the machine balance properly.
directly over the center of the elevator (Figs. 427

The Fin

and 429) is provided for stability, and may be used as a rudder by turning it slightly to one side or the other. It is made of No. 34 gauge sheet aluminum, cut to the form

shown
of

in Fig. 435.

Its vertical

edge

is

bent around a piece

heavy

wire, as

shown

in the plan detail of Fig. 435,

and

274

THE HANDY BOY
is

the lower end of the wire

fastened upright between the

bow ends
The

of sticks

A.

Propellers are the

most difi&cult part of the model aero-

plane to make.

be of identical

They must be very accurately cut, and must The pitch of a propeller is, size and pitch.
theoretically, the distance
it

forward that

advances in one complete revolution.
Figure 436 shows one of the propellers

Glass Bead-

Wire -shaft-

of

Harry WeUs' machine, which

is

9 inches

Fig. 436.

— The Wells
Propeller.

in length

and has a 27-inch

pitch.

Figure

Model

437 shows

How
sites,

to Prepare
is,

the Propellers.

that

one must be of

must be opporight-hand pitch and the other
pair

The

of left-hand pitch, or, in other words, the

upper end of the

right-hand pitch propeller turns to the right, and that of

tf

A
i

B
Fig. 437.

D
-How
to Prepare a 9-inch Propeller.

the left-hand pitch propeller turns to the

left,

when viewing

them from the
Step

rear.

A

consists in properly planing

up a
2

straight-grained

block of white pine 1)4 inches thick,

inches wide,

and

HANDY BOY MODEL AEROPLANES
9 inches long, with
for
its sides

275

and ends
line

straight

and

true,

The
faces
line,

Propeller Blank.

Draw a

around the four faces

of this block at the exact center of the length.

Then on

C

and D, lay

off a distance of }4 inch

on the center-

measuring from the edge of face B, for the thickness

of the propeller-hub,

and draw diagonal hnes from the upper
of faces

and lower left-hand corners
of the

C and
cut

D

to the

end

hub

center-line (Step B).

Then

away

the por-

tions outside of these lines, as

shown

in Step C.

Lay out
^-inch

the hub upon faces
diameter, and bore a

A

and

B

of the block, with a

smaU hole through

the center to receive

the propeller-shaft (Step C).

Draw

diagonals from the
;

comers to the center-Une
the

of the

hub (Step D)

then cut away

wood outside The next step

of these Hnes (Step E).

(F) consists in laying out the
all

form of the

propeller blade

upon

four sides

and ends

of the block,

and Step

G

is

the final one of cutting out the propeller, blades concave on one side, and carving

scooping out

its

them convex on the opposite side. A very sharp knife must be used for cutting; and the work must be done slowly
and
carefully, because the least slip is likely to ruin the

propeller.

The

entering-edge of each blade is the almost
thin.

straight edge,

and should be cut very

the blades should also be cut thin, while the

The ends of hub should be

cut

away

as

much

as can safely be done without weaken-

ing the propeller.

When you

have completed cutting the propellers, place

276

THE HANDY BOY
their centers across the edge of

them at
if

a knife-blade, and

they do not balance perfectly, locate the trouble and
it.
it.

correct
shellac

Finish the

work with

fine

emery-paper, and then

Some boys

glue silk over the ends of their proso, to reenforce

peller blades, for

a distance of yi inch or

them and make them less likely to split. The Propeller-Shafts are made of heavy piano-wire, bent into a hook at one end (Fig. 431) to receive the rubber strands of the motor, and cut of the right length to extend
through the hole in the bearing, through a glass bead, through the propeller, and then to bend over the side of the

hub

(Figs.

430 and 431).
it is

By

bending over the end of the

shaft against the hub,

held securely in place.

The

Motors

consist of twelve strands of
i

^-inch

flat

rubber, each, and as these are

yards of rubber are required.
direct to the hooks

yard in length, exactly 24 The rubber is not connected
propeller-shafts, as the

on the bow and

wire would quickly cut through the strands.

Instead,

small rings are bent out of wire, with pieces of small rubber-

tubing slipped over the wire, and the ends of the rubber
strands are looped through these rings and

bound

in place

with thread (Fig. 432).

on and

off

the

The wire rings are then slipped hooks quickly. As light and heat cause
pack away
in

rubber to deteriorate, you must remove the motors from the

machine after

use,

a covered box, and keep
life

in a cool place, in order to get the longest of the rubber.
It

possible out

has been found that rubber motors can be wound

HANDY BOY MODEL AEROPLANES
much
farther

277

by

lubricating

them with

glycerine.

It is

only necessary to put a few drops of the glycerine upon a
clean cloth,

and rub

it

over the outside strands; then wind

the motors, and
strands untU
all

it will

work over the

surface of the inner

parts are covered.

Of course the rubber motors must be twisted an equal number of turns, in order to make the propellers work the same, and this is usually done with an ingenious winder made from an egg-beater, which winds both motors simultaneously.

This home-made winder

is

shown
Figs.

in Figs. 448

and 451, and described upon page 284. The Nealy Model Aeroplane shown in

438 and 448
Illinois,

is

the design of Arthur Nealy of Western Springs,

and

has a flight record of 1,550 feet, and an endurance record of
close to

i^ minutes, made in contests of the

lUinois

Model
what
it to

Aero Club.

This model has shorter propellers of lower
is

pitch than those used on the Wells machine, and
is

generally

known

as

a.

floating model, as it has great stabilair in

ity,

and depends a great deal upon the
it.

back of

float

The Fuselage
model.

is

of

the triangular form of the
are

WeUs

Side sticks

A

^ inch

thick,

^ inch wide, and
C
are

34 inches long, and the separators
strips 1-16 inch thick,
ively.

B

and

bamboo

Instead of

and yi and 3-16 inch wide, respectbeing fastened between the side sticks
cut through side sticks

with brads, the ends of these separators are tapered very
thin and sHpped into
slits

A; then

the sticks are wrapped

tightly with thread, each side of the

278

THE HANDY BOY
The
slits

separators, to keep the frame intact (Fig. 439).

must be cut very

carefully so as not to split the sticks.

The

Fig. 440.

'-iro

rELEVATOR-] --^

Fig. 441,

Fig. 442.

PROPELLER

— The Nealy Model, Designed and Built by Arthur Nealy, Springs, Distance Record, 1,550 Feet. Fig. 439. — Detail Fuselage. — Detail Elevator. Fig. Fig. 441 — How the Elevator Fig. 442 — Detail Main Plane. Fig. 443 — Detail
FiG.''438.
Dlinois.

Fig. 443.
of

Western

of

440.

of

is

Tilted.

of

of Propellers.

bow ends
so they

of sticks
fit

A

are beveled off

upon the inner

faces

wiU

together,

and are glued.

Then

the wire

side of the fuselage The main plane by rubber-bands. ends of the plane a sHght camber which aids in securing greater stability than can be had with a flat plane. 439 and 441). from blocks i is held to the under The Propellers are cut inch thick. 443).HANDY BOY MODEL AEROPLANES 279 hooks which hold the bow end of the rubber motors are prepared on a V-shaped piece of wire. and are bound to the ends of sticks is A (Fig. sticks A The Main Plane has a built-up framework of No. This may either be sewed in place or It is first fastened to one end of the frame. 439). 16 gauge piano-wire 442). of a piece of wood wood veneer may be used. The frame is covered with china-silk. Prepare them in the . A square peg sticks A. Then it is stretched sideThis gives the wise and fastened to the sides of the frame. bow or flex the frame. The front or entering-edge of the elevator is slightly tilted. of strips of brass bent L- The Thrust Bearings are made The Elevator piece of shaped. by being supported on top of the made 1-16 inch thick. and are bound to the bow end with thread (Fig. glued. then stretched lengthwise tight enough to and fastened to the opposite end. D lage by a rubber-band slipped over its ends and over (Fig. i)4 inches wide. 439). The ends of the wire are lapped and bound together in the same manner as in the construction of the Wells machine. which is fastened between The elevator is held in place on top of the fuse(Figs. and 8 inches long (Fig. A slight model upward bending of the tips of the plane will give the additional stability. Figure 440 shows a pattern for cutting it.

Fig. 446. Fig. 446. — Details of Propeller. Distance Record. 447. 280 . Fig. Main Plane Framework. — Detail 447. N. Fig. Designed and Built by Armour Selley of Brooklyn. Y. 2. — The Selley Model. — Detail Elevator Framework. Fig.653 of of feet. 445. 444.Fig.

and de- by Armour New York. on one end to receive the rubber strands glass A bead is sUpped on to the opposite end between the proplate.653 f^^t. The Planes have built-up frameworks of split bamboo and spruce strips. and to Be sure to get the blades of equal but make them balance nicely. caused a great deal of astonishment in model aeroplane circles it when made the remarkable distance of 2. and the horizontal strips crossing the ribs are slender spruce . during the summer of 191 2. in a conIt is radi- by the Long Island Model Aero Club. 445 and 446.HANDY BOY MODEL AEROPLANES same manner as described trated in Fig. The Rubber Motors rubber. The Propeller-Shafts are made of piano-wire. peller is and the bearing The propeller end of the shaft bent over the side of the hub. with side sticks of spruce cut 37 inches long. for the Wells model. with a hook of the motor. 444. beveled and glued together at the bow. to keep the propeller from turning on the shaft. or 13 feet better than test held % mile. 436. from most of the other machines in use at the time of the present writing. consist of 8 strands of ^-inch flat The signed Selley Model Aeroplane shown Selley of Brooklyn. and braced with three separators between the bow and the stem. as shown in Figs. cally different in many respects from the Wells and Nealy models. each. The Fuselage is triangular in shape. as are also the ribs. in Fig. in fact. The edges of the planes are made of bamboo. 281 and illus- opposite pitch. and.

444). and this covering is then given a coat of thin sheUac or bananashrink tight make it The sistance. with the dimensions for the blank. Thus.282 sticks. which is glued in place. 448 Arthur Nealy of is Model Aero Club shown launching the model which the working-drawings are shown upon a preceding page. of the other machines. 449 to 451 show three models designed and buUt by Percy Pierce. and for laying out the shape of the propeller. may be similar to that of and the rubber strands of the motors are connected to the wire hooks in the same way as those. THE HANDY BOY The details show how two edge sticks. and Figs. fuselage by means The Propellers of this machine are its most remarkable of 14 feature. slightly different The detail of the thrust bearing. the Illinois of In Fig. The frameworks are covered on each side with bamboo fiber paper. Figures 448 to 451 show photographs of some interesting forms of model aeroplanes. being 12 inches in length feet. described. The dimensions of the planes are shown upon the plan (Fig. of the horizontal sticks also of each plane cross one another. oil to and thus reduce the skin re- planes are held to the upper side of the of rubber-bands. member of the Philadelphia Model . of the though from that two machines previously either. and having a pitch while the motors consist of 20 strands of rubber. and how the ribs are doubled around the and are bound with thread at each intersection with the other meinbers of the framework. Figure 447 shows two views of one of the propellers. this model is a machine of very great power and high speed.

2." Kising from the Water.— Arthur Nealv Launching his Model. 6. Fig.— Percy Pierce's " Pelican No./.— Percy Pierce's "Hydro No. 449. 451. . — Percy Pierce's inclosed Bi-Plane Model. 450. Fig. Fig.733 feet. Fig. 448." Record Flight 2.

.

HANDY BOY MODEL AEROPLANES Aero Club and the of the 283 New York Model of workers. The pontoons are usually three in mmiber. 451. 450 has been one of the most successful machines of the biplane type. Aero Club. the inclosed biplane model shown in Fig. and then coated with varnish to make them impervious to water.733 f^^t. has a distance record of over 900 feet. and they have frames of cardboard or bamboo. The best of the hydro-aeroplane models after they from the water have traveled eight or ten . Several Percy Pierce models are the market. or 93 feet farther than one-half mile. and they are recognized generally as the most efficient of ready-built models. From the beginning of model aeronautics. The Hydro-aeroplane is the latest thing in! model making." shown rising and the Pierce " Hydro from the water's surface in from Fig. Percy Pierce has been one most active and no other designer has nearly as many records to his credit. and it is by far the cleverest model yet devised. on which it skims along the water's surface. The Pierce " Pelican No. 6. figured the point of rising. and to the lower ends of this pontoons are attached. Model No. nor devised as many upon successful models. 449. 2. 1912 with a flight of 2. arise feet. covered with paper. At the present writing. It is equipped with a running-gear made of bamboo. The machine itseH does not differ in form from the monoplane " models shown upon preceding pages." shown in flight in Fig. broke the World's distance record on September 21st.

as you will by examining the detail drawing of Fig. This would be a long.^^^^J::^'>^^-i CHAPTER XX THE HANDY BOY'S MOTOR WINDER. and the central pivot wires on which cut-oflf the loops turn. too. there would be the possibility of a mistake now and then in one in the count of the number 452 is of turns made motor or the in the other. tedious operation by hand. see very simple to make. and bend the ends of the loops into hooks. drawing. WeUs of the Illinois Model Aero In this Club has devised. and the advantage apparent when known that rubber-strand motors are wound one-thousand turns or more for each flight. 455. the dotted lines represent the original form of the revolving loop ends of the beater. The loop ends that cross the central pivot-wire ends must be punched for the wire ends to stick through. The Egg-Beater Winder shown the one which Harry It is photograph of Fig. and . made from of this is With one it is of these winders. to cut oflf It is only necessary these loops. AND OTHER IDEAS The of their majority of boys wind the rubber-strand motors model aeroplanes with ingeniously contrived winders egg-beaters. and that the number of turns of one must be exactly the same as that of the other. and then. both motors can be wound simultaneously.

453. 452— An egg-re atek measuring device. .— The 'Wells distance Fig.Fig. motor winder. Fig.— Winding the kubbek-stkand motor with the E(iG-BEATER WINDER. 454.

.

uneven unwinding. While an assist- ant supports the model by the propeller end. especially after the first it row of knots begin to puts the rubber to the least amount of strain by doing this. but makes the knots form in bunches. Then you turn the crank of the winder. bow hooks of the model Wind form. motors should be wound just before the machine's in order not to keep the rubber under a strain longer than . and slip them back slip and '. them on to the hooks of the egg-beater. of course. it is pos- sible to wind the motors much farther. of and thus to up a greater amount motor energy. As I have mentioned store before. produces F1G.— Detail of EggBeater Motor Winder shown in Fig. The flight. coimting the turns as you do so. if the rubber strands are lubricated with glycerine. -452. as the Motors Slowly.- again on to the aeroplane. and uneven winding.THE HANDY BOY'S MOTOR WINDER 28s the ends of the wires must be riveted to keep the hooks in position. Figure 453 shows How the Egg-Beater Winds the Motors.'/. you remove the motor rings from the hooks on the bow of the fuselage. and when you have wound the motors as far as you wish.45S. you slip off the motor rings. Quick winding not only strains the rubber.

shows a diagram of how a measurement is taken with You instnunent consists of a graduated slide stick. is to give the model a slight trifle push that a speed a produced by The the distance of flights measured in various ways by of officials of the several model aero clubs. The best method will start it off at its propellers. Figures 424 and 427 Take for Launching a Model from the The machine should not be thrown forward. by its to 464 show working-drawings will notice that the and Fig. but the ingen- ious device used by the Illinois club. having a metal sight plate on top that contains hair-lines. 456 of its construction. machine losing is and probably under that upsetting. propellers must be held after the motors have been woimd.286 is THE HANDY BOY Take the best possible care of your motors. and you rubber. removing them from the model after use. combining as it does ease and quickness of operation. while Figs. and a on one . will get the greatest efficiency possible out of the The show The hand. necessary. and the invention Harry Wells. and packing them away in a closed box to keep them out of the light. movement would cause resulting in the air. as the too great a disturbance of the its stability. to keep them Position to in check. is the most practical instrxmient for the purpose yet devised. Figure 454 shows in use The Wells Distance Measuring Instrument inventor. whose prize-winning model and home-made egg-beater winder I have shown you. 465 it.

Fig. 459. Figs. 457-459. 454. and ^ inch thick. 460. BOY'S MOTOR WINDER 287 The graduated stick is pivoted to the top of a tripod for support. Fig. the Tripod. with Sight Plate and Hair-Line Slide in PosiFig.feet • I fe^l \ Fig. 456. and is divided off into 80 parts. i>^ inches wide. ^ i " X 5" Carriage-bolt WASHER ^HOLE <i)-WASHER NUT — The Graduated Stick of the Wells Distance-Measuring Device Shown in Fig. The Graduated Stick (A. — End of Graduated Stick. markoffdivisions. 456) is 3 feet -3'-4"- 4 inches long.THE HANDY end.-^inchapart Each division Represents a Distance oF' 25. 457. each ^2 inch in length. 456. — Details Fig. Fig. 460. of tion. by Hnes drawn horizon- . Fig.

Figure 459 shows how the legs are folded for transporting the tripod. pattern for cutting. 457).288 THE HANDY BOY Each of the divisions represents a and at every 100 feet the measureof the stick. A camera tripod may be used to support the graduated stick. to make A is 3-16-inch hole is bored through plate C. measurement of 25 feet. The lower the tripod end of each leg stand solidly. 458) to prevent the nail pivots from splitting the legs. nail the graduated to the top (Fig. which 3 inches square. 456). Sight Plate. so the graduated stick will turn readily. at its through plate C. The Tripod used for the Wells instrument is simple to (Fig. is tapered to a point. is cut out of brass. as indi- tally across the stick. The hole for . bolted to the tripod plate C by means exact center. 462 shows how the ends are bent to form slides to fit the end of the stick. for convenience in reading. off ment is marked upon the edge cated. The upper end of each leg is bound with tin (Fig. which fits on one end of the graduated Figure 461 shows the stick (Fig. and 4 inches long on each and the legs are sticks 4 feet 6 inches long. Place washers between B and C. and Fig. 460). and between The C and the bolt nut. to receive a 3-16-inch by 5-inch carriage-bolt. but. is and the block B. of this bolt. After slipping the bolt through a hole bored stick. if you haven't one 2 The top plate C is a triangular block inches thick. make side. and are pivoted to the side of top plate C with nails.

461 — Details — Details and Fig. Figure 463 shows the pattern for cutting and folding Fig. Fig. iThread(Hair-Line) 2 Fig. Figs. 463 and 464. JL. Figs. is BOY'S MOTOR WINDER 289 made in the exact center of the width of the it and is pierced with a very fine brad because must be very small. this. 462. 460) is also made of brass. 463. l< p' "*^ ' p" THREAD. -loo. of Sight Plate. slide. fold along the dotted lines. of Hair-Line Slide.THE HANDY the sight plate. Figure 464 shows the completed You will notice that one half of the tips shown upon the ends of the pattern . and 462. Cut along the solid lines. The Hair-Line Slide (Fig. 464. 461.

To Take a Measurement with the instrument. fastened through pin-holes pierced through the rim of the upright frame. and drive the ends of the two flags into the ground on a line with the cials of model's landing position (Fig. are required in addition to the measuring instrument. along the graduated stick. exactly i These hair-lines must be exactly vertical. inch apart. just as the %-\m}s\. sticks with a piece of cloth tacked to each. The is flat part of the slide off is yi inch long is (Fig. for connected near their bottom ends with a rope of the proper length to space them exactly 50 feet apart. 463). 463) turn under. and in the exact center of the frame. 465). and that the other haK bend out to catch hold of in sliding the slide back and forth along the and are graduated stick. to slide along the graduated stick. The small graduations are used for determining measurements which come in between the graduations on the stick. divisions on a ruler divide up its i-inch divisions. made through the The spaces and as the stick into between the graduations represent slide slides 5 feet. The connecting rope . two ofiithe meet must follow the model aeroplane. these smaller gradu- ations divide up the 25-foot graduations on the 5-foot divisions. and you will notice that an opening slide directly to the left of these graduations. The hair-lines are pieces of black linen-thread. Two Flags.290 THE HANDY BOY under side of the for tips (Fig. and divided at the right-hand side into five equal parts. each.

465.Fig. 291 . — Diagram Showing how the Distances of Model Flights are Detennined by the Wells Distance-Measuring Device.

and add to this the additional scale number of feet shown upon the small on the sHde.292 THE HANDY BOY should be stretched taut so the flags will be exactly 50 feet apart. The measuring sight plate official should then sight through the the in- on the end and of the graduated stick of slide the hair-line slide strument (Fig.500 the distance was less measured oflf with a 100-foot tape. and have excited almost as much admiration machines. as by dotted lines in Fig. and the flag-sticks are in straight indicated slide lines. uring device at a distance of 1. when the has been so adjusted. the reading at the front end of the slide wiU show the measurement line of the of the distance of If your is model aeroplane from the starting point. take the mark back of it. among the spectators as the larger man-carrying The model machine has also taken a place among machines are now to be seen at moving- moving-picture attractions. and a difference of than 4 inches was found. not set on a division next division the slide graduated stick. 465). To test the accuracy of readings taken with this measfeet. in other words. Now. part of which was no doubt due to sagging of the tape. the hair-lines. Model Aeroplane Contests have become a part of the large aviation meets. untfl the sight hole. . or. 465. and the launching and landing of these little picture shows. back and forth along the stick until the hair-Hnes coincide with the flag-sticks. Every city of any importance has its model aero club.

No trial shall be considered official unless the Model flies over 3. and address before the Contest. admitted). 7. Measurer. The first officials also three or four shall be a Starter. 8. Stability in Model Aeroplanes is a subject about which much is now known. but the power must be self-contained in the model. Guards to keep the starting point and course dear. and every model designer and builder . and Scorer. Each machine competing must be made by the operator (no toys and must be built along practical lines. form or amount of power. and present the essen- requirements for a model meet: 1. There shall be no restrictions as to the design. officials shall The all 2.THE HANDY and many public for each season's BOY'S MOTOR WINDER 293 spirited business men are donating trophies model tournaments. Judge. Trials shall start from a given point indicated by the Starter. age. three named act as a Board of Judges in settling questions and disputes. Each Contestant shall have three trials. The longest flight in the three trials shall be coimted for the prize. rejection of which they deem advisable. (The qualifying distance may be changed by agreement between the Club and Starter. the 4. The Board of Judges shall have the right to reject any entry. 100 feet from the starting point. Each Contestant must register his name. weight. 5. and distance shall be measured in a straight line from the starting point to where the model first touches the ground. provided the Contestants are notified.) 9. The following Rules for Governing Model Contests have been selected from those prepared by the New York Aero Club and the Aero Club of the West Side Department of the New York Young Men's tial Christian Association. 6.

the lateral stability has puzzled designers the most. but this applies only to models driven by propellers in the rear. " There are two directions in which stability and longitudinally. OUver M. or at the rear edge of the planes. " In all models the center of gravity will remain the same. Some model builders advocate using only an elevator. Correct design will make longitudinal stabihty almost inherent. It is well to note in passing that models of this type hold all records. stable. Longitudinal stabUity should be considered because controls the length of the it main frame. bearing the above The followand written by Mr. for the and center of gravity must movement of one must result in a movement of the other in order that to be maintained. The next question is how movements of the center of pressure. Prentice for Fly Magazine.294 THE HANDY BOY all should try to find out he can concerning title. by placing the planes (eleva- and main plane) a good distance apart. This again important because controls the length of rubber strand to be used. if it is its stability is point considered. " Longitudinal stability can be obtained tor or taU. while the center of pressure wiU vary throughout the flight. and explains it clearly: " An aeroplane is said to be in equilibrium when its center of pressure coincides with its center of gravity. viz. the machine may maintain its equilibrium. is a very thorough and practical treatise upon the subject. and by flexing the wings. the center of pressure To keep a heavier-than-air machine coincide. ing article. it.. and thus bringing the to control the center of pressure back to its proper position. " The method by which two planes in model aeroplanes retain longitudinal stability is as follows: If a gust of wind strikes the under side of . In standard machines it is accomphshed by movable surfaces between the planes. thereby decreasing the lift on one side and increasing it on the other. the first " In designing a model. for deficient in this respect it will never first is be it successful. is laterally Of the two.

and rubber-strand motors. These do not reduce the lift any extent. which must be overcome. " Lateral stability in models is greatly affected thereby increasing the weight of the model and requiring a greater expenditure of power. necessitating a larger plane. it BOY'S MOTOR WINDER it 295 has a tendency to force up. pushes it up. The side lifted up by the wind then have a greater dihedral and therefore less lift. One of the methods used is the dihedral angle. is the of the plane to use of a plane with a small inverted curve. will tilting the other side down. The elevator should always it have a greater angle of incidence than the main plane. but to do this it has to force up the large plane. while the other side win exert a greater lift and tend to restore the machine to lateral equilibrium. inversely. " In several of the flat should not be carried to most successful models. A curved surface will give a lift by the twisting of the They exercise a strong unbalancing tendency. and they do damp out oscillations much quicker than any other. as it will surely be a success. the less will be the lift. but this is carried to too great an extreme in many cases. " StiU another method that has not been tried to any extent. if the other features are worked out weU in proportion. " Another method that is extensively used is that of placing upturned wing tips on the extremities of the planes. A which gives a greater lift and thereby holds the model gust striking the upper side of the elevator will have the same effect.THE HANDY the elevator. The dihedral angle acts well. in equilibrium. This applies only to models of which the planes have curved surfaces. The greater the dihedral. but imless it is carefully worked out it will have a tendency to make the model circle. when flat. while a horizontal surface will not. the main plane is placed and the elevator is given a positive angle." . but extremes. "Two propellers revolving in opposite directions is probably the best method for obtaining lateral stability. " If a model designer and builder looks well after the stability of his machine. "The method by When a gust of wind thereby which the dihedral strikes effects stability is as follows: it under one side of the plane.

picnic grounds. floating about at the end of a cord' or wire connected to a kite for line. but Mr. is One of the practical purposes to kite flying is now appKed.* *4:^H^ CHAPTER XXI HANDY BOY KITES Tailless kites have supplanted the of popularity. Conyne has kindly perits mitted the publication of a complete description of 296 con- . The Conyne Kite of Chicago. advertising banners. full-size and many other contrivances. and fair grounds. is Another advertising scheme which they are used releasing bundles of handbills from great heights to cause them to scatter over a wide territory. flying line. fliers. Conyne one of the best forms of kites to use for carryits ing flags and banners. on account of great lifting power. and pull strong enough and streamers which is to make possible the sending aloft of flags on the used. invented by Silas J. dummy acrobats performaeroplanes. ing upon trapese-bars. favorable for kite flying to discover high in the above the principal business thoroughfares. 466). and and it is for which the taiUess kite advertising. tail variety in degree as they and are now recognized as the better form of fly higher and steadier. a common sight on a day air. This is a patented kite. is (Fig.

Mr. the third stick of the cell framework (Fig. 469. the is most practical way to cut them with a saw it is Fig. for the same purpose. and 3. — The Conyne Kite. so the . Figure 467 shows the dimensions of sticks A and B. Fig. straight-grained wood. but for sticks of the length of those required for this kite.000 it feet above the point at which view. 470.580 feet. to receive the framing string. KITES 297 and granted you handy boys liberty to make as many for your own use as you wish. notch the ends of stick B. 468). as shown in Fig. disappeared from this flight over For 1 1 . which points are located by measurements in connecting cords cannot slip when tied. as shown in Fig. 466. 467. 471) at the points where they are to lap one another. Con)Tie has flown his Conyne (C0-9) kite to an altitude of 7. or draw-knife. The Kite Sticks may be cut from any light-weight. or a trifle tmder 1}^ miles. because hard to whittle long pieces without spHtting or cutting them too thin in places.HANDY BOY struction. Short sticks can be whittled out with a sharp jack-knife. Notch sticks A near the ends. is Stick C.000 feet of line were used. and notch the sides of sticks A and B (Fig. of the same size as sticks A.

or a strong wrapping-twine. 473.o'^ H 9" Tk XfoR-PLANE^x-^ CLOTH COVERING Fig. 469. 472 10 Cloth -Covering FOR TriamgularCells E Fig. — Patterns B Fig. should be used for Framing the Sticks. with wire or string Fig. temporarily. Fig. of Covering Pieces. — Notch and Sides of Fig. 472. 467. 470. — Notch Ends B like this.298 THE HANDY BOY Picture-wire. of Stick . Fig. of Sticks Sticks A B like this. 471. then connect the ends of sticks A. and 473. — Framework of the Con3Tie Kite. . Figs.2'_. 468. — How the Covering is Put On. First attach sticks A to B. — Notch Ends A like this.

then pass the ends through the framework. 299 The distance inches. and glue them neatly to the opposite face of the cloth. run them through the the notch in notches in the ends of stick B. one at each end. tie to Figure 467 shows the framework completed thus far.HANDY BOY KITES fastened around the notches at the ends. 467. and Tack the cellFig. and tack the long edge of the plane strips D to . Covering the Framework. between the centers of the ends should be exactly as 11 shown in Fig. The ConjTie kite sold in stores is supplied with a linen . 4-oz. 466). with an equal projection each side of the sticks. this 3 inches below the upper end of the and the lower end 10 inches above the lower end (Fig.sticks A. or any strong dress- lining material is best for covering the planes closely D and the woven lightcells E (Fig. Figure 472 shows the pattern for the plane strips D. Tie another piece of wire or string to the upper end of each stick A. though almost any weight cloth that your mother can spare you will do. 468). and tack to the ends of stick (Fig. Cambric. tacks for tacking the cloth. Tie the upper end of stick. 473 shows the strips for the cells E. covering strips to sticks A. turn over the framework. Use about No. With the cell strips in place. The Bridle is attached to stick C. then lap the shorter edges over the framing wire or string. and the lower end of sticks A. C 468). Planes D should be allowed to bag a little in the center.

Conyne. whatever string you do buy. Be sure to test the it. Kite. and by exercising a little ingenuity you can devise dummy figures with wire frameworks covered with cloth. 474. not break when your kite Mr. it wiU a light breeze. and it has good lifting qualities. but don't is it when it it. Fig. shown in Figs. Sticks. and 475. . The Kite Three feet is a good length for a mediumis sized Malay. to send skyward. there no wind. gives the following it: advice about flying " This kite expect is a good to fly flier. his of THE HANDY BOY The kind is of cord which a mason uses for strength so plumb-hnes also good.300 Flying-Line. and is The Malay one of the simplest kinds to It is a fly in make. — Flying the Malay Kite. before using be certain that it will you is may aloft. very steady flier. or try to fly in a gale. Spruce the best material for the sticks. in speaking of his kite. was the first suc474 cessful form of tailless kite." You boys can have a great deal of fun flying these kites with flags and Japanese lanterns suspended from their lines. It Don't run with wiU fly from your hand.

straight-grained 301 wood will serve the purpose. which wiU be a trifle less than 1-7 of the length of the stick. as length. rather than narrow and Fig. thick. shown in The ends of the sticks may be notched to receive if the framing-string. bow-stick to the vertical at its center upon the back of your Framing the Sticks. it correction made. at a distance from the top of the vertical stick equal to i-io of its length. Cut a notch in the stick near each end to hold the ends of the string. and this must be carefuUy determined. Test the bow^stick by knife- and any necessary balancing blade. 479. Secure the bow-stick to the vertical stick with brads and thread. shown in The proper bend Fig. The center of the length of the bow-stick must also be its center of balance. as marked upon Fig. but you will get better results you drive a carpet tack into each end. before fastening the stick. for the bow-stick is i-io of — The Malay Kite. 478. the length of the stick. 476. as Fig. and tie the string to these .HANDY BOY KITES but any soft. and make them thin shown in Figure 477 shows The Bow-Stick with the bow-string attached. as Fig. Cut the two sticks of equal and wide. 475. plus yi of that measurement. 477.

478. but. You wiU nothat the tice by Fig. 480. Figs. Fig. — Details Kite Fig. The strong. 476). Attach the Bridle at the intersection of the sticks. instead of it tight. in the MEASUREMENJ and paste same man- ner that you would put on the covering of any kite. held to one side to the point it wiU reach A (Fig. hght-weight. Bend-Bow Distance-of rfe ^Length oF'STicKPLusi-op " ^ : Lap the edges of the paper. none is as popular as the rectangular box-kite.302 (Fig. 477. F1G. as shown it Fig. The Box-Kite. of the in of and at the lower end — Framework the Malay Kite. and make the proper length so when of Sticks. It approaches . stretching to have a allow it little fullness. THE HANDY BOY With the string tied securely. or a heavy tissue-paper should be used for Covering the Framework. — Plan Showing how Bow-Stick Bent. 475 paper goes upon the outer face of the bow-stick. brown paper now pjg so generally used for wrapping-paper makes an excellent covering. Tie the kite string at this point. vertical stick. of is Fig. A Kght-weight wrapping-paper. 476. Fig. 475.476. 480). 478-480. there will be no chance for the sticks to twist out of position. Of the more pretentious kites.

or If not. and whitewood. 483). thick Cut the four horizontal sticks ^ inch and ^ inch wide. be purchased ready-made in a number of but they are not cheap. cents get it for the mere asking. are Sticks. 481. Fig. you Uve near a you can get liunber yard or planing-mill. by 36 inches long (A. is not difficult. light-weight wood If of straight grain if may be used easier to obtain. possibly strips of Fig. The Side Frames. . for from the waste heap. a few them ripped out of a board. proportions. and it will pay any boy to take the time necessary to sizes. you will find easy enough to cut them yourself with a sharp rip-saw. the best materials for The Kite though any strong. and is one of the steadiest of fliers. just the size you require — Raising the Box-Kite. Figures 481 and 482 show a kite of scientifically devel- oped spruce. While able more their con- struction requires consider- work than the it single-plane type of kite. Pine.HANDY BOY KITES 303 nearest to the form of the biplane aeroplane of any kite yet devised. Box-kites may make one.

as shown in Fig. be careful to set sticks sticks B at right angles to A.3°4 THE HANDY BOY and the four upright connecting sticks {B. — Make Two Side Frames like this. and cUnching the projecting ends. these sticks. using slender brads for the purpose. Fig. Sticks to the horizontal ones 6 inches from the ends of the In fastening latter. 483. and 10 inches long. 483) }i inch thick. jr ^= Fig. 482. }4 inch wide. 483. . — The Box-Kite. Tack the upright Fig.

Assembling the Kite. the proper measurement around the of the finished kite.HANDY BOY KITES in Fig. lay 305 After fastening together the side-frame sticks as shown them for the aside until you have prepared The Covering cloth will End Cells. hemmed along each edge to prevent raveling and to If of paper. |< If of cloth. The cell bands for the kite illustrated should be 10 inches wide and 5 feet 9 inches long. 483. or paste the ends of the paper bands. and hold them . be folded over a light framing-cord and pasted. — Cross-Section of the Box-Kite. 484. they should be 24" H Fig. Sew together the ends inside cloth bands. lapping them so the measurement around the wiU be exactly sticks 5 feet 8 inches. Slip the bands over the side frames. the edges should make a of the firm edge. after it has been put on. The light-weight brown wrapping-paper now so commonly used is good covering material. A hght-weight muslin Cheesefill or tough paper should be used for this material. do if you give it a coat of thin varnish to up the pores and make it air-tight. spread the frames to their fullest extent.

Coat the lashings with glue thread will hold its winding them. 484). 483 the proper position for them. fit. their centers with thread. The notched ends lashed of the diagonals should be with thread to keep them from Fig. as Bind the braces together at shown after in Figs. will keep the ends of the braces from slipping away from the uprights B. 482 and 484. . Then measure proper sticks length for the diagonal braces C (Fig. There are several methods of Attaching the Bridle. but that shown in Fig. 485. with the bridle underneath. 482 is generally considered the kite is most satisfactory. as shown and 485. 485. The cloth or paper bands should be fastened to each hori- zontal frame stick with two tacks placed near the edges of the bands. as trifle shown will in Fig. Of course.3o6 in this position THE HANDY BOY by means sticks of sticks sprung in temporarily the between upright B. splitting. — Detail Lashings of thread around of Diagonal Braces. which is in Figs. the frame sticks A. These should be notched at their ends to over the sticks A. and the position better. In this way the frames will keep the cloth or paper bands stretched tight. and they should be a long so they be slightly bow-shaped when put in place. the flown other side up.

Then make two holes through each. 487. The ends of the bridle should be brought together and tied at a distance of about 3 feet from the kite. the stick winder cannot be operated as reel. Fig. — A Simple Kite-Reel. shown in Fig. 487. 486. a good reel cannot take the best of care of his short stick on which the string figure 8 is a is The wound in the form of a but good enough winder for the cotton string used kites. 486. boring the holes through both pieces at the same time to . Cut Fig. then the kite-line can also be tied to the ring. the two upright pieces about 8 inches long. Besides. of the outer edge of the other and the four-point attach- ment has cords attached at the four outer corners of the kite. Fig. 307 three-point attachment has cords fastened at the two and a third cord to the center cell. the necessary amount of kite-hne is too much to handle easily. for flying small hexagonal and diamond-shaped for the larger kind that require a heavy cord. quickly as a regular Figure 486 shows A Simple Kite-Reel is that quickly made.HANDY BOY KITES The outer corners of one cell. as Fig. It is a good plan to connect the bridle ends to a fancy-work ring. 487. flier Kite-Reels are as important to the kite line reel is to the fisherman. — Detail of End. and bevel off their ends. as the fish- and the boy who doesn't own string.

and with a can-opener (Fig. saw off the four comers diagonally. In operating the is reel. Slip the crosspieces through the uprights. 489). —A Good Hand Kite-Reel. dowel-sticks. If you just do not wish to take the trouble to cut them round. size baking-powder can for the winding-spool. disks 5 inches in diameter for the These may be cut out of thin wood. cut a hole i inch in diameter through each Then cut two wooden spool flanges. 488. locate the center of the cover and bottom end. for the crosspieces.3o8 THE HANDY BOY them opposite one another. Kite-Reel that can be held in one is A Good Hand hand and >^-lb. Bore a i-inch hole through the center of each to the exact center of one disk. making the pieces octagonal. and the reel turned with hand-over-hand movement. and allow one end of each crosspiece to project (on opposite sides) for handles. Get a Fig. Tack the can cover . 488. or sticks in diameter. whittled to about yi inch flag-staffs. piece. operated by the other shown in Fig. one handle sort of a is held in each hand. get Use old chair rounds.

489 and 490. it the spool turns is a piece of broom-handle lo inches or so in length (Fig. -^ Details of Hand Kite-Reel. 490. keep the cover from working and the spool wiU be completed. for pins to in its proper place. Fig.HANDY BOY KITES as 309 shown in Fig. Wooden pegs can be cut for For a winding handle. 490). fit and the can to the exact center of the other. Bore keep in the positions shown. 489. pivot a spool on the right-hand . The handle upon which two holes through the spool pins. and glue a strip of joint to cloth or heavy paper around the off. Then the cover on the can. Figs.

491. have an assistant to give tage of it to. of this Kite-Reel comes in. it will go wherever you and always be within easy Figure 491 shows one simple to make. 488. upon the ground. 491. This is where the advan- A Body reach. is The reel spool made If. 492. Fig. of Axle Support. however. unless you Fig. With go. — A Body — Detail 493. 488. 493. you wish a larger winding-spool. it strapped about the waist. off as The inner flange of the spool handle may be cut shown in Fig. or to when it pulls very strong. — Detdl Kite-Reel. Fig. Fig.3IO THE HANDY BOY by means of disk a nail or screw. of Crank. 492. larger can than the baking-powder you can use a — . reel and then there is nothing do but drop the hand Fig. Fig. Both hands are frequently needed handle to it to haul in string quickly enough to bring a kite around into the wind. similar to that of the hand shown can in Fig.

492i Fasten this to the ends of the A by nailing the strips D to them as shown . a small iron or leather washer over the An old belt or shawl-strap should be used for strapping the kite-reel to your body. and 2 inches wide at the narrow end. large so the axle wiU turn Cut the wUl be connecting crosspieces B of the right length so there about ^4 inch between the ends of the spool and supports A. axle supports in Fig. Cut the crank stick C as shown in Fig. bore a hole for the axle end to fit in. 4 inches wide at the wide end. slip nail.HANDY BOY KITES a tomato can or syrup can 311 of the — and increase the diameter axle. is If the hole in the spool too large for the head of the nail used for pivoting. 491 and 492) should be about 7 inches long. so the spool turns with the The axle must be fastened to the axle. the wooden flanges accordingly. 493. and pivot a spool in place for a handle. Instead of the spool turning axle upon the broom-handle spool. bore another hole in the edge for a set-screw to hold the stick in place on the axle end. ends a trifle Cut the holes to receive the axle easily. supports A (Figs.

less — including a supply Nails. because having learned resourcefulness. is he can quickly adapt himself to new surroundings. saw. similar to the duffle-bags shown in Figs. 312 . The suggestions in the illustrations wiU be found help- ful in either the home camp. more smoothly for the this reason things usually progress handy boy than himself useful sponsibilities.and staples may be carried in tin cans. nails of several sizes — tacks. axe. to take along an hammer. screw-hooks. and rope. but they wiU pack with waste space in small bags made of canvas. hooks. wire. and generally able to discover a make a For pretty good guess way out of difficulties. and to as to how things should be done. isi or a camp in the woods or at the lake. The Wall Tent the most coinmonly used form of tent. screw-eyes. boy who has never had to make at home. 518 and 519. and therefore should not of spikes. staples. . jack-knife. and has been allowed to shirk refor the You will think of lots of things to fail make while in camp. for tools and working material. The handy boy camp soon overcomes the awkwardness of the tenderfoot.CHAPTER XXII HANDY BOY CAMP CRAFT 'Mi. cord.

old sheeting can be used. and one which will serve as a good shelter. on account woven. but when spending-money is limited this is a good deal to pay out for a single piece of equipment. in Fig. after giving it a season's trial. or gunny-sack.00. 494. You might not think that burlap it would shed the water. and on account of the lightness of the material. 494 I am showing A Home-Made Wall Tent that is easily made. —A Home-Made Wall Tent. Canvas or burlap can be used for the cloth material. where you can take chances on the weather. or if you are going to camp Fig. the tent packs closer and . but it will. in the back yard. of being so loosely satisfaction.HANDY BOY CAMP CRAFT 313 and one of these 7 feet by 7 feet in size can be purchased in most locaUties for about $6. I quote of a very the following from his article: " The tent is made light quality of burlap. therefore. and has been used to great A writer in the National Sportsman claims a number of distinct advantages for The Burlap Tent.

and have covered the front and back walls none within. you can have perfectly fresh air within. With the ordinary canvas under similar conditions. The flies know is the storm coming. too.314 lighter THE HANDY BOY than any canvas or duck tent. less resistance. I scrape a bare place in the it is when and make a fire smoke going out through the top of the tent and making no inconvenience whatever. Split them open. . I can sit here in my tent and look out through the waUs and see what is going on outside. — but mine needed no it. and sew them together in as large If a piece as is required for the tent covering. " After a windstorm a few nights ago. the my private myself. Then you will find that when you keep this tent shut up tight. — one of them offered fixing because the wind had partly passed through and had thus " I have the benefit of the cool morning breezes." you can get some potato-sacks. because the fresh air goes right through the walls and top of the tent. tent you would nearly smother raining. but I have my tent closed. every canvas me had to be straightened up it had blown down. middle of the tent there floor. for transporting. yet be perfectly and get breakfast. and light that is robbed of aU disagreeable glare on accoimt of the brown color of the burlap. they may be used in a pinch. I am enjoying tent at an occasional glance through the front an approaching storm. While I am writing this. knowing that I flap of my am fuUy protected is when it arrives. because tent around thickly. " Then.

— of the supports. in the back yard. strip of canvas or burlap is tacked to the tw. 315 Figure 495 shows how four stakes are driven into the ground at the four corners of the tent.o sides one end of framework. while the front should be pieces made in two and be parted in the middle. on a or on a be. be used for the vertical and 496. and two poles nailed across of the wall tent their tops. . Clothes-posts may Figs. as shown in Fig.^-•^ rope stretched tween two trees. 496. 495 if Fig. shown of the as in Fig.HANDY BOY CAMP CRAFT The Wall Supports. The wall framework should be braced at the corners with ropes fastened to the framework and to stakes driven into the ground.e one piece of cloth. you pitch your tent work. The Upper Portion Tent may at be the supported ridge either ridge-pole. Tack the lower edges of the covering to the side poles of the wall frame- The back of the tent should be enclosed with th. 496. 494. Then a Fig. 495. sewed to the upper covering and to lower wall strip. to support the walls shown and this in Fig. The Wall Supports Wall Tent. 494.

The illustration shows how a fire can be built in front of the tent in chilly weather. Pieces — one piece and pitched three roof. Tapes must be provided along the front and rear edge. —A Lean-To Tent and Fire Screen. of the large piece. or and tapes. and on of the the' bottom edge end pieces. or as a rain shield during a light shower.the front and two triangular end pieces. Of course. for fastening the tent to stakes. to the ridge-pole. if you can find . The of illustration shows how one end of the ridge-pole may be fastened to a tree. is a popular form of tent. is This the backwoods- method of keeping warm. with The Lean-To Tent shown that a flap in front may be raised to a horizontal position as a sun shield in the daytime. with A it Fire Screen of green logs behind to reflect heat into the tent. and along the center. 497. and the other in the crotch on the end a pole driven into the ground. or tapes alone. may be provided for connecting them.3i6 THE HANDY BOY in Fig. to form |. and to the horizontal pole on the front flap. 497. The eyelets may be sewed together. Make the LeanTo Tent in Three man's Fig.

of the right width and length to slip over the ends of the pole supports and meet at the center. 499. you can use clothes-poles props. comers in and rest two poles the crotches of these stakes. if it.HANDY BOY CAMP CRAFT two trees close 317 enough together. straw or dried . you surely will regret Maybe you have a tent. to which the edge of the front fastened. These form the cot supports. First drive four stakes in their upper ends into the ground. and extend these If over to a tree trunk. two bags should be made of canvas or heavy burlap. for. the ridge-pole can be Tie a rope to each end of the pole is fastened across them. 494 This trench wiU catch the surface rain water before floods into your tent. you are caught unprepared. for a drain (Figs. A Backwoodsman's Camp this Figure 498 shows a modification of tj^e of cot which makes a very with crotches comfortable bed. Do not put off this trenching. small cot which you can use in your this will but if you are going some distance be incon- venient to carry. and will carry it off. xmless you have a team to transport yovir equipment. you pitch for this tent in the tent-poles back yard. or else use a couple of poles having crotches on one end. your and After pitching your tent. For the covering. at the four of the spot selected for the cot. with an opening on the side where the ground and 497). Cot. it is lowest. to prop up the flap. You can have a cot to sleep on nevertheless. as shown in Fig. be sure to Dig a Trench Around the Outside. Stuff these bags with hay.

Cot. to form the sides slanting the logs in this fashion. small them at the narrow end wide end. 498. and the other ends about of the fireplace. — A Comfortable Camp 499. spreading it out evenly. Figure 500 shows the backwoodsman's scheme for Making an Open the ground side Two logs are placed upon by with one pair of ends close together Fig. of is One advantage form of bags.3i8 THE HANDY BOY and you will grass. 498. Fig. 12 inches apart. have ag com- fortable a mattress as one could wish for. 499. packing equip- making up the covering material that they to in the may be used as duffle-bags for ment and from camp. side. of the and larger ones at the For suspending . Fig. utensils ca£i be set across fireplace. Fireplace. of the Cot. — The Pole Supports By Fig.

501 and 502. a horizontal pole. 502). By making the pothooks in short lengths. Fig. on one lug-pole. S02- Fig. upon which to hang pothooks.HANDY BOY CAMP CRAFT pails 3^9 and other utensils having handles. SOI. either short pieces of tree branches. pos- . with a fork left end large enough to hook over the nails driven in near the other and one or two end upon which to hang be bent out of wire it is utensils (Fig. known as a lug-pole. The pothooks may be y i) I Fig. s°0' —A Camp Figs. 501). and the other end supported in the crotch of a pole driven into the ground. or they may (Fig. soo. should extend over the fireplace from one end to the other. Fig. illustration The be shows how one end of the lug-pole may spiked to a tree. Fireplace. — Pothooks.

withit. wire hook The end of the crane can be notched to catch the pail or kettle handle. one length of stove-pipe. 503. that shown in 503 furnishes fire. A ing Sheet-Iron Camp Stove like that shown in Fig.50. especially when the .^ camp in little is to remain one place. These stoves. can be purchased as cheap as $1.ii/«-- Campfire Crane iW Fig. by hooking two or three together. -A Sheet-Iron Camp Stove. — A Campfire like Crane.. or a small may be fastened to it.320 sible to THE HANDY BOY hang utensils at any height above the fire that you wish. '.. 504. out burning A . and you can thus hang cooked food at the proper height to keep it warm. Fig. great and its convenience generally repays one for the trouble of taking it along.. another simple method of suspending food over a Oftentimes a small sapling will be in such a position that it can be bent over for such a crane.. 504 makes camp cook- much easier than the open campfire. . with Fig.

mush. and allow it to bum down into hot embers. Fig. — Section - Fig. Fig.HANDY BOY CAMP CRAFT The Camp meal being Fireless it 321 Cooker it is becoming more and more popular. oatmeal. or other food. because makes in possible to cook the supper in it during the day. The Cooker Pit. 505 and 507).s°7- Your pot of beans. is Here the way and the cooker made. While it is cooking. Then quickly to set in. raking a hole in the embers for it and fill in around and over the utensil with coals from your large fireplace. S07. must be started upon your campfire. 506. transfer your cooking utensil. s°6. of the camping party to remain starting camp to tend the the food made ready and placed upon the day's is within the cooker before trip. 505. without requiring any one fire. Fireless through the Camp Cooker. kettle of potatoes. when ready. . into the cooker. Dig a pit in a high and dry part 2 of your camp ground. -The Cooker Cover. handles (Fig. line the sides of with 506). about bottom and 2 feet square and this hole feet deep. stones (Fig. Then batten boards to to- several gether form a slip COVER STONt' cover that will down into the hole (Figs. LININ& and fasten four pieces of wire to for 507)it Fig. ^^<^. Fig. 505. build a good wood fire in your cooker pit.

If this creek is it is a simple matter to throw two logs across at the desired point of crossing. you wiU probably want Pier. 508. The end railing uprights should be driven into the ground. and the space between this and the ground level shoiold be fiUed with earth. railing do not require a are expected it is on such a bridge. 509. but if girl visitors a good plan to provide a railing like that shown in Fig. A Httle creek is often in the vicinity of is a camp and a handy crossing not very wide. A and a short one can be built on the plan of the . 509. to make the insulation as perfect as possible. it not always near at hand. and a pair of stakes driven into the ground on the other side of the log ends. — Snap-Hook and Cord for Refrigerator.322 THE HANDY BOY fitted The wooden cover should be down over the top. Fig. A Log Bridge. — A Log Bridge for a Creek. If your camp is located near a lake. and these. 508. should be spiked to the logs to keep them from roUing. Boys Fig. Fig. site.

or which you are camped. to hold a wash-basui and soap. erator This refrig- should be located near shore. A stone placed upon the covers of the paUs wiU keep them from bobbing around and upsetting. 323 Of course the outer ends of the logs must be supported upon a couple of stout sticks driven a foot or more into the lake bottom and connected at the top with a whatever stream of water near crosspiece. and to each of these nails fasten a piece of stout cord with a snap-hook tied to its end (Fig. The cords should be adjusted to the proper lengths to allow pails to become partly submerged in the water. The snap-hooks wUl do away with having to untie the cord from the handles when removing the paUs. should 510). is a camp convenience Fig. and drive a few to hold towels trunk and wash-rags. creek. 509). Drive a few nails into the side of your log pier or bridge. that (Fig. . for A Refrigerator. 510. Use the lake. in the shade of a tree or reeds.HANDY BOY CAMP CRAFT creek bridge. Fasten your mirror nails into the tree above the basin. A Wash-Shelf bracketed to a tree trunk. not be overlooked — A Handy Camp Wash-Shelf.

pits into which to throw camp An Fig. ^^^. tJ Fig. fireless such as digging the hole for the cooker. it . '^^^^^ of twisted green branch to the ^ with wire for a Shovel.j^ and fill in around it.324 THE HANDY BOY is A Camp Broom condition. and the sand or earth allowed to fiU in beneath it. and as these are cheap any boy can afford to carry one. lighting thiags in and about the tent after dark. when you do not wish to bother with your lantern.^. and digging refuse. Fig. Electric Flash-Light is a very handy for locating —A article to have in camp Camp Broom. 511 shows how easUy one may be made with a stick for a handle. Set the candle in the center of S13— a Camp the ^^ Can. and will handy for many small jobs. for A come Camp in Shovel necessary trenching around your tent. by binding a or cord. and some evergreen boughs bound to one end of cord. can be puUed up out of the can. it with sand Candle-stick. If evergreen trees are this with wire or not at hand. handle. 511. necessary to keep the grounds in a tidy and Fig. Figure 513 shows how to make an piece A Camp empty side Candle-Stick out of tin can. ^^ support As fast as the candle burns down. use some weeds or long grasses. 512. for the is broom.

515.CHAPTER XXIII HANDY BOY SCOUT CRAFT SSSkT'-* One of the finest achievements of the Boy Scout moveboys who have ment has been the awakening fields. 514). forests. and the organization of " hikes " and camping trips to take there. and if you can get your mother or do the sewing on her sewing-machine. Therefore. them best " hikes " usually require a day's time. and the best scheme to have a regular knap- sack that can be strapped upon the back army-fashion (Fig. so the " limch proposition must be taken care of or the " hikers The win be fairly starved before the tramp is over. 32s Any . sister to and 517. you will be relieved of the biggest part of the work. of interest in " hikes " to the city and mountains among spent most of their Hves surrounded by paved streets. as you will by Figs. A see Scout Knapsack not difl&cult to make. in which to carry is it. with Httle or no opportunity to visit nature's workshops. 516. food must is be " packed " in some other way. and a coat pocket of other things to permit of crowding in too full for enough lunch a hungry boy. Of course a he needs is boy can't carry a bag of lunch in his hand. for both hands for other purposes.

Tapes should be stitched to the flap so they and pocket-front of the large pocket. ends. shown in Fig. In cutting the cloth. All sewing must be done with very stout linen thread. not find the sewing hard to For Material. 515. do.326 THE HANDY BOY will handy boy. outside of the given measurements. khaki. back. however. —A stitching as Scout Knapsack. about yi inch should be allowed aU around. The dotted the hnes cloth indicate is where to be folded. for the making of seams. 314. and to prevent the fraying is of edges it best to bind them with tape or braid. keep the pocket shut. The pocket upon the inside of the jiap may be di- vided into three compart- ments. with all of the necessary dimensions. and flap. or denim. by making rows of Fig. Figure 517 shows the pattern for cutting the front. Small pock- may be tied to . use brown or white canvas.

517.HANDY BOY SCOUT CRAFT ets 327 to hold small articles may be made by sewing pieces of inside. 519. 518 and 519. Fig. Fig. — Knife Sheath. 518. tape. — Front View Knapsack with Flap Opened. — Pattern Figs. Fig. S16. 515. 516. of of for Fig. These may be made out of strips of canvas. Fig. canvas to the sides of the knapsack. and stitched along both . 520. and a button sewed to the under side of the bottom of the knapit on to (Fig. 515). be stitched to the end of the sack to button flap of the knapsack. — DuflBe-Bags. Fig. Fig. 315. Knapsack with Flap Closed. Figure 516 shows the shoulder-straps. Fig. 520. — Back View Cutting the Cloth. Fig. Fig. doubled. 5x7. with three or four buttonholes A in doubled should worked it.

knotted at the ends. and stitch along one side and across the bottom. should be used. is lunch. or five rows of cross-stitching. width from 3 to Army knapsacks have four of these bags." it is Packing the likely that Knapsack. out heavy canvas. take a piece of light-weight canvas or drilling. the matter of packing not important. measuring about 5 inches in depth. Knife Sheaths should be of leather or pieces of made as shown in Fig. except that the articles that might rattle together should be wrapped. so they can be readjusted at any time to fit over heavy clothing. Then. For a short " hike. then string. Figures 518 and 519 show two small duffie- bags of the form with which knapsacks are usually supplied. But if you take a small outfit along. They little are provided to hold small articles. 520. 516. and stitch them at their centers to the back of the knapsack. in the positions shown in Fig. will carry not of you much more than a package and fork. for make a hem across the top for a draw- which a piece of heavy cord. and varying in To make one. to make a very of the tapes can be sewed together when you have determined the proper length to reach over your shoulders and down under your arms. edges to Cut them about 2 inches wide and 30 inches long. knife and cup. it will be necessary to . Duffle-Bags. of twice the width desired for the finished bag.328 THE HANDY BOY make them firm. The sewing The ends of these straps should be reenforced with four strong job. and keep them from scattering about. unless you add a tin plate. or they may be tied as shown. 5 inches.

if it be reached more quickly there than were packed in the knapsack. If you wear a soft fatigue Fi«- hat similar to the regulation boy-scout hat. With a little practice. careful distribution of articles and must be placed in the front of and pointed the knapsack so they solid will not rub against you and " wear a hole in your back.HANDY BOY SCOUT CRAFT pack carefully. flat. . you can and if learn to suck water from a creek while lying the stream has a strong current to it. it is only necessary to turn your head facing up-stream and allow the water to run into your mouth." Flexible A Rubber Cup is the most convenient form of hike. of There are a number Getting ways of a Drink without a Cup. the handiest way by slipping the handle It can on to your belt." because it drinking cup to carry folded compactly. or on to an end of your suspender. 521). the top of the this S2i--You can Drink from your Scout Hat. in order to get everything in 329 load carry easily. the water can be allowed to run out over the hat-brim into your mouth (Fig. when on a " stuck in can be your pocket within convenIn case you have of carrying it is Such a cup costs 15 cents. crown can be pushed down cup-shaped. nothing but a tin cup. and ient reach. and with partially filled with water. and make the The weight must be evenly balanced by a heavy things.

— How to is Fold a Paper Drinking-Cup. be 8 or 9 inches square {Step A over to the opposite corner 3. used in the woods. very necessary for the . completed. 522. 522. comer E on the opposite and the cup side {Step 6). in Fig.33° THE HANDY BOY Folded Paper Cup is A extremely simple to make. and every native of the wilds signs. every is Indian. Every woodsman. spread the upper edges apart. famUiar with these and every frequenter to use trail of unfamiliar territory should in order that know how steps and how to read them. an understanding of which belongs in the education of every boy scout. fold corner fold corner B over to the position shown in Step C over to the position shown in Step 4. for folding it will when you know how. and turn down Fig. It is he can so " blaze " a that he will be able to retrace his back to his starting point. in the mountains. The diagrams fold the corner one are shown Tear a piece of paper so 1). and on the prairie. turn down the upper comer D as in Step 5. {Step 2). There are various Signs of the Trail.

vertically.. Figure 523 shows the common forms of blazes. mean " Warning! " or a caution to be watchful for danger ahead. the silver sides of the leaves of the broken twigs are toward you. That is the woodsman's trail marking method. where the bark chopped oflf tree trunks an axe. and in Fig. side of is The " Straight Ahead! " blaze trail. to indicate directions. with the is meaning of each. 525. in Fig. and the method of trail marking is that.HANDY BOY SCOUT CRAFT leader of a party on a " hike " to 331 know how to indicate to those following him. chopped upon the the trunk facing the the " Turn to Right! " blaze cut to the right side of a " Straight Ahead! " blaze. The Knotted-Grass Signs shown in Fig. while three blazes in a row. and are thus easily distinguished fromfthe surroimding leaves. to be able to read them You have by means fom: of all heard of is Blazed Trails. or where there are no trees to blaze. are used in marking a trail across a prairie. with the broken ends pointed away from the direction to be taken. he is making. and naturally it is of equal importance for the followers aright. " short cuts. perhaps some distance behind and out of his vision. the turns. in re- turning. The Twig Signs consist bushes broken as shown advantage of this of ends of tree branches or 524. and a " Turn to Left! " blaze is cut to the left of a " Straight Ahead! " blaze. 526 are used in simi- The Stone-Heap Signs shown ." etc.

Signs of the Trail. Fig. 526. 332 . — Stone Heaps. — Snapped Twigs or Branches.— Knotted Bunches 526. Fig. TURN TO LEFT! of WARNING! — Tree Blazes. Fig. 524. STRAIGHT TURN TO ahead! RIGHT! TURN TO LEFT! WARNING! Straight turn to ahead! right! STRAIGHT TURN TO RIGHT! AHEAD! Fig.*•!» TURN TO LEFT! WARNING! STRAIGHT TURN TO RIGHT! AHEAD! Fig. Grasses. 525. 523. ••K_ott.

527. or other guide near you. 527. M.hand and 12 o'clock is south. in Fig. You all it is will notice that there is a similarity in the code of these sets of signs. Thus. 333 and in the mountains. the o'clock 12 mark of Using a Watch for a Compass. unknown with no to keep stream. then haK-way be- tween the point of the hour the hand and South. FiG. railroad. when you need it In such an emergency you can use Your Watch as a Compass. the compass has been left behind. but there usually comes a time. Then half-way between the hoiu. and all after learning the code of one easy to apply it to four sets of signs. Hold the watch with the hour hand pointed towards the sun. when badly. at 4 P. it is necessary to take the point half-way between the hour hand and 12 o'clock. to always in Of course it is a good plan you when tramping about have a compass with places. by which your directions straight.HANDY BOY SCOUT CRAFT lar places. but as divided into one-half it is only that many hours. of 12 o'clock fig- ure will be If the face a watch were divided into 24 hours. South will lie approximately in the di- . would always lay in the direction — South. with the Hold it in your hand as shown hour hand pointed toward the sun.

but a lost is to do with the shaping of trees. M. useful if true. light of the matter. sycamores. and conifers. and the book knowledge is The fact that few men know how an emergency. while at 8 A. Probably they vanishes as die mists of the morning. how similar is the effect of being lost upon different Some at first will laugh and make. and advice to which every boy scout should give heed. I never could steer by the moss. and I have yet to meet a man who can. approximately In an article in the Chicago Record-Herald. distinguished it is hunter. I have found that the branch of any ordinary tree will best develop in the direction of the greatest amoimt of sunUght. The wind has much the tree. selves in to take care of themhave read more or less of the voluminous Uterature treating of forest life. and finally go aimlessly charging through all the woods. Then again there is the theory that the heaviest branches of a tree are always upon That would be both interesting and extremely its southern side. exposed to the full fury of every carefully wind that blows. But sooner or later while others become instantly afraid. that is. basswoods. oaks. yet when the hour of trial comes fear takes possession of them. standing isolated in broad pastures. dogwoods. maples. all will one and be howling for help. " It there is all very fine to say study the moss upon the north side of man may happen to be in woods where for miles no moss upon any side of any tree. yet how often are seen magnificent elms. as applied to the woods at large. " It is curious types of men. In other cases it is probable that any preponderance of heavier limbs toward any particular side of a characteristic growth would mean that the prevailing winds came from the opposite quarter. yet remaining as s)mimetrical as though . entitled Getting Lost in the Woods. the following practical advice has been set forth by the late Edwyn Sandys.334 THE HANDY BOY it will lie rection of 2 o'clock. which it is not. sportsman. and author. in the direction of 10 o'clock.

as long as one comes out at all. and just where that may be does not matter. it may be that the knowledge will aid the quest. man will catch a ball or perform any other rapid action with his most useful hand as he may happen to be right or left handed. When worklost in " When ing in strange woods. when possible. Find the way the worst winds blow. the influence of unfavorable winds would have full play. The north -side theory is all tommyrot. and then be guided by the current when he con- cludes to turn campward. and you will find which way your best trees will grow. if ever. left. when lost in will the woods." . the fact that a as a man will step a trifle farther and is explained by upon his strongest side. is to cUmb a tall tree and endeavor to get some sort of bearings. while the man on the stream has only to or mark its flow at the starting point to learn if he is bound up down stream. If one travels far enough. In any event. I heavy woods. he is boimd to come out somewhere. one's best course.HANDY BOY SCOUT CRAFT 335 modeled by some master hand? In such cases. for either case there is excuse for getting one scarcely can travel out of a valley without noticing the ascent. yet the trees in question are many times more shapely and better balanced than the average forest tree. In lost. " What is usually termed a right-footed man will. while a left-footed man The circling is characteristic. gradually circle to the circle to the right. I endeavor either to get into a narrow valley or else to little work along a trout or other stream. keep going as straight and as far as possible. If a searcher knows whether a lost man is right or left handed.

529. while Fig.CHAPTER XXIV THE HANDY BOY'S SIGNAL LANTERN Here is a simple piece of apparatus with which you boys can communicate after dark from your bedroom window with the boy across the street. a cross-section. explain 336 . 530. 528. Get a box about 12 inches long. and Fig. signal in flashes — The Signal Lantern. 8 8 inches wide. (_4) Operation. with that con- the key trols the lengths of the Fig. or from your tree-hut with a boy on the ground. a view of the inside of the lantern box. 528 shows the completed piece of apparatus. and when you go camping you and your companions can use it to flash messages from place to place. ThiswUl be the most convenient Figure size. and inches deep for The Lantern Box.

until the hole bored center (Z>) coincides with a hole (£) in the front of the box. LANTERN by Z31 You will see the illustrait tions that when the key lever A is pushed down. 531. and another under hole E (H. S3I Fig. 530). through it i^i inches in diameter. Candle-Holder. Inside of Lantern. Fig. Screw a screw-eye into the center of two opposite edges of the shutter block (F). Bore hole E through the box front. puUs up. 533) should be enough longer its depth of the lantern box so key will stick . — Cross-Section. above hole into the bottom of the box The Key Lever than the inside Stick A (Fig. Fig.THE HANDY How the Flashes are BOY'S SIGNAL Made. a shutter C. of equal size. 529. Fig. Fig. S30. the Shutter C and bore the hole D about 4 by 5 inches in size (Fig. another into the inside of the box 3 inches E (G). Make 532). by means through its of a cord B.

529). Light your Lantern with a tallow candle. 533. The rubber-band wiU spring the shutter back to the position shown in Fig. Tie a piece of stout cord to the upper screw-eye F. two holes will D £ and raise the key end of the lever stick to the position shown in Fig. Figs. allowing just perfectly hori- enough length so zontal. Prepare the key end as shown in Fig. (Fig. 533. 530). with a heavy rubber-band (7). 529. Connect the lower screw-eye F and the screw-eye B. 529 and The Key Connections. slip it through screw- eye G. Tack a can . 530.338 THE HANDY BOY about i>^ inches outside of the box (Fig. screw a screw-eye into the stick at /. and hinge the square end to the inside of the front of the box yi inch above the bot- tom 530). (Figs. Fig. the when the key lever stick is come opposite one another. tie to — Shutter. — Key Lever and screw-eye / Stick. 529 and 530). Drive a couple of small nails into the box at the proper height so the shutter will strike against them when raised until holes D and £ come opposite one another {K. 532. and Fig.

and Q. to the bottom of the lantern box as a candle-holder. and best to fasten a can. Cut a notch O in the proper place. hole for a chimney Make the Back of the Lantern Box out of three pieces in the edge of strip (O. in this (iV. box it will carry off the heat it from the candle (M. for the lever stick to work in. and your long flashes for the dashes. and a long flash by •MOESE-CODE- holding the key for an instant. and paste this to the back of the lantern box. 528. Figs. making your short flashes for the dots of the code. . having both ends removed. as shown in Fig. P. 528). Figs. A large hole in the top of the 530).THE HANDY bottom BOY'S SIGNAL LANTERN 339 cover. Make a correct copy of the code upon a piece of paper. Operating the Lantern. Communication is carried means of long and short flashes of light. as your signal code. Use the Morse in tele- graph code. Fig. so you will have it before you for reference when operating the light. A short flash made by a quick tap upon the key. Fig. Screw the wooden button R to strip O as a means on by is for locking the door. with a carpet tack driven through its center from the {L. a copy of which is shown Fig. 534. and of the right size. 528 and 529). 529 and 531).

CHAPTER XXV HANDY BOY TEEE-HUTS Every boy back yard or at one time or another builds a shanty in the in a near-by vacant lot. is together. carefully planned This of course together. 340 . or to build around the tree. a it is most satisfactory plan to construct the hut in it the crotch of a large tree. to the romantic side of the of Not only does a location upon the tree branches appeal handy boy's nature. neither tramps nor unfriendly boys can disturb The Construction hut is of the Aerial Foundation for a tree- the most important part of the work. and where one or more a tree- trees are available preference is generally given to hut. but because the fact that when the ladder leading to the entrance is has been removed and hidden the hut passers-by. again. all four sides of the The-tree hut shown in the course of construction in Figs. extending brackets from the trunk to platform. must be very Its and securely put form will depend largely upon the size of the hut. but principally for supports. or three trees are used Where two or three trees are close enough advantageous to build the hut between them. two. there is inaccessible to a feeling of security in knowing that it. upon whether one.

.

.

as fine a specimen of hut as any boy could wish For over ten first years a hut has occupied this same tree. having built been to by the oldest Cotter son. nail two . Illinois. to see just how to construct the foundation platform. and remodeled from time time by the three younger sons as each in turn fell heir it. there a small stove and now remains to be desired in the will way of if improvements. by carefully examining the photo- The tree-hut shown in Fig.HANDY BOY TREE -HUTS at the rear of the Cotter 341 541 to 543. and steps in its construction. Probably few of you boys have as splendid a tree as this in which to build your hut. the Cotter boys. Fig. 535 has been designed with a two-tree foundation. have made their sleeping quarters until late each within it. use together 2- by-4S for the framework. Figure 536 shows a large detail of The Platform Framework. to the title to During the existence of the hut. splicing together pieces of 2-by-4 for the side rails. electric and with the recent lighting. and those friends receive invitations who have been lucky enough to to visit. otherwise. 537 shows the first If possible to get them. First of aU. for. Construct yotir Ladder. and nailing i-by-2-inch strips across them for rungs. rests in the branches of a cotton-wood tree home in Oak Park. from early each spring installation of little autumn. but you have you wiU be able graphs. is and since the finishing touches have been appHed.

S3S. 342 .Fig. — A Handy Boy Tree-Hut with a Two-Tree Foundation.

Cut and fasten the block D between pieces C. in Position. The four pieces board A (Fig. with Two Walls trees. and should be spiked to opposite on an exact trees with their tops with one another. — The Tree-Hut Platfonn. Then the horizontal pieces B should be set upon the tops Fig. and 3 sides of the level feet long. Joists should be laid on top of horizontal pieces One of these should be fastened on the outer face of . The Floor B. 537). and be spiked to the and the pieces C spiked to the bracket blocks A near their lower ends. should be 8 or 10 inches wide. of these. 536.HANDY BOY TREE -HUTS pieces of 4-inch board for each of 343 member.

Tree-Hut in Sections. 538). and should have notches cut in their ends for these pieces to fit in (Fig. 537. 2 mches . build- ing tion of them upon the ground. . You will see by these diagrams that the ends of the boards are nailed to board battens. is an extra batten side of placed each the opening to nail the to. — Detail FiG. to their ends (Fig. When these have been securely spiked in place. ures 539 wall sections should and 540 show how the be built up. m . — 538. each one on the inner face of each tree. boards . also. S39- — Batten the End wails like this . 536). S37Detail of the Platform It easiest to Construct the Walls of the of Struts. Fig. and one or two in the space between. Cut the Floor Boards and nail Fig. The battens on the . and then hoisting them into posiby means of a rope thrown up and over an upper limb Fig- one of the tree supports. Side boards are set . Then pieces F should be spiked The Struts G should be cut of the right length to reach from pieces F to C. them is to the joists.344 THE HANDY BOY tree. that where there is to be a window. Supports. Fig. .

or one end wall may be set up. Use nails long enough to extend through the boards and the battens. and that their corners are square. and be sawed off after the wall has been fastened in place. build them up square (Fig. opening for a brace (Fig. then the second the side walls end wall. first. 345 of the side walls Lay tances the battens apart. The two end walls may be set up in and be nailed to the end tree-supports. 539) . and up to see that they are exactly parallel. at the proper after checking dis- connect them temporarily with horizontal strips at top and bottom. The of the in bottom board end wall the doorway which is lo- cated should be ex- tended across the ^^'^' ^'^°'' Batten the Side Walls like this. then may be set up and be fastened to them. then a side waU. In the case of the end walls. turn the frame over and nail the side boards to the other side. 539). flat upon the ground. because the ends overlap the ends of the end walls. as shown then fit in pieces at the proper angles for the pitch of the roof.HANDY BOY TREE -HUTS from the ends. and saw off the line comers on with a them. and clinch them upon the inner face of the battens. as shown. and then the second Roof. first Make a Board by fastening one layer of boards . position. Erecting the Walls. side wall.

In place of second layer of boards. — A Tree-Hut Dumb-Waiter. 544. as shown page the in the detail of the workshop roof in Fig. to the tree platform. 8. page The post is H (Fig. a wooden shutter can be used for closing up the opening. but find you cannot a sash. batten together several boards in the maimer shown 26. the For Door. and then a sec- ond layer so as to lap the joints of the first layer. and .346 THE HANDY BOY in place. for the workshop door in Fig. 24. 536) A Newel-Post to steady oneseK by when descending from and ascending Fig. covering of tar-paper to the first The Window Opening right may be made of the size for an old windowif sash. you may tack a layer boards. 13.

afford its builder a It great deal of fun. and constructing ting it will it and operawiU be supplies. Get a small packing-case The Dumb-Waiter top of this Car. articles from dropping sides Find the exact center of both of the box. Also screw two Fig. screw-eyes (C and D. A Dumb-Waiter can be put to excellent service in a tree-hut. and at each lines these centers — the intersections — screw a of the diagonal screw-eye into the box {B. for The should 546) box will be the open it front of the car. 546) into each and Counterbal- end of the box. to keep small out. '1*1HAV\!iw>^ 545 and 546). one . and have the board nailed across it A (Fig. useful for carrying up and if built before the hut is entirely finished may be used for hoisting the finishing materials. — Section through TreeCar. lines diagonally across by drawing them from of comer to comer. 545. Hut showing Dumb-Waiter Cables.HANDY BOY TREE -HUTS should be securely spiked to the 347 platform supports. Fig. Pulleys ance. Figs.

The Lifting Cables. fasten the rope which you are going to use for a Ufting cable to screw-eye B in the top of the car. and then. 546.Waiter the hut ceiling. and wire guides are screw-eyes on. etc. let it hang in the floor opening and hold the rope against Fig. To for get the right position the Cable Sheave E (a clothes-line pulley). — Details of Dumb. which strong clothes-line should be used. are fastened to screw-eyes B. Then the shift Cables.348 THE HANDY BOY directly over the other. provided for C and D to slide in the The Shaft-Opening floor of the tree-hut is cut just enough larger than the car to allow plenty of clear- ance for it and the guides. the position of rope . using the car as a plumb-bob. in the roof of the hut. Guides. Car. and for in line with screw-eyes B.

The Lower Lifting Cable. Then sUp one piece into one end of the stove-pipe. The Counterbalance 547 shows for the Car {H. 547- pulled up above the the counterbalance will hang Detail of Counter- clear of the groimd. how it is prepared. Fig.or 8-inch stove-pipe fiUed with earth or sand.HANDY BOY TREE -HUTS until the car ing. and to screw-eye B in the bottom of the car. 545). 349 floor hangs in the exact center of the open- After screwing the sheave E into the roof boards at this point. and screw the sheave G (a puUey) into the roof at the extreme end of the eaves (see Fig. is for the purpose of operating the eleva- . Fig. fit Cut the two circular pieces / of the proper diameter to in the ends of the stove-pipe. and screw a screw- eye into the center of each. 545). Lifting Cable of the proper length so that is when floor fig. balance. attached to the screw-eye in the lower end of the coimterbalance. fill H Sectionof 5T0VEPIPE- with i-inch the pipe with enough earth or sand to make it a trifle heavier than the car. to it and nail the stove-pipe nails. and fasten place. 545) is a section Figure of 6. empty the second wooden should be end in The Upper the car level. bore a hole through the wall of the hut directly in line with clothes-line it {F.

use a spike for a lever to twist them tighter. The sheave J (Figs. The Wire Guides are necessary to keep the car from swinging and twisting about. and then. The screw-eyes must be wiU be perfectly carefully. screw-eyes L into stakes driven into the ground. . to fasten the top ends of the guides to.- 545 and 546) should be screwed into a stake driven into the ground directly below the top sheave E. to fasten the lower ends to. Fasten the two screw-eyes K into the roof and the located very Pull of the hut. for this lower lifting cable to run through. the car can be reached from beneath the A dumb-waiter similar to this one may be built from the ground to a second-story window or porch. will Almost any kind of wire do for these. with the same plan of construction. the car has been lowered. If this is built as shown top in Fig. or to a tree platform. after twisting the ends upon themselves. Build a Railing around the elevator opening for protection when rail.3SO tor THE HANDY BOY from the ground level. the wires as tight as you can. so that the guides vertical. 544.

CHAPTER XXVI THE HANDY BOY'S AERIAL CONVEYOR When to two boys in our neighborhood rigged up a toy conveyor between their homes. line Perhaps you have established a telephone yovir between house and that of your chum. you cannot exchange a book. Some means of the little baskets. by heavy cord or Ught rope run over manner in which pulley clothes-lines are At first most of the cars were made just large then one of the boys enough to hold written messages. end of the and others were operated pulleys after the put up. but even so. conceived the idea of making a larger car and sending a and his success led another lad to send a dish of ice-cream across the street to his partner. were pulled back and forth along a wire stretched taut between of cords attached at either two windows by cars. so you see the toy served more purposes than one. the idea was at once seen be productive of so much fun that half a dozen other their boys immediately installed similar conveyors between homes. or wireless telegraph outfit 351 . glass of water to his friend. Most of these operated from upper-story windows. or each of you has a by which you communicate with one another. or cars.

and 551 details for —A show the Handy Boy Aerial Conveyor. and the of detail diagrams Figs. Screw or nail the block A. into which you have screwed a B and a pulley D in the positions shown. that a single wire extends from one point communication of to the other. 549 to 552. see You will by this illustra- tion. Figure 548 shows one satisfactory forms of aerial con- How the Aerial Conveyor Operates.352 THE HANDY BOY by either of these. 549. making. to the . and that the car runs by force of gravity — the end being from which the car is started hoisted posite end enough to give higher than the op- the wire the necessary pitch. return or borrow a baseball glove it is though entirely possible to do so with a toy conveyor. The Device screw-eye for Raising and Lowering the Ends of the Wire. of the simplest and most veyors. Figures 550. Fig. 548.

run it up and over the pulley D. 549). screw face — one directly above the other 551). This wire must be raising it will pie. Then fasten one end of a piece of heavy wire to screw-eye B in block A. Fig. down This is to within a foot the lifting rope. 353 upon the outside window 550). nail in A loop made in the free end can be slipped over a the window-casing. Conveyor Cable. Fig. clothes-hne to screw-eye H in the top it of block E. . to keep the rope within easy reach. Fig. and fasten The Cable along which Travels is the Car attached to screw-eye G its (Fig. and bring or so of the window-sill (Fig. and a fourth into the top {H. and screw a second screw-eye mto the window-sill directly under B (C.THE HANDY casing BOY'S AERIAL of the CONVEYOR (Fig. ^ mTie a piece of . Raising and Lowering the J- The _ . and after through running the other end through the eyes F in block E. You will find that sag to some extent. taut. 551). pull it. and probably -The Device for enough to serve the purpose. 551). Fig. Cut another smaU block two screw-eyes into one and screw a third (£. Fig. 551). Rope. screw-eye into the opposite face {G. {F. Lifting .. slip it screw-eye it C in the window-sill. 551). 549). 549- left slack enough to permit ends.

SS^- — "^^^ Conveyor Car. Fig. Figs. S50. sSo and 551. of the Device for Raising and Lowering ^^ Conveyor Cable.^S^- — Details . ^^''. 354 .Fig.

Then screw a /.THE HANDY A Neat Form of BOY'S AERIAL is CONVEYOR in Fig. 552. Fig. strips of wood to fit diagonally across the ends 553). 355 Conveyor Car shown Any and small grocery box may be used for this. fasten the cover in place with a pair of iron or leather hinges. clothes-line pulley into the will end of each upright and the car be completed. SS3' — Detail of Conveyor Car. Fig. Cut two (/. .

its A sail-wagon can be built quickly. bow and the pivotal The Wagon-Bed. velocipede. as construction differs slightly from that of a simple coasting wagon. so the solidly fastened pair of wheels will be at the pair of wheels at the stem. to tide over the time until he can make use of his sailing canoe or sailboat. or baby-carriage wheels Figure 555 shows a plan view of the imder in place. sluggish and streams are and unfit for either boating or ice yachting. and while the lakes. just as the rudder of a boat controlled. the land yacht is a fair substitute and will afford him and his companions an unlimited amount of fun. 554 is steered from the rear. for the wagon-bed. And for the boy who doesn't have an opportunity to sail a boat. 356 for the wheels.CHAPTER XXVII THE HANDY BOY'S SAIL -WAGON When the ice has broken up. 10 and about 8 feet long. is The neces- wagon illustrated in Fig. and two pair side of the of wagon. wagon-bed with the wheels . coasting along the streets and vacant property. there remains the home-made land yacht for the boy whose hobby is sailing. ponds. or 12 inches wide Get a pair of planks 2 inches thick. This makes it sary to turn the wagon around rear end to.

SS4- — The Handy Boy's Sail-Wagon. and take it and the axle to a blacksmith or machinist.THE HANDY BOY'S SAIL -WAGON 357 The Bow Wheels have a spread of 4 feet. Have him cut the iron axle into halves. buy a 4-foot length of gas-pipe. slip one half into each . that belongs to the wheels. If you have the axle Fig. which will make it necessary to procure a long axle for these wheels. to give the wagon sufficient stability.

— Plan Under Side Wagon-Bed. 557. — The Bow Axle. and screw or nail this wooden axle to the wagon-bed at the extreme end. — Section through Stem. and drilling and riveting the halves to the gas-pipe will not cost more than a 2-by-4 25 cents.358 THE HANDY BOY of the piece of gas-pipe. and bolt the axle to the wagon-bed . Then bore a ^-inch of axle 5. and rivet or bolt them in place. 555. Fig. SS7 . Fig. fasten the gas-pipe axle to Fig. m. 556. hole through the center of the length and another through the center of crosspiece C and the wagon-bed. 556.^^^i 'Bolts —^ CgasPipe Fig. 556). and a crosspiece C of the same size (Fig. SS7. of axle {A. Fig. With staples. Fig. Nail crosspiece C to the wagon-bed 12 inches from its stern end. 555). Figs. of Fig. Cutting the axle. 555 and 556). as end shown in Fig. The Stem Wheels require a 2-by-4 axle (5.

and then bore a hole through this and the wagon-bed to stick Slip the post far large enough the tiUer-post through. Nail a crosspiece to the top of the stern end of the wagon-bed. wooden . and to a couple of screw-eyes screwed into the tie its ends axle. Whittle one end of the {D) for a handle. SS9necting Tiller-Post and Axle. loop it as shown in Fig. Tiller-Post and Connections are shown in detiller stick it tail in Fig. enough into the be on a level Fig. 559. SS9- hole so spool F will with the wheel axle. 558. near the of other end for the post (£) which handle. and screw to the lower end of post E. axle with staples. as shown. the post to keep from dropFasten Loop in Rope ConFig. as shown in Fig. tiller stick to the top of the post with another iron Get some strong manila rope with which to connect the tiller-post and axle ends. 554. — ping farther. — Detail of Tiller and an iron pin' through a hole in it Tiller-Post. the pin. 558. may (j^ be a piece broom- Make the three wooden disks which form the spool (F) out of hard wood. fasten them together. and drive Fig.THE HANDY wooden The round BOY'S SAIL -WAGON 359 with a ^-inch carriage-bolt. Fasten the iron axle to the Tiller. slip the loops over the spool on the tiller-post. and bore a hole through .

to re- ceive the of the mast. to keep the rope from slipping. The lower hole should be . as shown and 555. as in Fig. strip it will be necessary to saw away a in Figs. 560. 560. but this may be made possible by either extending the stern axle farther each side of the wagon-bed. 554 on each side edge. The board G nailed to the front edges of the step for a brace. of Gaff An the Excellent Mast for sail-wagon may be made out pole of a rug-pole.360 THE HANDY BOY nail Drive a through one side of the loop. Bore a hole through the center of Fig. — Mast-Step. The arrangement does not permit of sharp turns. bottom Fig. Nail the ends of the step to the edges of the wagon- bed. — Cleat. lacking cut a in about inches diameter and 8 feet long. 562. 559. 561. or by mounting the wheels upon a deep wooden under the wagon-bed. axle that will permit them to turn The Mast-Step is made as shown in Fig. so the wheels can turn. 2 but. and into the spool. this. and another through the wagon-bed plank. Fig. It should is be about 8 inches high and 8 inches wide. the mast-step. If the plank of the wagon-bed is as wide as the iron axle. — Loop on End and Boom.

but another form of may be substituted if you wish.THE HANDY a trifle BOY'S SAH. or loops of heavy wire. 562. may be made as shown in Fig. its Brace the mast with rope shro'uds fastened to top and to screw-eyes at each end of the mast-step. about 5 feet long.. Make this 5 feet along the luff. fast- The mast end ened to fit of each should have a loop of strap-iron it with ^screws and wire. Cleats on which to fasten these ropes S6i. to over the mast. as shown in Fig. gaff. . and the respective lengths of the and boom along the head and foot. Unbleached muslin is good material for the sail. or edge along the mast. to give a shght rake to the mast. if Curtain-poles will serve excellently for these you can procure them. Cat-Boat Rig is A shown upon the sail-wagon sail illustrated. make satisfactory rings. or outer edge.WAGON 361 forward of the upper hole. The hoom and the for the cat-boat rig should be about 8 feet long. 9 feet on the leach. or top pole. Curtain-pole rings. a clothesline pulley is all right for a block for the mast-top. and a gaff light-weight rope is best for sheets and halyards.

all about this wonand now the skatemobile has become machine. evolved the skatemobile. its birth. Toney at once discovered far greater possibilities for fun in his home-made wagon than roUer-skating afforded. boys of other through his newspaper derful little articles. and. Devised by a handy boy of foreign parentage. the inventor. The author has had cities. owned but a of single roUer- and of course that skate was no use for roller- skating. skate. and the boys who saw him scooting swiftly along the sidewalk in his novel " machine " were not slow to recognize the the opportunity to tell fact. living skatemobile is The the latest idea in in one of the poorer districts of Chicago. then from the city to the suburbs.CHAPTER XXVIII HANDY BOY SKATEMOBILES home-made wagons. the idea quickly spread to other neighborhoods. and barely had a week passed after its first ap- pearance before the wagon was in evidence everywhere within a radius of fifteen miles. almost as popular elsewhere as in the city of The rapid growth in the manufacture of skatemobiles 362- . so he set to thinking. by bringing his inven- tive genius into action. and is immensely popular with every boy who has built one. Young Toney.

^. .Fig.— At thk stakt off. A race of the Lincoln Park Skatemobile Club.— Skidding at the tuuns makes skatemobile racing all the MORE thrilling.»)^>d Fig. 564.^^. oijo.

.

for a pas- It does not injure your roller-skate in the least to use it for a skatemobile. and a rear senger car. „ ^ Popular Type . with headlight. Skatemobile believe until most exciting. as shown in Fig. side-lamps. and it is here where the is skUl of the drivers to the test. 563. the course lies around a city block or square. seat. Fig. policed by boys to keep it cleir. of Skate- and it can be detached from mobile. and one the more elaborate forms. The start made upon the drop of a handkerchief. different you can build two types with your pair — say of one of the simplest forms of racing car.HANDY BOY SKATEMOBILES 3^3 naturally suggested the formation of Skatemobile Racing Clubs. and the finish is made across the starting line. 564). is The most thrill- ing part of the race at the turns (Fig. put nec- As only one essary for skate is a skatemobile. 565- ^ ^ —A . with the result that neighborhood races quickly became the reigning racing is after-school pastime. . where the " machines " skid almost as spectacularly as do the machines in a real auto race. more so than is you can you have seen one.

ci'LrNOCT' Races Courtesy of " The Chicago Tribune " to the front rear end.3^4 THE HANDY BOY the machine and restored to its original form with a few minutes' work. and the rear wheels to the .0 5e NuMecRED 4 Skatemobile Suggestions. end of the machine. The front wheels of the skate are fastened JACHINES 5H0U1.

566 to 568. a piece of 2-by- 4 is best. and 568 show How the Skate Wheels are Attached. 567. and the rear por- EiG. For the Reach-Board. but lackuig material of this thickness. to the forward end of The " driver " upon the small box when coasting. many boys i use a board inch thick It and 6 inches wide. . 566- steel apart. and details of its construction are shown in Figs. should be about 3 feet To Separate Skate the is Wheels. Figures — View of Skatemobile sits from the Side. — How the Roller-Skate Wheels are Attached. long. The toe end of the frame is clamped the' reach-board. pull the and then frame 567 FiG. it only necessary provided to loosen the nut on the screw for adjusting the length of the skate. or bottom platform.HANDY BOY SKATEMOBILES A Popular Type of Skatemobile is 36s shown in Fig. 565.

569 to 572. The short box on the rear of the reach-board (Fig. of the tion of this is secured with nails driven into the reach- board and bent over the metal.Attachment End of Skate. for nailing this stick to the box. Fig. and bent-over nails In order to make the heel set flat. as shown in Fig. The Handle-Bars are nailed across the top of the hood. and ^^ jj^^j^^g ^ ^' ^^ is SeCUrely -' nailed to the reach-board. or a stick shaped round at the ends. 567. the driver jumps aboard and.366 THE HANDY BOY The heel portion reach-board by means of the strap 568). so the pro- jecting tips of the heel plate clear the sides. broom-handle. of Heel of the skate- is a grocery-box about 24 inches long. 12 inches wide. drops back on to the Several Other seat. holding firmly to the handle-bars. wUl The Hood. or front mobile. use nails long these. it A Seat which many boys add it After pushing the car from a standing position until has attained enough momentum to carry a considerable distance. frame is held to the skate(Fig. Use a piece of a curtain-pole.. s68. 566) is for coasting. about 24 inches long. . Makes of Skatemobiles are shown in Figs. In enough to drive through and clinch on the under side of the box. it is necessary to cut away the side edges of the reach-board.

— Several makes of Skatemobiles. .Figs. 5<!9-572.

.

near the front edge. it to the inside of the can nally Figs. 574). s7S- of Vamish-Can Headlight. Figure 574 shows how hooks made of wire are fastened to the back of the headlight. One of these can procured for the asking from a painter. A lard-pail will make another good form of headlight. and Fig. 566 shows how these hook over nails driven into the top of the box hood. 573). as shown in 573 and 575. 573. 573 to 575). . The spout of the varnish-can provides a splen- did chimney for the headlight. and cut with a can-opener (Fig. lar it Mark out a opening upon one face of the can with a pencil. Then mark a larger square it opening upon the opposite face and cut (Fig. — Details Fig. 574. in the same way fasten headlight —a Get a small piece of glass for the front of the 4-by-S camera plate will do — and Fig. by means of wires passed diagoacross the comers and through the can.HANDY BOY SKATEMOBILES A Headlight for 367 the skatemobile can be made from a be circu- small varnish-can (Figs. 573-573- Fig. Figs. Drive a large carpet-tack through the of the bottom can on to which to stick a candle.

368 . a triangular-shaped The former has a area. Figure 576 shows a boy using sail. handle on this RoUer-Skate account. The common forms of ice-skate sails can be used. but they should be of smaller proportions so they can be »#^- handled easily.•--.:^-'^C-.^^mi^ CHAPTER XXrX HANDY BOY ROLLER-SKATE SAILS . and 580 shows sail.. 576. Fig. with a fair wind along it possible to spin the pavement at a delightful speed.«gg Have you boys ever thought of the idea of making a almost as sail for roller-skate sailing along the sidewalk? sailing is RoUer-skate much ice- fun as sailing on and is skates. larger and the to latter is the — easier Sailing with a Square Sail. a square-shaped Fig.

and cut edge to keep hem the it from raveHng.HANDY BOY ROLLER-SKATE The Square Sail illustrated in Fig. B about 6 inches from spars each end (Fig. Covering. 579). The Rope hold the sail to Stays. drive a nail into spreader —A Square RolIer-Skate Sail. Almost closely- any Hght-weight cloth that for woven find you can Per- wUl do Sail The sheet. and Fig. Drive a of all nail into each end three sticks. haps you can get an old Cut the sail cloth so the selvage will extend along one edge. Tack the top and bottom to spars 578). and the center spreader B 6 feet 6 inches long. 579)- stays to each center naU of spars nail of spreader and another to each end B . (Fig. 577. A (Fig. A 3 feet long. Tie one of the rope 578). centers (Fig. Fig. into A at their 578). which the spreader. are tied to naUs driven into the spars and the spreader. and one {A. SAILS 3 feet wide 369 577 is and Cut the top and bottom spars 5 feet long.

sail cloth The Hand-Straps sewed to the face of the may be made of braid or pieces of cloth folded into several thicknesses. the spreader. according to whichever direction the wind blowing from. 580 requires two 5 feet long.^ > NAILS _ROPE: Fig. 579. 578. then run the ropes on the spreader ends to the nails on the ends of spars A and tie them. in Fig. The sail can be and the positions of the hands is lifted around to either side. The end of the spreader spar (Z?) slips into a socket on spar C.370 THE HANDY BOY the Sail to the Spreader. The Method in of is Holdmg the Sail back of you shown in Fig. . first tie the rope stays To Fasten on spars A to the nails on the side of the spreader. jtROPE -z:. in the same sail way that you would handle the of a sailboat. 579Sail Detached from Spreader. Fig. Fig. The left hand grasps Fig. and D 3 feet 4 inches long. and the right sail sideways by means of hand extended spreads out the the hand-strap. — The Square RoUer-Skate — The Spreader. 578. reversed. Sail The Three-Comered spars shown — C. when the wind is from 576.

Fig.. 582 Fig. Plumber's "TPlPEriTTINO Fig. 581- Fig. 371 . Fig. — How the Sail is Sail. 580. Fig. to the Spars. sSo. — a Three-Comered RoUer-Skate — The Spar Connections. Cloth Fastened 582. 581.

which wiU serve the purpose Holding the Sail sail. go to a plumber and get a T pipe fitting (Fig. sew a buckle (Fig. For lashing the sail. you cannot find a buckle. you tie a knot that wiU not slip and yet be easy to untie. yet serve your purpose exactly. Then the sail can be If pulled taut and be buckled to a strap on the spreader. you can fasten a rope to the corner of the sail. sewing a strong piece to (Fig. He can probably find one with broken threads about his shop. and the corner which fastened to spreader D should be reenforced with a piece of cloth as indicated by dotted lines in Fig. fastened. and by detaching the rolled sail. and tie it to a nail driven into the end if of the spreader. be lashed to the spar like regular sails are lashed (Fig. which wUl be of no use to him. In either case that edge of it the saU must be reenforced by. The sail may be tacked along spar 577 is C in the same way that the sail in Fig. the sticks can be separated and up in the cloth in as compact a form as the other For the Connecting Socket. or it may 580). The Method of is somewhat similar to that illustrated for the square Spar C is held with one . The Sail Cloth edges that haven't a selvage should be is hemmed.372 THE HANDY BOY sail. 582). 580. and drive the " T along the spar to the exact center. or sew tapes directly to the cloth. To the point of the sail which fastens to the spreader. you must either set in metal eyelets along the edge of the sail for tapes to run through. instead. 582). Cut the vertical spar " (C) so the " T " fitting will fit it snugly. 581).

HANDY BOY ROLLER-SKATE hand and supported on the is SAILS 373 shoulder. and the hand holds reversed. according to is which way the wind coming from. and the spreader is D held with the other hand. with a change in the direction of saihng. . The saU shifted from shoul- der to shoulder.

model from which the il- . And as the 374 substantially made. 583.CHAPTER XXX THE HANDY BOY GARDENER SlL>-. and lacking one. is a barrow designed for practical purposes. for removing rubbish. — A Home-Made Wheelbarrow. the thing he should do is provide himself with A Home-Made This is Wheelbarrow like that shown in Fig. and various first other garden work. Every handy boy gardener needs a wheelbarrow carrying earth and fertilizer. and Fig. 583.

584 to 586. made pieces. First describe two circles II inches in diameter upon a 12-inch board 2 feet long. store. 584. One of these can usually be purchased at a hardware A wheel from a broken wagon its may be used instead. off and saw them apart. 584-586. Figs. 585for Fig. made two as shown in Figs. you wUl see it was quite simple for to put together. a third is form of wheel which can be used TIN Fig. but of it less course the narrowness of rim makes desirable for running over soft soil. or pulley wheel (Fig. by the arrows marked i in Fig. 586. then saw piece close to the line of the the four comers of each as indicated circle. was used The Barrow Wheel. as indicated by the arrow marked in the dia- . then the eight comers thus 2 produced.THE HANDY BOY GARDENER lustration 375 was made was built in less than one hour's time. An ii-inch cast-iron grooved sheave. A Wooden This wheel is Wheel. Lacking a wagon wheel. — Details in Fig. Making a Wooden Wheelbarrow Wheel. 588). 584. and served the purpose excellently.

gram. — Detail Wheelbarrow Legs and Braces. 586). — Framework the Wheelbarrow. 588. then bore a ^-inch hole through the Fig. Nail the two wheels together. The Framework Wheelbarrow is shown in Fig. — An Iron Wheel. as shown. Fig. for bearing plates (Fig. of of center of the wheel and fasten to each side a small piece of tin with a ^-inch hole cut through the center. . 587. 587. with the grain crossed as shown in Fig. Fig. 589. 585. a little rubbing with sandpaper to make them smooth. Axle and Bearing Blocks. Bind the edge of the wheel with of the strips of tin.376 THE HANDY BOY 3. and then the sixteen small comers marked wheel pieces wUl then require only a chisel little The and trimming with a or wood-rasp to make them perfectly round.

that . — what the measurements blocks should be. then you can easily find for the Plan of Under Side of Wheelbarrow Framework. The 588. inch from the bow end The wheel axle must be fastened in place before the connecting strips E. of the bearing blocks B (Figs. F. for cutting and The handle-bars A can be prepared by ripping a 4-foot length of a piece of 2-by-4 in half. 590 377 side of the shows a plan view of the under framework with the principal dimensions assembling the different parts. 590. and are nailed to bars A. Fig. of the bars. side of each should One be cut to the angle at which bars A are set. I Bore a hole through each block about for the axle to fit in. To get the correct angle. 588). using a draw-knife. 590.THE HANDY BOY GARDENER and Fig. 587. so the opposite face wiU be parallel to the wheel (Fig. which will make them about the handle ends off i^ inch thick by i^ >l inches wide. and G are fastened to bars A. and in doing this care must be taken to center the wheel. plane. or jackknife for the purpose. and 590) support the ends wheel axle {D. 590). Fig. place the two bars upon the floor with the ends the distance apart shown in Fig. On round the edges br— 2-2" for a distance of about 12 inches.

strips between F and G (Fig. driven in to the space. Cut the short uprights 9 inches long U by 1. S91. which should be of the proper length so the legs will set against bars A. by \yi the and fasten them together with crosspieces /. wedge may be fill — Detail of the Wheelbarrow Box.% inches inches thick. nail them in place. B are made with the axle hole bored correctly. The ends may off fit be trimmed side so as to of on one the angle the bars. strip E to the bars 9 inches from G at a distance away equal to the length of the barrow box. but as there may be a Uttle variance in these temporarily. identical shape size. which should be about 24 inches. it is a good plan to assemble aU parts find out whether they fit and properly. wide. first. The detail of is The Legs shown in Fig. and strip F lyi inches from G. there wiU be no diflSculty.378 is. but a small triangular Fig. 590). Fasten the connecting strip the forward ends. and then saw off their ends flush with the sides of bars A. it THE HANDY BOY must be placed so as and to line up with the center If blocks of the of space between the handle ends. 589. . longer than is It is easiest to take strips that are a little necessary.

592- — An Umbrella Bower. 583. The Wheelbarrow Box is made of a grocery box about 9 inches deep. cut a piece of 8-inch board equal to the inside width of the Fig. to in- crease the height of the box at the front. box {K.THE HANDY BOY GARDENER instead. 379 Nail the leg ends to the handle-bars. and wired the connections have rusted through. 592 makes a for splen- did support morning- glory. wild cucumber. the paper labels Remove from the box. then brace them with the diagonal strip / cut to fit between the cross strips E and / (Figs. and Madeira pair vines. then. Re-nail any boards that show signs of coming loose. so as to if Fig. 587 and 589). of it and by means the two battens in place as L fasten shown inFig. The Umbrella Bower shown in Fig. If it is be any ribs are broken. a simple matter to bind a piece of heavy wire to them. . 591). Notch the ends of the brace to fit over E and /. A worn-out is umbrella which should past reused. then apply a coat of paint to aU parts. stiffen them. and 24 inches long. they may be back into place well enough to serve your purpose. 18 inches wide.

38o THE HANDY BOY of the support get For the lower part Instead of sawing off an old broom. Set the lower end of the broom-handle into the ground in a spot in the garden or on the lawn suitable then for a vine rack. S93. so as to preserve the fuU length of the handle. the handle above the straw. a piece of cord to this cord. or 12 inches long. The vines mentioned on the preceding page grow rapidly. and by carefuUy . but about 6 inches farther away from the broom-handle. rib. Fig. and the other end of these cords to stakes driven into the ground directly in line with the points at which they are tied above. your /\ morning-glory shoots. beside the stakes. — A Vine Trellis. 592). splice the and by means Then cut two blocks of wood lo of them and cord or wire. tie shpping through the eye of each rib. Run it a cord around the ends of the umbreUa-ribs. Transplant or whatever species of vine you wish to have run over the frame. and entwine the small tendrils around the strings to give the vines a start. at each and another tie in the center of each space between (Fig. broom-handle and vunbrella-handle together. cut the wire binding and unwind the wire.

597 shows a simple framework to tack the wire should be to. S94- Trellis Together. the spaces pletely interlaced. 594-596. the three com- . A Trellis for Sweet Peas should be covered with wire- Figs. may be com- and by the time the top of the imibrella will frame has been reached you bower.THE HANDY BOY GARDENER training them. 593. or the edges may Fig. 594) . to receive lashings of cord put on as shown in Fig. and the corners and the upright pieces should be braced as shown ing. be notched as shown in 595 . made of strips at least i}4 inches square. 597. in the draw- Wire-mesh can be had with mesh of a number Fig. mesh. of sizes (the meshes are the open- — Trellis for Sweet Peas. ings). have a thickly covered A Small Trellis for a climbing rose. and Fig. 596. guiding the little 381 fingers so each vine will spread over to the adjoining strings. of laths fastened together in the may be in made nailed manner shown Fig. FiG. or other vine. 596. — Two Ways o£ Fastening This framework Fig. The laths may be together with brads (Fig.

and 2 inches. . and a It is strip is nailed around the top edges. you let them know that you can make them. — A Window Flower-Box.— Detail of shown of in Figs. 599. i^ inches. to The wire make a neat appearing job. and it comes from i in various widths running foot to 6 feet. and is a grocery box the bottom of the flower-box is that fitted between the sides the and ends. The only ence between the construction of A Window FlowerWINDOW-FRAME Box similar to that Fig. instead narrow of nailed to the bottom edges. Fig. 598 Anchoring and It to a Window-Frame. 598. dentally I And incimight is say that this a a good way for handy boy to earn money. and should be tacked in place with small staples. should be stretched as tight as possible. Box and Method S99.382 THE HANDY BOY i mon sizes being inch. and your mother and some of the neighbors will give if you orders for boxes windows. Flower-Boxes possibly for their are easy to make. as there is always a demand for well-made differ- boxes.

Care must set the flower- be taken to box far enough out on the siU so it will not inter- fere with the raising of the window-screen. Painting the Flower-Box. 602. providing a hole for square about every 6 Fig. — The Comer Box. Fig. sometimes thought best to paint them the same color as the house trimmings. — Plan of Strips. although it is — A Plant Box. Fig. Fig. 600. is shown Screw a screw-hook into the top band in the proper Fig. will extend along A simple method of anchoring the box in position in Fig. and screw a screwside. and the length should be such that the box the entire length of the window-sill. 601. eye into the window-frame. 602. The holes should be about yi inch in diameter. Bore drain-holes through the bottom of the box. A dark shade of green always looks well upon flower-boxes. Eight inches is a good width. near each end. inches of bottom surface. 599. at each position to receive each screw-hook. 6 inches is plenty deep. 600. You .THE HANDY BOY GARDENER 383 narrow top band which gives a flower-box a pleasing style. on the back. of the bQx.

can use your own judgment about Drive all nail- heads below the surface of the wood. In fastening the comer strips in place. The upper comers of the strips can be cut off by means of a chisel. Figure 601 shows how the corner strips should be prepared and fastened together. to make Figure 602 shows a plan of the box. be careful the lower projections equal. and the lower ends about 2 inches below the bottom. and a good arrangement for spacing the drain-holes. The Plant-Box shown in Fig. and putty the holes before applying the paint. fitting the bottom boards between the sides. . 600 may be made out of a if soap-box.384 THE HANDY BOY this. so the tops will project i Make them long enough inch above the top of the box. but you will have a neater appearing job you build the box yourself.

132. 180. Boom. an electric. 196. Bench. pulley. a toy. 88. a home-made plunge. a larger sal-ammoniac. Anvil. assembling. plunge. 56. 184. conveyor car. sal-ammoniac. 303. switch for. 129. 303. Boring large holes. 205. 99. gravity. 145. 357. B Back-flap hinges. 128. model. Battery lamp outfit. device for raising and lowering Battery. 70. a Santa Claus. 132. 204. purchasing lamps and sockets for. 331. 34. Book-rack. 178. home-made ends of cable. Barrel-bolt.INDEX Aerial conveyor. a home- Ampere. 26. 59. made. Balloon for Santa Claus airship. 352. a hatchet-head. methods of connecting. 13s. 361. 137. 283. to enter with. chine-. 40. the model. 123. 361. 205. 125. suspension cords. Bearings. a (see Workshop). 353. 196. 197. Amalgamating battery zinc pencils. ass- Aeroplane. lamp connections for. guy-ropes 197. 96. car for. sticks side frames for. rudder propeller for. 270. 197. 265. 196. dry. 113. Bath-room toilet-cabinet. conveyor cable. toy aviator. 133.(see Work-bench). Bi-chromate battery cell. for. sal-ammoniac. 377- Binding-posts. Batten door. wheelbarrow. 271. dry cell connections for. pylons. storage. 137 Blacking-case. carriage-. Aeroplane. 100. 206. to screw. Bench-screw. 54. 351. Bearing plates. 127. Blind-nailing. 126. Battens across boards. Bearing blocks. 38s . for. 72. Airship. 275. 352. 56. sail. 131. 353. Bell outfit. 305. 54. 25. balloon covering for. 306. lifting rope. Aviator for toy aeroplane. Axle. common forms of. fluid for. 127. balloon framework for. 133. Bench-vise. 206. ma- Back-yard workshop. Bolt. 302. covering. 127. 127. 59. Blazed trails. Batteries. Bow hooks. a work.wagon. bi-chromate. 184. bridle for. model aeroplane propeller. 34. 195. how it works. stays and a home-made electric-. 59. Book-case. 184. 205. Beveled-siding. 194. 279. Box-kite. covering for. 376. Bit-rack. Aeroplanes. 377. 195. 282. Alarm-clock. the hydro-. a combined desk and. 184. how for. 126. Block. 181. center support for. thrust. the. 305. a home-made bi-chromate. how it operates. a Christmas tree. 15. 182. Blank. 193. 132. barrel.

Breaking a match. 299. Chinese paradox. 318. 57. a tool-. 258. 293. 125. 312. 361. electric 324. Climbing bar of silver trick. 203. 193. 206. 206. and sockets. iron. bichromate. 57. 316. 123. 54. a camp. 348. 78. 322. 203. Christmas tree light outfit. the Morse telegraph. Santa Claus airship. campfire crane. Bridge. no. of. 292. 324. the. . Clinching nails. flat Chest-handle. dry. a newspaper (see Log-cabin). the trick of ma- Car. 40. plunge. IS7_ Candle-stick. battery lamp connections. trenching around the tent. coil. methods of connecting. 2. Cells. Cleats. Car. Circuitlampoutfit. Broom-rack. 312. switch for. 251. Code. a larger sal-ammoniac. 126. 113. Christmas tree standard. Cell. the wall tent. 223. 206. Contests. 258. 127. Buzz-saw whirligig. for. 302.386 Bracket. Building material. dumb-waiter. toy conveyor. pier. Coasters. 205. 194. 316. 20. 320. 323. Bridle for kites. toy conveyor. 317. 129. Camp Camp cot. Coil for shocking machine. 339. 355. the. the. Car. Cabin. a Christmas tree. 320. Clothes-line dryer. 127. 248. Burr. log bridge. an open. camp shovel. 56. it. jack. the cell the lamp connections. 198. Butt-hinges. refrigerator. a Santa Claus fireplace. home-made sal-ammoniac. Cabinet. craft. 320. 229. rules for governing. Chisel-rack. 205. home-made bi-chromate. 205. a camp. sal-ammoniac. a circuit lamp outfit. another form 132. 319. 206. 131. Compass. a flash-light for a. 185. 57. 324. 237. 226. Cabinet trick. 57. a Santa Claus airship. 317. an electric alarm-. 120. Cleats. 333. 317. 56. across boards. 59. 313. Campfire of newspapers. 130. to screw. Brad. 126. shelves for. 316. Christmas tree light outfits. a 204. 83. Campfire. camp broom. 306. wash-shelf. camp cot. 186. Clock. 361. a unique mantel. a home-made wall tent. INDEX Carbon element. 132. dumb-waiter. 193. 322. a windmill. 135. 118. 53. Chimney for newspaper cabin. a toy. 324- single-runner. the burlap tent. 261. 87. model aeroplane. Broom. fireless cooker. 347. the lean-to tent. Clog-dancer. flash-light. 127. 324. 322. 57. a toy. 323. 227. 313. Clothes-line pulley. camp candle-stick. sheet-iron camp stove. Common nails. 88. Cat-boat rig. 206. a fire screen. gravity. 349. double-nmner. a make-believe. common forms of battery. 56. a bath-room' toilet-. screen Campfire crane. Cables. then restoring the trick of. 324. 324. Chain. induction-. Camp broom. Calendar-board and pen-tray. a log. Clothes-closet. 318. 353. purchasing lamps outfit. Christmas ideas. 321. Coins increase to king 14. Cable. your watch as a. open pothooks. fire-place. 40.

348. binding-posts. Counterbalance. 330. 133. 186. 56. 240.INDEX Conveyor. Double-runner coaster. 98. 152. hair-line slide. a home-made bi-chromate battery 132. Cutting slots. 328. 127. 349. of connecting battery 135. to take measurement a home-made plunge-battery. 352. Door. the hoisting cables. connecting cross-braces for. the. lifting shaft-opening. a toy electro-magnet. Crane. 296. 289. 300. runners for. Dividing a board into equal parts. with. tripod. 136. railing. of Volt. 127. 350. 286. a folded paper. 299. a homemade sal-ammoniac battery cell. runner shoes for. 287. 72. 133. a larger sal-ammoniac cell. Drinking-cup. 298. Drop-siding. 96. a camp. 329. 128. a home-made. 15. 221. 260. 92. 351. 284. drinking without a. rope. 297. Comer iron. 290. cabinet for. the derrick. cells. a camp 321. fireless. a combined bookcase and. a flexible rubber. a toy. 288. how it operates. a batten 25. 59. Depth-gauge for cutting recesses for hinges. for. ^a campfire. E Egg-and-handkerchief trick. the gravity battery cell. 347. 349. Electric alarm-clock. battery battery battery cell. 259. Cricket-rattle. ends of wire. Depth-gauge for boring. home-made . the electro-magnet. upper lifting cable. the storage battery. drinking without a. 353. counterbalance. framing. Disappearing-doU trick. 189. def. Electrical toys (see Toys). 152. a toy clog-. cable sheaves. 317. dumb-waiter. Cutting wooden wheels. a home-made. the handy boy. electrical measurements. 299. 155. 3S3. Electrician. a folded paper. 132. com- Derrick. 285. 137. 55. car. Cutting large holes. the windlass. 258. the. cell. Cup. 241. Egg-beater motor winder. Dry-battery cell. the sal-ammoniac the bi-chromate cell. doll for. 288. bridle Drawer-pull. a. 145. 72. flags. 124. Dumb-waiter. 242. aerial. 62. Desk stool. 113. DuflSe-bags. 126. lower Ufting cable. sticks for. 70. 125. 152. 260. Ampere. Cupboard-catch. amalgamating a zinc pencil. 329. 25. 352. 151. conveyor car. Conyne kite. a flexible rubber. 349. Desk. 154. to operate. 329. Electrical measurements. 260. 71. cell. the plunge battery. a writing-. methods 290. flying-line for. the. wire guides. lifting 3S5- conveyor cable. 136. 242. 73. device for raising and lowering 387 . 137. 330. Electric-bell outfit. 131. 329. handle-bars for. 347. Countersinking. and Ohm. graduated stick. sight-plate. the dry- how it works. 350. 127. the bi-chromate battery fluid. 57. 348. 348. 126. DoorJrame. cables. seat for. 66. 320. 259. mon forms of batteries. Cutting wire. Cup-hook. 126. 57- Cot. Cooker. covering. 129. D Dancer. performing. Distance measuring instrument. 349.

Hammer. electrical. outfit. a toy. Gardener. 270. 5. mantel-shelf for. 279. for stick for distance measuring instrument. 382. 18. 277. a Santa Claus. a letterrack. (see Foundation for workshop. home-made wheelbarrow. cables for. kite. 107. 289. 154. Toys. model aeroplane. 374. Gauge. 8. Electric-light also. how to hold. 141. 321. 155. a a spool-holder. Frame. 382. flower-boxes. Gauging with a carpenter's square and pencil. home-made electric-bell. 300. make. front. 381. 18. 350. Flags for distance measuring ment. 290. matched. Electro-magnet. a home-made window-. " Films " for moving-pictiu-e theater 212. a match-box. 324Flooring. for. 12. Fuselage. a home-made. a window flowerbox. dumb-waiter. a horseshoe electro-magnet. Fireplace. Elevation. 15. a window-. Finishing woodwork. 103. 374. no. board. 383 a plant-box. a home-made door-. mantel framework for. 52- . a home-made push-button. Fin. a the handy boy. Elevator. Electric motor truck. 25. 318. depth-. a post-card rack. 273. 56. 5. a doublepole knife-switch. 104. 201. bi-chromate battery. 107. 146. a thermometer-board. 15. 56. side. 383. 120. 213. Finishing-nail. 145. soldering. spool-rack. Electric-light outfit. the derrick. electro-magnet for. 22. a circuit. 139. Guides. 146 (see. umbrella bower. 62. 107. 29. 383. 382. H Hair-line slide for distance measiu:ing Flower-boxes. 142. 316. 287. 142. an Elevator. 102. hearth for. 65. Flash-light for a clock. 202. 206. Framework for workshop. 281. 281. Flashing. 105. 202. a toy Motor truck). covering material Graduated instru- Fire screen. a camp. 108. a paper-spindle. a camp. tree-hut (see Dumb-waiter). a battery. 203. 361. a window-flowerbox. III. a small trellis. 23. Fireplace. 11. Gauge-board for shingling. painting flower-boxes. 152. 153.388 INDEX Fluid. 109. 384. a trellis for sweet peas. Electro-magnet derrick. Halyards. Front elevation. and Light outfit for clock). a a simpler spool105. 65. Gable roof. 384. operation of. 272. 29. plumbing the. a home-made switch. 75. 379. metal. a plant-box. painting. instrument. 381. 151. sal130. 382. 127. 361. rack. Flying-line. a horseshoe. 204. a calendarboard and pen-tray. 102. upper framework for. Fireless cooker. 152. camp. Gravity battery cell. 198. Gauging with a rule and Gifts for the pencil. an electro-magnet. a necktie-rack. Escutcheon-pin. windlass for. a ammoniac battery. 132. 200. GafF. a keyto handy boy camp. 5. preparation of. 140.

Household conveniences. nail pivot. 72. 343. 55. 53. Key-board. village. narrow butt-. 49. 59. 67. wooden wheels. Hinge. toe-nailing. 366. gauging with square and pencil. a. s8- Jxmiping-jack. how to lock a screw. a jackknife plumb-bob. how to attach cleats and battens. the primary-coil. 59. how to divide a board into a number of equal parts. 57. workshop. Hinge-hasp. S9> loose-pin butt-. 87. 67. 55. hinges. Hooks. 59. 176. hinges and hinging. Hip-rafters. 56. a broom-rack. 319. 366. clothes-line. additional shelves for clothes closet. window refrigerator. 66. 53. 340. wardrobe. orflap. the model. a newspaper . nails and how to drive them. Horses for toy merry-go-round. 50. 59. a depth-gauge for boring. what to do when withdrawing. 81. coaster. remove specks of paint from Junk how to solder. 104. 73. 64. pot-. 72. t-. 188. 28. 58. S9Hinges. square backtable. 236. a toy. Hook-hasp."2 so. broad butt-. a wind mill clothes-dryer. 64. 70. 46. 52. 69. how to cut slots. how to cut 157. attaching. 59. home-made box-. bow. 59. to support nails while driving. 64. tree-. Handle. 64. 49. 58. a home-made depth-gauge. namental box-. spacing screws. a post-hole digger. S9Hatchet-head anvil. 73. how how to 74. 55. how glass. 64. 69. 59. a bath-room toilet-cabinet. 370. Joists. $s. 283. toy shocking ma157. a nail pivot hinge. Hardware. a pot shelf. 59. a home-made level. 71. Headlight. S9. how to attach hinges. blindnailing. nailing. 65. right and wrong Hood.INDEX Handle-bars. how to drive screws into hard wood. Huts. 68. 49. to keep tools from rusting. how to bore large holes. nails bend. Hasp. 73. 367. a hatchet-head anvil. chest-. home-made ornamental boxbox-hinge. the. 54. $$. 158. 62. 59. box-. 46. Hook. gauging with rule and pencil. 60. cotmtersinking screwheads. screw-. Handy ways of doing things. 73. . 91. 83. jlink boxes. boxes. 48. strap-. 74. how to drive nails into thin wood. how to drive nails into hard wood. a small pipe-wrench. 6s. 57. 60. the secondary-coil. skatemobile. 271. a plumb-board. how to withdraw rusted screws. to remove sash putty. a spinning-top plumb-bob. 28. how J Jack-rafters. 78. handy boy hardware. 55. 78. 160. 389 double-runner skatemobile. Interrupter for toy shocking machine. K 72. S4. Induction-coil chine. Hand-untying trick. 146. a soap-grater. 87. a makeshift wrench. 375. Hook-and-eye. 10. 260. 74. Kettle tripod. 57. how 49. Hand-straps. 64. 54. Hydro-aeroplane. clinching. tree-hut. broad back-flap. Horseshoe electro-magnet. 88. ' Indian 249. newspaper tepees for for a. a platewarmer. how to hold hammer. 80. to cut wire.

framing. shoulder straps 327. Lock. 297. a home-made. a circuit lamp outfit. bow-stick 271. Light outfit for clock. 237. Knapsack. 360. 99. 224. the marked coin trick. 238. Lean-to roof. packing. 303. 204. Letter-rack. covering. the roof framework. 317. covering. second-hand. 341. a signal. 302. 206. Line. covering. in. 301. the Malay bow-stick. a Christmas tree. 206. Leach. trenching around. 302. 319. 59. 297. sticks for. 300. 246. the. a magic-wand. Latch and latch-string. 299. 302. a. making 14 coins increase to 20. bridle. sticks. trick. 308. Log bridge. 221. horseshoe tro-. 310. learn- by patience and practice. purchasing lamps Main plane. kite. coin trick. duffle-bags for. covside frames. Magnet. 336. 328. 303. the climbing bar of silver trick. . 296. 206. 326. 227. 69. 140. 301. framing. 248. cord. Lumber. 6. 322. knife sheaths for. 230. the ConjTie kite. the lamp connections. 300. 302. 301. the. 305. standard sizes of. 316. assembling. elec- Light outfit. a packing-box Knife sheaths. 300. the disappearing-doU cabinet for disappearingdoll trick. 229. material for. 108. INDEX Log-cabin. trick. Lean-to tent. 247. the handy boy. 203. 59. and sockets. 298. 300. 286. a battery lamp outfit. Kite sticks. circuit. 226. the Chinese paradox. breaking a match. a newspaper. 305. the box-kite. Marked half-mortise. 146. 302. 206. 328. Mast. kite flying-. 326. 300. a good hand. 361. Lost in the woods. 307. a side-table. how to purchase. Level. 221. the hand-untying trick. then restoring it. perform the disappearing doll 242. Lamp battery. 2. sticks. 118. M'atch-box. Mast-step. 241. 281. double- Knotted-grass signs. a campfire. 300. Lamp. Kites. sail-wagon. Knife-switch. Logs for newspaper cabin. bridle. Launching model aeroplanes. 331. the cabinet trick. 59. 5. Magic wand. for. transforming the contents of a glass Ladder. a Santa Claus (see Fireplace). ing tricks table. 328. M Magazine-rack. flying-line. Magician. a simple. 122. the egg-and-handkerchief trick. 220. 246. a body. switch for. the stick chimney. bridle. a unique. cupboard. a home-made pole. 122. framing. 248. the cell connections. 220. 223. Lantern. 300. pocket for. 240. building the walls. 142. 221. electro-. 224. 325. for. 204. 122. a home-made. 306. 233. 23s. 242. 334. Mantel clock. Mantel. the doll and how to coffee. 360. 299. 5. 236. a scout. 296. the paper-shower a clown assistant. when. 279. Malay kite. 25. Lug-pole. battery. preparing the paper logs. 328. 245.39° Kite-reel. 303. sticks. trick. bridle for. 20s. mortise-. 206. turning paper into of water. 301. 205. ering. 220.

214. 216. 281. 288. propellers. tent horses for. shafts for. the hydro- motor winder. 216. 277. main 49. 208. pulley. withdrawing. 328. 47. staggering. 285. the tripod. fuselage. attaching the prosceniimi. 137. for handy boys 56. motors. 211. elevator. 49. thrust bearings. the Selley model. blind-nailing." 212. 59. kinds of. water-. roofing. Merry-go-rotmd. supports. other models. 293. 166. 279. belts and control lever for. aeroplane. seat and canopy-top. 286. 215. tlie 391 Moving-picture projector. 270. propellers. 178. the proscenium. 277. 56. belts tor. number . 284. Necktie-rack. scenery. 53. 287. the captured-dog scene. 164. 339. Mortise-lock. Nealy model aeroplane. materials for. Morse telegraph code. 286. revolving platform for. 274. main plane. 281. 279. 286. 275. the Nealy model. rollers. hexagonal. construction of truck. fuselage. 52. fuselage. the ment Mechanical toys for handy boys Toys). aroof scene. 270. an imitation moving-picture projector. 279. 279. thrust bearings. 288. escutcheon-. 279. the Arthur. 36. 56. thrust bearings. clinching. Mechanical toys for small handy boys (see Toys). the picture the " film " guide sticks. stage framework. half-. i6s. propeller-shafts. 56. 282. N Nail. to take measurewith. propeller-shafts. 290.INDEX Matched siding. 279. 56. to use. 214. 281. bow hooks. 163. 218. 52. steering-wheel. common-. 276. 162. finishing-. the sight-plate. model aeroplane. hold hammer. 56. 15. how the horses gallop. fuselage. Motor base. 107. to drive into hard wood. Nails. 281. 173. 2go. Motor winder. propellers. stability in. 53. 282. 173. 56. Motor truck. 281. rules for contests. battery for 164. when they bend. 51. an imitation. and wrong. 281. 273. 176. 54. 50. 48. to drive into thin wood. pivoting figures. square. 177. preparing the pictures. . 267. 281. 267. 168. motors. Packing-case work-bench cabinet. 49. 167. a forest scene. Motor. 213. 281. Newspaper playhouses (see Playhouses). 271. 211. contests. 49. plane. 277. 276. Motors. 265. 174. Newel-post. 272. Model aeroplanes. to motor Packing a knapsack. 59. for. shingle-. planes. a toy electric. propeller-shafts. propeller blank. wrought-iron. 292. 213. 279. 277. flags. for. the handy boy's. 283. 176. sizes Nailing. the picture " films. 270. the egg-beater. Measuring instrument. 208. fin. 56. O Ohm. toe-nailing. launching. 47. 217. right how to 276. 284. motors. a street scene. 209. 293. Nut. preparing a scenario. to support while driving. (see Moving-picture theater. the Wells model. 271. 346. base for. 164. 289. 218. levers. main plane. graduated sticlc. elevator. 282. recent developments. propellers. 279. and riders for. 46. and tool- operate. distance measuring instrument. elevator. the hair-line slide. 269. 209. a toy. of.

330. 281. 218. 370. 271. 383. Propeller for Santa Claus airship. 369. Proscenium 208. 274. 372. 68. a toy cricket-. Roller-skate skatemobiles. of. 176. board. 73. 245. 22. Plumb-board. a window. a simple kite-. Pipe-wrench. 57. 81. Rafters for workshop. 122. a hip-. pear-shaped. 368. an imitation moving-picture. for moving-picture theater. copper. 28. Remove Remove 74- old sash putty. 80. method of holding. how to draw. 18. . Plunge battery. 87. Roof. spool. to. to determine pitch of. a bit and chisel. 213. Pot shelf. 233. a simpler spool-. 13. to determine pitch of. gg. the square sail. home-made. 275. Parallel. 365. Primary-coil for induction-coil. Post supports for workshop framework. a home-made. 310. sash-. Plumb-bob. Planes. shafts for. 184. wall tent. to determine. to remove old sash. 109. Pylon. lean-to tent. 197. 6. Refrigerator. 91. 107. 281. blank for. 28. 27. workshop. 249. connecting battery cells in. a shingle-. a book and magazine. 274. 157. ST. 29. 322. to remove specks of. Scandinavian. 346. 74- Propeller-shafts. to lay out length of. Yale. a small. Paper-spindle. the. 67. 107. Playhouses. a Pitch of roof. 133. material for making. 276. 69. Painting flower-boxes. model aeroplane. a lean-to. model aeroplane. 20. 62. no. 279. campfire. 370. 362. camp-fire. kettle and tripod. 177. 319. side. Rack. 315. how to prepare. a log-cabin. jack-. method of holding. 189. Pulley. Pier. a broom-. Reach-board. 281. Picture " films " for moving-picture theater. 173. I3S- Pen-tray and calendar-board. 251. wooden. 274. Push-button. 56. 368. 57. screw-. 308. a spool-. 14. clothes-line. 251. 323of Plumbing 12. 15. 384. Paint. a letter-. a home-made. a 282. 13. Propellers. specks of paint from glass. a jack-knife. 276. a gable. 59.392 INDEX 274. newspaper. 22. 4. 171. make-believe other suggestions. 67. Plate-warmer. in. from glass. 107. a spinning-top. pitch of. Rattle. a camp. tree-hut. 9- Ridge-pole. 141. a post-card. Post-card rack. 212. 279. Pitch. Paper cup. 40. Plan for workshop. Plant-box. los. sg. 109. a camp. 245. 57. tepees for an Indian village. 245. 74. 350. 250. a folded. framework workshop. 74. Padlock. to. Roller-skate sails. the three-cornered sail. Projector. Post-hole digger. Painting the workshop. Recess for hinge. Reel. putting up. 20. Paper-shower trick. 307. preparation of. Railing. Putty. a body kite-. Rivets. 316. 20. 345. hip-. 20. 127. propeller. common forms Pothooks. a good hand kite-. a taipaper. a necktie-.

Screws. cat-boat rig. flexible rubber cup. 99. tiller. Selley model aeroplane. 356. . 157. Rudder for Santa Claus airship. a semaphore.INDEX Room. propellers. 214. Signal lantern. a combined desk and book-case. 214. a street scene. 56331. additional. 331. shoes for. 357. 331. 348. operating the lantern. Shovel. duffle-bags. a captured Shoes for coaster runners. 78. axle. Screw. a. 260. how the flashes matched. to lock. Sash-pulley. 316. a roof scene. are produced. 158. in. Sash-lift. for the handy boy's. home-made. 216. Rules for model aeroplane contests. how to use watch as a compass. a camp wash-. 126. 282. the key lever stick. 260. 360. 334. rig. Roller-skate Series-parallel. 349. dog scene. 338. 330. 197. Shrouds. signal system for coasting. 55. connecting battery cells in. Sails. a Sheave. a desk stool. Sal-ammoniac battery cell. knotted-grass signs. S7Sash-weights. roller-skate (see Series. handy boy magician. 276. 281. 15. 361. Secondary-coil for induction-coil. a pot. 14. a larger. how to construct. getting lost in the woods. 339. 255. soaping. 339. 361. bow wheels. 54. Side-table for Siding. folded paper cup. 328. tree-hut window. 15. drop-. countersinking. Signs of the 331. 96. 135. 15. 98. $6. Shocking machine. Screw-pulley. 15. knife sheaths. 325. 26. tions. fuselage. signs of the trail. a toy. 91. 55. Shelves for clothes closet. flat-head. tiller-post and connec- 359. Sheets for cat-boat Shelf. 56. getting drink without a cup. 281. 329. to withdraw rusted. propeller-. Sail-wagon. 330. dumb-waiter. lag-. Side elevation. 356. Scout craft. twig signs. stem wheels. flat-head machine-. gauge-board for. 331. Shafts. double-runner coaster. 92. Rubber cup. 15. beveled-. a blacking-case. 92. Semaphore 255. 256. 56Screw-hooks. a flexible. 57. mast. 220. 100. stone-heap signs. pivoting figures. round-head machine-. 160. Santa Claus fireplace (see Fireplace). 15. wagon-bed. twig signs. Santa Claus airship (see Airship). mast-step. packing the knapsack. 24. 323. blazed 331. a scout knapsack. 56. 325. 129. 55. 216. Scenery for moving-picture theater. 337. 215. Shutter. varieties of and how to drive. 131. the Morse code. the shutter. 5. 328. planes. S4. 281. 336. a writing-desk. 331. Runners. a forest scene. trails. 337. 262. 337. the key connection. 54. Screen. 155. 56. 217. 333. 360. ship-lap. single-runner coaster. knottedgrass signs. 328. Sail. 258. induction-coil for. round-head finishing-. 346. a camp. 358. 159. 324. S7- Shingling. 330. the Armour. interrupter for. 135Shaft. 361. a book-rack. a cat-boat. 393 Screw-eye. 331. stone-heap signs. Runner. 293. connecting battery cells sails). handles for. 357. Screwing cleats and battens. Signal system for coasting. trail. blazed trails. 56. 361. Ship-lap. 281. a campfire. 329. 329.

reach-board. 369. 257. 56. 261. 262. where to build. 221. holding sail. to fasten sail to spreader. 75. 372. bi-chro- Three-cornered roller-skate sail. for. Telegraph code. Spreader. sail cloth. handle-bars. 257. runner 262. 369. 15. 293. 204. 279. Tool-chest. sail cloth. 368. 105. 256. telllanterns for coasting after dark. Strap-hinge. the popular Staking out workshop. Struts. trenching around outside of. 107. Snow tunnels. Stays. headlight. framework for. 365. skatemobile racing. connecting socket. a home-made wall. Stability in 370. 102. to keep from rusting. snow tunnels. 242. 370. medium-sized outfit 44. matting-. sail. their invention.. 339. sal-ammoniac. model aeroplanes. 372. Skate 368. 312. 209. 6. 313. a burlap. 105. 362. s^J ^ug-j 56. 177. roller-skate sail. 98. Square roller-skate 369. Staggering nails. 103. 370. 370. 75. 369. 254. Single-runner coaster. 369. 59. to attach the wheels. 249. Testing squareness of workshop corners. 372. . Spars. to 365. to fasten sail to spreader. covering. the square sail. 370. Tent. 9. a desk. construction of semaphores. soft 252. 366. 257. 262. the handy boy's moving- lamp. 196. 372. Toe-nailing. spars. method Spool pulleys. 253. 56. round-head. 313. 282. tale. spreader. a simpler. Stove for workshop. 362. 372. Tiller-post. the three-cornered Table for boy magician. 255. other Stone-heap signs. 366. spreader. 40. 317. Solution. type. Spool-rack. 54. 59. sail. 43. rope stays. Morse.394 Sills for INDEX workshop. 359. Thermometer-board. 370. 255. Soldering outfit. roller-skate sail. Tiller. separate the skate wheels. 370. semaphore signal system. 7. walls of. double-pointed. Soap-grater. circuit Theater. 344. 369. 56. a a packing-box. 40. sails. covering. method of holding sail. 128. T-hinge. Socket. 316. Sliatemobiles. 369. 73. gimp. battery lamp. 331. hood. tracks. 370. 74. 270. 87. 365. runner shoes Stage for moving-picture theater. 53. Tool-cabinet. 365. 206. spars. 56. a. spars. for. handstraps. method of Tools. wall. seat for. Spool-holders. 369. 132. 367. side-. of. a lean-to. newspaper. Soaping screws. spars. 372. 369. 366. connecting 369. Tar-paper roofing. cut-. 130. 369. method of holding sail. spreader. picture (see Moving-Picture Theater). Telltale for snow for. 3S9. seat. 36. 359. 255. of holding sail. 370. Tacks. mate. 370. netting-. Staining woodwork. Staple. Soldering. 369. 370. 370. Tepees. roller-. 43. 123. 366. flux and fluid for. 51. Stool. rope stays. 370. hand-strap. 56. common forms of. socket. 254. tjTpes. the selection of. 30. 370. Thrust bearings. the most important. 363. Storage battery.

356. Wand. Volt. Truck. W Wagon-bed. Washer. 185. 315. Trail signs. 343. 56- 344. 377. 317for. 169. 276. 224. door. 38. thrust bearings. a cricket-rattle. . 275. a toy. the egg-and-handkerchief trick. 227. wooden wheel. upper shafting for. Wash-shelf. 272. mechanical. . 330. 376. 137. the Harry. burlap 315. knptted-grass signSr' '" 331. 378. electrical. motors. a small vine. an electric motor truck. 377. the. 313. the upper portion. 346. 323. the Harry. main plane. Toys for handy boys. a camp. 341. Wheels. U Umbrella bower.34. water-motor. a sweet pea. 171. 331. merry-go-round. 172. struts. 188. framework. 331. 288. 381. the trick of. 190. 286. the aerial foundation. Watch as a compass. 230. 230. a toy electric motor. aeroplane. 344. 33r. 23. 269. a magic. ridge-pole. Wheel. 333. 359. the Cotter hut. Tree blazes. 186. the cabinet trick. a bench. floor boards. 178. 33-r'. 173. to cut a wooden. 220. to mount wheel of. legs. 375. 236. Trellis. breaking a. propeller blank. 168. the disappearing-doU trick. newel-post. dumb-waiter. 270. Turtle. bearing blocks. water-motor. 237. 276. Wells motor winder. window. match. snow (see Snow Tunneb). 221. water-wheel for. 345. 346. erecting walls. a Christmas. a home-made. 345. the climbing bar of silver trick. 341. 331. wall supports. Toys 173. 274. barrow wheel. shaft for. Tripod for distance measuring instru. the Harry. stone-heap signs.INDEX Toys. 233 the handimtying trick. Tricks for the handy boy magician. Trim for workshop. an electro-magnet derrick. 313. Weight-box for home-made windowframe. 375. a buzz-saw whirligig. the Chinese paradox. wheel- barrow box. 151. bow hooks. platform framework. 315. 381. 240. 374. iSS. 270. floor joists. 37s. then restoring it. 340. Tree standard. 229. 379. 173. 190. 169. motor case for. 168. Tree-huts. 168. Wells distance measuring instrument. 226. 347. V Vise. roof. elevator. for small handy boys. propellershafts. Trenching around tent. Wells model aeroplane. a clog-dancer. mechanical. constructing walls in sections. 340. 16. ment. Transforming the contents of a glass. making 14 coins increase to 20. 162. pulleys for gearing. a shocking machine. Tunnels. 395 Twig signs. 189. of. 271. Wheel. pulley. 344. 273. 271. timiing paper into coJEEee. fin. the paper shower trick. 168. a ^^ - turtle. a jumping-jack. 151. 171. 162. propellers. 284. 238. trenching around outside 221. a home-made. twig signs. 223. 379. 317. 185. Wall tent. 346. wheel axle. 341. fuselage. sail-wagon. Wheelbarrow. blazed Sails. Water-motor. the marked coin trick. transforming the contents of a glass. ladder. 206. 312.

49. floor Windmill clothes-dryer. 10. a to fasten to floor Workshop with a gable roof. sail-wagon. with hinges. putting up the rafters. Zinc pencil. 20. a batten door. Whirligig. 346. 13. egg-beater motor. 40. foundation. Wrought-iron nail. win- Writing-desk. floor joists. a combined book- a door-frame. 36. ering of boards. to determine pitch of roof. 16. 12. battery cell. 26. 126. 4. Work-bench. ports. 185. 18. 92. 6. 28. sills. painting. Wrench. 8. 25. boarding up dow-frames. 22. a makeshift. a home-made. testing squareness of corners. 358. amal- gamating a. home-made window frame. a toy buzz-saw. 13. . drawing the plan. post sup9. Window-frame. window-frames. rafters. 357. 2. boards. 20. 133. 73- 15. 96. roof framing. 23. to lay out length of rafters. Withdrawing nails. packing-case. roof roof boarding. 22. installing a stove. a small pipe-. 6. ridge-pole. 28. 73. 10. a tree-hut. case and. 382. 31. 27. 18. 2S. 83. wall construction. 25. build- ing material. Workshop with a hip-roof. a home-made.396 Wheels. g. 15. 13. staking out. tar-paper. framework. 29. Window refrigerator. 11. shingle gauge-board. 7. 129. home-made doorframe. Winder. shingling. latch-string. 30. a home- is. outside trim. cov14. 284. plumbing the framework. INDEX Workshop with a to lean-to roof. 23. Window flower-box. 2S. 22. the walls. 22. made window-frame and 23. weight-box. 285. 81. 22. wall framework. 56- wooden latch and siding. operate.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful