General Motors

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General Motors Company



Traded as





September 16, 1908


William C. Durant


Renaissance Center Detroit, Michigan, United States

Area served


Key people

Daniel Akerson
(Chairman and CEO)


Automobiles Financial Services


US$ 135.592 billion (2010)[1]

172 billion (2010)[1] Total assets US$ 138. General Motors produces cars and trucks in 31 countries.000 people and does business in some 157 countries. and Holden. GM's OnStar subsidiary provides vehicle safety.180 billion (2010)[1] Employees 209. TSX: GMM.[4] GM employs 209. GMC. Cadillac.000 (2010)[2] Divisions Chevrolet Buick Cadillac GMC Subsidiaries OnStar Adam Opel AG GM Holden Ltd GM Financial General Motors UK Ltd GM Korea General Motors do Brasil GM Autoworld Indonesia Website www. commonly known as GM. Chevrolet.U). security and information services. formerly incorporated (until 2009) as General Motors Corporation. Vauxhall. and sells and services these vehicles through the following divisions/brands:[3] For the first half of 2011. GM was the world's largest automaker. as well as two joint ventures in China. .Operating income US$ General Motors Company (NYSE: GM. Opel. Michigan and the world's second-largest automaker in 2010.084 billion (2010)[1] Net income US$ 6.898 billion (2010)[1] Total equity US$ 36. is an American multinationalautomotive corporation headquartered in Detroit.

3 Former affiliates . and the Canadian government still owns a 12% stake in the company. GM was re-listed on the NYSE on November 18.8% stake in the company since 2009.1 Chapter 11 reorganization • o o o 9 Brand reorganization 9.2 Asia 2.[5] Before the IPO.2 Former subsidiaries 9. On July 10. General Motors filed for reorganization under the provisions of Chapter 11.4 Hydrogen initiative 7. government owned a 27% stake in GM.2 All-electric vehicles 7.3 Battery packs for electric vehicles o o • o 8 History 7. General Motors emerged from reorganization.1 Recent results 2 World presence 2.1 Discontinued brands 9.1 billion.5 Flexible-fuel vehicles 8. United States Code. the U.On June 8. with financing partially provided by the US Government. 2009.S. Title 11.1 Hybrid electric vehicles o o 7. setting the record for the largest IPO in US history with a value of $20. 2009. 2010.3 Africa 3 Racing heritage 4 Philanthropy 5 Research and development 6 Small car sales 7 Environmental initiatives 7. Contents [hide] • o • o o o • • • • • o 1 Corporate governance 1. The Ontario government has owned a 3.1 North America 2.

GM North America Karl-Friedrich Stracke[16] – President.9 percent in 2009.858.688 2. Patricia F.000 annually. and Middle East) . Lee – President.017.980.000 people around the world.3 Competitions 10. Board members who are not GM employees will be paid US$200.603.904. General Motors sold 6.4 Lists 10.492 2.620 2. Global Chief Technology Officer Mark Reuss – President. GM Europe.1% 6.7% 6.1 People 10.403 9.830.o • o o o o o • • • • 9.124.000 vehicles and accounting for 13. Africa.4 percent of the market.S.4 Spin-offs 10 See also 10. GM International Operations (Asia-Pacific.227 Executive management:[15] 2010[13]       Daniel Akerson – Chief Executive Officer & Chairman of the Board of Directors Daniel Ammann – Chief Financial Officer Thomas G.0% 8. It employs approximately 209.2 Industry associations 10.866.991 5.953. David Bonderman.705 4. Latin America.215.015 4. In 2009. GM announced its new Board of Directors: Dan Akerson. General Motors' 2000 recent growth has been in the People's Republic of China. [6] 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006[10] 2007 2008 2009 [11] [12] [9] On July 23.5 million cars and trucks globally.3% General Motors is headquartered at the Renaissance Center in Detroit. Stephens – Vice Chairman. [14] 4.3% 1. 4. selling 1.517. where its sales 2001 rose 66.0% 1.5 Category 11 References 12 Books cited 13 Further reading 14 External links [edit]Corporate governance Calendar Year 1998[7] 1999 [8] U.0% 0. Robert D.756.9% 30.730 4.163 4.150 4. Russo and Ed Whitacre (GM Chairman and Interim Chief Executive Officer).645 3. Adam Opel AG Timothy E.084.1% 1.416 4.707.9% 2. sales Chg/yr. Krebs. 2009.3% 22. CEO.0% 4.

GM regained its place as the world's largest automaker ahead of Toyota and Volkswagen. 2011.341. Volkswagen Units share 8. It can carry forward previous losses to reduce tax liability on future earnings. 2010 Group Toyota G.[4] [22] [23] [24][25] [edit]World [edit]North presence America GM World Headquarters in Detroit .M. General Motors ranked second on the list with 8. The Wall Street Journal estimated the tax break.4% Top 3 automakers 2010 by global volume.192 10. based on OICA data.[18] On August 12. General Motors reported its first full-year profit since 2004.[3] For the first half of 2011.862 In 2010. the company had three chief executive officers and three chief financial officers.9% 7.[19] From June 2009 to March 2011.7 billion in 2010. including credits for costs related to pensions and other expenses can be worth as much as $45 billion over the next 20 years.351 11.7 billion loan from government ahead of schedule. to be replaced in those functions by current board member Dan Akerson.[21] Top 3 Automakers Global.743. Market share based on OICA 2010 global total of 77. 2010 and that of Chairman of the Board at the end of the year.065 9.557. It earned $4.0% 8. Ed Whitacre announced the company's 60-day money-back guarantee and repayment of $6.476. 2010 GM announced that Whitacre would relinquish the CEO position effective September 1. Welburn – Vice President of Global Design for GM[17] As part of the company's advertising. Edward T.5 million units produced globally.[20] [edit]Recent results On February 24.

0% 19.3% In the mid 2005. called GM Chevrolet Shop.5% 15. transferring Buick Sail to that marque. In August 2009 the joint venture of FAW GM Light Duty Commercial Vehicle Co Ltd was formed that mainly produces Jiefang light-duty trucks. GM products are also sold by the companyYanase. safe. Current GM Japan dealerships were either former Saturndealerships or Isuzu dealership locations. The last emperor of China owned a Buick. a new GM that can produce the high-quality. Ltd. that can lead America towards an energy independent future. saying that emphasis on its four core divisions would downplay the GM logo. GM announced that its corporate chrome power emblem "Mark of Excellence" would begin appearing on all recently introduced and all-new 2006 model vehicles produced and sold in North America.4% 7.GM products focus primarily on its four core divisions – Chevrolet. and fuel-efficient cars of tomorrow. and that is once more a symbol of America's success. when the first Chinese-built Buick came off the assembly line. previously known as GM Auto World Shop.[26] President Obama declared that the restructuring "will mark the end of an old GM. The Shanghai GM plant was officially opened on December 15. The SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile joint-venture is also successfully selling microvans under the Wuling marque (34 percent owned by GM)."[27] GM worldwide 2008 vehicle sales[28] (thousands) Rank in GM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Location United States China Brazil United Kingdom Canada Russia Germany Mexico Australia South Korea France Spain Argentina Venezuela Colombia India Vehicle Market sales share (%) 2.981 1. a joint venture with the Chinese company SAIC. Cadillac.1% 8.[30] The Cadillac brand was introduced in China in 2004.1% 12. Buick. and GMC. The Buick brand is especially strong in China. which was created on March 25. GM also maintains a dealership presence in Japan.4% 21.8% 19.8% 13.5% 33. The White House characterized the GM restructuring as a shift toward a new leaner.3% 36.7% 4. which will aim to break even with annual sales much lower than previously stated. 1997. greener GM. starting with exports to China.4% 11.8% 15. in 2009 the "New GM" reversed this. and the beginning of a new GM.3% 3. However. 1998. GM pushed the marketing of the Chevrolet brand in China in 2005 as well.[29] [edit]Asia The company manufactures most of its China market vehicles locally through Shanghai GM. led by the Buick Excelle subcompact.[31] .095 549 384 359 338 300 212 133 117 114 107 95 91 80 66 22.1% 9.

Since 1983 GM and Al-Monsour Automotive Company has founded the General Motors Egypt which is currently the only manufacturer of traditional GM branded vehicles in Egypt. mainly commercial vans and trucks. Some year later. President Obama.23 million vehicles in 2010. and GMSA became the independent Delta Motor Corporation. Following the passage of theComprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act in 1986. GM purchased a 49% stake in Delta in 1997 following the end of apartheid. General Motors South Africa. Thailand and the Hanoi plant. and acquired the remaining 51% in 2004. GM was forced to divest from South Africa. Geely and BYD for first-time buyers of cars priced around USD10. It is estimated that such market in China is about 5 million vehicles a year.Chevrolet and Buick models up to the 1990s. However. Vietnam. GM announced plans to build a plant in Bekasi.610 units in 2010.[33] The company plans to double its sales from 2010 to about 5 million units in China by 2015. GM withdrew from the Egyptian market.which would produce 40.electric vehicles and alternative fuels.000.General Motors vehicle sales in China rose 28. Another manufacturing base of the GM for the African markets is the Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines headquartered in Kairouan. said that the recently approved South Korea Free Trade Agreement would open up the South Korean auto market to American made cars. In the mid of the 1950s.[34] SAIC-GM-Wuling established the low-cost Baojun brand to better compete with domestic rivals. engines and new technologies'. The Speranza Motors is a big company which started in the 1990s with the SKD assembling ofDaewoo cars. Today the main products of Speranza are from the Chinese Chery concern.8 percent to a record 2. the Ghabbour Brothers began to assemble Cadillac. GM began operating in South Africa in 1913 through its wholly owned subsidiary.[37] [edit]Africa General Motors has a long history in Egypt which began in the 1920s with the assembling of cars and light pickup trucks for the local market.351. . larger than the auto market in France and Britain combined.[32] GM set up an auto research center as part of a USD250 million corporate campus in Shanghai to develop 'gasoline-hybrid cars. Chery.000 passenger cars per year for the Southeast Asian market. Shanghai-GM-Wuling sold 1.000 units were a van called Sunshine. Indonesia. of which about 700. reverting the company to its original name. some are worried that 'local brands like Baojun could eventually become threats to their parent brands if they compete more against established models over time'. in a joint appearance at a GM plant in Michigan. West Java.[36] In October 2011. It is the third plant in Southeast Asia. after the Rayong plant.[35] In August 2011. Tunisiawhich assembles Isuzu and Mazda models for the Maghreb region.

Rwandaand Burundi. Chevrolet Cruze in the WTCC . In the 1920s Miller Brothers Nigeria was founded as an importer of commercial vehicles of the Bedford brand into the country. Kenya assembles a wide range of Isuzu trucks and buses including the popular Isuzu N-Series versatile light commercial vehicle. SCCA. In 1949. 24 Hours of Le Mans. Malawi. Tanzania. GMEA's facility is the largest assembler of commercial vehicles in the region exporting to East and Central African countries including Uganda.General Motors East Africa (GMEA) located in Nairobi. In addition to assembly. [edit]Racing heritage 2008 Chevrolet Impala driven by NASCAR's Jimmie Johnson GM has participated over the years in the World Touring Car Championship (WTCC). In 1965 the plant and it's distribution network was split into different companies and renamed as Federated Motors Industries. GMEA also markets the Chevrolet products Spark and Optra. In 1991 the company was taken in by a joint venture betweenGeneral Motors and UACN of Nigeria. the company opened its own assembly plant and operated under the name Niger/Nigeria Motors. and many other world venues. TF Series pick-ups and Isuzu bus chassis. Formed in 1975. NASCAR.

The Holden Racing Team is Australia's most successful team in Australian Touring Car History. the most of any make in NASCAR history. 2 with Buick. including 34 with Chevrolet.[39] In 2009. Buick Regal.011. GM leads all other automobile manufacturers in races won in NASCAR's premier series at 1. General Motors has been the exclusive source of funding for Safe Kids USA's "Safe Kids Buckle Up" program.Corvette Racing Team in the American Le Mans Series GM's engines were highy successful in the Indy Racing League (IRL) throughout the 1990s.2 billion of in-kind contributions which includes computers to over 18 universities to support engineering education. and 1 with Pontiac. [38] Through 2002. and SUN Microsystems. there is the V8 Supercar Championship which is battled out by the two main rivals of (GM) Holden and Ford.8 seconds. The current Holden Racing Team cars are based on the Holden Commodore and run a 5. Oldsmobile Cutlass. and the Chevrolet Monte Carlo were also used. These cars have a top speed of 318 km/h (198 mph) and run 0–100 km/h in 3. Chevrolet Malibu. 3 with Oldsmobile. GM has also used many cars in the American racing series NASCAR. captured 47 world records. the GM led group has helped the Pace Awards program worldwide. including the record for speed endurance in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America. Chevrolet leads individual makes with 677 wins. Currently the Chevrolet Impala is the only entry in the series but in the past the Pontiac Grand Prix. a national initiative to ensure child automobile safety through education and inspection. GM has also done much work in thedevelopment of electronics for GM auto racing. [edit]Philanthropy Since 1996. the Pace Awards program led by GM. GM has won a total of 40 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series manufacturer's championships.0-litre V8-cylinder engine producing 635 bhp (474 kW). winning many races in the small V-8 class. An unmodified Aurora V-8 in the Aerotech. theCadillac V-Series has entered motorsports racing. In Australia. EDS.[40] General Motors is a leading . gave over $1. In 2006 & 2007. Recently. the Drivers championship was won by the very closely linked HSV Dealer Team.Chevrolet Lumina.

United Motors acquired Delco. at Dayton. Its character was entirely empirical. Cadillac. became United Motors' CEO. Inc. The General Motors Research Corporation. R-12.). Delco Remy (now Remy International.[42] a competitor of Delco. United Motors also acquired at this time the original Remy corporation (called the Remy Electric Company). supplying GM and other OEMs but independent of GM. GM gave $51. Its work was well known to GM central management through its relationship as a supplier and consultancy to Cadillac and Buick. it was whatever key people in each company had been competent enough to organize and pursue. the Delco Division and Remy Electric Division of GM. Charles F. Durant organized the United Motors Corporation as an amalgamation of parts suppliers.000 in cash contributions and $17. at Dayton under Kettering. the General Motors Research Corporation. but a technological wonder of its day)    commercially practical two-stroke diesel engines better transmissions for track-laying vehicles many other advancements Although GM R&D (as it is known in colloquial shorthand) began as an organization largely built around one extraordinary man (Kettering).000 in-kind donations to charitable causes.[42] Various entities grew out of the original Delco and Remy. Today's main successor corporation is Delphi Automotive. Ohio. Kettering's Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco). During the next few decades it led the development of:   many electrical-appliance features for cars and trucks tetraethyllead and its widespread use as a gasoline additive (recognized today as a bad idea environmentally. it eventually evolved into a more modern organization whose path is shaped by . In 1916.200.g. head of the newly acquired Hyatt Roller Bearing Corporation. was the world’s first true automotive research center.200.[41] [edit]Research and development Research and development (R&D) at General Motors began organically as the continuation of such R&D as the various divisions (e. In 1918 General Motors bought United Motors. ACDelco. including the Dayton Metal Products Corporation..[42] Alfred P.contributor to charity. but a technological wonder of its day)  dichlorodifluoromethane refrigerant for HVAC and refrigeration applications (Freon. which nowadays is an independent parent corporation. and others. was still an independent firm at this time. Buick. Olds. recognized today as a bad idea environmentally [being a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)]. and Kettering began his association with Sloan. Sloan. Oakland) were already doing for themselves before the merger. Delco Electronics. In 2004.

different from earlier ones.[44] rather than starting new domestic companies to compete against . changed in this direction. corporations such as GM and many others were facing a new era of R&D. GM R&D. By the 1950s. did not mean "small" in the sense of what qualified as "small" outside the U. later went into production as the Chevy Sonic From the 1920s onward. after mingling with the technologies of applied science for some 80 years.S.S. The policy discussion often focused on topics like the higher demand for truly small cars in non-U. General Motors always maintained an internal dialog about what its economy-car and small-car policies should be. in light of this new era. World War II was a turning point wherein military affairs. [edit]Small car sales Chevrolet Aveo Concept. longtime CEO of GM (1920s to 1960s).[44] GM's acquisitions of Vauxhall Motors Ltd (UK.S. markets than in the U.individuals but not dominated entirely by any of them. headquartered in Warren. 1929). too. In this view. and whether it made more sense to import a car into a certain country or to build it domestically within that country. suppliers. and more about organizational progress and integrated systems. 1925) [44] and Adam Opel AG (Germany.S. Alfred Sloan. and private industry in the areas of basic science and applied science. Civilian life. market and policies for other markets. "economy" in the U. Today. although a strong distinction was always drawn in the 20th century between policies for the U. Less about genius inventors and individual inventions. either as some variant of knockdown or with truly extensive domestic sourcing. and collaborative relationships in over twelve countries including working relationships with universities. and other partners from across the globe. was long considered different from that in other markets. but its definition in the U.[43] The views he laid out reflected (and influenced) wide consensus on these relationships that persists largely to today.S. six science offices.. discussed in his memoir (also considered a seminal management treatise) the relationships between government. academia. Michigan.[44][45] The economy and size considerations often naturally overlapped. is a network of six laboratories. Economy (in some form) always had good demand anywhere. it raised new questions about where the capital for R&D would come from in an era of limitless demand for R&D (although not necessarily for production). first started to become fundamentally reinvented by them. government groups.S.

market in the 1970s through 1990s.[45] it has also been criticized over the decades for not doing enough to promote fuel efficiency in the U. This retooled plant will be capable of building 160. consumers flocked temporarily to the ideal of fuel economy whenever fuel supply crises arose (such as 1973 and 1979). In 2008. market. In order to achieve its landfill-free status. GM's interest in [truly-]small-car programs for the U. Since the return of high fuel prices in the 2000s and 2010s.S.200 American jobs. This will be the first time ever that a large manufacturer produces a supermini vehicle in the United States. with the creation of 1. GM's response has been that it has always responded to market demands. is a plug-in electric vehicle. were based on analyses that convinced GM managers that acquiring an existing domestic manufacturer was a better business decision. they flocked equally enthusiastically to SUVs when cheap fuel of the 1980s and 1990s temporarily shielded them from any downside to these choices.them. Michigan. General Motors committed to engineering half of its manufacturing plants to be landfill-free. did not actually demand (at purchasing-decision time) small size or fuel efficiency in their vehicles to any great or lasting extent.S. General Motors is one of the leading users in renewable energy. .[46] [edit]Environmental initiatives The 2011 Chevrolet Volt. market has been renewed.S. factories for the production of a small car in Orion. it plans to revive one of its idled U.[44] Although GM since the 1920s has always offered economy models in the U. As part of General Motors Company development. and that most Americans. despite anything they said to the contrary. The company has published principles regarding the environment and maintains an extensive website to inform the public. Although U. The new small car will add to a group of small and fuel-efficient vehicles that the company is planning to roll out in the near future.S. market (relative to that market's definition in any given decade).000 cars annually. production waste is recycled or reused in the manufacturing process. including both small and compact vehicles. a breakthrough vehicle for GM.S.S. and had done research and development in the 1940s and 1950s in preparation for any potential rise of strong demand for truly small cars in the U.

000 solar panels. GM pushed the benefits of diesel engines and cylinder deactivation technologies with disastrous results due to poor durability in theOldsmobile diesels and drivability issues in the Cadillac V8-6-4 variable-cylinder engines. in conjunction with AeroVironment.000 m2) of roof at the plant and contains about 85. The installation was created. owned and operated by Veolia Environment and Clairvoyant Energy. 42 mpg-imp). The company was the first to use turbochargers and was an early proponent of V6 engines in the 1960s.7 L/100 km. the first such increase in over 20 years. an area of interest throughout the industry. In the 1970s and 1980s. which won the inaugural World Solar Challenge and was a showcase of advanced technology.7 L/100 km. 32 mpg-imp) to 35 mpg-US (6. like GM's later designs. [edit]Hybrid electric vehicles Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid In May 2004. the company also invested $7.[52] GM announced they will introduce more Volt-based plug-in hybrids. the 1/2-ton Silverado/Sierra. They demonstrated[51] gas turbine vehicles powered by kerosene. GM. These mild hybrids did not use electrical energy for propulsion. but quickly lost interest as the muscle car race took hold. The 2006 Saturn Vue Green Linewas the first hybrid . and has led the industry with ethanolburning flexible-fuel vehicles that can run on either E85 (ethanol) or gasoline. who lease the rooftop area from General Motors. built the Sunraycer. GM delivered the world's first full-sized hybrid pickups. [47][48][49]In 2011. In 1987. The Zaragoza solar installation has about 2.The world's largest rooftop solar power installation was installed at General Motors Spanish Zaragoza Manufacturing Plant in fall 2008. but abandoned the alternative engine configuration in view of the 1973 oil crisis.[50] The company has long worked on alternative-technology vehicles.000.000 square feet (190. the Opel Astra diesel Hybrid concept vehicle was introduced. which will install solar panels on GM facilities. In 2005. GM supported a compromise version of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard increase from 27 mpg-US (8.5 million in solar-panel provider Sunlogics. Much of the technology from Sunraycer found its way into the Impact prototype electric vehicle (also built by Aerovironment) and was the predecessor to the General Motors EV1.

[56][dated info] [edit]Battery packs for electric vehicles GM builds battery packs in southern Michigan. subsidiary.A. Cadillac Escalade.[53] GM introduced the Chevrolet Volt in 2010. GM debuted the Chevrolet Volt. Georgia). The EV1's cancellation had disappointed supporters of electric vehicles. with the exception of a few which were donated to museums. GM has hinted at new hybrid technologies to be employed that will be optimized for higher speeds in freeway driving. It was available through dealers located in only a few regions (e. It was the first car with zero-emissions marketed in the US in over three decades. Michigan. The production Chevrolet Volt was available in late 2010 as a 2011 model with limited availability. GM debuted the "Impact" concept car at the Los Angeles Auto Show.M. The documentary film Who Killed the Electric Car? covered the EV1 story. thermal management. An early prototype of the Personal Urban Mobility and Accessibility vehicle—dubbed Project P.U. When the individual leases had expired. Vehicles were leased. In 1999 GM decided to cease production of the vehicles. In 1990.g.[54] GM also established an automotive battery laboratory in Michigan. an electric vehicle with back-up generators powered by gasoline. all were destroyed.[54] GM delivered the first Volt during December 2010.S.passenger vehicle from GM and is also a mild design. they declined to renew the leases or allow the lessors to purchase them. An existing GM facility at Brownstown Township was chosen to be upgraded as battery pack plant.[57] GM will be responsible for battery management systems and power electronics. California. Arizona.[54] LG Chem's U. GM currently offers the 2-mode hybrid system used by the Chevrolet Tahoe/GMC Yukon and will later be used on the Saturn Vue (cancelled).[55] [edit]All-electric vehicles Further information: Who Killed the Electric Car?#Batteries General Motors was the first company (in the modern era) to release an all-electric automobile. In 2010. All of the EV1s were eventually returned to General Motors and.. an electric vehicle with back-up generators powered by gasoline. The Impact was eventually produced as the EV1 for the 1996 model year. [edit]Hydrogen initiative . to individuals. General Motors has announced that it is building a prototype two-seat electric vehicle with Segway. GM 1/2-ton pickups and possibly other vehicles. Compact Power of Troy. has been building the prototype packs for the development vehicles and will continue to provide integration support and act as a liaison for the program. – will be shown off in New York a day ahead of the press previews for the 2009 New York International Auto Show. as well as the pack assembly. rather than sold. The GM Magic Bus is a hybrid-powered bus.

Elmore. GM's goal is to have half of their annual vehicle production be E85 or biodiesel capable by 2012. before making his foray into the automotive industry. a fuel cell-powered vehicle from GM GM has prided its research and prototype development of hydrogen powered vehicles. said he's not yet willing to say exactly when hydrogen vehicles will be mass produced. using a support infrastructure still in a prototype state. or any blend of both. Since 2006 GM started featuring a bright yellow gas cap to remind drivers of the E85 capabilities. has also been discussed by other automobile manufacturers such as Ford and Chrysler.[67] GM's co-founder was Charles Stewart Mott.S. 1908. It acquired Oldsmobilelater that year.[63][64] GM is the leader in E85 flex fuel vehicles. As of 2009. In 1909. Larry Burns. whose carriage company was merged into Buick prior to GM's creation. as a holding company for Buick. with over 3 million FlexFuel vehicles on the road in the U.Sequel. GM offers 18 ethanol-enabled FlexFuel cars and trucks in the US. the year many experts have predicted. his adopted home. Oakland and several others. but he said it should happen before 2020. MI. then controlled by William C. The economic feasibility of the technically challenging hydrogen car.[54] to be produced in early 2010. Durant. Over the years Mott became the largest single stockholder in GM and spent his life with his Mott Foundation which has benefited the city of Flint. in Flint. He said "I sure would be disappointed if we weren't there" before 2020.[58] [edit]Flexible-fuel vehicles GM produces several flexible-fuel vehicles that can operate on E85 ethanol fuel or gasoline. Michigan.[66] At the turn of the 20th century there were fewer than 8.[59][60][61] [62] and also using badging with the text "Flexfuel/E85 Ethanol" to clearly mark the car as an E85 FFV. In June 2007. vice president of research and development. . Durant brought in Cadillac.[65] [edit]History Main article: History of General Motors The company was founded on September 16. and produces more than one million new FlexFuel vehicles.000 automobiles in America and Durant had become a leading manufacturer of horse-drawn vehicles in Flint. and the low-cost production of hydrogen to fuel it.

[74][75] . GM is expected to retake the number one spot at the end of 2011 from Toyota.Also in 1909. Durant then reorganized General Motors Company into General Motors Corporation in 1916. GM has ranked as the second largest global automaker by sales. GM acquired the Reliance Motor Truck Company of Owosso. including preferred shares and accounting for stock options given to former GM bondholders. Treasury department is reduced from about 61% to about 33%. 2010 following a US$33-a-share initial public offering of US$23 billion. he again lost control. partner of GM in China and India. Durant started the Chevrolet Motor Car Company and through this he secretly purchased a controlling interest in GM. General Motors emerged from Chapter 11reorganization. In 2008 and 2009. Only the US Subsidiary was forced into bankruptcy. acquired just less than 1 percent of the GM for about $500 million.6 billion in proceeds. Michigan. The longest-lived continuous automobile nameplate still in production is the Chevrolet Suburban The next year.S. without access to assets from GM owned assets in Asia or Europe. On July 10. including preferred shares.000 workers and operated 150 assembly plants.67 a share to break even. Michigan. Shortly after. because of the large amount of debt taken on in its acquisitions coupled with a collapse in new vehicle sales. after the new vehicle market collapsed. the predecessors of GMC Truck. Shareholders were left worthless. Durant lost control of GM in 1910 to a bankers' trust. It was previously estimated that the Treasury has to sell GM shares at an average of $43. longer than any other automaker. GM led global sales for 77 consecutive years from 1931 through 2007. 2009. SAIC Motor. and the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company of Pontiac. Sloan was picked to take charge of the corporation and led it to its post-war global dominance. This unprecedented growth of GM would last into the early 1980s when it employed 349. this time for good. 2009. The shareholding in the Company by the U. Durant took back control of the company after one of the most dramatic proxy wars in American business history.[69][70][71] The Company was listed on the New York Stock Exchange and the Toronto Stock Exchange again on November 18.[68][dead link] [edit]Chapter 11 reorganization Main article: General Motors Chapter 11 reorganization GM had filed for Chapter 11 reorganization on June 8.[72][73] Disposal of such shares gave the Treasury department about US$13. Alfred P.

[edit]Brand reorganization As part of the company reorganization. China. 2009. the content and the structure of its brand portfolio (its brand architecture) was reorganized. was discontinued in August.[79] The company's familiar square blue "badge" has been removed from the Web site and advertising. like Saab. except Australia. except North America. Israel North America. Asia. subtle all-text logo treatment.[77] The practice of putting the "GM Mark of Excellence" on every car. United Kingdom Australia. in favor of a new. Africa North America. Europe. Hummer. where GM underpinned every brand to a multiple brand corporate invisible brand architecture structure. were sold. Taiwan. New Zealand United Kingdom Germany Global.[76] Some nameplates like Pontiac. Middle East Global.[78] The company has moved from a corporate-endorsed hybrid brand architecture structure.[80] Brand Buick Cadillac GMC Year 1903 1902 1901 Markets North America. Others. New Zealand Chevrolet 1911 Vauxhall 1925 Opel Holden [edit]Discontinued                1929 1948 brands                McLaughlin (1918–1942) Yellow Coach (1925–1943) Sheridan (1921–1922) Beaumont (1966–1969) Envoy (1960–1970) Acadian (1962–1971) Ranger (1968–1976) Bedford Vehicles (1927–1987) General Motors Diesel Division (1938–1987) Passport (1988–1991) Asüna (1993–1995) Geo (1989–1997) Oldsmobile (1897–2004) Pontiac (1926–2010) Saturn (1985–2010) Welch (1903–1911) Rainier (1905–1911) Welch-Marquette (see Marquette) Cartercar (1905–1915) Elmore (1909–1912) Rapid Truck (1909–1912) Reliance Truck (1909–1912) Welch-Detroit (1910–1911) Marquette (1912) Peninsular (1912) (see Marquette) Samson Tractor (1917–1922) Scripps-Booth (1917–1923) Marquette (1930) Oakland (1909–1931) Viking (1929–1931) . Saturn. GM discontinued the Daewoo brand in South Korea and replaced it with the Chevrolet brand. no matter what the brand. Middle East. and service brands like Goodwrench were discontinued.[76] In 2011.

sold to Dutch sports car manufacturer Spyker Cars N. broken up and portion sold to the former Daimler-Chrysler AG (now Daimler AG).V.A. now produced by Millennium Transit Services  Diesel Division of General Motors of Canada Limited spun off and later acquired by General Motors Canada as Diesel Division of General Motors of Canada Limited    EDS – Electronic Data Systems Hughes Electronics sold to News Corporation in 2003 1999 GM spun off its parts making operations as Delphi .N. Holdings S. GM owned over 20 percent at one time[84] [edit]Spin-offs  GM Defense 1950–2003 was once part of General Motors Diesel Division and as General Dynamics Land Systems division of General Dynamics  Electro Motive Division of General Motors was also once part of General Motors Diesel Division and now known as Electro-Motive Diesel  Detroit Diesel sold to Penske Corporation. sold to Luxembourg-based A. now part ofDaimler AG  Transit division was sold to Motor Coach Industries and Transportation Manufacturing Corporation  RTS and Classic bus rights owned by MCI And TMC were sold off to Nova Bus. Saab (1990–2010).C. GM owned 20 percent at one time with put option[81] Fuji Heavy Industries. [edit]Former     affiliates Fiat (2000–2005).  LaSalle (1927–1940)  [edit]Former    Hummer (1992–2010) Daewoo (1982–2011) subsidiaries Frigidaire (1919–1979). GM owned 49 percent at one time[83] Suzuki (1981–2008).B. GM owned 20 percent at one time[82] Isuzu (1971–2006). manufacturer of Subaru (1999–2006). sold to Ohio-based White Consolidated Industries Lotus (1986–1993).

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