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of the airways c) the accessory muscles of respiration d) formation of the pleural cavities in the embryo e) anatomy of an intercostals space (a) The gross anatomy of pulmonary circulation. Each lung has a large pulmonary supplying blood and two pulmonary veins draining blood from it. The right and left pulmonary arteries arise from the pulmonary trunk at the level of the sternal angle and carry poorly oxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation. The right pulmonary artery passes under the arch of the aorta to reach the right lung. The left pulmonary artery lies completely to the left of the arch. Each pulmonary artery becomes part of the root of the corresponding lung and gives off its first branch to the superior lobe before entering the hilum. Within the lung each artery descends posterolateral to the main bronchus and divides into lobar and segmental arteries. An arterial branch goes to each lobe and bronchopulmonary segment of the lung, usually on the anterior aspect of the corresponding bronchus. The arteries and bronchi are paired in the lung, branching simultaneously and running parallel courses. After passing through the pulmonary capillaries where gas exchange occurs, blood drains into the pulmonary veins. The pulmonary veins carry well-oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. Beginning in the pulmonary capillaries, the veins unite into larger and larger vessels. Intrasegmental part of pulmonary veins drain blood from adjacent bronchopulmonary segments into the intersegmental parts of the pulmonary veins in the septa, which separate the segments. The pulmonary veins run independent courses from the arteries and bronchi as they run toward the hilum. The veins from visceral pleura drain into the pulmonary veins, and the veins from the parietal pleura join the systemic veins in adjacent parts of the thoracic wall. (b) Divisions of the airways The airways are divided in to the conducting and respiratory zones. The conducting zone begins as a system of cavities, namely the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and nasopharynx, which begin the cleansing, warming and moistening of air drawn into nares. The air then enters trachea (a single tube) that divides repeatedly to form airways of decreasing diameter; left and right primary (main) bronchi, secondary (lobar) bronchi, and tertiary (segmental) bronchi. The tertiary bronchi ramify into numerous orders of progressively smaller airways called bronchioles. The smallest bronchioles are called terminal bronchioles which are the last of the purely conducting tubes. Between the end of the purely conducting part of the system and the respiratory part is a series of transitional airways, the respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts, which become increasingly involved in gas exchange. These passages terminate in dilated air spaces called alveolar sacs, which open into the alveoli. The respiratory zone consists of a vast number of blind ending sacs, the alveoli. The walls of the sacs
thus the anterior ribs. (c) Accessory muscle of respiration 1) Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Serratus Anterior (inferior part) Action in respiration: expand the thoracic cavity when inspiration is deep and forceful. Visceral and parietal layers are continuous with each other. bilateral contraction of SCM elevates the clavicle and manubrium. Cells of the somatic mesoderm lining the intraembryonic cavity become mesothelial and form the parietal layer of the serous membranes lining outside of the pleural. the pericardioperitoneal canals. the pulmonary capillaries. Gaseous exchange takes place between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the capillaries.(pocket arrangemnt) Origin : inferior border of ribs Insertion : superior border of ribs . cells of the splanchnic mesoderm layer form the visceral layer of the serous membranes covering the lungs. They lie on each side of the foregut and are gradually filled by the expanding lung buds. The space between the parietal and visceral pleura is the pleural cavity. 2) Scalene Muscle Action in respiration: fixing 1st and 2nd ribs. enabling the muscle connecting the ribs below to be more effective in elevating the lower ribs during forced respiration 3) Sternocledomastoids (SCM) Action: if the head and neck are fix. and the remaining spaces form the primitive pleural cavities.contain an extensive network of thin-walled blood vessels. heart and abdominal organs. Ultimately the pleuroperitoneal and pleuropericardial folds separate the pericardioperitoneal canals from the peritoneal and pericardial cavities. the spaces for the lungs. (e) Anatomy of an intercostal space 1)Muslces 2)V-A-N Muscles: i) External intercostals space(11 pairs). respectively. In a similar manner. (d) Formation of the pleural cavities in the embryo In the embryo. pericardial and peritoneal cavities. are narrow.
Weaker than external intercostals Action : a) active during expiration.give rise to muscular branch and lateral cutaneous branch Anteriorly. Run from tubercle of ribs to costochondral junction Continous inferiorly with external oblique muscle in the anterolateral abdominal wall Action : a)most active during inspiration b)maintain or increase the tonus of intercostals space c)elevates the ribs during forced inspiration ii)Internal intercostals muscle(11 pairs) ~perpendicular to external Origin : floors of costal grooves Insertion : superior borders of the ribs inferior to them Attach to the bodies of the ribs and their costal cartilages as far as the sternum and as far posteriorly Replace by internal intercostals membranes posteriorly and medial to angle. Replace by external IC membrane anteriorly. inferior to vein and arteries Collateral branches arise near the angle of ribs and run along the posterior border of rib below Continue running between internal and innermost.maintain or increase the tonus of intercostal space b)their interoosseous portion may depress ribs during forced respiration c) the interchondral portion of the internal intercostals appears to act with the external intercostals during active inspiration iii) Innermost intercostals muscle Deeper parts Separated from internal IC muscles by IC nerve and vessel Pass between the internal surfaces of adjacent ribs and occupy the lateralmost part of intercostals Action : likely the same as those of internal intercostals muscles Nerves Divided into anterior ramus and posterior ramus as soon as they leave the IV foramina Run along the intercostals space Typical 3-6th Running initially within endothoracic fascia Near the angle of ribs. Continuous with internal oblique muscles in the anterolateral abdominal wall. the nerves appear on the internal surface of internal IC muscles .the nerve pass between internal intercostals muscle and innermost intercostals and course within the costal groove.
no lateral cutaneous branch.2nd :origin~superior interostal artery D rest: thoracic aorta 2)collateral branch of posterior intercostals artery 3)small pair of anterior intercostals arteries 1st -6th :origin~internal thoracic 7th -9th :musculophrenic 10th-11th: no such thing Course: pass between internal and innermost IC Supply IC muscles. passing between the costal cartilages to become anterior cutaneous branch.. Near the sternum. Atypical T1 : divide into small inferior (IC nerve) and large superior(branchial plexus) 1st: no anterior cutaneous branch. cross the costal margin and continue to supply abdomen.each intercostals space is supplied by 3 arteries 1)large posterior intercostals artery 1st. Arteries With exception of 10th. course on internal surface of 1st ribs 2nd : course on internal surface of 1st ribs Give rise to large lateral cutaneous branch th 7 to 12th :after giving lateral cutaneous branches. IC nerve turn anteriorly.pleura Veins 11 pairs of intercostals + subcostal 1st drain into branchocephalic vein 2nd n 3rd drain into superior intercostals 4th -11th + subcostal drains into azygos system. .11th.overlying skin n P.
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