Prefixes and suffixes

A
Prefix or suffix a-, anMeaning Denotes an absenceof,without Origin language and etymology Example(s) Apathy, Analgia Abduction Abdomen cardiac, hydrophobiac, pharmacomaniacal acanthion, acanthocyte, acanthoma, acanthulus acoumeter, acoustician Acrocrany, acromegaly, acroosteolysis, acroposthia paracusis dorsad Latin Adduction Greek ἀ-/ἀλ- (a-/an-), without, not away from Latin abLatin (abdōmen), abdomen, fat abdomin(o)- Of or relating to the abdomen around the belly -ac, -acal pertaining to -αθόο (-akos) acanth(o)acous(io)acr(o)-acusis -ad adaden(o)-, aden(i)adip(o)adren(o)-aemia (BrE) aer(o)aesthesio(BrE) -al albalge(si)-algia alg(i)oalloambiamnioamph-, amphiananathorn or spine Of or relating to hearing extremity, topmost hearing toward, in the direction of increase, adherence, motion toward, very Of or relating to a gland Of or relating to fat or fatty tissue Of or relating to adrenal glands blood condition air, gas sensation pertaining to Denoting a white or pale color pain pain Denoting something as different, or as an addition Denoting something as positioned on both sides; Describing both of two Pertaining to the membranous fetal sac (amnion) on both sides not, without back, again, up ἄθαλζα (, thorn ἀθνπζηηθόο , for hearing ἄθξνλ (akron), highest or farthest point ἀθνπζηηθόο (acoustikos), of or for hearing

Ancient Greek ἀδήλ, ἀδέλ- (adēn, Adenocarcinoma, adenology, adenotome, aden-), an acorn; a gland adenotyphus Latin (adeps, adip-), fat Latin Greek ἀλαηκία, without blood ἀήξ, ἀέξνο αἴζζεζηο Latin -alis Latin albus, white Greek Greek ἄιινο (allos), another, other Latin (ambi-, ambo), both, on both sides ἄκληνλ ἀκθί (amphi) Greek Greek Adipocyte adrenal artery Anaemia Aerosinusitis Anesthesia abdominal Albino Analgesic Myalgia Myalgia Alloantigen, allopathy Ambidextrous Amniocentesis Amphicrania, amphismela, amphomycin Analgesia Anaplasia

an(o) andr(o)angi(o)anisoankyl(o)-, ancyl(o)anteantiapoarch(i,e,o) arsen(o)arteri(o)arthr(o)articul(o)-ary -ase -asthenia atel(o) ather(o)-ation atri(o)aur(i)aut(o)aux(o)axillazo(to)
B

anus Latin pertaining to a man ἀλήξ, ἀλδξblood vessel Greek ἀγγεῖνλ Describing something as ἄλῑζνο (anīsos), unequal unequal Denoting something as ἀγθύινο (ankýlos), crooked, crooked or bent curved Describing something as positioned in front of another Latin (āntē), before, in front of thing Describing something as Ancient Greek αληη (anti), against 'against' or opposed to another separated from, derived from Ancient Greek ἀπό first, primitive Of or pertaining to a male; Greek (arsein) masculine ἀξηεξία (artēría), a wind-pipe, Of or pertaining to an artery artery (distinctly versus a vein) Of or pertaining to the joints, αξζξνο (arthros), a joint, limb limbs joint Latin articulum pertaining to Latin -arius enzyme Greek δηάζηασις, division weakness Greek, ἀζζέλεηα imperfect or incomplete development fatty deposit, Soft gruel-like deposit process Latin an atrium (esp. heart atrium) Of or pertaining to the ear Latin (auris), the ear self Greek αὐηνincrease; growth Of or pertaining to the armpit Latin (axilla), armpit [uncommon as a prefix] nitrogenous compound Origin language and etymology Greek βάλανος - balanos, acorn, glans Latin Ancient Greek βίνο Greek βιαζηόο Ancient Greek βιέθαξνλ (blépharon), eyelid Latin (brachium), from Ancient Greek βξαρίσλ (brachiōn), arm

Andrology, android Angiogram Anisotropic, anisocytosis Ankylosis antepartum Antibody, antipsychotic Apoptosis archinephron : first formed kidney

Artery, Arteriole Arthritis Articulation bilary tract Lactase Myasthenia gravis atelocardia : imperfect development of the heart

Habitation, Lubrication atrioventricular Aural Autoimmune auxocardia : enlargement of the heart Axilla azothermia : raised temperature due to nitrogenous subs.in blood Example(s) Balanitis Binary Biology Blastomere Blepharoplast Brachium of inferior colliculus

Prefix/suffix

Meaning Of the glans penis or balanoglans clitoridis twice, double bilife biogerm or bud blast(o)Of or pertaining to the blephar(o)eyelid brachi(o)Of or relating to the arm

brachybradybronch(i)bucc(o)burs(o)-

'short' or less commonly 'little' 'slow' bronchus cheek bursa fluid sac betw. bones

βξαρύο (brachys), short; little, shallow Ancient Greek βξαδύο (bradys), slow Latin (bucca), cheek Latin

brachycephalic Bradycardia Bronchiolitis obliterans Buccolabial Bursitis

C
Prefix/suffix capillcapitcarcin(o)cardi(o)carp(o)cata-cele -centesis cephal(o)cerat(o)cerebell(o)cerebr(o)cervicchem(o)chir(o)-, cheir(o)chlor(o)chol(e)cholecyst(o)chondr(i)ochrom(ato)-cidal, -cide cilicircumcisclast cocol-, colo-, colonoMeaning Of or pertaining to hair Pertaining to the head as a whole) cancer Of or pertaining to the heart Origin language and etymology Latin (capillus), hair Latin (caput, capit-), the head Greek θαξθίλνο (karkinos), crab Ancient Greek θαξδία (kardía), heart Latin (carpus) < Ancient Greek Of or pertaining to the wrist θαξπόο (karpós), wrist; down, under Greek θαηά (kata) pouching, hernia Ancient Greek θήιε (kēlē) surgical puncture for aspiration Ancient Greek θέληεζηο (kentēsis) Of or pertaining to the head (as a Ancient Greek θεθαιή (képhalē), the whole) head Of or pertaining to the cornu; a Ancient Greek θέξαο, θεξαη- (kéras, horn kerat-), a horn Of or pertaining to the cerebellum Latin (cerebellum), little brain Of or pertaining to the brain Latin (cerebrum), brain Of or pertaining to the neck, the Latin (cervix, cervīc-), neck, cervix cervix chemistry, drug ρεκεία Of or pertaining to the hand Denoting a green color ρείξ, ρεηξν- (cheir, cheiro-), hand Example(s) Capillus Capitation Carcinoma Cardiology Carpopedal Cataract Hydrocele Amniocentesis Cephalalgy Ceratoid Cerebellum Cerebrology Cervicodorsal Chemotherapy Chiropractor Chlorophyll Cholaemia Cholecystectomy Chondrocalcinosis Hemochromatosis bacteriocidal Ciliary Circumcision osteoclast coenzymes Colonoscopy

ρισξόο (chloros), green, yellowgreen Of or pertaining to bile ρνιή (cholē), bile ρνιεθύζηηο (cholēkýstis), gallbladder Of or pertaining to the gallbladder < ρνιή (cholē), bile, gall + θύζηηο (kýstis), bladder cartilage, gristle, granule, granular ρνλδξόο (chondros) color ρξῶκα killing, destroying Latin Of or pertaining to the cilia, the < Latin (cilium), eyelash; eyelid eyelashes; eyelids Denoting something as 'around' Latin (circum), around another on this side Latin (cis) break θιαζηόο with, together, in association Latin colon

colp(o)comcontra corcor-, core-, corocordicornucoron(o)cost(o)coxcrani(o)-crine cry(o)cutanecyan(o)cyclcyph(o)cyst(o)-, cyst(i)cyt(o)-cyte

Of or pertaining vagina with, together against with, together Of or pertaining to eye's pupil Of or pertaining to the heart [Uncommon as a prefix] Applied to processes and parts of the body describing them likened or similar to horns heart Of or pertaining to the ribs Of or relating to the hip, haunch, or hip-joint Belonging or relating to the cranium to secrete cold skin Denotes a blue color circle, cycle Denotes something as bent [uncommon as a prefix] Of or pertaining to the urinary bladder cell cell

θόιπνο (kólpos), bosom, womb; hollow, depth Latin Latin Latin θόξε (kórē), girl, doll; pupil of the eye Latin (cor, cordi-), heart Latin (cornū), horn

Colposcopy Contraindicate Corectomy Commotio cordis

Latin (costa), rib Latin (coxa), hip Latin (cranium) < Ancient Greek θξᾱλίνλ (krānion), the cranium, skull, bones enclosing the brain εθθξίλεη ecrine Greek θξύνο Latin θύαλνο, θπάλενο (kýanos, kyáneos), blue Greek θύθινο (kuklos) θπθόο (kȳphós), bent, hunchback Ancient Greek θύζηηο (kýstis), bladder; cyst Greek θύηνο Greek Origin language and etymology Greek δάθξπ δάθηπινο (finger, toe Latin deLatin (dens, dentis), tooth δέξκα, δέξκαη- (dérma, démat-), skin, human skin Greek δέζηο (desis) Latin dexter Greek δηLatin δηά (diá), through, during, across

Costochondral Coxopodite Craniology Endocrine Cryoablation Subcutaneous Cyanopsia

Cyphosis Cystotomy Cytokine Leukocyte

D
Prefix/suffix dacryodactyl(o)dedentdermat(o)-, derm(o)-desis dextr(o)dididiaMeaning tear Of or pertaining to a finger, toe away from, cessation Of or pertaining to teeth Of or pertaining to the skin binding right, on the right side two apart, separation (same as Greek meaning) Example(s) Dactylology Dentist Dermatology arthrodesis Dextrocardia Diplopia Diacetyl

difdigit-dipsia disdors(o)-, dors(i)duodenodynam(o)-dynia dys-

apart, separation Of or pertaining to the finger [rare as a root] suffix meaning "(condition of) thirst"' separation, taking apart Of or pertaining to the back duodenum, twelve: upper part of the small intestine (twelve inches long on average), connects to the stomach force, energy, power pain bad, difficult

Latin Latin (digitus), finger, toe

Digit polydipsia hydroadipsia, oligodipsia Dissection dorsal, Dorsocephalad Duodenal atresia

Latin disLatin (dorsum), back Latin duodeni δύλακηο (dunamis) Greek δπζ-

Vulvodynia Dysphagia, dysphasia

E
Prefix/suffix -eal ecect(o)Meaning pertaining to out, away outer, outside Origin language and etymology Latin Greek ἐθ- (ek-) Greek ἐθηόο Ancient Greek ἔθηαζηο ἐθηνκή (ectomē), excision ἕκεζηο ἀλ-αηκία, without blood ἐγθέθαινο (the brain ἐλδν- (endo-), inside, internal Eos, the Greek word for 'dawn' Greek Goddess of the Dawn. ἔληεξνλ (énteron), intestine ἐπη-, before, upon, on, outside, ἐπίζηνλ- the pubic area, loins; vulva ἐξπζξόο (erythros), red Greek νἰζνθάγνο Greek αἴζζεζηο Greek Eukaryote Latin Exophthalmos Ancient Greek ἐμσ- (exo-), Exoskeleton outside of, external Example(s)

-ectasis, -ectasia expansion, dilation -ectomy -emesis -emia encephal(o)endoeosin(o)enter(o)epiepisi(o)erythr(o)-esophageal, esophago esthesioeuexexoDenotes a surgical operation or removal of a body part. Resection, excision vomiting condition blood condition (AmE) Of or pertaining to the brain. Also see Cerebro. Denotes something as 'inside' or 'within' Red Of or pertaining to the intestine [Same as Greek meaning: on, upon] pubic region, the loins Denotes a red color gullet (AmE) sensation (AmE) true, good, well, new out of, away from Denotes something as 'outside' another

Ectopic pregnancy Bronchiectasis, Telangiectasia Mastectomy Hematemesis Anemia Encephalogram Endocrinology, Endospore Eosinophil granulocyte Gastroenterology Epistaxis, epicardium, episclera, epidural Episiotomy Erythrocyte

extra-

outside

Latin

Extradural hematoma Origin language and etymology Latin (faciēs), the face, countenance

F
Prefix/suffix faci(o)fibr(o) filli-form, iform fossa frontMeaning Of or pertaining to the face fiber fine, hair like Used to form adjectives indicating 'having the form of' A hollow or depressed area; trench or channel Of or pertaining to the forehead Example(s) Facioplegic Fibroblast Latin (forma), form, shape Latin (fossa), ditch, pit Latin (frōns, front-), the forehead Cuneiform fossa ovalis Frontonasal

G
Origin language and etymology milk Greek γάια, γαιαθηgalact(o)Ancient Greek γαζηήξ Of or pertaining to the stomach (gastēr), γαζηξ-, stomach, gastr(o)belly (1) Denotes the sense 'born in, Ancient Greek -γελήο (from' (2) Denotes the sense 'of a genēs) < γελ-λάεηλ (gen-gen certain kind' náein), to be born Formative, pertaining to Greek -genic producing Of or pertaining to the knee Latin (genū), knee genuOf or pertaining to the gums Latin (gingīva), gum gingivDenoting a grey, bluish-grey Ancient Greek γιαῦθνο glauc(o)color (glaúkos), grey, bluish-grey Ancient Greek γιῶζζα, gloss(o)-, glott(o)- Of or pertaining to the tongue γιῶηηα (glōssa, glōtta), tongue glucose Greek γιπθόο, sweet glucosugar glycoAncient Greek γλάζνο Of or pertaining to the jaw gnath(o)(gnáthos), jaw knowledge Greek -gnosis seed, semen; also, reproductive Ancient Greek γόλνο gon(o)record or picture Greek γξάκκα -gram -γξαθία (-graphía), written, record or picture -graph drawn, graphic interpretation process of recording -graphy gyn(aec)o- (BrE), woman Greek γπλή, γπλαηθgyn(ec)o- (AmE) Prefix/suffix Meaning Example(s) Galactorrhea Gastric bypass (1) Endogen; (2) Heterogenous Cardiogenic shock Genu valgum Gingivitis Glaucoma Glossology Glucocorticoid Glycolysis Gnathodynamometer diagnosis, prognosis Gonorrhea Angiogram Electrocardiograph Angiography Gynecomastia

H
Prefix/suffix hallucMeaning to wander in mind Origin language and etymology Classical Latin to wander in Example(s) Hallucinosis

hemat-, haemato(haem-, hem-) hema or hemohemangi or hemangiohemihepat- (hepatic-) heter(o)hidr(o)hist(o)-, histiohome(o)hom(o)humer(o)hydr(o)hyperhyp(o)hyster(o)-

Of or pertaining to blood blood (AmE) blood vessels one-half Of or pertaining to the liver Denotes something as 'the other' (of two), as an addition, or different sweat tissue similar Denotes something as 'the same' as another or common Of or pertaining to the shoulder (or [rarely] the upper arm) water Denotes something as 'extreme' or 'beyond normal' Denotes something as 'below normal' Of or pertaining to the womb, the uterus

mind Latin (hæma) < Ancient Greek Hematology, older αἵκα, αἱκαη- (haima, haimat-), form Haematology blood Hematological Greek malignancy

Ancient Greek ἡκη- (hēmi-), Cerebral hemisphere "half" ἥπαξ, ἡπαην- (hēpar, hēpato-), Hepatology the liver ἕηεξνο (héteros), the other (of Heterogeneous two), another; different Greek ἱδξσηGreek ἱζηόο ὅκνηνο (homoios) ὁκν- (homo-), the same, common Incorrect Etymology < Latin (umerus), shoulder Greek ὕδσξ ὑπέξ (hyper), over, above; beyond, to the extreme ὑπ(ν)- (hypo-), below, under ὑζηέξα (hystéra), womb Hyperhidrosis Histology Homeopathy Homosexuality Humerus Hydrophobe Hypertension Hypovolemia, Hysterectomy

I
Prefix/suffix -i-asis iatr(o)-iatry -ic -icle -ics idioileoinfrainterMeaning condition Of or pertaining to medicine, or a physician [uncommon as a prefix; common as as suffix, see -iatry] Denotes a field in medicine of a certain body component pertaining to small organized knowledge, treatment self, one's own ileum below between, among Origin language and etymology Greek -ίαζηο Ancient Greek ἰᾱηξόο (iātrós), healer, physician ξόο (iātrós), healer, physician Greek -ηθόο (-ikos) Latin Latin -ica < Greek < -ηθά Greek ἴδηνο, idios, "one's own" Greek ἰιεόο Latin Latin Example(s) Mydriasis Iatrochemistry Podiatry, Psychiatry Hepatic artery Ovarian follicle Obstetrics Idiopathic Ileocecal valve Infrahyoid muscles Interarticular ligament

intrairid(o)ischio-ism -ismus iso-ist -ite -itis -ium isch-

within iris Of or pertaining to the ischium, the hip-joint condition, disease spasm, contraction Denoting something as being 'equal' one who specializes in the nature of, resembling inflammation structure, tissue Restriction Prefix/suffix Meaning potassium nucleus cornea (eye or skin) movement hollow humped

Latin

Greek ἴξηο Ancient Greek ἰζρηόλ Ischiorrhogic (ischión), hip-joint,ischium Dwarfism Greek -ηζκόο Hemiballismus Ancient Greek ἴζνο (ísos), Isotonic equal Greek -ηζηήο (-istes) Pathologist Greek -ίηεο Hermaphrodite Tonsillitis pericardium Greek ἴζρσ Ischemia Example(s) Eukaryote Keratoscope Kinesthesia Koilocyte Kyphoscoliosis

Intracranial hemorrhage Iridectomy

K
Origin language and etymology Greek θάξπνλ, "nut" Greek Greek θηλέσ Greek θνῖινο (koilos) Greek θπθόο Origin language and etymology Latin (labium), lip Latin kal/i karyokerat(o)kin(e)-, kin(o), kinesi(o)koil(o)kyph(o)-

]L
Prefix/suffix labi(o)lacrim(o)Meaning Of or pertaining to the lip tear Example(s) Labiodental Lacrimal canaliculi Lactation

lact(i)-, lact(o) milk Of or pertaining to the abdomen-wall, lapar(o)flank Of or pertaining to the larynx, the lower throat cavity where the voice laryng(o)box is laterolei(o)lateral smooth

Latin Ancient Greek ιαπάξᾱ (lapárā), Laparotomy flank Ancient Greek ιάξπγμ, ιαξπγγLarynx (lárynx, laryng-), throat, gullet Latin Greek ιεῖνο Greek ιῆςηο Greek ιεπηόο (leptos) ιεπθόο (leukos), white, bright Latin (lingua), tongue Greek ιίπνο Greek ιίζνο Greek ιόγνο Leukocyte Linguistics Liposuction Lithotripsy Lateral pectoral nerve Leiomyoma Epilepsy, narcolepsy

-lepsis, -lepsy attack, seizure lept(o)leuc(o)-, leuk(o)lingu(a)-, lingu(o)lip(o)lith(o)log(o)light, slender Denoting a white color Of or pertaining to the tongue fat stone, calculus speech

-logist -logy lymph(o)lys(o)-, -lytic -lysis

Denotes someone who studies a certain field: _____-logy Denotes the academic study or practice of a certain field lymph dissolution Destruction, separation Meaning large, long softening Of or pertaining to the breast Of / pertaining to the nipple Of or pertaining to the hand Of / pertaining to the breast

Ancient Greek ινγηζηήο (logistēs), studier, practitioner Ancient Greek ιόγoο (logos) study Greek ιέκθνο, ιύκθε Greek Greek ιύζηο

Oncologist, pathologist hematology, urology Lymphedema Lysosome Paralysis

]M
Prefix/suffix macr(o)-malacia mamm(o)mammill(o)manumast(o)Origin language and etymology Example(s) Greek καθξόο Macrophage Greek καιαθία Osteomalacia Latin (mamma), breast; udder Mammogram Latin (mammilla), nipple Latin (manus), hand Manufacture Ancient Greek καζηόο (mastós), breast, Mastectomy fbreast; man's pectoral muscle Greek κέγαο Ancient Greek κέιαο, κειαλν(melas, melano-), black; dark Ancient Greek κέινο Greek κῆληγμ, κεληγγGreek κέξνο (meros), part Splenomegaly Melanin erythromelalgia Meningitis merocrine, meroblastic Mesoderm Metacarpus Sphygmomanometer Optometry Metrorrhagia Microscope Infectious mononucleosis Morphology Musculoskeletal system Myoblast Onychomycosis Myeloblast Myringotomy Myxoma Example(s)

meg(a)-, megal(o)enlargement , -megaly melan(o)melos mening(o)meromes(o)meta-meter -metry metr(o)micromon(o)morph(o)muscul(o)my(o)myc(o)myel(o)myring(o)myx(o)black color extremity membrane part middle

Ancient Greek κέζνο (mesos), "middle" after, behind Greek κεηά measurement Greek κέηξνλ process of measuring Greek -κεηξία Pertaining to conditions or Ancient Greek κήηξᾱ (mētrā), instruments of the uterus womb, uterus denoting something as small, Ancient Greek κηθξόο (mikros), or relating to smallness small single form, shape muscle Of or relating to muscle Greek κνλόο Greek κνξθή Latin

Ancient Greek κῦο, κπ- (mys, my), muscle; mouse; mussel fungus Greek κύθεο, κπθεηAncient Greek κπειόλ (myelon), Of or relating to bone marrow marrow; bone-marrow eardrum Latin myringa mucus Greek κύμα Meaning Origin language and

N
Prefix/suffix

narc(o)nas(o)necr(o)neonephr(o)nervneur(i)-, neur(o)normo-

numb, sleep Of or pertaining to the nose death new

etymology Greek λάξθε Latin (nāsum), nose Greek λεθξόο

Greek λένο Ancient Greek λεθξόο Of or pertaining to the kidney (nephrós), kidney Of or pertaining to nerves and the Latin (nervus), tendon; nerve; nervous system [Uncommon as a root: Cognate with the Greek λεπξνλ neuro- mostly always used] (neuron) (see below) Of or pertaining to nerves and the An.tGreek λεῦξνλ tendon, nervous system sinew; nerve normal Latin Meaning Origin language and etymology Of or pertaining -eye Latin (oculus), the eye Of or pertaining - teeth A-Greek ὀδνύο, ὀδνλη- ( tooth pain Greek ὀδύλε gullet resemblance to small or little Denoting something as 'having little, few' Of or pertaining to the shoulder Greek νἰζνθάγνο Greek -νεηδήο Latin Ancient Greek ὀιίγνο (oligos), few Ancient Greek ὠκόο (ōmos), shoulder Greek -σκα

narcolepsy nasal Necrotizing fasciitis Neoplasm Nephrology Nerve Neurofibromatosis Normocapnia

O
Prefix/suffix ocul(o)odont(o)odyn(o)-oesophageal, oesophago- (BrE) -oid ole olig(o)om(o)Example(s) Oculist orthodontist stomatodynia

Sarcoidosis Oligotrophy Omoplate Sarcoma, Teratoma

-oma (singular), tumor, mass, collection omata (plural) Of or pertaining to the omphal(o)navel, the umbilicus tumor, bulk, volume oncoOf or pertaining to the onych(o)nail (of a finger or toe) Of or pertaining to the an egg, a woman's egg, oothe ovum Of or pertaining to the oophor(o)woman's ovary Of or pertaining to the ophthalm(o)eye Of or relating to chemical properties of optic(o)the eye Of or pertaining to the or(o)mouth orchi(o)-, testis orchido-

Ancient Greek ὀκθαιόο (omphalós), Omphalotomy navel, belly-button Greek ὄγθνο Oncology Ancient Greek < ὄλπμ, ὀλπρν- (ónyx, Onychophagy ónycho-), nail; claw; talon Ancient Greek ᾠόλ, ᾠν- (ōón, ōo-), egg, ovum Neoclassical Greek ᾠνθόξνλ (ōophóron), ovary, egg-bearing Ancient Greek ὀθζαικόο (ophthalmós), the eye Middle French (optique) < Greek ὀπηηθόο (optikós); Cognate with Latin oculus, relating to the eye Latin (ōs, or-), mouth Greek ὀξρηο (orkhis, orkhi-) Oogenesis Oophorectomy Ophthalmology Opticochemical Oral Orchiectomy, Orchidectomy

orth(o)-osis osseoossiost(e)-, oste(o)ot(o)-ous ovari(o)ovo-, ovi-, ovoxooxy-

Denoting something as Ancient Greek ὀξζόο (orthos), straight or correct straight, correct, normal a condition, disease or increase bony bone bone Of or pertaining to the ear pertaining to Of or pertaining to the ovaries Of or pertaining to the eggs, the ovum addition of oxygen sharp, acid, acute, oxygen Meaning Greek -σζηο Latin Latin Greek ὀζηένλ Ancient Greek νὖο, ὠη- (ous, ōt-), the ear Latin -osus Latin (ōvarium), ovary Latin (ōvum), egg, ovum Greek ὀμύο Greek ὀμύο

Orthodontist Harlequin type ichthyosis, Psychosis, osteoperosis Peripheral ossifying fibroma Osteoporosis Otopathy

Ovariectomy Ovogenesis

P
Prefix/suffix pachythick Of or pertaining to the eyelid palpebr[uncommon as a root] Denoting something as 'complete' or pan-, pant(o)containing 'everything' Of or pertaining to the nipple (of the papillchest/breast) Indicates papulosity, a small elevation or swelling in the skin, a pimple, papul(o)swelling alongside of, abnormal paraslight paralysis -paresis small parvodisease path(o)Denotes (with a negative sense) a -pathy disease, or disorder ped-, -ped-, -pes Of or pertaining to the foot; -footed pelv(i)-, pelv(o)- hip bone deficiency -penia Of or pertaining to the penis peoDenotes something relating to -pepsia digestion, or the digestive tract. through perDenoting something with a position peri'surrounding' or 'around' another fixation -pexy lens-shaped phacoOrigin language and etymology Example(s) Greek παρύο pachyderma Latin (palpebra), eyelid Ancient Greek πᾶο, παλ- (pas, pan-), all, every Latin (papilla), nipple; dimunitive of papula (see below) Latin (papula), pimple, pustle; a small elevation or swelling in the skin Ancient Greek παξά (para) Greek πάξεζηο Latin parvus Greek πάζνο Ancient Greek πάζνο (pathos), suffering, accident Latin pēs, pēd-, foot Latin Greek πελία Greek πένο (peos) πεπηόο (peptós) cooked, digested πέζζσ (péssō) I boil, cook; digest Latin Palpebra panophobia, panopticon Papillitis Papulation

hemiparesis Parvovirus Pathology sociopathy, neuropathy Pedoscope Pelvis osteopenia Peotomy Dyspepsia

Ancient Greek πεξί (peri), around Periodontal Greek πῆμηο Greek θαθόο Nephropexy phacolysis, phacometer,

phacoscotoma -phage, -phagia -phagophagist-: -phagy phallopharmacopharyng(o)-phil(ia) phleb(o)phob(o)phon(o)phosphot(o)phren(i)-, phren(o)-, phrenico -plasia -plasty -plegia pleiopleur(o)-, pleur(a) -plexy pneum(o)Forms terms denoting conditions relating to eating or ingestion eating, devouring Forms nouns that denote a person who 'feeds on' the first element or part of the word Forms nouns that denotes 'feeding on' the first element or part of the word phallus drug, medication Of or pertaining to the pharynx, the upper throat cavity attraction for Ancient Greek θαγία (phagía) eating < θαγεῖλ (phagein) to eat Greek -θάγνο Ancient Greek θαγηζηήο (phagistēs) eater; see -phagia Sarcophagia phagocyte Lotophagi

Ancient Greek θαγία (phagia) Anthropophagy eating; see -phagia Greek θαιιόο (phallos) Aphallia Greek θάξκαθνλ pharmacology Anc Greek θάξπγμ, θαξπγγ- (phárynx, pháryng-), throat, Pharyngitis, windpipe; chasm Pharyngoscopy Greek θηιία Hemophilia Ancient Greek θιές, θιεβOf or pertaining to the (blood) veins, a Phlebography, (phleps, phlebo-), blood-vessel, vein Phlebotomy vein exaggerated fear, sensitivity Greek θόβνο arachnophobia sound Greek θσλή Of or pertaining to light or its chemical Ancient Greek θῶο, θση- (phōs, properties, now historic and used Phosphene phōt-), light rarely. See root phot(o)- below. Ancient Greek θῶο, θση- (phōs, Of or pertaining to light Photopathy phōt-), light the mind formation, development surgical repair, reconstruction paralysis more, excessive, multiple Of or pertaining to the ribs stroke or seizure Of or pertaining to the lungs Greek θξήλ, θξελGreek πιάζηο Greek πιαζηόο Greek πιεγή Greek pleion Latin (pleura) from Ancient Greek πιεπξόλ (pleurón), rib, side of the body Greek πιῆμηο πλεύκσλ, πλεπκνλ- (pneumōn, pneumon-), lung < πλεῦκα (pneuma), Ancient Greek πνύο, πνδ- (poús, pod-), foot Ancient Greek πνιηόο (poliós), grey Ancient Greek πνιπο (polys), much, many Ancient Greek πνξπύξα (porphýra), purple Phrenic nerve, schizophrenia, diaphragm Achondroplasia rhinoplasty paraplegia pleiomorphism Pleurogenous Cataplexy Pneumonocyte, Pneumonia Podiatry hematopoiesis Poliomyelitis Polymyositis

air, lung pneumat(o)pod-, -pod-, -pus Of or pertaining to the foot, -footed production -poiesis poliopolypor(o)porphyr(o)Denoting a grey color Denotes a 'plurality' of something pore, porous Denotes a purple color

Porphyroblast

postprepresby(o)primproproct(o)prot(o)pseud(o)psych(e)-, psych(o) pterygopsor-ptosis -ptysis

Denotes something as 'after' or 'behind' Latin (post), after, behind another Medieval Latin (pre-) < Denotes something as 'before' another (Classical) Latin (præ), before, in (in [physical] position or time) front of old age Greek Denotes something as 'first' or 'most- Latin prīmus, first, most important' important Denotes something as 'before' another Ancient Greek πξν (pro), before, (in [physical] position or time) in front of anus, rectum Denotes something as 'first' or 'most Ancient Greek πξσηνο (prōtos), important' first; principal, most important Denotes something false or fake Ancient Greek Of or pertaining to the mind Pertaining to a wing Itching falling, drooping, downward placement, prolapse spitting, hemoptysis, the spitting of blood derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes

Postoperation, Postmortem Prematurity Presbyopia Primary Procephalic proctology Protoneuron Psychology, psychiatry Lateral pterygoid plate Psoriasis Apoptosis hemoptysis

Gr.. ςπρή (psyché)breath,life, soul Greek

pulmon-, pulmo- Of or relating to the lungs. pyel(o)pyopyropelvis pus fever

Latin (pulmo, pulmōn-, usually used in plural), a lung Ancient Greek (pyelos) Greek πύνλ Greek πῦξ, ππξεηόο Origin language and etymology Latin Latin Latin Latin (rēnes), kidney Latin Latin Greek ῥάβδνο Greek ῥάρηο ῥίο, ῥῑλν- (rhīs, rhīno-), nose ῥόδνλ (rhódon), rose Greek -ξξαγία Greek -ξξαγία Greek ῥαθή Greek -ξξνηα

pulmonary Pyelonephritis Pyometra Antipyretic

R
Prefix/suffix radiorerect(o)ren(o)reticul(o)retrorhabd(o)rhachi(o)rhin(o)rhod(o)-rrhage -rrhagia -rrhaphy -rrhea Meaning radiation again, backward rectum Of or pertaining to the kidney net backward, behind rod shaped, striated spine Of or pertaining to the nose Denoting a rose-red color burst forth rapid flow of blood surgical suturing flowing, discharge Example(s) radiowave relapse renal retroverted rachial, rachialgia, rachidian, rachiopathy rhinoceros, rhinoplasty Rhodophyte Hemorrhage

Galactorrhea, Diarrhea

(AmE) -rrhexis -rrhoea (BrE) rubr(o)-

rupture flowing, discharge

Greek ῥῆμηο Greek -ξξνηα Diarrhoea Rubrospinal

Of or pertaining to the red nucleus Latin (ruber), red of the brain

]S
Prefix/suffix salping(o)sangui-, sanguinesarcoschist(o)schiz(o)scler(o)-sclerosis scoli(o)-scope -scopy semisial(o)sigmoid(o)sinistr(o)sinussitosomat(o)-, somaticospasmosperma-, spermo-, spermatosplanchn(i)-, splanchn(o)splen(o)spondyl(o)squamos(o)-stasis -staxis sten(o)-stenosis Meaning Of or pertaining to the fallopian tubes Of or pertaining to blood muscular, fleshlike split, cleft Denoting something 'split' or 'double-sided' hardness hardening of the skin twisted instrument for viewing use of instrument for viewing one-half, partly saliva, salivary gland sigmoid, sigmoid colon left, left side Of or pertaining to the sinus food, grain body, bodily spasm semen, spermatozoa viscera spleen Of or pertaining to the spine, the vertebra Denoting something as 'full of scales' or 'scaly' stop, stand dripping, trickling Denoting something as 'narrow in shape' or pertaining to narrow-ness abnormal narrowing in a blood Origin language and etymology ζάιπηγμ, ζαιπηγγ-, (sálpinx, salpingo-) trumpetliterally) Example(s) Salpingectomy, Salpingopharyngeus muscle

Latin (sanguis, sanguin-), blood Sanguine Greek ζάξμ, ζαξθGreek ζρηζηόο (schistos) ζρηδσ; ζρίδεηλ (schizein),to cut, split Greek ζθιεξόο Greek Greek ζθνιηόο (skolios) Greek -ζθόπνο Greek -ζθνπία Latin Greek ζίαινο (sialos) Greek ζηγκνεηδήο Latin Latin (sinus), a curve, bend, bay Greek ζῖηνο Greek ζῶκα Greek ζπαζκόο Greek ζπέξκα (sperma) Greek ζπιάγρλνλ Greek ζπιήλ, ζπιελGreek ζπόλδπινο / ζθόλδπινο, (spóndylos / sphóndylos), the spine Latin (sqāmōsus), full of scales; scaly Greek ζηάζηο Greek ζηαθηόο Ancient Greek ζηελόο (stenos), narrow; short Ancient Greek ζηελόο (stenos), Splenectomy Spondylitis Squama Spasmodic dysphonia Spermatogenesis sarcoma Schizophrenia atherosclerosis Multiple sclerosis scoliosis stethoscope endoscopy sialagogue

Sinusitis

Stenography Stenosis, Restenosis

steth(o)sthenostom(a) stomat(o)-stomy subsupersuprasy(l)-, sym-, syn-, sys-

vessel or other tubular organ or structure Of or pertaining to the upper chest, chest, the area above the breast and under the neck strength, force, power mouth Of or pertaining to the mouth

narrow; short Ancient Greek ζηῆζνο (stēthos), Stethoscope chest, cuirass Greek ζζέλνο Greek ζηόκα Ancient Greek ζηόκα, ζηνκαη(stóma, stomat-), mouth Greek -ζηνκία Latin Latin Latin stomatognathic system Stomatogastric colostomy subcutaneous tissue superior vena cava supraorbital vein Synalgia, Synesthesia, Syssarcosis

creation of an opening beneath in excess, above, superior above, excessive Indicates similarity, likeness, or being together; Assimilates before Ancient Greek ζπλ- (syn), with, some consonants: before l to syl-, s together to sys-, before a labial to sym-. Meaning Denoting something as fast, irregularly fast pressure rigid, tense case, sheath Of or pertaining to a nipple [uncommon as a prefix] Denoting something as 'relating to a woman, feminine' heat Of or pertaining to the upper chest, chest; the area above the breast and under the neck Of or relating to a blood clot, clotting of blood thyroid emotions pertaining to childbirth cutting instrument act of cutting; incising, incision tone, tension, pressure tension place, topical toxin, poison trachea

T
Prefix/suffix tachy-tension, -tensive tetanthecthel(e)-, thel(o)thelytherm(o)thorac(i)-, thorac(o)-, thoracicothromb(o)thyr(o)thym(o)(ia)-tic toco-tome -tomy tono-tony top(o)tox(i)-, tox(o)-, toxicotrache(o)Origin language and etymology Example(s) An Greek ηαρύο (tachys), fast, quic Tachycardia Latin Ancient Greek ζήθε (theke) Hypertension tetanus Intrathecal

AnGreek ζειή (thēlē), a teat, nipple Theleplasty Ancient Greek ζῆιπο (thēlys), female, feminine Ancient Greek ζεξκόο Latin (thōrāx) Ant Greek ζώξαμ (thōrax), chest, cuirass Thelygenous

Thorax

Ancient Greek ζξόκβνο (thrómbos), Thrombus, lump, piece, clot of blood Thrombocytopenia Greek ζπξεν-εηδήο Greek: "thymos," spirit, soul; dysthymia courage; breath, mind, emotions Greek -ηηθόο Greek ηόθνο Greek ηνκή Greek -ηνκία Gastrotomy Greek ηόλνο Greek -ηνλία Greek ηόπνο Greek ηνμηθόλ Greek ηξαρεία Toxoplasmosis

trachel(o)transtrich(i)-, trichia, trich(o)-tripsy -trophy tympan(o)-

Of or pertaining to the neck Denoting something as moving or situated 'across' or 'through' Of or pertaining to hair, hair-like structure crushing nourishment, development eardrum

Ancient Greek ηξάρεινο (tráchēlos), neck Latin (trāns), across, through Ancient Greek ζξίμ, ηξηρ(ν)- (thríx, trich(o)-), hair Greek ηξίςηο Greek -ηξνθία, ηξνθή Greek ηύκπαλνλ Origin language and etymology Latin Latin Latin (umbilīcus), navel, belly-button Latin (unguis), nail, claw Latin (unus)

Tracheotomy Transfusion Trichocyst Lithotripsy Pseudohypertrophy Tympanocentesis

U
Prefix/suffix -ula, -ule ultraumbilicunguiun(i)ur(o)uri(c)-, uricourinuter(o)small beyond, excessive Of or pertaining to the navel, the umbilicus Of or pertaining to the nail, a claw one Of or pertaining to urine, the urinary system; (specifically) pertaining to the physiological chemistry of urine uric acid Of or pertaining to urine, the urinary system Of or pertaining to the uterus or womb Meaning Example(s) Nodule Umbilical Unguiform, Ungual Unilateral hearing loss

Ancient Greek νὖξνλ (ouron), Urology urine Greek νὐξηθόο Latin (ūrīna), urine < Ancient Greek νπξνλ (ouron), see Uriniferous above. Latin (uterus), womb, uterus Uterus

V
Prefix or suffix vaginvaric(o)vas(o)vasculoMeaning Origin language and etymology Latin (vāgīna), sheath, scabbard Latin varix Latin Latin vāsculum Latin (vēna), blood-vessel, vein Latin (venter), the belly, the stomach; the womb Latin (venter), the ventricles of the heart, the ventricles of the brain Latin versiō Latin (vēsīca), bladder; blister Latin (viscera), internal organs; plural of (viscerum), internal organ Examples Vagina varicose vasoconstriction

Of or pertaining to the vagina swollen or twisted vein duct, blood vessel blood vessel Of or pertaining to the (blood) veins, a vein (used in terms pertaining to the venvascular system) Of or pertaining to the belly; the stomach ventr(o)cavities Of or pertaining to the ventricles; any ventricul(o)hollow region inside an organ turning -version Of or pertaining to the bladder vesic(o)Of or pertaining to the internal organs, viscer(o)the viscera

Vein, Venospasm Ventrodorsal Cardiac ventriculography anteversion, retroversion Vesica Viscera

X
Prefix/suffix Meaning , an abnormally yellow color xanth(o)Origin language and etymology Ancient Greek μαλζόο (xanthós), yellow Example(s) Xanthopathy

xen(o)xer(o)-

Foreign, different dry, desert-like Meaning condition or process of Meaning animal, animal life fermentation, enzyme

Greek μέλνο (xenos), stranger Greek μεξόο (xeros), dry Origin language and etymology Latin -ia < Greek -ία Origin language and etymology Greek δῷνλ Greek δύκε

Xenograft Xerostomia Example(s) Surgery Example(s)

Y
Prefix/suffix -y

Z
Prefix/suffix zo(o)zym(o)-

English meanings
This section contains lists of different root classification (e.g. body components, quantity, description, etc.). Each list is alphabetized by English meanings, with the corresponding Greek and Latin roots given. Roots of the body……..Roots of bodily concepts Bodily concept Greek root Latin root Other root -pepsia Digestion -pathy Disease -phagia Eating Roots of body parts and components…(Internal / external anatomy, body fluids, body substances) Body part or component Greek root Latin root Other root lapar(o)abdominabdomen aort(o)aort(o)aorta brachi(o)arm axillarmpit arteri(o)artery dorsback allicbig toe cyst(o)vesic(o)bladder haemat-, hemat- (haem-, hem-) sangui-, sanguine- blood thromb(o)blood clot angi(o)vascul-, vasblood vessel somat-, somcorporbody oste(o)ossibone myel(o)medullbone marrow, marrow encephal(o)cerebr(o)brain mast(o)mamm(o)breast steth(o)chest bucccheek ot(o)aur(i)ear oooveggs, ova ophthalm(o)ocul(o)optic(o)French] eye blephar(o)cili-; palpebreyelid faci(o)face salping(o)fallopian tubes lip(o)adipfat, fatty tissue dactyl(o)digitfinger

forehead cholecyst(o)gallbladder genitals, sexually undifferentiated gon(o)-, phall(o)aden(o)gland glans penis or clitoridis balan(o)gums trich(o)hair cheir(o)-, chir(o)hand cephal(o)head cardi(o)heart hip, hip-joint cerat(o)horn enter(o)intestine gnath(o)jaw nephr(o)kidney gonknee cheil(o)-, chil(o)lip hepat(o)- (hepatic-) liver episi(o)loins, pubic region pneumonlungs myel(o)marrow, bone marrow psychmind stomat(o)mouth my(o)muscle onych(o)nail omphal(o)navel trachel(o)neck neur(o)nerve; the nervous system thelenipple, teat rhin(o)nose oophor(o)ovary pyel(o)pelvis pe(o)penis cor-, core-, coropupil (of the eye) pleur(o)rib thorac(i)-, thorac(o)rib cage om(o)shoulder sinus dermat(o)- (derm-) skin crani(o)skull gastr(o)stomach orchi(o)-, orchid(o)testis pharyng(o)throat (upper throat cavity) throat (lower throat cavity/voice box]) laryng(o)thumb

front(o)fellgingivcapillmanucapit(o)cordicoxcornurengenulabi(o)jecorpudendpulmon(i)- pulmo- medullmentorunguiumbiliccervicnervpapill-, mammill- nasovari(o)pelv(i)cost(o)humer(o)sinuscut-, cuticulventr(o)pollic-

tooth tongue toe tumour ureter urethra urine, urinary System uterine tubes uterus vagina vein vulva womb wrist

odont(o)gloss-, glottdactyl(o)cel-, onc(o)ureter(o)urethr(o)-, urethr(a)ur(o)sarping(o)hyster(o)-, metr(o)colp(o)phleb(o)episi(o)hyster(o)-, metr(o)carp(o)-

dent(i)lingu(a)digittumureter(o)urethr(o)urethr(a)urin(o)sarping(o)uter(o)vaginvenvulvuter(o)carp(o)-

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Roots of color
Color black blue gray, grey green purple red red-yellow white yellow Greek root in English Latin root in English Other root melanonigrcyanopoliochlor(o)virporphyr(o)purpur-, purpureoerythr(o)-, rhod(o)rub-, rubrcirrh(o)leuc-, leukalbxanth(o)flavjaun - [French] Roots of description(Size, shape, strength, etc.) Description Greek root in English Latin root in English Other root cac(o)-, dysmal(e)bad, incorrect ankyl(o)prav(i)bent, crooked mega-, megal(o)magn(i)big megistmaximbiggest eurylat(i)broad, wide cry(o)frig(i)cold necr(o)mortdead is(o)equ(i)equal pseud(o)fals(i)false thelyfemale, feminine platyplan(i)flat euben(e)-, bon(i)good, well mega-, megal(o)magn(i)great scler(o)dur(i)hard bar(o)grav(i)heavy coel(o)cav(i)hollow megal(o)magn(i)huge cac(o)-, dysmal(e)incorrect, bad

irregular large; extremely large largest long male, masculine narrow new normal, correct old sharp short small smallest slow fast soft straight thick varied, various well, good wide, broad

poikil(o) megamegistmacr(o)arsenosten(o)neoorth(o)paleooxybrachymicr(o)bradytachymalac(o)orth(o)pachypoikiloeueury-

magn(i)maximlong(i)virangust(i)nov(i)rect(i)veteracbrev(i)parv(i)- (rare) minimtard(i)celermoll(i)rect(i)crass(i)variben(e)lat(i)-

-

Roots of position
Greek root in Latin root in Other English English root pericircumaround levolaev(o)-sinistr- left mes(o)medimiddle dexi(o)dextr(o)right circumsurrounding periRoots of quantity(Amount, quantity) Greek root Latin root Description Other root in English in English diploduplidouble isoequiequal oligopaucifew hemisemiDemi(French) half many, polymultimuch disbistwice Description

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