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Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

Foundation

Engineering

by Prof. Bengt B. Broms

April, 2007

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Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

Foundation Engineering

by Prof. Bengt B. Broms

April, 2007

The textbook can be read by chapers or searched by keywords.

Table of contents:

Pages

1. Aspects of foundation engineering

1

2. Soil mechanics

13

3. Geotechnical field investigations

39

4. Bearing capacity of foundations

55

5. Foundation settlements

69

6. Factors to consider in foundation design

93

7. Spread footing design

101

8. Special footings and beams on elastic

107

foundations

9. Mat foundations

113

10. Lateral earth pressure

121

11. Soil retaining structures

143

12. Pile foundations - Single piles

173

13. Single piles - Dynamic analysis

213

14. Pile foundations - Pile Groups

221

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Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

Chapter 1. Aspects of foundation engineering

Page

1.

Foundations of buildings and structures

2

Keywords: pile, raft, footing

2.

Effects of underground installations on foundations

2

Keywords: tunnel, ground water, water main, sewer line

3.

Soil deposit

3

Keywords: clay, sand, rock, ground water

4.

Interactions between buildings

3

Keywords: settlement, clay, shale, tunnel, sewer line

5.

Requirements of a foundation

4

Keywords: economy, safety, settlement, seasonal changes, construction problem, environment,

6.

Development of geotechnical analysis

4

Keywords: empirical, theoretical, semi-empirical, computers

7.

Soil investigation methods

5

Keywords: seismic, boring, penetration test, test pit, pressure meter test, plate load test, CPT, SPT, WST, geophone

8.

Bearing capacity of footing

5

Keywords: heave, flow line, equipotential line, settlement, failure surface, flow net, heave

9.

Pressure bulb below footing

6

Keywords: settlement, stress increase, compressibility

10.

Settlements caused by lowering of ground water level

6

Keywords: sand, clay, leaking sewer line, piezometer, ground water

11.

Differential settlement below structure

7

Keywords: differential settlement, cracks

12.

Mat foundation

7

Keywords: elastic springs

13.

Lateral earth pressure

8

Keywords: active earth pressure

14.

Design of retaining walls

8

Keywords: retaining wall

15.

Anchored sheet pile walls

9

Keywords: sheet pile, anchor, vertical component

16.

Braced excavations

9

Keywords: strut, lateral earth pressure, sheet pile, bottom heave

17.

Reinforced earth

10

Keywords: concrete element, steel strip, aluminium strip

18.

Pile foundations

10

Keywords: concrete pile, steel pile, timber pile

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Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

19. Ultimate bearing capacity of piles

11

Keywords: point resistance, skin resistance, ultimate resistance

20. Pile groups

11

Keywords: bridge abutment, fill, soft clay, negative skin friction

Chapter 2. Soil mechanics

Page

21.

Concepts in foundation engineering

15

Keywords: soil mechanics, engineering geology, foundation engineering, theory, experience

22.

Description of soil properties

15

Keywords: index properties, soil classification, stress condition, permeability, deformation property, shear strength

23.

Definition of geotechnical terms

16

Keywords: void ratio, porosity, water content, unit weight, dry unit weight, unit weight of solid, specific gravity, degree of saturation, gas, water, solid

24.

Determination of grain size distribution

16

Keywords: grain size, percent finer, hydrometer analysis, sieve analysis, sand, effective grain size, coefficient of uniformity, well graded, uniformly graded, poorly sorted, poorly graded, clay, silt, sand, gravel

25.

Plasticity of soils

17

Keywords: plasticity index, shrinkage limit, plastic limit, liquid limit, water content

26.

Plasticity chart

17

Keywords: liquid limit, low plasticity, medium plasticity, high plasticity, A-line, clay, silt, plasticity index

27.

Distinction between clay and silt

18

Keywords: plasticity, settlement rate, dilatancy, dry strength, settlements, suspension

28.

Structure of clay

18

Keywords: dispersed, flocculated, positive charge, negative charge

29.

Standard Proctor compaction test

19

Keywords: dry unit weight, dry density, maximum dry density, saturated, optimum water content, water content

30.

Proctors compaction tests

19

Keywords: standard Proctor test, modified Proctor test, blows, layer

31.

Compaction curves

20

Keywords: clay, silt, sand, till, standard, modified, water content, dry density

32.

Unified soil classification system

20

Keywords: gravel, sand, silt, clay, organic, peat, well graded, poorly graded, silty, clayey, low plasticity, high plasticity, ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, OH, liquid limit

33.

Tripartite soil classification chart

21

Keywords: percent, clay, sand, silt, particle size

34.

British Standard Code of Practice for Soil Investigations (CP 2001)

21

Keywords: soil description, consistence, density, structure, colour, particle size, geological formation

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Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

35. Rock description (CP 2001)

Keywords: colour, grain size, texture, structure, state of weathering, rock name, strength,

36. Darcy's law

Keywords: coefficient of permeability, hydraulic gradient, flow,

37. Permeameter for determination of laboratory permeability

Keywords: standpipe, Darcy´s law

38. Pumping test for determination of field permeability

Keywords: permeability, piezometer, infiltration test

39. Permeability of soils

Keywords: gravel, sand, silt clay, pumping test, permeability test, constant head, falling head, consolidation test, d10

40. Flow net determination

Keywords: flow line, equipotential line

41. Effective stress concept

Keywords: effective stress, pore water pressure, total stress

42. Seepage pressure (negative pore water pressure)

Keywords: effective stress, seepage pressure, total stress

43. Seepage pressure (positive pore water pressure)

Keywords: effective stress, seepage pressure, total stress, quick condition

44. Stress-strain relationship of soil

Keywords: stress, strain, secant modulus, ultimate stress

45. Hyperbolic stress-strain relationship

Keywords: stress, strain, hyperbolic curve

46. Modulus of elasticity

Keywords: stress-strain relationship, Poisson's ratio, modulus of elasticity

47. Shear modulus

Keywords: shear stress, shear modulus, shear deformation

48. Compression modulus

Keywords: coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest

49. Stability of footing on soil

Keywords: shear strength, failure surface, heave

50. Coulomb-Mohr failure criterion

Keywords: Coulomb-Mohr,Terzaghi-Hvorslev, angle of internal friction, attraction, cohesion, shear strength, normal stress

51. Mohr's stress circle

Keywords: shear stress, normal stress, failure surface, friction angle, cohesion

52. Effective stress concept

Keywords: ambient stress, deviator stress, pore water pressure, pore pressure coefficient A, pore pressure coefficient B

53. Mohr's circle for clay soil

Keywords: shear stress, normal stress, compression stress

54. Stress path concept

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Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

Keywords: p-q curve

55.

Stress path concept, Kf failure line

32

Keywords: cohesion, friction angle, p, q, Kf

56.

Typical values of angle of internal friction of soils

32

Keywords: gravel, sand, silt, clay, relative density, angularity, gradation, particle size

57.

Undrained shear strength of cohesive soils

33

Keywords: c/p-ratio, effective stress, undrained shear strength, ground water level

58.

c/p-ratio of clays

33

Keywords: normally consolidated clay, plasticity index

59.

Correction factor for undrained shear strength

34

Keywords: plasticity index, stability, clay, c/p ratio

60.

Effective friction angle as function of plasticity index

34

Keywords: friction angle, plasticity index

61.

Short term stability of an excavation

35

Keywords: excavation, normally consolidated, overconsolidated, initial ground water level, shear strength

62.

Long term stability of an excavation

35

Keywords: normally consolidated clay, overconsolidated clay, flow lines

63.

Effective stress analysis

36

Keywords: sand, shear strength, drained test

64.

Total stress analysis

36

Keywords: saturated soil, c-analysis,

65.

Determination of shear strength

37

Keywords: sand, silt, short term, long term, saturated, non-saturated, c-analysis,

66.

Laboratory tests for determination of shear strength of cohesive soils

37

Keywords: direct shear test, triaxial test, unconfined compression test, fall cone test, vane test

67.

Laboratory tests for determination of undrained shear strength

38

Keywords: direct shear test, triaxial test, unconfined compression test, fall cone test, laboratory vane test

68.

Field tests for determination of undrained shear strength

38

Keywords: field vane test, pressuremeter test, cone penetration test, standard penetration test, weight sounding test

Chapter 3. Geotechnical field investigations

Page

69.

Geotechnical soil exploration methods

41

Keywords: geophysical, sampling, penetrometer, plate load test, pressuremeter test, piezometer

70.

Objectives of soil investigation

41

Keywords: stability, settlements sand, silt, clay, rock, ground water, safety factor, structure, construction

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Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

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Depth of investigation for structures

42

Keywords: footing, raft, pier

72.

Site investigation

42

Keywords: map, site visit, authorities, contractor, topography, buried services, geological condition, previous use of site

73.

Site investigation (cont.)

43

Keywords: climatic condition, material, hydrological condition

74.

Planning of site investigation

43

Keywords: water main, pond, road, building

75.

Seismic refraction method

44

Keywords: geophone, distance, travel time, time, detonation, chart

76.

Surface investigation

44

Keywords: trial trench, trial pit, casing, ground water

77.

Soil sampler

45

Keywords: slot sampler, rotation, sand, silt, peat

78.

Soil sampler

45

Keywords: split spoon sampler, SPT, Shelby tube sampler

79.

Swedish foil sampler

46

Keywords: steel foil, piston sampler, steel foil, casing, piston

80.

Undisturbed samples

46

Keywords: piston, friction, gas, sample, friction, stress release, disturbance

81.

Rock drilling

47

Keywords: double tube core barrel, diamonds, coring bit, outer tube, inner tube, ball bearing

82.

Rock quality designation (RQD)

47

Keywords: description, RDQ, very poor, poor, fair, good excellent

83.

Field vane test

48

Keywords: Sgi, undrained shear strength, casing, rod, sheath, vane, clay, measuring head, torque

84.

Field vane test

48

Keywords: Geotech, slip coupling, undrained shear strength, friction, torque,

85.

Pore pressure probe

49

Keywords: piezocone, jacking, cable, clay, pore pressure, excess pore pressure, layer, undrained shear strength

86.

Pressuremeter

Keywords: guard cell, measuring cell, Menard, water, gas

87.

Evaluation of Pressuremeter test

49

Keywords: cell pressure, volume, expansion of cell, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, Pressuremeter modulus, limit pressure, shear modulus

88.

Plate load test

50

Keywords: beam, anchor, plate, jack, dial indicators load, displacement, load

89.

Screw plate test

50

Keywords: displacement, pressure, strength, sand, jack, field compressometer

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Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

90.

Evaluation of plate load test

51

Keywords: settlement, load, ultimate large plate, small plate, diameter

91.

Plate load test, clay

51

Keywords: large plate, small plate, settlement

92.

Total stress cell

52

Keywords: Glötzl cell, coefficient of lateral earth pressure, at rest, clay

93.

Piezometer

52

Keywords: pore water pressure, crack, hydraulic fracturing, pressure, volume,

94.

Triaxial test

53

Keywords: lateral earth pressure, water saturation

95.

Coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest, sand, clay

53

Keywords: sand, clay, normally consolidated, plasticity index

96.

Determination of ground water level

54

Keywords: pumping, well

54

Chapter 4. Bearing capacity of foundations

97. Bearing capacity of surface foundation

Keywords: load, settlement, ultimate load

98. Failure mechanism of surface foundation

Keywords: general shear failure, local shear failure, punching, failure surface, compaction

99. Failure zones below surface foundation

Keywords: overburden pressure, active Rankine zone, Prandtle zone, Passive Rankine zone, cohesion, unit weight of soil

100. Determination of bearing capacity of surface foundation

Keywords: shape factor, bearing capacity factor, unit weight, inclination, base factor, ground factor, width, cohesion, friction angle

101. Bearing capacity factors

Keywords: angle of internal friction, N-factor, cohesion, weight, bearing capacity

102. Effective stress analysis of foundation on sand

Keywords: drained triaxial test, shear strength, vertical load, horizontal surface, friction angle, width

103. Plain strain friction angle

Keywords: plain strain, triaxial test

104. Punching failure

Keywords: loose sand, loose silt, friction angle, cohesion

105. Bearing capacity of footing in sand

Keywords: effective overburden pressure, ground water, N-factor

106. Bearing capacity of footing in sand (layered soil)

Keywords: footing, soil layer, density, depth, width

107. Footing in excavation

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Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

Keywords: depth, boundary

108.

Effect of hydraulic gradient on bearing capacity

62

Keywords: flow line, equipotential line

109.

Effect of adjacent footing in slope

62

Keywords: failure surface, log spiral failure surface, slope

110.

Log spiral

63

Keywords: friction angle

111.

Bearing capacity of footing (log spiral)

63

Keywords: log spiral, shear strength

112.

Effect of horizontal load on bearing capacity

64

Keywords: vertical load, horizontal load, failure surface

113.

Equivalent area of surface footing

64

Keywords: length, width, round, triangular, eccentricity

114.

Total stress analysis of foundation in clay

65

Keywords: undrained shear strength, vertical load, horizontal surface, bearing capacity

115.

Effect of soil layer on bearing capacity of footing in clay

65

Keywords: vertical plane, horizontal plane, isotropic, circular failure surface, depth, width

116.

Effect of overburden pressure on bearing capacity in clay

66

Keywords: total overburden pressure, allowable load, ultimate load, depth

117.

Pressure distribution below footing in clay and sand

66

Keywords: ultimate bearing capacity, elastic theory, design load,

118.

Pull out resistance of shallow footing

67

Keywords: depth, friction angle, shape factor, density, weight

119.

Pull out resistance of footing at depth

67

Keywords: shape factor, friction angle, depth, weight

120.

Bearing capacity on rock

68

Keywords: unconfined compressive strength, steel point, pile, allowable load, ultimate load

Chapter 5. Foundation settlements

Page

121.

Settlements of foundations

72

Keywords: cracks, tower of Pisa

122.

Stress distribution below point load

72

Keywords: stress increase, Boussinesq, pressure bulb, equal stress increase

123.

Stress below strip load

73

Keywords: distance, depth, diameter, stress increase, load

124.

Influence chart

73

Keywords: Influence value, squares, load

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Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

125.

2:1 - method

74

Keywords: surface load, stress distribution, width, depth

126.

2:1 - method at corner of footing

74

Keywords: depth, stress increase, loaded area, length, width

127.

Settlement below footing

75

Keywords: clay, silt, sand, immediate settlement, primary settlement, secondary settlement, first loading, cyclic loading

128.

Settlements in clay and silt

75

Keywords: normally consolidated, overconsolidated, primary settlement, secondary settlement, total settlement, modulus, pressuremeter, oedometer, elastic method, undrained shear strength

129.

Settlements in sand

76

Keywords: first loading, cyclic loading, compression modulus, coefficient of subgrade reaction, SPT, CPT, WST, triaxial test, plate load test

130.

Immediate settlements in clay

76

Keywords: theory of elasticity, correction factor for depth, Poisson's ratio, influence factor, modulus of elasticity

131.

Correction factor for foundation depth

77

Keywords: Poisson's ratio, width, depth,

132.

Determination of compression index

77

Keywords: void ratio, effective stress, compression index, liquid limit, stress increase

133.

Determination of settlements from compression test

78

Keywords: preconsolidation pressure, effective stress, corrected curve, applied pressure, void ratio, settlement, load scale

134.

Principle of settlement calculation

78

Keywords: primary settlement, void ratio, water content

135.

Settlement below footing

79

Keywords: effective stress, applied stress, ground water, void ratio

136.

Determination of precosolidation pressure

79

Keywords: preconsolidation stress, effective stress, void ratio

137.

Determination of coefficient of consolidation (logarithmic)

80

Keywords: consolidation curve, time, logarithmic, primary consolidation, secondary consolidation, coefficient of consolidation, dial reading

138.

Coefficient of consolidation (square root)

80

Keywords: time, settlement, coefficient of consolidation

139.

Secondary consolidation

81

Keywords: time, void ratio,

140.

Effect of surface fill on stress distribution

81

Keywords: compression modulus, pore water pressure, total stress, effective stress, stress increase, time, ground water, fill, compression modulus, sand, clay, settlement

141.

Estimate of modulus of elasticity in clay

82

Keywords: clay, undrained shear strength, normally consolidated, overconsolidated

142.

Soil modulus from cone penetration test (CPT)

82

Keywords: sand, clay, Bowles

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Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

143.

Determination of modulus from plate load test

82

Keywords: settlement, elastic range, coefficient of subgrade reaction, load

144.

Estimate of settlements below footing on sand

83

Keywords: pressure bulb, modulus of elasticity, sand, clay, load

145.

Settlements of footing on clay

83

Keywords: width, settlement

146.

Effect of plate diameter on bearing capacity of plate on sand

84

Keywords: width, settlements, sand

147.

Estimate of modulus of elasticity from Standard penetration test (SPT)

84

Keywords: sand, clay, SPT, N-value

148.

Estimate of modulus of elasticity from cone penetration test (CPT

85

Keywords: sand,

149.

Estimate of modulus of elasticity in clay from Standard penetration test

85

(SPT) and undrained shear strength

Keywords: clay, modulus of elasticity, N-value

150.

Allowable footing pressure based on SPT N-values

86

Keywords: bearing capacity, settlements, blow count, N-value

151.

Settlements of footing on sand from cone penetration test, CPT

86

Keywords: footing, raft, allowable pressure, cone resistance

152.

Allowable settlement below building

877

Keywords: crack, differential settlement, sewer line

153.

Damage due to foundation settlements

87

Keywords: clay, sand, ground water, flexural cracks, shear cracks, total settlements, differential settlements

154.

Floating foundation

88

Keywords: compensated foundation, building weight, fill, settlement

155.

Effect of ground water lowering from tunnel on building settlements

88

Keywords: ground water level, clay, sand, tunnel

156.

Effect of trees on ground water near building

89

Keywords: settlements, distance to building, tree height

157.

Differential settlements between adjacent buildings

89

Keywords: settlement, soft clay, crack

158.

Negative skin friction due to ground water lowering

90

Keywords: pile, cracks, settlements, ground water level

159.

Swelling potential of soil below building

90

Keywords: heave, swelling potential, seasonal variation, ground water, sewer line, leaks, watering, plasticity index, liquid limit, shrinkage limit

160.

Effect of pile installation on adjacent building

91

Keywords: clay, sand, pile, area of influence, heave, settlement

161.

Allowable differential settlements below structure

91

Keywords: rotation, differential settlements, USSR code, structure type, distance between footings

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Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

Chapter 6. Factors to consider in foundation design

Page

162.

Examples of foundation design

94

Keywords: footings, raft, piles

163.

Design considerations

94

Keywords: seasonal change, frost heave, change of ground water level, internal erosion, piping, adjacent excavation, soil creep, sink holes, vibrations, deterioration of concrete

164.

Factor of safety of foundation

95

Keywords: increase of safety factor, time, ultimate pressure, minimum

165.

Determination of factor of safety for different structures

95

Keywords: forces preventing failure, forces initiating failure, moment, dams, fill, retaining wall, sheet pile, braced excavation, footing, mat, raft, uplift, heave, piping

166.

Factor of safety of slope

96

Keywords: centre of rotation, length of failure surface, resisting moment, initiating moment, resisting force

167.

Stability of slope in clay

96

Keywords: weight of soil, sliding, slip circle, undrained shear strength

168.

Factor of safety of slope in clay

97

Keywords: weight of soil, slip circle,

169.

Probability of failure

97

Keywords: coefficient of variation, mean value, standard deviation, load, strength

170.

Load combinations

98

Keywords: dead loads, live load, wind load, earthquake load, load factor

171.

Characteristic load

98

Keywords: load factor, partial factor of safety, shear strength, friction angle, cohesion,

172.

Coefficient of variability

99

Keywords: loads, soil properties, analysis, construction, safety factor, reliability, low, very low, medium, high, very high

173.

Factor of safety

99

Keywords: coefficient of variability, stability, settlement, stability safety, settlement factor, low, medium, high, very high

174.

Minimum load factors and partial safety factors

100

Keywords: loads, soil strength, dead load, live load, static water pressure, environmental load, cohesion, friction,

175.

Effect of adjacent structures

100

Keywords: stress increase, settlement, new, old, lateral earth pressure

176.

Effect of excavation

100

Keywords: stability, excavation

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Chapter 7. Spread footing design

177. Spread footing

Keywords: reinforcement, floor slab, soil reaction

178. Footing types

Keywords: trapezoidal, column, strap, wall, combined, footing with moment

179. Design considerations

Keywords: compression in concrete, pedestal, punching, cover, tension reinforcement, reinforcement

180. Critical section

Keywords: reinforcement, masonry, steel, base plate,

181. Critical section of footing

Keywords: shear force, shear stress,

182. Bond stress in footing

Keywords: bond stress, reinforcement

183. Eccentric force on footings

Keywords: eccentricity, footing, moment

184. Design of eccentrically loaded footing

Keywords: allowable pressure, eccentricity, width,, moment

185. Eccentrically loaded footing

Keywords: stress, allowable pressure

186. Drainage of footings

Keywords: drain

Chapter 8. Special footings and beams on elastic foundations

187. Special footings and beams on elastic foundations

Keywords: beam, strap, moment, eccentricity

188. Combined footing

Keywords: elevation, plan

189. Load distribution on footing

Keywords: concentrated load, moment distribution, shear stress distribution, pressure

190. Winkler foundation

Keywords: spring, elastic, soil reaction, coefficient of subgrade reaction, actual, load, deflection, settlement

191. Coefficient of subgrade reaction

Keywords: elastic spring, elastic range, settlement, unloading, load

192. Classical design solution

Keywords: deflection, moment, shear force

193. Elastic deflection of beam

Keywords: solutions, shear force, moment, slope, deflection

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194. Effect of foundation width on footing settlement

Keywords: solutions, clay, sand, deformation,

Chapter 9. Mat foundations

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Page

195.

Mat foundations

114

Keywords: examples, loads

196.

Waffle structure

114

Keywords: ribs

197.

Finite difference method

115

Keywords: computer programme, uncertainties, coefficient of subgrade reaction, modulus of elasticity,

198.

Design of building foundation

115

Keywords: span, wall, strip, span length, exterior spans, interior spans

199.

Grain elevator foundation

116

Keywords: clay, allowable pressure, factor of safety, total overburden pressure

200.

Floating foundation

116

Keywords: building weight, soil weight, depth of excavation, story,

201.

Floating building foundation

117

Keywords: excavation, net pressure

202.

Differential settlements due to ground water lowering

117

Keywords: clay, ground water lowering

203.

Stability of deep excavations

118

Keywords: heave, anchor, sheet pile

204.

Effect of pile installation adjacent to excavation

118

Keywords: excavation, embankment piles

205.

Support of excavation against heave

119

Keywords: fill

206.

Anchor pile in excavation

119

Keywords: water-filled excavation

Chapter 10. Lateral earth pressure

Page

207.

Lateral earth pressure

123

Keywords: retaining wall, sheet pile wall

208.

Influence of displacement on lateral earth pressure

123

Keywords: active earth pressure, passive earth pressure, lateral earth pressure at rest, away from fill, against fill

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Active earth pressure (Rankine)

124

Keywords: coefficient of active earth pressure, shear stress, normal pressure, depth of excavation, Mohr circle

210.

Distribution of active earth pressure

124

Keywords: Rankine, Mohr circle, cohesion, depth

211.

Active earth pressure (Coulomb)

125

Keywords: wedge

212.

Influence of two point loads on soil pressure

125

Keywords: displacement, Boussinesq, rigid smooth wall

213.

Stress distribution below surface load

126

Keywords: Influence value, 0.005, number of squares, Poisson's ratio

214.

Effect of compaction on earth pressure

126

Keywords: bridge abutment, deep basement, lateral earth pressure

215.

Effect of vibratory roller

127

Keywords: passive pressure, at rest pressure, active pressure, dynamic soil pressure

216.

Distribution of soil pressure after compaction

127

Keywords: initial, compaction, stress increase, active at rest, passive at rest

217.

Compaction of soil layers

128

Keywords: compactor, first layer, second layer, depth, passive at rest

218.

Earth pressure distribution at rigid wall due to compaction

128

Keywords: depth, lateral earth pressure, increase, compaction, without compaction, rigid wall

219.

Examples of retaining structures

129

Keywords: gravity wall, cantilever wall, counterfort wall

220.

Crib wall

129

Keywords: stretcher, header, cells, soil

221.

Gravity wall and Cantilever wall

130

Keywords: height

222.

Failure modes

130

Keywords: mechanisms, bearing capacity, overturning, sliding, general failure, centre of rotation

223.

Design of retaining structure for bearing capacity

131

Keywords: eccentric load, inclined load, design

224.

Bearing capacity of retaining wall

131

Keywords: wall, inclined

225.

Design of retaining wall for inclined load

132

Keywords: eccentricity

226.

Inclined wall

132

Keywords: force

227.

Overturning of retaining wall

133

Keywords: point of overturning, resisting moment, driving moment

228.

Design of wall against sliding

133

Keywords: resisting force, driving force, sand, clay

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Shear keys in sliding wall

134

Keywords: shear key, alternative location

230.

General stability of retaining wall

134

Keywords: driving moment, resisting moment, failure surface

231.

Reinforcement in retaining wall

135

Keywords: moment, reinforcement

232.

Location of reinforcement

135

Keywords: moment distribution

233.

Tilting of retaining structure

136

Keywords: bridge abutment, design, actual pressure, yielding

234.

Counterfort walls

136

Keywords: elevation

235.

Drainage of wall

137

Keywords: drain, pore water pressure, slip surface

236.

Drainage of retaining structure

137

Keywords: drain, slip surface, pore pressure distribution

237.

Drainage of retaining structure

137

Keywords: failure surface, drainage layer, pore water pressure

238.

Reinforced earth, type Vidal

138

Keywords: metal strip

239.

Reinforce earth wall

138

Keywords: metal strip, spacing, star-shaped element, stress distribution, actual failure surface

240.

Required length of earth reinforcement

139

Keywords: earth pressure, length, failure surface

241.

Bearing capacity failure of retaining structure

139

Keywords: base failure

242.

Fabric reinforced wall

140

Keywords: precast concrete element, fabric, soil

243.

Fabric reinforced wall

140

Keywords: reinforcement

244.

Examples of fabric reinforced wall

141

Keywords: failure surface, fabric

245.

Design of fabric reinforced wall

141

Keywords: failure surface, length

Chapter 11. Soil retaining structures

246. Support systems

Keywords: anchored wall, strutted wall, cantilever wall, sheet pile, strut, wale beam, ground anchor

xvii

Page

146

Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

247.

Wood elements

146

Keywords: groove, spline, tongue, driving sequence

248.

Concrete elements

147

Keywords: heavy, difficult, grouted, driving

249.

Steel sheet piles

147

Keywords: light, difficult to drive

250.

Sheet piles details

148

Keywords: anchor rod, lagging, wedge, wale beam, soldier beam

251.

Details of wall construction

148

Keywords: poling boards, soldier beams (King post), strap, clip, welded studs, washers, soldier beam placed in predrilled borehole

252.

Bored pile wall

149

Keywords: wale beam, ground anchor

253.

Berliner wall

149

Keywords: soldier pile, precast element, ground anchor, shotcrete, rail, wire mesh

254.

Factor of safety of retaining wall

150

Keywords: active earth pressure, passive earth pressure, factor of safety, water pressure, friction angle,

255.

Cantilever sheet pile wall

150

Keywords: flow line, equipotential line, water pressure, net water pressure

256.

Earth pressure distribution of cantilever wall, friction soil

151

Keywords: uplift, dragdown, gradient, water pressure, Rankine

257.

Earth pressure distribution of cantilever wall, cohesive soil

151

Keywords: undrained shear strength, cohesion, net pressure, active earth pressure, Rankine, actual, assumed, water pressure

258.

Earth pressure distribution of cantilever wall, factor of safety

152

Keywords: clay, depth, factor of safety, cohesion, depth

259.

Design of sheet pile walls

152

Keywords: wale beam, anchor rod, sheet pile

260.

Failure mechanisms

153

Keywords: plastic hinge, rotation

261.

Anchored sheet pile wall (Free earth support)

153

Keywords: center of rotation, surface load, resisting moment, driving moment, depth, earth pressure, net pressure, overburden pressure

262.

Earth pressure distribution in cohesive soil with wall friction

154

Keywords: adhesion, wall friction, depth, cohesion, vertical pressure, surface load

263.

Critical height of sheet pile wall in clay

154

Keywords: no wall friction, with wall friction, stability factor, unstable, stable, undrained shear strength,

264.

Earth pressure distribution along sheet pile wall

155

Keywords: passive earth pressure, active earth pressure, sand, clay, surface pressure

265.

Moment distribution in sheet pile wall

155

Keywords: distributed load, moment, distributed load, shear distribution, surface load

xviii

Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

266.

Anchored or braced sheet pile wall

156

Keywords: flexible, stiff, assumed, deflection, earth pressure distribution, moment distribution, anchor

267.

Moment reduction in sheet pile wall

156

Keywords: anchor, moment, reduced load

268.

Deflection of sheet pile wall

157

Keywords: stiffness, height

269.

Moment as function of sheet pile height

157

Keywords: dense sand, loose sand, moment

270.

Anchor systems

158

Keywords: soil anchor, rock anchor, concrete slab, piles, short sheet pile, inclination

271.

Anchor piles

158

Keywords: piles, pull out resistance

272.

Design aspects of anchor plate

159

Keywords: anchor plate, passive earth pressure, anchor force, active earth pressure, passive earth pressure, critical failure surface, anchor depth

273.

Critical depth of anchor plate in sand

159

Keywords: friction angle, depth, passive earth pressure

274.

Critical depth of anchor plate in clay

160

Keywords: undrained shear strength, critical depth

275.

Pull out resistance of anchor plate in clay

160

Keywords: depth,

276.

Settlement behind sheet pile wall

160

Keywords: anchor force, settlement, inclination

277.

Strutted wall

161

Keywords: soil anchor, passive resistance, wedge, horizontal anchor

278.

Anchored wall

161

Keywords: soil anchor, inclined anchor, failure wedge,

279.

General stability of anchored wall

161

Keywords: failure surface, failure surface, factor of safety, active earth pressure, passive earth pressure

280.

Load distribution between soil anchors

162

Keywords: Manfred Panel C1, Bergshamra Panel A, load, arching

281.

Force redistribution in soil wedge

162

Keywords: failure surface

282.

Braced excavations

163

Keywords: settlement, strut, wale beam

283.

Earth pressure distributions (design)

163

Keywords: earth pressure distribution, sand, soft clay, stiff fissured clay, depth, undrained shear strength, struts

284.

Strut forces

164

Keywords: hinge

xix

Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

285.

Strut forces in adjacent excavations

164

Keywords: tensile crack, first strut, second strut, undrained shear strength, failure surface

286.

Water flow into excavation in sand

164

Keywords: flow line, ground water, quick condition, critical gradient, depth of excavation

287.

Bottom heave in excavation

165

Keywords: sand, clay, adhesion, ground water, struts critical depth

288.

Bottom heave in excavation in clay

165

Keywords: stability factor, struts, depth, width

289.

Bottom heave in excavation in clay, effect of wall adhesion

166

Keywords: stability factor, adhesion

290.

Settlement adjacent to strutted excavation

166

Keywords: struts, settlements, ground water level, base heave, stability, lateral displacement, workmanship

291.

Estimate of settlement adjacent to excavation

167

Keywords: ground loss, distance, maximum depth of excavation, sand, clay, settlement, very soft clay, stability factor, A, B, C

292.

Bored pile wall with soil anchors

167

Keywords: shotcrete, soil anchor, soft clay, undrained shear strength, bored pile, ground anchor

293.

Slurry walls or diaphragm walls

168

Keywords: wall panel, ground anchor

294.

Slurry wall construction

168

Keywords: grab, bentonite slurry, reinforcement cage, steel tube, excavation, placement of steel tube, placement of reinforcement, concreting

295.

Stability of slots

169

Keywords: soil wedge

296.

Bentonite slurry

169

Keywords: oil well drilling, soil borings, bentonite clay, montmorillonite, barite, barium sulphate, slurry density

297.

Stability of slurry excavation

170

Keywords: ground beams, bentonite slurry, filter skin, density of slurry, failure wedge

298.

Maximum depth of slurry excavation

170

Keywords: layer of stones or gravel, viscosity, tixotrophy, filter skin, undrained shear strength, active earth pressure, ground water level

299.

Concreting of slurry excavation

171

Keywords: soft clay, critical depth, undrained shear strength, density, tremmie pipe

300.

Deformation of concrete wall

171

Keywords: active earth pressure, at rest pressure, Winkler foundation, load redistribution, deformation, soil anchor

xx

Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

Chapter 12. Pile foundations - Single piles

Page

301.

Piles

177

Keywords: pile cap, piles, soft clay, sand, raker pile, batter pile

302.

Vibrations

177

Keywords: tanks, silos, chimneys, machine foundations, sand, ground water

303.

Examples of pile foundations

178

Keywords: compaction piles, raked piles, damping of piles, small damping, vibrations

304.

Stability of bridge abutment

178

Keywords: soft clay, fill, bridge abutment

305.

Embankment piles

179

Keywords: soft clay, raked piles, bridge abutment, fill

306.

Anchor piles for dry docks, subway stations

179

Keywords: ground water, up-lift force, anchor piles

307.

Offshore structures on piles

180

Keywords: cyclic loading, scour, compression, steel pipe piles, tension force

308.

Stabilisation of slope by piles

180

Keywords: slope stability, large diameter pile, steel pipe pile, failure surface

309.

Design of embankment piles

181

Keywords: failure surface, clay, precast piles,

310.

Anchor piles in swelling soil

181

Keywords: seasonal changes, swelling clay, montmorillonite, high liquid limit, high plasticity index, building

311.

Examples of pile types

182

Keywords: driven piles, bored piles, jacked-down piles, screw piles, hydraulic jack

312.

Piles foundations

182

Keywords: concrete pile, steel pile, timber, H pile

313.

Pile types

183

Keywords: large displacement piles, small displacement piles, non-displacement piles, bored piles, precast piles, pipe piles, cased, uncased

314.

Loading conditions of piles

183

Keywords: compression, lateral load, tension

315.

Load transfer to piles

184

Keywords: friction or floating piles, end bearing piles, clay, sand, rock

316.

Timber piles

184

Keywords: advantages, difficulties, limit bearing capacity, soft clay, tip, shaft, ground water, butt

317.

Pile splices

185

Keywords: steel sleeve, steel strap

318.

Splices and rock points

185

Keywords: rock point,

319.

Precast concrete piles

186

Keywords: point, concrete, reinforcement. pile diameter

xxi

Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

320.

Lifting of piles

186

Keywords: pile length, lifting hooks, moment

321.

Prestressed concrete piles

187

Keywords: height strength concrete, brittle, reduced cracking, reduced ductility

322.

Concrete strength (CP 2004)

187

Keywords: cube strength, hard driving, normal to easy driving, high capacity, reduced weight, easy driving

323.

Installation of jacked-down piles

188

Keywords: pump, manometer, steel insert, hydraulic jack, pile segment

324.

Bored piles

188

Keywords: auger, reinforcement, tremmie pipe, concreting

325.

Examples of bored piles

189

Keywords: bored piles, drilling of shaft, drilling of bell, concrete, stiff clay, reinforcement

326.

Bored piles with bell

189

Keywords: bells

327.

Cast-in-place piles

190

Keywords: casing, driving, casing filled with water, casing filled with concrete, reinforcement

328.

Necking during casting of pile shaft in soft clay

190

Keywords: casing, soft clay, sand or silt, ground water

329.

Slurry trench wall construction

191

Keywords: ground water, surface casing, bentonite slurry, chisel, pouring of concrete, lowering of reinforcement element

330.

Shapes of slurry trench pile elements

191

Keywords: size

331.

Raymond step tapered pile

192

Keywords: steel shell, steel cone, light bulb, reinforcement cage, casting of concrete

332.

Franki pile

192

Keywords: concrete plug, bulb, internal hammer, prefabricated shaft, light casing

333.

Steel H-pile

193

Keywords: easy to drive, easy to cut, corrosion, expensive, splicing, soil plug, driving shoe, steel plate

334.

Steel pipe piles

193

Keywords: diameter, closed or open ended, soil plug, diameter

335.

Corrosion

194

Keywords: steel piles, concrete piles, National Bureau of Standards, splices, reinforcement, salt water

336.

Settlement around during driving in sand

194

Keywords: settlement, diameter, compaction within this zone

337.

Effect of pile driving in clay

195

Keywords: soft clay, heave, volume, soft clay, remoulded zone, pore water pressure, undrained shear strength

338.

Redriving of piles in clay

195

Keywords: risen piles, redriving, heave, soft clay, separation of splice

xxii

Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

339.

Load distribution along pile

196

Keywords: sand, clay, point resistance, shaft resistance

340.

Pile load as function of pile displacement

197

Keywords: load, displacement, soft clay, stiff clay, sand, cast in place pile, driven pile, with bell

341.

Load deformation relationship of piles

197

Keywords: pile load, displacement, point resistance, skin resistance

342.

Direction of pile loading

198

Keywords: compression, tension, weight of pile, factor of safety, allowable load, point resistance, shaft resistance

343.

Determination of bearing capacity at pile point

198

Keywords: end bearing, undrained shear strength, bearing capacity factor

344.

Pile bearing capacity according to Meyerhof

199

Keywords: friction angle, bearing capacity factor

345.

Bearing capacity factor of piles

199

Keywords: Terzaghi, Berezantsev, Meyerhof, Vesic, Brinch Hansen, de Beer, friction angle

346.

Failure mechanism at pile point

200

Keywords: point resistance, rigidity index, failure surface, compressibility, rigidity index

347.

Comparison of cone resistance and pile point resistance

200

Keywords: area of pile, sand

348.

Comparison of SPTN-value and pile point resistance

201

Keywords: SPT, sand, pile diameter

349.

Lateral pressure against pile shaft

202

Keywords: bored pile, small displacement pile, large displacement pile, straight shaft, tapered shaft, lateral earth pressure

350.

Determination of pile capacity in sand

202

Keywords: loose, dense, coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest, small, Vesic, displacement pile, non-displacement pile, tapered pile

351.

Pile shaft capacity in sand

203

Keywords: pile type, sand, critical depth,

352.

Lateral pressure against pile shaft

203

Keywords: Mansur & Hunter, Tavenas, Ireland, lateral earth pressure

353.

Critical depth of pile shaft resistance

204

Keywords: friction angle, bearing capacity value, diameter, length

354.

Estimate of pile capacity based on Weight sounding test (WST)

204

Keywords: half-turns, timber piles, concrete piles, Norwegian Pile Commission, skin area

355.

Failure surface at pile point in clay

205

Keywords: failure surface, diameter, area of pile

356.

Skin friction resistance along pile shaft

205

Keywords: cone penetration test, friction sleeve small displacement pile, large displacement pile

xxiii

Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

357.

Bearing capacity of piles in clay

206

Keywords: normally consolidated clay, overconsolidated clay, undrained shear strength, reduction , ground surface

358.

Lambda-method

207

Keywords: offshore structures, depth, mean value, skin resistance

359.

Estimate of pile skin resistance in clay

208

Keywords: effective overburden pressure, Flaate, Selnes, undrained shear strength

360.

Load transfer from pile to soil as function of pile displacement

209

Keywords: t-z curves, q-y curve, driven pile, bored pile

361.

Negative skin friction along piles

209

Keywords: lowering of ground water level, driven pile, bored pile

362.

Failure modes of horizontally loaded piles

210

Keywords: soil failure, pile failure, failure mechanism

363.

Lateral pile resistance in sand

210

Keywords: sand, horizontal load, force

364.

Lateral pile resistance in clay (rotational mode)

211

Keywords: undrained shear strength, heave, passive earth pressure, lateral force, diameter, depth

365.

Lateral pile resistance in clay (pile failure mode)

211

Keywords: undrained shear strength, diameter, yield, moment, lateral force

Chapter 13. Single piles - Dynamic analysis

Page

366.

Pile driving equipment

214

Keywords: drop hammer, diesel hammer, vibratory hammer, steam hammer, single acting, double acting

367.

Dynamic pile test

214

Keywords: hammer, helmet, cap block, cushion, pile, stress wave, depth, steel, concrete, wood

368.

Stress wave analysis, rigid base

215

Keywords: particle velocity, wave velocity, impedance, rebound of hammer

369.

Stress wave analysis, soft base

215

Keywords: particle velocity, length, impedance

370.

Detection of pile defect by dynamic test

216

Keywords: hammer velocity, particle velocity, wave velocity, force, accelerometer, impedance, warning, strain gauge, time, wave length, fracture

371.

Determination of dynamic pile bearing capacity

216

Keywords: hammer, force, displacement, elastic compression, drop height,

372.

Pile driving formulae (definition)

217

Keywords: mass of hammer, penetration resistance, effective height of fall, mass of pile, coefficient of restitution elastic compression, soil, cushion, dynamic pile capacity

xxiv

Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

373.

Pile driving formulae

217

Keywords: Hiley, Kreuger, Janbu, elastic compression, cushion, pile, soil, load distribution factor, dynamic pile capacity

374.

Elastic compression of pile

218

Keywords: cushion, pen, set, pile, hammer

375.

Static pile load test

218

Keywords: applied load, displacement, point bearing pile, elastic compression, pile shaft, friction pile, sand, clay

376.

Definition of pile failure load

219

Keywords: settlement, applied load, range, pile diameter

377.

Types of pile loading tests

219

Keywords: maintained load, constant rate of penetration (CRP)

Chapter 14. Pile foundations - Pile Groups

Page

378.

Pile group in clay

223

Keywords: elevation, plan, perimeter, plan, undrained shear strength

379.

Examples of pile groups

224

Keywords: single footings, foundation walls, friction pile, end-bearing pile, footing

380.

Efficiency of pile group in clay

224

Keywords: pile spacing, efficiency, optimum spacing, Sowers, length, model test, clay, Bentonite, calculated, measured

381.

Settlement of pile group in clay

225

Keywords: pile group, clay, 2:1 distribution, pile length

382.

Efficiency of pile group (model tests)

225

Keywords: pile load , applied load, Whitaker, ultimate load of pile group, center pile, corner pile, model test

383.

Efficiency of pile group in sand (model test)

226

Keywords: efficiency, width, length, model test, fine sand, row, group, pile spacing

384.

Pile groups in sand (model tests)

226

Keywords: load, displacement, pile group, Kezdi, diameter, spacing, fine sand

385.

Load distribution in pile group

227

Keywords: pile group, ultimate strength, compression, tension, center or rotation

386.

Eccentric loading in pile group (example)

228

Keywords: assumed centre of rotation, imaginary pile, rows

387.

Eccentric loading in pile group (example cont.)

228

Keywords: assumed centre of rotation, imaginary pile, rows

388.

Load distribution below piled foundation

229

Keywords: pressure bulb, raft, piled raft, width, san

389.

Stress increase below pile group

229

Keywords: single pile, pile group, stress distribution

xxv

Foundation Engineering – Bengt Broms

390.

Settlements below pile group in sand

230

Keywords: applied load, single pile, loaded pile, sand

391.

Settlement of pile group

230

Keywords: side of pile group, Skempton, single pile, pile group, width

392.

Load distribution below pile group in sand

231

Keywords: single pile, pile group, settlement, width, Berezantsev, friction angle

393.

Negative skin friction along pile shaft in clay

231

Keywords: fill, clay, neutral point, ground water level, lowering

394.

Effect of negative skin friction on piles in clay

232

Keywords: point bearing piles, floating piles, crushing, settlements

395.

Protection piles for reduction of negative skin friction

232

Keywords: protection piles

396.

Heave caused by pile driving

233

Keywords: clay, surface heave

397.

Settlements caused by pile driving in sand

233

Keywords: settlements, cone

398.

Settlements caused by pile driving in excavation

234

Keywords: clay, sand, sheet pile wall, vibrations, soil anchor

399.

Effect on point resistance by pile driving

234

Keywords: sand, pile length, vibrations, adjacent pile

400.

Order of pile driving

235

Keywords: settlements, damage to building, vibrations

401.

Differential settlements below building due to pile driving in sand

235

Keywords: sand, traffic, cracking, piles, driving

xxvi

Bengt Broms – Foundations – Cap.1 Aspects of Foundation Engineering

Chapter 1. Aspects of foundation engineering

Page

1. Foundations of buildings and structures

2

2. Effects of underground installations on foundations

2

3. Soil deposit