'.

TODI ,R4.GlN/

~I

BY

__ --., ... DAJI I"": _", M-ULK>~ N" I. A-'1_N·-A1N·· 0-"j ,',

53

10'1~54
Ct:ro / AWA

TH'E THEO!SIO'PHI'ICAl

'U~BUSH1N'G HOUSE~ ADYAIR
1'9'5'6,

,

Ii'

1\

,

-

ABOtlTtweuty

'l':~S

ago, wbemt I '\\~wo(['kID,g

WIder the

c, .:"J

1

gWlidaDce of D.r..Ananda GoomUas~,a_m,'"on a bOOK an fud.ian les[be:ti~ 1 h~ppa1led.ta ,came aaC?!~ his little IMt1"od~cijon . m Idwn Art" :pubUshed. 'by' the Theoiophic.d JI?u.blisll,mg HQ~t AdYQJI':, Madtas~ I kIt: that it. wZil:ne be;st ,tittle ~sum:mMY ,O'f .India's an:isDC' mimeve.meDts, and .m.ost sru:taole
stu:de:n.,ts. Onl,.. :i!twas f1jawed. b, 'lll.E!:Q(Rlrms:sicft of m:r m!l;.m:eicID ,of I·MUhamm~.da;n Aa:cliit~Cimre: ,and. MogkuJJ_Paint:mg. [.drew Dr, OODmam:swamJ~a.t~~n.tion. o this fact. t He: .ae.plO1ied the ~judimswhicb. ,bad cmpt ~into ibis ,apllfGaeli, te EndianMt: pI'Q:bL:ms at an. ,em-lim: pe:sr:lQd. Attbat ve£1 tim,e:. ]I think, he was wri:tmg' an essafOD :M:o-gbWl paio,ting 'bywa,y ofpitdacE! to, o:ne 10£ tD!! m'W1ogues of ,m.eiBos:~Q'n Museum collection.s o:ffudie ,Art. I 1~:qJ:rfl:ssed!, the hflpe tha;t me' 'Would IClBe ,day' I-evise tb. small bGCI,k InJb1is~ed from Ad.,ar.buthe ,e~CU!S'2d. 'hims.eH on. the plea ol laCk ,of 'time :aQd,5ugLle.si~edtha:t 1 should do this HI W'IE 'VlfttJ :kHn, as ,a]]so'that E might Uan:slace ZiI1Ilm,(W's K~mstfoun.und YO'gi.1: .. lnd~sliihmK~hbild.wllichba.d, i just tl!,en eDme mIt and. walth. heitb(llu;gntvuymgLly of. A llittle 'While ,ago't. I :sug;geS:1I:~d ttl, the T.beQSfQp.ffilIic:.a1 . .PuiblismDg HClu~~tba.t 'tlii:s lNit1i'odu'aIDlli '~O In,d1iaj~,Artbe rep[~nted in a new :e,ditioDl1, which. I w,oUJldwmIllngly le'vise a~OOl1din,gto DE. Coom,Maswami!'sbe:hests.. They madUly a.peed. to t,ms ·'PiOpOW. Now~ the book is bem;gis5!ueil" almost Ie:XJ1Jcd:, a'S itW3ii IQiDgmal1;vwri,tten by Dr. Coomamsw,amy, e'X~pt f(lY S0mle
,.llS, ~t.glt~boo,k £0,['

), ~

-

,add;ii:tioud mcno:ns, 'I11Jee

tClIf

,tbesehaVif 'been culed, be.m.

IV
"""""'1-"",,61 nam ..1!. Ind'l... ',.... .: '~;e:s." ,.',I";'llY. L ...... D rav! ·d'LiDl ;aDQ Ji.J.Lian~ d M" b u'I raIDtmg::j WDLlle <l ,ll,.~ 1:1 • ..• 1!..,:11 Sllmenan. I. an I'Q,g t'hliQe'e~say'shave ooeD.mittm in by me, variously 'OP AKbitectuJ:e under Mussalman Rule', Sikh Painting and Modem

~

-. .~... . . .'~LI" n"" c-OOm.a;t;iiilswamy .. W1Dll.,~u 12 .:-" '.

Althoug'b it i~, likelythatt I have Dot: been aWe: to appl:o,:moare tID anything lib ,the, depm and, ,mrtitude of: the original abmor:, I have 'tried to see that th,e new ma:t:er-ial oes d nut jar (110 the reade.r's sensibility quite as -much ai tbe absence of the ad,ditiomd Ichapters m. a te;..wue of 'thi& hook 'wl(i)uld have done. As aU the original :illustratiOllSw eEe' imrpo&sib'lew
l

Paintmtf.

obtain. ] baiv""'B substituted ldHfer:ent 'mlBS, here and tIber,a'. beping Dr., CaO'maraslw,amy~s in'tlentiaDs in, mind, as 'fait:hfuUy • as J: could.
Th.e layou.t m1!d, format of the bcok have' also been . cllang,ed" at m,:y in,stane'i:;lto make the: book mo,I'e aCl:eSlSibleto 'the unlni~d reader" - sliOl!u,-~",e "'::1'. b-1t-,,~L. • • "L. b W"u 1 . -mat It IS t:.!.I:ees,t _~.JII mest :b d· ]i" ~11~, ,an y ,~t~ book on Indian Art. and excellen.t1y saited to the needs of the new ,ge:nemtioD.5,,of 'OU.iilg,paopla who must, m'bedt 'tire
j.,' ,..

,~I!...J f so,a!!i 1I!..·1.J: y u£s-crJl.l!.1elQ1L ,th legrea:~ pltloneer cnnc BJ 0;. l.ndia'mllAl't. £0[" who,m 0ige OlD vi$b, no other monnmen,t

. :r. " mumOID

thm..

thi3J,'[

he SI10uld be. read.

I wish to record my gratitu,de ~Ol Dr,., H. Goetz for incidmtd a,ovice. Als,o, ] want to thank ldr. Gabbai and Miss D. Sahiar fbr tbe pm and ink dFawin,gs. of the 'various sculptures and pa:inting~ the J:'eproductioll of' which, mm,ono~ clrmme wQw_d!have: mised 'tDepriCle of the' 'book: b~n.d, 'the 'pocket 10'£ the bulk ,of our ,ouths with their v'el)' mode.st buying pcD'wer.

:M. R.. A.

,2;5, C'!lff~PilRdc.
II

Bmnm". 1956.

LIST OFILLUSTRA nONS
See'lioD
1 Fig. INDO~UMERIAN'

Fi,g;. Fw~. Fi:~. f'iil. Section II

r, Dancer: MohenjodMo 2~ Beam!l:,d Msn; McbtUljodaw 3. 'H1:rap_pa, TUI[)'lo (1m @'n~"lu:'o{llim1e) ,4. :$:e:d witB Boill: Mnlumj()dflfO 5, T,e:ron::;o'ttai,: M(lb~njod:iU'o

DRAVIDIANS AND ARYANS,
F~g. 6. Naga: Dr<l,victian

Seetion
Section

III
IV.

VEDIC ORIGINS
PRE-MAURYAN ,SCULPTURE

F~i!l~1. Yl'lk$lt~:Be'51ulg.a:[' Fig,. 81 Parikbam Sl~atlle('mOPocbtrOllU!,) Pi.if. ~l Cbaud-B-eaEu
SeCtiODI

V.

THE GREAT ENLlGHTENMENT EARLY BUDDHIST ART-MAURYA. SUNGA, AND EARLY ANUHRA ,F,ig. 10. S;W!ilmiiIGiatewa" Fig. 1l.,A6!(),k~Plli&t:

Section,

VI.

m,. 12.

Kar]a CDLIi,ple (:m,onm:1:mQ:me) Fi£ 13. Iudra,: BbilJa

Fig. ,1-4. Mllkaxa Dli,;:v'EuOPMENT OF DEVOTIONAL THEISM

mSAN AND LATER: ,AND'HRA"ERIOD Fig~ 16. Kamt Buddlba I(mono-chc-ome)
YIJ!:. 17~ K'aQlihka: Ma.rbura l(mloiJ1locbro:me)'

Fig. 18, ICy,vE!'rn MIII,lLbUfti ~
Fig. 19. MQl:'b£:r and CWilld: M!OIt.b,uif,a

.Fig. 20,. r~ksbi: MaEhulra, Fig. 2l Anll.lnl,d1i!r9pura B'ud,dllOi (Qlm'noohro1Ue)

8~cti.Qn

IX.

T.HE GUPTA, P!JUOD Fig. 23., Fig. M. ,Fig, 25. :rig~ 3'6. Bodb_is;attv;ll: Ajaota IhJddlba: Mntbum (woRochl',am,e) 5't'amdiDg Girl: Ajanta Gild 'DOl Swing ~ Ajan'tll!

x

.EARL Y .MED'[AEV AL Fig,. 21. Sbm,'1i!3. Paryad ad Fig. ,28. Trimul:d fig. 29. lIbuwDeshy,w: G.id
Fig.

ilS. 3L Monke, Fllilmibr SectifiD XI.
MEDIAEV.AL

m.

AIjuoiJi"s PenllDee (m!o!lodirome)

SCULPTURE

"g.

Fig. 3& Lovu$; KOHa:mk pj_g. 3,3" Lingarnja TemPile: Bhuv,II.J!jI~,,:ax 34. Bath, While:}: K!sif.l~k Fig. 35. IDI.epbant (glimQcht~me) Fig. 36. na~L1nhD Fi,g. 37. Relief: Tejpal T:empl.e:: Mit. ,Abu Flg. 38. Re~ief ~ TlBjpal T em,ph1:~ Mit. Albl!ii
Fi,g. 39'. Bel_

Fig. 4d NaJanda J,lg. 41. Sanmth SletUon

XlI.

SOUTHERN IND1A.lDTH-lS,'rH CENTURY Ag.«t n,am:c.m,gF~ures,: CWCla:mbaram
Fig. 43. D.mcl~e Figur~!i,: Hampi
If.g.

44.. MO'nKQ5; Hmnpi

II

-

VD,

..

Pig., 45:. Pamiktml'la, :Bahu:: PD1DDDat~il!.CeyloD Pig. 46. Se<'ltledBuddha ,: P'o[.:llDnannf8l, Cerlon F:i;j., 41. N<lIltaFaja Flig. 48. SUifidi{l11:'8 M,wtii S~mi~, Ce.,Io!ll Fi,g., 49. Mauikka V aiQ~il:gM: oCe,yl(1n ,ARCHIr~Ct"URI: UNDER MU,SSALMAN

RULE
:iig. ,50. 'T'3j M'ahiilti (miOnochf100ne)' F:ig. Sl. :i:ll!lmb MUllU" FiR. 52.M_m;que o:fAlif-Khan art Co:ulb lijS. 58,. En'tmno;;;ePorch 'of !IlM,ooqu.i':

.'
Section XlV.,

Fit. St. At li':atl!bpul[ SUm • Bi![ba,~:Ki-Be;ti Ea, ua:bd, Fig. 55. At Fa tebpuill Siltri Fig. 56. Diwan-i..Da:s FURTHER. lNUlA Fig. Pi&, Fig. Fig., Fig., Sie.etion XV ..
}iijg'. m.~nnllg i;ent. !DiD ailk:

AND .INDONESIA

'51:.
58. 59. ,60.

,6L

Head of Buildhe :~Ikor Wa;t F,emaiJleDrutcer: Mi.I:SiE!ede 'TQumue:. HaElm ,GWleib :WIQ Java, S\Jdi!.t Vat: Siam, Ga'Ii~waJ' of IlO!l:'ohu.dur

T!!llEli-Hu,a1il\g; Cbhlll1"lOtb

A~O. P:agil:n. Burma,

Fig. 63. Fa lace, Scellie.~Wal~ ~bltm2',
abmn ~Bfh e:~nt. A.D,.

Fig., 64. Ne'pal~e I'rie:r>e''(molilochro.e) Fig,. 65. NliJilUiElig-&'l'in N:ar, TIi!J.lI'h,~-DgU! Min.lllaung
Nat: Bunoa

JAIN P:AINTING Fig. 6€i, Fig, 67. N'lIidrig
oj:

MlJihavira. 11l'Ultmtio.f:l. ,of a

Jineda.ulii Surl. ,a,l:Id bis ,d:isid,ple$:

palm leaf mU'DU5cnpt

'Of .Kampa

S'LltrB

~etiou

xvn.

:MOGHUL PAINTING
lfig .. fB~ JI~bil_Il:!i;r".5KD'lUd Elephant:: 17th, ceot.. A.U, Fig. 6\l. Ragim Ha'mWra Pig. '10. A PfUt' of Cra(u~s: Victoria .and AUMit Mlls¢um ,Fig. 71. ru.1tlielicewit'h EmpnOif Je:haIlp '(mofio"

chm:Me.)' fig. 12. De'tiii u,am, an 1I.:Wistlmti'!:'.In,to the
NOima

~Il:"

Rl\JPUTPAINTING

mg. n.
Fig. "4.

Oli.lld.l.adb:a. .xvrn. ICe::Dt ,A .n.. ~dba Bathing ~ (iarrltwal PWDtlnS. Victoria 1m•. Alben .MU&'eumt

Ra:j PQ~ Pai.nU:nt ~ Ba:!lobU Stbuol"Krls:b.na

C. 1738,
!Ii

Fig. 75,. Tom Ragll1li Ui'Rlnt.t>eJ' Fig. 76.. Cbamb-m Pa:intmlg:: Sampati 1lQ:'[iaI;iiJI 'tim !RQ-Q' ,of his ea~l,lif-e t,othe Monkey,s Ffug"''11. BamtlllU1Sil" Painting,: V,a:iahakba

SIKH PIAINnNG
Fig., '18., B'lJ1lIt:H_t: a't Ni:Jb,t Fig. '79" P'o-mai,! of Dll,JIin Sin,gh; l.8IM
Section. XX. MODERN INDIAN PAINTING iifl. 00. FE!g. ,m. Fwg~82~ Fiig. ,133. FIg. ,84!.

Bkth of ~ku'i:
:~atb T'ag'ol!'e

P:aiocn,g h.J Abanintka· ..

Com-pDlSruon; P,ailttfng by lC. Ie Hebbar Siim- 00 a File; P,l1!intiP!l bJ1"la.mini RD) B.es,I:W~, .F;~ntingb" Amrita Sbeil: Gil Gild Singing: Painting b" G~~ege."t

,

CONTENTS
Editor's Pfdl:""O~ List. of IUU!)trnitiODS Section L Ind,0""5uDhulap. •• :2'. Dli'lli',idians and.A:r,1'11.Ius • •• :i Ve:dh:: Origins . 4. Plre..M3.l.iI~an. St:u~ptur:e: • 5!, The Gireat E!lligbt~nms:nt -Mau:tY3i. ~UD,S'a Mod 6. EaTbr Budd h:rst' An: .... ••
Nt.1 ij~1

iii
v

1
5
'1

'.

n
2CI 2~ 46

8

.,
OIl IP"

Early Andbra, '7• Develnpm,£'Qt of Dewonooam Th~

IS

I'·
o.
I'.
'!

U.

8. Kusan and Later Andb:Ea Plwdod. 9. The Gupta P,eriod 10.. Eady Mediaev:al
Mi'l'dffiae'v;aI SCli.dptu:re
(J!!(nt:llfY

33 40

12. Soutb~:rn Tad LalCL1.8th

54

•• _.
i'I

13- .&chh::ecture ~erMUU8L'Lmalil. 14. Fur.~HI" If.id~a.and lll!l,dcm.ema 15 M~dia,e\!<lI), Buddhist P.aintmg 161 Jain Painting

Rule

62

.

13
19' 83,
86 ~

•• ••

17

••

..

Moghul Painting 18- Ib.jplIt P,ainting 19. Sikh Pahuing . 20. MurJem[nd;,lI'll PaInting • A:pp~ (BibUo.g;r~:pb'ie'l!'

.

• 104 106
~
"1'i'!:I

T.HE FIRST' 'IND·O·"'~~Ui"JI.J:i,~., COT 'n. if"Il'lII'I .1.
l ,;., .

''Ir

ill. 1\.T

.'

IT :hat!, lo:~s 'been blown 'that sed> of a 'type: 'lifiriqQe,in India hnB hem. ~olUl.d in the &al1~ vldfey. QwJii!1ie: ~ec:entIr e;x'l!iI:'VIlltio.D!S of two sit~1 HlII'3:ppa Ut the P'tmjeb. aJnd MohelljOd3illO in 8md~ b:av~ n!¥e:a~edtbe u6Ceac,e of ,e:xitmsiv-e cltJ' situ, with Nm.uns ,of 'bridllndfdings h,,· no m:e;!M af iii, pci[Qitive '@P1M:cter.and, the a&'l:lnd~~e o£ ,mmO't ,iiDttquicli9' indicares a pe:riod of tmusitilQn frQm the stone 00 tb,e c:'Oppe-ra:g'e. The.iS2
litmaips

are,tI!hdi!':[ 'ithO!;.eof the Kwa:~, mil per.iiod. hut Ue pot £orr' &am the; surla:~e;' the esisteaee cd still ~ow,eJ:'

sU:!l:m SU~~SQ that 'the IndJ!iiS vall!!!" c:ulttlire m.ustba:n Iu!;d·8,long Pf,evi'OUB bistcrgo inilie slI!me area andi,mat itm:a;]!' b~ fi~ta;rded ~asimligen~nls. I'. 'Tbe m,ore W'i!: karn ,of the cQpper: ar:oe,;'. Sal,S, Rosmyt~df"i II Ime .Oire. imllortgil: 'iii: :is_own ~obe," Thiii epocb ,ctnea'tedi brillian't eentlOOi5 e,f cultu'Dl life all mret the world, fiB; 1. DJiIl.el!:f; Maol!temjot3';G;f) !i1lecialbr 'iq, the Orient., T'o t'he ,cmtus ataad:ybQ~~ Efam, Miu~'potamii:!J.! and ~S)lPi" W,t !Zan now :add 'T~ .Nortb u..lIIIca:snS and, fi~. thelrulus valley. lit may be !iem~£d. tQO. tb!It the Wnmer W~ ga, b'8~km, hist,OJ'J',! the' nell!~el'we C01!ll:i: to iili. common e,ulfIl:ra! 1YP0. i 'tlfe ,fmthi![·Vife ad.wBGe, tbt ,iQifie.awr tblit ,dlfkmnt'iation..

ana

.'

''l'l:e Chakoitbiccw!lJI.u;e; .~ '9,~here cb~c;t4~ed bJl'mab'~h,' and a,adt ,IiI! 'the Jrodl.UiC:li''le,~~, GfllnlibB~ a1!!:dof:g Pl!Qti1lei~ godid!I!~:: <lII!db:J ,ill ,gi\i!at d.ev,e'lominecf the ,a.d::s ~'d)~l'J!; 'W~ .U'~tm®<w mailze m ea:cl;5' It:lidmre: ,~' thi:s :kinil, I@;D"~ '~~ll!?;l;'u!edUOIi!:!! tille, Medi~M 'to fbe IGang~i~UCJf and t1u:t thiewi!o'~ Ii:d!' the Ancie'nt Ea.rr;'m!rnia!!

mat

'bebin.d it ,~ ~:mmoo mharif.nJ.e:e. 'The au'liijJwtleJi ill_d. in the lruiilavd!ey'i
a~JI!::rtb:riilTli.-briick
aWII)IDDiii:

bw~dlh1l,gs a,ud, Itlil:e llmitell

,01 masOm'J'i, ~hi!:de m!ts~.o!ll.e iigLE2:s' of ~.miJed II1!~iQ., and te:rna,eo't~ n:iP[e51~:ntiri,g &mai!lefi~~ Hod anim.ah. the :Ilatte:r indu,diog :fta; '2:..~dj .. ; a ,dJin~ros~n@>w e'l'ibn,t;.~he 'IniWi ~J'. Ml:iIhen,j~' Ng ,lin~,oDo~phi\!l1; .6iW'ee~ oethu thg, the itl!l!:w.l:C>D'ttas. h;lI~Bbeell, fc,nnd: 1::i!JIt a Il!.~~e: ide~~el\ai!blel:!,mtlb~ic:_tQ~
~os!5;.ll!aed

,~

1l',a:p'Em:: ,e:M~lih;:b;rs a.tthe' b'ac'k;. hs in&raflitthe r~iP'liese:GittlirtiQ:ms,1)[: :11
wid!. JmeeUo,g' 'wQt;Sb,b:lptfS, ght ailid l~tJ8nd d i!, Na,p, behind. 111remM,kai,b~ iilW'Wtk'i'pa.tio:n, ,ei: :fl1~typ~fi' in '1at>U' B'l:ni!!dint _1:: ~£ the bhiiwrical l*lrlod. PaiGitd.potOOQ' a~a!01~lI!i'i·ro the 'prehlsloori~:',ottery dfBat!i!!cb~stw isab.ciaot ,:~tMa" 'be: e;~~d r that • :Bat~~hi:sita;~the~ :s~ves, ,am molatled lDmwdiwlilI 1iMI,giill,ag~ IHhld.. w:hffiillilh.a.rd.1Ql1iie bele:!!1!.~eg.a:e,a. <lisa. pos~~bJsislaiHdcDDel;;tin:g Dm--.ridian :End:S- with, tfJ.e We$t., O;tPn:e:r'Jle!lil!l~' • .dudeb~.ds: a~d!. IDfffillef o,mameu:l;si: of cbalk. eamlelim~ e:tt.. un,1l! is.mnaolt:maoe:s ~ :laiieBoe: b~~l~ ~ 'bt!!matii~tepesitteSi ::po~~sb ed. g,oidl je:wlelil!e:IJ' ~ Imiins: :dl~. ~o:.l~-b;:, :implemlll!:lIltSi ~ ;aBd~ l!,bo~ed. stilik. Im~. m 1.a:~!kif.ll" and. 'tl!ile: h~e 'WulMbOWD;., Th'£': sas lam ~fiwQ'. o:n:blu:eJ ,oi'wWtle tai:eI::!:OO"SQ;UM;e ~I! amd with, a~ro~edl 'has~ at the ba:(l.kf~T SlJ',Spe_i~p. Tbg he.u- a. glial!: wri,e;tJ' of d~IIliS •• d~~gb;ds.lloWwitba_I;'!l,~t'hfi~t'blUmP,B\, e.llZ;ph!m.m, tije:t5; ad. E';a;ptfieJ'ltati~n.s (I·f a n Plppal"' ~et:: ItFitll~ r;e.mtgio.m):" i,tDtwo' bilEIUtd Wiaderif- affiIOl1100:i attached EO,the' ~tiUI:I. w ' Fl!!Hher. ~:g: ~e.aJs b~ IIlU!ll:l I!([O'1.lS eh'3,~'te;m .O~ Q 'p'j(lt:c,gf,aph.h,~,sC'ri;p1t wbith 'it .bM not ]'Ie:t: baeilpo&\l~.btlem declp;ha,. 1'h,ec :[>ep~nf2ibm:! '0:1

fis~.

m

.,

me~ '.n,Q~ -ammilb,
iqthll?

~,~~aJ!IJdJ<iiI,tD:f

fHebUl

llDd, ,~mep~nt!

:&

,miiBl1e:i1(r

~~e:

th9:t o,ft'hf!lime~~oJilie_SC~ptl.1RilS

ae5$eti.

~

.H1I.y d!e~d~~mdJ.e[

dtm prlmiti~~,

f

iii

I

It bas been shown that t\~e: ,aotif,tuida: "bear' a g;ene~at1:Elestm~ bl.anc.e m :dilose fogd,QD, S~~ siw: .. MesGlKJta:m:ia. es;edaJib

ll'ij. 0\1. kidl w.I_1h Bun;
il

Mcil!.iUI',I,iiMkm

Kish and, Susa dated: h'ID ,tbe 5th to, the 3m. miUwmiruns BIC'I·'r~eWlbJaoc:e ,W!Il!cnu!,tso iifeQti.ty inlhe, Case of an rear}y Sumemo ~zed t st'eaJtite: seaJ! bom Ild!* IillIre in. Jiespect of gript'Mld the:1b11lL
'Tbe,miniahlIrB ~ pouerie:s ,ofllmli'l,

me

aNb

ais a,lmoot ,mdis~

liI,Oited,toQ. ddt·th~ oblcng., sho:rt..~.,ed l t>en;(Il!::otm stl!flc-opbaJ,ge of 'PNhisto'ric Sou.tb. Inman. ii~q: ge: ,of 'the Mesopotamii:ilil'll .type. CameUan 'beads IO'll!nd, lit Khih ,aile deccmte4 withw'lI'rite 6Qa 'eD a r:ed,pund. ,obtabied, h:ID.IQ~ a:lcln,a.oou IO:~the ~oo ~ this leit1mi~ un1mQIWiA wu~ of'Me50pommia. is so' commolill, In Indii:a. tboug-'b Ht B letl!'.r da:t·e. SiS to suggest ,il pr,01ila:blie In.diaD OIrigin. Siome Indian boat ,d!esignoJM'e ,of 3, MesopommfiaQ di!:mettr', the 'Qoracle in pliltticubif~wmleme p:mseuceof cQnch at Sma :md ,of·teak and

tm~biJl)le"

itm.!!1Jbe


Indjg,
~gl1!!n,

Ceaal: in BI.liIb¥l.o:9 afe' ,e;~,de,[u:;~ 5e~b{J,m!: tmde" aa ecud, :as the. .ltiI. IOenltwiJ :B.C.,iIlIo£ i:s,fi:oel''f; mL~r:b[oos<!lg ibO d!ol!dltthaJt it had.
!~ ,

,

'Wh1.1e t'be fJe;maas," duded.~l alIp!jle~ :~f;).d_t~:e :llmdwdle;r'. ,ee:ttamlJ' 10 back totbe 3td !~r 4t;b~e:~J!i~Mro B.c". ilt ls S'fP!:liSCd dial!; a C~I!ll,'t~te hla:~!l d:~:rid~iSth1:sc eub~d fi,orn 'h~'e(l.':l:.es. A. part Qr dt:!lemM1srat M~b~J)da:to plobabb-&l!lle!libi!i~e]1 toOtl' btl 400 EtC" ad 'ou thtl' Gth~r hilDdthi.min~r3!~ti~tia 'M v,a:riio lUiiJlln;lLa,g sites; a~ 'aJJtB~~b. 'faxilfa, (BIll't motmd:)",JP!j1taliput.1\a,l:lLlQd &liIiti! ~aj{lll] Jll!e-histodc sii_$. S:~bad :at !east tt.'Ilth.e 5th c:~nrur:y'B.C., The :st~,niy of Iri:db~lIiw'~ a~fikJ;Lliu is mI ,i1n1 its ,i.aey" .-d, .it is biJa learly ~{l d;ra,w far ..teacil!tmf! ICQ:fiC]l:1!'jQ~61, but ,iii:: isr 'i!:t le.a:st !PJ10balb:~£ ,",ilt dte ~i\!Ui:lta:tiianof 'wbiill:!hwt!: na:\l:e J!l;ClW o!b~amoo: tWs ~t gDmpsewa!s I~:"e:\le:lo"e:.d.tl!e! .MDdYiS wlle;, iE'SeHiilIJld w;l'i5 IlISe disl:ltiu;tiv,e 1m::E iilatfll!'gian <mIfhe. c:.i,lllii1iz~!ti:O'n ;;h~,!?lbu'Oilii~ 'W\!Ii!! d]JlUII:CCif tirVE! of the Nile,.~ .d ~JE me SYlIII~iMt as .iD gmeran, SUl"ppOS~ .• ile:p.J)l!ll!l!!lJlm; ·tb~.tnIsii",e 'e~e~re'nt¢ Mes.GIpotamil[i,!JI,' thm a ~m~~!ibilitJisi .ktI. .• Icl~ iYluested Q'f :Ur!d~p1i'O"dngu]iliml\li\tle:1Y t:Qb~tbr"E!! cra.lte ~f diwt ci.W1b;adoWl. cwhiicb in iu rum. lay l!,ttlib.c -rwot: 'of BllI:b"loorlfiLfit Asutian" and wies.-m As:i:ati.; (:u.lM,g ~en.ftai.,,1

euliu.

'.

SECTION

THE SECOND

DRAVIDIANS AND AllY ANS
,of weSbn!l ocigm~(lr~a:s iSe~ml!qrm~~~pfob:fible~(jf ditect ~eoUdut..d_egD!t
OD

ICERY AINLYb~lo.[J~th~. 2nd .i!i1UIe.nni!lmB.C.~the Dravid:ian.s. whether

.'

pballus ;and o:f ;moth~:rgod~_es Na,fas" YJ1kshlts aQd. other oa,tun~ ,spit.lt~. !lind. m:itJ!JIy 0:1 tb i:i arts. Inde!l\lld~ w,e l!e€:o,g~e I: m th.e: DI3'yj:dJiUlS a $"IJI~e.m .mc;e Mild In 'the JhJ':amill! III no:rrib~m. it m~y well be argued Ilhacth.e .ncro:gt 'of:kins1:J Qver tdbal'or:~tiOD:li. the gradual [ec;~ptiOD.inco, Qf.tbo~ dmc f:e:li,gicn. of we pliiaHu:s,cult Udl,m:D'tLer,,:go-&l~sesll qd ,the: ilhiiit ~om abstmct Q:m:bolsm 'M!
... tk~.m,c'Q!ihic ieo.lil.ograpL:,'i in the t"""""-VU ofh r. .ecJ:itic and ,bll.-L:·~ ... ";-.::I' ._ ~ ~./. _ _1JClI11,rM dC'Y'elcpmentj,lDadi: a .all~c:t;cn;1" of tibe aJqlleId. over the 'CQa~ gU.e:t'Ol'Sl. En, ~. P the ,popular

o:f ,'" e

'IDWlI,Sm:E, ;b..! oam.c:to f:ow 'lh~b1!.rlik; @fa, ],m;paffia,ti'cn ~y ~altteEd tnt'Oli!Sib.o!i!lt'rn!ila:. These Df3'i1:~diaM S]lOlllid be the Oa_sas o,t DasJliU~; with. whom me cOl1ilqge~e; AQ~. wei,ge-d d!!!e:M' ~ .. thm· p . r~' af tl.}wns, am m:entiomled,in the VedU1aiiiid thBY UB ,de~.d:hili!d N AmI'sa]i, r PQ15el~s.a deaf indi~do[JJ of tkeir .racial type •. o Among tbi! 'i!~emeiDtsof D'ravidian ,a_rigin arepl',obabl.y the' c:uibl

1'1A. G,Nagl1l:

Dril.",id:iUD
p,3lt

·asidistinct

COnCleI.'US, he ,dev.e1Dpm~llJt ani office of i'mel~-Wlorahipt that is.. of puju !
fUlm ,ytJ.,jnay

DtaVidian element mQStblli.¥ep~a;,.ed

t\bg major

in iaBtha:e

6

INTllODucnON

TO INDIAN AR.T

• 1':0 'the Dravidians areprobabl¥ d:ue the: lor.ms 'oE,iH:,cihitedure baSied D;_Q ba.m:boo mfiii~doD. the a:!!'dtitectl:we: ,of the ~oaa fum bee:1!il ,cited ,as a 'P:__LtttQ~ O~ a,t ,any ft!;fe; a neil![ ,analogue.. Qf b'be ea:r:b' b.atl)e~"'val!l!J:~ea, chaf'~ial ;and 'tn't n~wlice amhit,eetuf,e. Cm-ed mab~ eomnmfl!i!l in, Ln.tiilt" am f'IiJIfe:m. t~e n!:!;;: ,of 'ee: wodd. 'Tb£ smne til.a;b ,~,m.u;:tfJ;!{n il)f may' 'Barb' temi~a isl$e:"i¥f5.~ Igf Dri<1<vidWD o~ !EM'b' mmtime: a'aide and all thl,t:has, to do with fi-5biQg,mw:t be Dra'Yidill!l!!i. 'nu~ ,cha:mk 11)),1' wiDch indun:y :is a case: m pomt. the use of "ch<l!tJKlioosle.s., and 0# the tmiruili as ,atnlmpe:t ,in nWillI.and. w,at must :have been, bo,U'olWed ham Dmwdmn, SOUf,Ce5 bdQl'ie -the

. epu: pm","'lr

."""',/

I

SECTION

fI

I;;oo:siste:dm. the wo,~sbip ,of' tbe lIel.'S'onitiq, ];KlIW~ of Nature:, _ pat:til;u1iaE' of Alyd, fuira" S:!fQ!lli. Vazuoa. Vishntm" J.'lIldft~ Yama. infile and olt&.et'~Weo anibem£s were. :lW!tlu:opo:m.c'liIbicdil;Y ,COI11!.;eived. ud :ai!rJe i~'Sai.b~a;!ls weariD,g ,llIiJlJ:!mm. ~m.g weaplillDS'r, nd a driving in e:har.iQts" ,the" w,~ wOf,shippedWi:th 'hymns ;;m:d sacrifices, r:ba:tth,e:y :migb:t bless Imd protect their wots:hipp~ :MagitaJl mean~ t8!tions, we~1i! t!'mpI,oyed to the ,S!ai:D e-ndt. The ~iQt of 'the ,anOestom ,,,we Ii~ewise m'Vok~d ,MId ,s~[\l\edwith ofifeliogs" The ritual g~w in comiplimuan, ,M:!d QIIlIetO lie almost elilj~l" in the bands 0'£ ie~en yriesm (Btahm,'aM), a1!Q!o~s:tw:hom d!rle saaed 'U.xtswel'eibaaded d:flwu. ora'llY. in P~~~' ~u.ccessj,n. The1!e~: no' ,erideuc::e" andli:ttl!e ~:rlobab_m~-,.,matimages 0'£ m,' of me rdlefdeswem made. Wll~tih~['
sc'U~ptl.U'ed orpamtedJ

EARLY Vedlic IidgfQDI! the rdiliO'lli Qf the AQam;,

m N'o,nhem, hidia"

"ere ,e:x:i;a:t~d. abodgiiMiI, DJ;a:ridIaD" cult's of wula..u 'pop~ idsD divinilJ~. sucb as ·the Yab.has., Niiii,g~$j, (I tttu n~tuft""spirit5· no,t yet :.11 receiud milO tb8 1kabmani,~ pantheon; ,~ a primihIVe deity" afteir~ v;I,;mIs identified! with SIUva:. whose :follo~ Hi8' 1'Iele:rreiil to in, Idle rug Veda ali w.mhipp~rs of the Pha1!J:u:s-.gOOl (Sishna.de,w)I:~ and cd theEa:rtb and Qltlier: lemllile deities. The :iili1:dustriaI ads, WII?E'e mainly .m the: :buds of the Non~AQan comm.mrit!i~., [:11: ispo.ssil!)~e thaitmt:ie ima,fJe:swere e!lllll,,~,d :in db:e ,opuJa.r 'C~mfi. W 00'4 ,a;l!!)dbriiCk ~ U5ed £Or' 'lb_dfug.hiC~. ClDPiPiili:',;sJ.9er. ;gD~d :p4led, Wle'.['£ lmiawp~J Malny o:~ 'the de«lJ:<litiu DU)tiSi" 'w;tb &an:j:,m affinilJes.w:bich ~R in. :folk: !lIt tol mecpns:e:nt:: da1'" ,mril!ilSI: ,wadyhave 'be-en. m. V5e. The (laMe ,s!lste:m Iwtb"ed ,iml, ,iiIili e:mbryol,
I Th~ lold!9IJ~. which formed, ,puit eIf'dmoJm;r at IneUC'e,,!!:IId the. '~D Irit}''(1 0'1 tire nlelS. 'ltcmlPfOblbl~ ,l!)I'IiIibo]i!"" :liDd ,DlOt in! MiDst ie~relll_~ mt!OIU. M!!'. B. Ie. ,tw:~ .h!1lw~"""; hu :I'_!mmariHll the. elribnee leu: tiht) URi IliI,f ima:l!e5,j:p, ,tibil. Ve:d:ii: jlef.h~d u:1!pa:'eieDts.? _ ~Iil'.w ~wmi'Qle: Qj~~

:m,.

-ltMlaJ1I'm,agru;

Calirulifil;, l:J.l!1.

.

-

,

SECTION
n""" ~k,A _' ~-'II!II!.L~~I

'IHE FOUl.TH

P

'll' 'R'VAN" "
,r·.'",,1.
J'_'

••,_

Ciii"'!'TH'11'11"rl"Tn'l':" ~\o#V~'.ItU'~

THE early d\~.vilapm,ent o:f ,bdlian: ,scUlptun!i 9lld 'p!!iotine., Ilke 'that 'Clf &e drama., appe-al'1 tOI have be,e:JliiIt"QlilPe!C~ed with anCies~ef c'Plt.s PM heI'G~\1'mSlhi,p,. The 'CWiua: ..Laks.:h1!Jnall!ln ead:v SiIpa 5i1n;ttlli, D10'wbttlWU enly :in its Tib~ trnJiSlati'OiD. ,is, dUdB devoted t.OI a Pbes¢n.p'iiOD of tbe pm~t' m!H!1mtt in w,lmti:ch a, Chaba~, ,should be t-e'presentedl: thee C:lmOD ilt: ~t, I, fo.r kings and othtr beings" ("the~:s). So fat as the, Jaksllum.l!! oftL1.::' Cbaba¥'a:t:tm, is c'on:cemcd. ttl'e ,saJstta prob-abl:, ,daLw back to por,~:Buddhi:st 'Elmes. In any Icase. 'tbeipotheosis of king" and the Bt'OCtiiOn. @f wn~ sm'tl!:e5 seeM to bi01'Y1e 1l!U~l9 c1lta'mi:~ddi:e of Indian eivil1z:a'tittQ &om W age ,of 'the earliest surriVinf m'OD!WD,e:1'Il1!iS (li1ili,:W;lBds. The oldest ]ndialill sCU]ptllttli!: so far knOwtliantatS ,to b~ Ithe w,en..bU:llWD • P:at_kbJ!ll Statue' of the MathU:OOl Mus'eum (F~g. £I) which beKS" aceo~~ tQ recent :r~dmp. an ~ptiOD,I,tdeniu, '~OK:u~a ,&jamSiluu, of 'tkiil SatisUDIlig!l d,n'aJSt,f" who died in 1618 B".C,. Closcl1:rIile:l'a~d. to this, iimnaJe :ils 'the; ili!'wal'e: fil!Ue. pe:lha'~i;3I Yi8l.l'sbi!. bODII,B~n;a,eu! mow in 'the Calcutta Museum. Two ,statues fO'Ulld K PlatH'll be.' ·the nMl!l:.mlof other sm.&unqa el!i.1~an~ U~,in §nd 'Nanda,Va'rdlm:u. b<ltb o.f the 'fiiftb OtJilrtl.lty B.C. The: leIWile ,cauri,.. ~~[ latel¥ mund. -M Didati,f,ainjll and now in :fii,ll. 7. !''dahl, Belllll;:rJl: tme Pa't:llD Musl!lIlm., m.a.;vbe e,Qj,~.J' Ed:,. W~tb the. same :~de:s may be: assoclab!:dI,tlt i!!Idlliil~i:ifi,Yle~Lz"ed buD in ,lilli! Cal~gtta. Museu.m.
j

!II

o

,f

g,enu:iDIi{, p;li.mnve ~peet of Indian art. 'The ~e;lm~ eftlliis ~.:m,aIlCt .is not i:mailllin;!,tiV~'1 :pO'"w,edamm, "M a it et i Q 1. Th~liebum~:nf:i:e:ufe.s.OV>i!:r 1He..s~e;!1 ~Si~,~: tliiieit g,., m~e wle~gbi!:fir:mJ~F'en the:

in wood ,01 ome:!r mm:pe.mlaH.eat llI~terl8rhi. ~e~ents d~,e:

The gtrroup c,f fiigUf'~Sabove lO~:£eged to! '~bU:e:htlllJJin,~: a~Qlillg;mli.wol' ~evel,Qp.~1!;

'~t

e!a1:it~. ,<lire imm.ed~&!Rl and a:ffi:cm{~JI:i~\E!: e~SS~G;OlS m

p'bysie!llil. e;ne!1',O. :r. i f 1£ i.!i a.ocepted 'widwurI:: QlIlesdo:n o![Uillysiis :th~ ~~lld.iID~, hl, M t fdlli"Wtl:!d. N:e~r!:her: p~looopmc mUI0!5p~cti{l;II. fiGi[ p,as:smnate dle:\I'otl':on~3i;'L1I',e J'~t M:feet~i ;!Id:: t\b;el[e ISlWrii Iwce Qf~oom_ticilG.m ot'!reiine.eD,t. Ai!; ,the. samil'i dme_thrn, p~ M;aW'JanltLd:iJan. Mt i5 .D"O~, lIike'eatJ:y· .E.gYpti1'lD aft, ICiMD,~ p[m wichi'n ~Kelf. lu:n.ded hr .its m~:I1e:dd ;and re:pl'~ te-ntau'Ile ~cltiJe'Ye.le.~t ,and ef: ab.~lthet: m.c!t1l::31 t-lisJm,,"e: it

is Dot

Yllii!:

s'P:iriJtQ~ ~t1is:et'

than. IJil'lis:p;irii~ttlial

Mr. ra;¥!l;SWariS:res~el!l; kI tbe field. 9£ ~e-.MiI~ a;rt: 'bave pojWllltl. the~, to ~e most; fnliiiDl ;!md the ~eas:t e~l11:twl SDU~ oit&e:

~~l,~ulp:t.~
hml.....~ U·
1~

~gins:

of lu.dian IlfUs :in <ln~.b:so~
Diode
_. ~I

ran·.
e~

!'ii,m~mi ,0'1,' h:~ !F"!" ~-.~llIill!5
.~:t

~~tlif

h,{I. Idrue:

s:taDiI'5Ii1~D~ :dD1l!ie S~p'fl'm~th.ek:e,t1QSUlb!Se!Ji.~e:DJt: d~e.]tJ,m.~~It:s. H.ef.e,~O~ ~am,ple. ii:~tb~: ~pl~ati{Ul of the, ~~~$t £~mrp!e1l::e ft~mel'il~n[je: of HeU!ain1'stl:efnfmlUdaeiP the '!,!I:I'Iif~e.dDatitm.:l1l !iclil:~;li' '(If thE: GUllt:4 a\~e:: we cl'mf~low &~m. th~ sev~, cm'OOQ ftC,.• ~o ~he sifth 011' ~v~tb lliientWl\J .A.D." and, w~ee Gill. a, I~ntiim.u.trus Ua.di:tiOfi ,;t:nd we[e~i:l1;;e w:a:t rt:hi:s< ,1:[_ IC~ifUillt f.low~d tOilI (ID('iiVet .. :rut£y and too, immediatiebfto:m ~adV'e :S(l!Q!l'C:~~ 'h,l ha. lL1~eI1!i5e~o'1il~1:r defleClkiEld b:, thl!: :t'O~i!il':gD!.t~nuu;lliJ/Z; 'Whiib it ~dopt~, anQ~1iIWeail'Ol
itSl'OWD elliQs.

Thelmmediatle:

,e:!ifide'lil~e@fkl'ed!:for d!:e new

.interp,fl1;W!,tWM

I~

",,",bat wemfarm:edJ¥ :mgamedla'liw,arb 8f MalllfJ'l1n daM' j:S~ilmi!o... g)ti1'phi~"a;p.d ~tlJJ 11'0 ,SI:i'me ,e.~reltt· iii :matter of: CQJIltr0\11'11!~~),;bu;t 'tm:ie rCollu:lmi"aD!:ate ,!mI(Pli,' sl!!pi:"(l~d ~J'tIre .'f~li5tffileti:e evidm~~, 'Whj!~b clea:rJy de!lllil!ILlI1IdsD ~~1'1e;[ da1l:in' ,of ~h.: prjm:il::i"Y,e1i~!Ptm:lli. a

ItwcW!d

b:E:t hlde~~.~IlI];lri&ing li the
m:;t~

~O5'1;

'polw~dl!d~.mi

tilri.giftall

I~k:~e~ts IMMI

dil;stH:ed

tJJlr~:mJ~

p:!r~(!lQtle1tt af!l1l~Ue~~ •. :~![

_di a 11.aU, had. D~t alE£aldy flQ·u:o.d I~X,[~_~O\nioi!:h-e ag:e Gft.1il~ gmat $P~riwtic~~s. :N() ']eS§i!l'!l:Q8:UriJ'!!! fu~~ ·tham. tbi:sJoRo I~s !l'Qmpl~:te. am.p!.IH:;luceplt'l11Ce o.t:: .p'btJ~{l;al exisl1l.'.!!Il'C11!: (;(lulil have 'bllle:O. .!!tSIil~e :i()I~tiGl!1I. :mr the Gl'ea.t:Enlilbtm~ent-ii!. ~rm wed 1m,ete:~o esi.g!iQ.te d lI1!O't merely 'I.'lile:Maiha &'1I!ibodhi Q'f ,the,Bud~hai~ bUtt aw~ of tile iiilCE! hom imOC!Ii~Il~ ~o (!omcio,us~lis.impl1a.d hiI,thi1O '~i!&o. VedicliQ Vecll3lntic: '.O'":~ehit"
li

'T1b!fW G'RE I\"T 1C''Io.cn'I·G''~''''ftA'''l!l1i1!.'iI'T -'~ '. "ftT.i:...I."IIIi._I ~-n'" J:I.1'\i~!fJ,W"li, .
S'Y -the ;ci,g;bth centuQ

of kmm~ :and saUlsa:rn. bad «IJil!U~ to be g~DeWbr "-~iBJ!ftl!!d:: alui, by !;i;QJilt!;ast with ,tibe mete], temJ'QIa_Q' ,adwnta:ge o,f rebkthin, :e he;)j,y,l!D;. s;alV8!tiioJl (mnklSh,\, nitW1la) £mm ,the oonditions of mQlrtali1t)' • ., was uc:ognmedi as the hi,gh£'!lt, enod. ~,salvatJtpn Of Q,il'ffilual :&,e~domtould 'D'n1;v be attain,oo wiltk lb e 'iul!m,eClimt.i!! experience: o~sphi,tUiJl trlltb. not thmtl'gh the: 'Vedi(l,ril:Qall. ner by WQt$., The me:amDg o'f 1Ne 'W~ cHm, ta be 'found HI the k!l.o:wle~ of the Slli_tf," in the ideo1ti&'a:tio:n ,De aUtbat is bown ,with the kno,wing subject., This W'H a reY,el,atiOludla,'!: detemrlne.d ~e whole ,s~ib.sequ~lit ,de:veloiP"" _eDt of Indian ci'!!itizadog~ db; in cOII'telH ,ilndfoDD. As such" it fiD:ds its, mst.aae 'Pmest -elJ',piR-5S1om,in Iibe Upi!JlQishds ;a,Qd, tater" :01 :Budd bi[Sm and lainism and ,othi:1t' iodivid~W: Qi5te-ID& !ffiStQdc:aIb. it is- of IUbaiHriya rather Wan of BJtalhmiI:aq origin. Its upl!e~ia:!il i!1!l the Upall!ish:Sl~, dt'l!!lI:W-8:oo:s farm:ub,tcd. al'; the V.edanta!.bow,e~. WaJS! ea:d, acce.pl1ed by the l!hablmans ~ the con.iUmmation a,Old! goal. of the Ve:dic:' tndlition. and, ceQstiilr;u:t~the ~piri,t~1 b8,k,t~u,Qd: fOlrtbe whole subs£gJI~t developrne.nt ,of. the monot-heisdc laitb:s .and ,01 ithg Hilildlll i![iocJal Q'1idu. Buddhism g_d J~. dewclopi'Q!! ,Ol!} -,apllid Ime~ ;;JtboUSTI!J mroollil ,op,paHtion to Hindg Sif,$bUm:5 ]QIi!J!l sunrll!ed ill ,IS, :hew-oliOiX' lIeJEisua5i.om~he fQEmlu' jip South,enll India UlDd1fhe ieventh c~n~. a~d ill BeD,~a1UDtiltbe ,end. of 'the t:NeUth, the blUer: tG the pte~f:llt. dOl' It'Wiil, be ,convenient he,re,D Nm'Wiwe tbe :fonnulmon of tf!!!lm. t ,Qecoro~g fD the leadins S,'5tuil5 lof 'the Enligihterunent ~ the
,dCII:I:rinll!S

B..e., phiil!o!opbica1 ,~ula:ti:og

had ,Id,vanl!ll!d,

U'plmbllmds.: Jd:eo:titJ of i!lbe,:j ndi¥iduBl ctDnseiicnl::!ne.a bl:_o1t the emp:i.riiltal ego) with the wooWi8h1e B"'t~lirlii~ ,OJ;:' It;aJl~an wbi(:h Self
is
0,

UCit

,so'' .lib-e

im:um::llIoSi:p!ri_nclple iUf

Ithe:

1Uni¥ie:o;e

,j

,.

12

mTltODUCTION
~ty

TO lND'rAN ART

'Budd.bism.:

OOm;e!lll!leDtlymereb rela,tiVi!: ~ truth of aQc:trmes of '12i!:a~ 'bDl!lJ" tra:Q~ilUat1GD, e1ic. Assooia.tifJaillm '~/al9:te mtJll sd:e:ril!!lS,: imnpermla.neg.ce ,and. ctllusd ,o:ngmatitlu of aU. :p:he;_aom~na, !IlOn,-<e'DsteI!iCle:

,of 1t1~e: lla:tter M emmded in time and space" 0011

'oian:¥ qo. 8a:DilkbJlI ~ WuSDIY ,as!SDciation: ,of pluufity
(PumJha)witb N,ature,.iWtUM

of knowing subjects ,and pDl:eo'tial (P,r~ri'1i} ~ the *eemctcn: .• saltiJllil, r~iQS~ and '",mas, of thE! objective world. ,Sr.m1l(~il1a) ;,md narll..lmull&t#va) linked b7 karrm&

JaiinisDil. : of tnOiu,ghlc)
I'

,Mcetia:i5m), T~ (pe:wm.c:e) and Yoga (tom::epll';~l.ition are :fa routed b, al1.tb.ese ,sjI'stems, in so bJ;' i~1!i tl:re:y Mtom'ttiodatetbem_~;ell1'es t..u 'the ,cDncept ,O'f. cf!!usalitJ" as p:meti~ "m,ea.ns tem:lIlg I:JD realb3:ti~D. None of the:se !iiys't!E!;mlS~in their ,o:cigin, iI11'plieda cult of P~ISOD:al di"initle!" sciH less ,did they lIe.guO-e a use of ~ ag,e~. Ewen the Yoga .. mentions, the: Lam. U.fh~a:)' ,j)nIy as, OD,j! among other :suitabll! objeots ,of meditation. "For another nason it W3iS impossib1etbat imD;U~~bl effect'S o~ ,the inllllhttmme;nt shm:dd b:a:w '»e'0.D,u(:o,gritZied in art: ~ the: glooemife; at mg1t asseelaeed wiill:b t~e caKep:tLoll of SPiritual freedom, is iDC.eti,e 1 ,aid f~e eg:licil; and implici.ttt:n.dleb.c, m ,W1'I 'the pbi1O!ulpbic mte1n's at '6W,s,ti!ne is to Np,td the atn: (W:hic!b :billd, ne'l1'~ '"et 'been dig-tight of ;iI:S media for the eqlleSSfOn ,of Sip.iritliml ideas:) ~dus:bjte:ty in dtek sensual aspect a&,li1ieam of ,enjoJment aL\d 8:5 ehe Marlu,mdeya. Purana la.tl!r eltpICSS'e!i It. !' Nothing should bl! doOiliby a BrahftJa1l for the ,sake of enjoymen,t.'·· Ch.iLDakya ,eWaW!s lI1usicioms and aeWla with Cl'l1llcmsaDS: MaoU! iotmds, th.e housello]def 'to dante or sing, ami f«kom a:r.:;:biitects and aJE;'tms,a:mongst WliWi)f~ IIIJII!D. who 5'bwld. nO,i; be invited to sacrif~ In ea.dy Bddhis ttilte'l!'IIr,tm~the p~.t:eI 'is compared. "' the pUUI2iJl'Q.r ,of Q.phtodi5ia~i the: 11iIdd'ba: e.",l',e::_l1I, ~I h .... • f ';L1niL' • -, CC:I1I.!l~Im1l:S,it··!:, pr\l1lSI!Dlta!rlQD 0, 'we Ji.i!I,ullMm_8 • ,a.~ iJittr:;u;:tl~e li'l:u,~
SQunyltm

'.

101m.

And, ,in. mct, the actwd. themes ,of ;!i:r.tj ~ t_it t:ept-B~n~tion m. I:hi!; al;e g,nnrot hnve; b-een :su.t:h as to invite the ,a·PPI:o.,w(If,thQs:e w'bose: feces were; W:rQed awa,&omtbe wll!rld. lOrn;, !lit at mueh laWl[ period was th~re a conscious, ,expwS!sio:n of 5piritual jd~as Ithrough

"tame

~tt"

and

5,?mpa:l:hetic vameand

on-----blaNE stiUl a dimnCtiOIill. ,dra:w.n between the the spHitl.lll1,content ev,!!:Q. Ilite[uy warks., ,of

I

SECTION

THE SIXTH

r

EARLY BUDDHIST ART-MAURYA., AND EARLY ANDHlA

SUNGA

I

101

ART oftbe Ma.Ul']'~n.~riod JW,'l!,J'be ldd, to' ~ibit t~,e: .m.am pbas~ S I (1) the 'OClntmllmat1oJiJl, 0,1 the 'Pfe~MiJ!iUryan tm..:i,timn<l!i1!OW :applied in. iOliDe ,iMtanc~;s to,tbe: re:pJr'l!semratiQ:o, af V~IiUcddties. The iW.Gi!ijit sttUcing illUimtiO'I! of ,tlbh;, de'!01'efDP'JlIIIJ~;~tis al'med b, 'the sc"ll1ptured mJids of SW}!:a ,and. Indm in t:be wmiiillda, i@,f the aDi:~e;!!'1: .ra at Bhajll,,, (2J the OQurt an of ArokatypkaUy :S!e>eD in the monolithic eoh:unW! {figure ll) '00 whicb aJr'e inscribed his .lamons, EdlC:~ and iR whll:h IOI1,ei,gn Uranian} il!lru:neDJtsp~dominab£. ,ana: ta) the h£:gi:ru:liimgl "brick and Si!one ;nch~l::ute. alii,n the i of tbe: origilii..ai RUpa. at S;mchi, the sm;di IDODolitWC' miila,t; Sanchi. aml tb!!Lo_DlS llj5hj 'Gave:." in, 'dle Bd~__r bills: ne:ar Bodb G~YRt
!~

'Ii

14

.INTRODUCTION TO INDIAN ART

w~th itt; OIlil:{I!m,e;ote.:m fa~dll!'. Jl."iI!PGcibl~Dg tI!ru~ forms of wooden I!ttu&tu:re. ,/ Thebl!~'51 of BuddhiSt ma:p~ t1D 'be: :Qli,m;iated with il;be DU::mQl'ial m!llnu:m:ents ~clGit,,~). ~.ted (,'1ft the skies oftbe. Four GR'8!t i:vent1S, of 'the "Bud~dha:. life. Mid. in '5 'Clltier pill'cel':i"·~IIl~lIim mogilJs, ~) were., :Endeoo; atm:a(ily '~~hd 'O~Ith~ ,divid,oo
tem<aiMimll!l.ediate~, Il!we:r diE cre:mari!Oi!l ,or

ieath~isr-uo:rd'ed

th.~ .Bllddbrl\; body.; ,ad b,ehimself~b.efole 11h; 'to bave ,"polen of ~,. fOIUJ: places 'Whid!iII an Autio. WW"s:hippel( should vI<Ilitwith uJjgiCl~s em OItiOR ", Eaq:'h of the Gwat Ev.e:nts and sites walS r,e:pr,I!S'£! t~d ill\' B n

symbol; and th.e,~ s>ymbols. hikeD colli!!ttivcl),. nllace. in <I. kind of liiiot,cd~. sbortibrud. tb ~ whale story of Itbe- Bl:i!ddba's ~ife. MOiSt ,of ,them Decur abuL'!dandy on the pu.nch-ma:rIi;'elQ co~ of the teunb aad £if d:a! (leDtU;riesc B. C.. a few 3p,e,alr;tOO!' the: fir'St If~m:eIt Bilt]nJ,t aud Sancbi. and the majority sw:vive in Indian Buddhist an to die ellid side by sidl?; i th the w

I I

un·e:r dtyeio,pmeots.
~hDls,:

In tbe: 1ioJJawing bible are given the siilt:es. siignificant ev,epb;l, M!d. Pfaoo lKfiJpDa:va!!l::u

S~at~

'"

K:'~ilfMi!1 Finaf NmH~ StuPQ •. 'CDiI!atiJJFt;g. n, A!!Qb Pb 'To, tbe SW'lgape;riiod l(lM .. 0 B•. .}, muit be assigned (approxi'mal" 8 C teb" in ~bnmologii(,al oIded. the sc:li.dptu.red T~i!lgs and gate:,wa, ,lit 'Ba,~h:ut~tbe :sllene: &asiiliC, ground ba:!mmslf,a.deani!I,pfuJin mili:og IJit 8an:dllli; ItJa :tculptumd.m:ilings, at. Bodh Gays. 'c,ucain .fragments it Ma,tblWl, the: eadi~t: seUlptuNs at Amar.awti, andillsotb'll; cb.<li~-ha1& or ,chJ1iI1icbelll

Symbol E~epbaot; COIiitC\JpdOD (Naevi t:J!.• Lotus. Bull Going Wirth) G'IIt.c Ho[~e. IGc·eat EnJigb~te.g- Sodhi. tme menl!: with fait First PI~ldng Wh~ oflten with de,e.I:. E.wn~
i

I

.lEAIU.. ,B'UDD~'f Y

ART~-MAUltYA. ,SUNGA.

ANDHU

H

a:t GUDtlUlpatl:e:. B~adii'!, K@luda,pe, PitaJk,1:u;)I;;\lI. Aj~,p!m'{Ca"e·~. E~~. AIDa'"tlll (CIli.¥e .00 'Wild t~e tlild1 l,ain. c,a!VI~:at Uda.l'a~J'i in Orissa. 'I"aJJiel!!l !l;Ql:L!iliC,ti'i,i'ie'l;y the klt,a'.!!,amount IG£ fe1i~f ,5c:uIDptll:l[!i! ;tthe;~!i!: ",;15 B Isv;efy 'Go!f!$id&a:M~ .. ·,&;m!ptute. in t:be~o~ni b '[e1P[,~~!tie' &ce::pc J3i!t Dubu:t,. bowil:ve;r. tb.~ cg~e:-3te:i:' JlMt of .~c; ,sc~h:)we s~e!m!i'i~obl!: sec'W;a[ of d~o~ratil;te:":rat,'bereb.. ,ddinitely [~Uil:l~om>. ,ani.culady SC!! in the ,~ase'Qh~e 1,a:iQcav~,~IIlI, O.nssa, {'Wfime',howei!ili!II;'. their;!!; QGc~r :~epRliSeDltatiQnsqf Sury;a a~d fl'f'Ma:ya D~'Vi M' OiIJ,j:a Labm.i)1 b~1Il: rthis m'a, h~ due to om inahiLit:r w, iict,ogoke ehe s"~bi~ct ma,t:be!:',.,I ,At Baa;'b.~ttb.e!n}olSlt im.portaItfBuddbist: sc:ul,IH!:f'e5 ~11! Eh!i! D.'U:DilefOUS::!n~amQliiLS i1.lus~lcing Jatakia ,fll'Qd£s" each wiilth an icle.Qitif,'iDi!t m.s(trip:tion 'j '!:eUeb ilU;5,mlit;rnlll his~rlcal ~~pisti.des:ofthe .Buddha's. 'l:ite ~ ,and, P.i.Uars,-b~~linginl:eliif jfigU!~es; m Iml.tdii~:i.I .~bMS :u.d)."t:ikslis. nala kinb, ami:d ,a~Ntt)s-itbe :mUllU 5~rnts ofpoj'u~.a:!:' c.ulb;'e:mbI':!llil;ledl.

'Il!m~,

me

~':lr ,Budd-his t mIydlologyar!l':ldi rergu-€led ar.s,d~&:.nd.u,s 'o:f the ~I!ib. 'the ., JaitakaFetLef'S ne: l~oeUe:l!lirtpi~ces o,f ,c.ondem$~d sto,l'l' till!.tt~lilIg~tbe re;pIl!Se;nta1b@.D f)f tr:ellil'S :nnd: lllllldS'C3:!pe~'I!m~rn. Cif .~ntc!l'lllst al1ld[ diet1ornti?1ll Daub". tb,e .;miiilIl'i'IDs, _dllD.rum}an. fig_iII£, W'lilU Uindlliil:..stOicrdl ~d. p~atled~ whetbef ~iiDgb or i~ gif~uPS. Tbe. SUfl)rgi.\ :sc;u1p'W{es IU,; SaeW. on ·the ,()tGElr hani, ,am m'9J,11i11, deco:rad\!e; That: (1.£ meead:y 1r;~!IIves.though a1!W'iay~in r.elef~ is weedmlil~Y m.amve j!llchMac1le;r .. 8:Ii!l 'VSf]' (;leE~' ~emi!:md.~, :p.m-.M:a\U'Jla:!iit ate. It bas H,m.iJe'ml!.~ke:d lofM!,nl[J'a:liII.a~d. SIltDgaart by ,81it' Jlohn Mushall dial tbe iilCt'l1[pfOf Wai~ siliLl b01!!lnd by ill!- Iii:w lof :f~O:p!it.lIlitp (i.6I. C:Q~Iflie.rin.g !the: oompoMtiOIlHtlm onlJ' ~!lePO~e of \1:tCW a:nld. ) chat!' 'liie "m,gP'lGQ p.i(:tY!~ • ba.d.o,t)t j!et gi~efi ~}llba:c,1!l tp dllec,.t ,abse[[\vatiQ:o ~,fDan:li!!i~ "'. Th0f .firSt roema:rk ,is; ob"i'ieus.~t'nle 41.sa.bce ,of ~~C:~~dp.M'JO;Cil!d1_e: me :S~ftl~d if!.volv~ a ,e;~titin mi'siD~q1retaJti)QIII CIt Indi'8!'!J3.'es.e.ti.1:: ;adi ,d~e:t'ViEl:S;il,ClIJII~·.r di~sion., ) The; . • Em.@':ryP~Ct;lIl:te-O:f r.lWt. iii. ~tib!e:ti(: i:!lll!a~~ oosed .Q'O p:astelt,.eri.e~(le ~ RQ~ bt to lM;,t thees!j~~ ~olmda:ti{l:liil. o.£.~ ,m :m camillO:!: EieCioti~~I!Ji",e an, ~Ill!. iimlnartestci:ving tllW1Jr.d!l ,iol~~im t1Hl.t which ali 1ti~C:0we ap,paiil:'lE')llt ali:il ~'e!f' the pn_ti"e ~ .dey~lQpme:nts. :~WitG:E\eek Ollld Christiilin.llIrt lThe 'fnmlia:nmetllod. is,akva1S one. ,0£ 1!!!~artio:D,......., O:noollschnlS "p!!'~.ttilj!,e., @s~ema~ed m,them:<!IJ9ne art. II!! :~al~ d aJ.'it is ;ilIDwa!Ys B~a~g~a!e, il,mp~O'~l §l1;,m,bols" l'dd <tlol, b1·~dI.ffi:ifi ,hi! ~1'Jnv-'E!m~n. '11I11i: ~~] maS" b~ :ln1.e ~m;ewi\'l!M ,ageomlo1uical d~ .. , as' in: the ~' o£dJe lctU'.s1 roseWE:"s, dmo~g: :mira;(;~.otfs bdh" ~.t antiu.,po:m.orpMC 8S. in tib.~ btu: Naciw:ti:~.. w,~~~ Mawa Dew. is, RpHSe:~tta as a WiiJ!llIlaQ e.1:mei wl!1.1!il or 'w1thOl;littbre infant. Bodhisal!tW.,
I

~~~o.~

I'

,_

I'

16

INTl.ODUCTION TO INDIAN ART

(we mar,,.:ill!l!suate tbis 1;51 pointin~ ,Qut that pe;r:speedw fepresenmliofi g, '8! I![l[il;' Df Itheel:: lMillulgeaf ,i1u:r '~Q time!l!,w:bi1e :~t 'lines,' not: b, it\seM make :mooun a.l:t ~u,pe:ri"r to andllmt ,art;). a__nd thislanguag;e :.is ng:Ve:f one of " direct obse:rvllJulon of Di"ture •_ It isuue thac: :a tendeDc;, 'to' tmli'!S:mis, l~videDt m the Gaodlb:af's; liculptUIes. 'bll!ft the:u:. i't;is (If West£:£D a.ri!lm. ~nd it dQes p;otp,:re:vail_ Jndia~ (K Cbines:e, art wmcb 'pr~l!:IVes, 'the fotD!lulaie arope. and nor the. ibl:en:dOlR of GraedJ~Bllddhio$t

In both, c-.es elqlldl¥. ,them ,is ddUUte ~~d Q@lmplI<eb:enA:bfe .ue!lll'llI;fJlllt, • but thB' form, ImstllltemeM m ,alW'a',sthaitof the; ~rt IiaDguade mtb.B day

EA.ILY BtmDHI&T' ART -MAU1IYA.
SCl!lIlllw:I"e. ~ On

SUNGA ANtDHR.A

17

t:he othe:r band, we, d.D Im:o.snbe m InjM~rt m and miss at cth.ei 'times a Gertain VUtuOQ md mfiviDg. -ind~ed, ea €l'SS'e;nttial q~.tywhiCih is often spo'~ of BS twiJiJ tQ Nll:tli!i~e. thE deveJ0proent a,f this fiUthw~ d'~ as pliogress. the loss 'Df it, "as ,decadenCe'. but it ,must Mt bB ce;Elifus.l!.d wfththl!: i\l!.SSIimilation 'M we symbol to n3!tumI ,iIi!ppewr,anoe\,whldl, by
ctrtiii..n

p.moos.

itself Isa

t~c:bmUl and not an ~stbebC: p'l"o,gr,e.ss. The

];iBIDt

110 be

..

mad"1! :i5 dill!iI:: 'this ttuth is, not: ·the :Ir1QSUlt0.1 (j,bsw:w'tlon (pi m.oiie:ls)i il)Ut of k.g (ilmllPil'th;,. dMlm:g" sailM<I"4M with. liwere:nele m the ,Mtist :. the fitst instBnce. :tal,tha" tlla» tllI~ triti,c). If W2i1ur:eimplie'SUi1il, bl" 'the, truth ,af ~ WOHm·ent in ilil:iulpwr,e or :painting, flIts means Dot thu &e: ,GIIi>ilitSlIrullO has: obs-eroetl tbe mO·veJilileiIJt Clu;a,~ver iaail:i:ar be PUt1 be w\itb it m dan, life). bu.t that tin:the tmul'; of the: con,oeptioD and. iQec tl'ric),!:!J,O'f lU~ wor.k be' bas, lett the ,ootn!qondingmSiioDs in 'l!W;, own fleSh.' ' Aw.~a.riln e~~ th i!'.I\I'. of Fimidw is that Of pndevelQPl!d C()lIsciO:Il$ne~ (s~'_OIWB!1e:ne:s,). Pl'og~e'ss; 'the evidence of increalsiq ,oo[Jscir;:n"l's:ness" and. ,de-Cil!de'li!.ce of ap3!'thJ!J It ~~in this way that aJ fl.ati!QnS ut fe"eah;, die WJlQI;!S, stages ,af:it"Sspirlwal :bisto.Q!' I Tech'w:cil pm,ection .• on the ome!!: limit. Is :;1 ml!.lttl1:f of knowmedge ad] .;skii1 t3tne-r tll:t~ cd ritiilitJ = aeiWetieaU" nattier: good, 0'111: ~d_ :it nse,d .ot and, ,ofte-n Uae-s not ,ooincide with the periec;tioft of art.:-' 'Th,!!; :spllindid. ga'tewlt,s of 'lheEanchi ""up"" Wl!:Te e:r,ecbe:_dl uddu
j,

,art:

01 guudiia:o ,ai.di:<.l's ~n.d: ,aWis (some m relief., oome in l'Ou!Ild). a1liID.als. Buddhist $Ynlbols" and dI!iCO.I:atii.V1C d:~gns. An e~Cfw:sit~ tii!'~cetta p~aquc:frDm Bllitll; ptrlOiba:&tJ '!nOlD :ivory dje;, is" :i:deotieaJi ,b. in sty~e .wit;h the relief'S, of the Sa,n£hi g,ll:b!~a,¥s. l'beS:andiJi reHe;&
andililDtW'ated I[lre1twr,e; of Indian life:. invaluable to [!he' stu_de.li1if:o.l cu],tu:re, e~,en ;apa:[[ tal. 'the;b;"la]UI!: as: 6tt./'The .scWptoIS -t'~hoiaHy carvers: m. w,.,od, and [l!fory.thQ~ghwoiki-DII nQ~ io s~Ol!le--tie :ifu mOJfeskilfui ,!mel expe.ri;eneed than het,~ that is present ~
'ft.[J

A:ndhr1lJ ldn,g'S,'iPr,o,blll;i~y be:",~~, '0 and! 50 JJ.C~ Th.efr ,SudiiLCQar~ oov~ 'With teli~ls iUlilmatiillie hiitotice1 ~it'i1!S &-om.tbeBuddlh~'s tiie" ,I'lL 'few J ataka sto:da, ,.d with f-ep,resennrioDs
~ P<aJUODil(ge of

me

de.~d

tliJeir'knowl:edge ed'mcilitp are' grMter. di!e cuttiD1e!' ,of tOe Idle comPm@tionmor,e: mpblsticat.e:d.th.e ~e' of p~[j,..e and depth liQ'uth.m or;£ conWnt.in.g. .Bue 'tie ~pirimd quali,ty ,of tlii:1Il !Ut lieroab:m undla:DS/ed. .!~I!I 'whe~ ILilcltbemel is odto~the.r B~ddbr~8~ ~h~OltJt remain'.: ~_ooe~t~ u.:p _'~Q~~1,~'._ ~nd e. ...IUOOllCUS~, ood iDwthelt' mb!Jle~'tual tl)OIlde.alJfi~ Medieval. Budahisll: art is ohio. the work of Ihld1dJ~t m.o:~!!,:, but ~ !luddWBt am .~ 3 flO
00iJ~

te6~s

is deeper.

*~:

"'~iD

INl'RQDUCTIO~ TO INDIAN ART'
aft: of th,e piI!o.ple.used. fo'l' t:b~ glotific:~tiDn of rcllgfDPlr;,e:Wng 'the lbOQ! c·f Buddhism in the ,~m and, simp·iest possibll1 way. u.d.lievu a:ttem.pumlig the. ~mbDdiment of spwbJal ideal:s in tenlllS cd foWl. whe~ the th.ewe is l~ss pnl~hr Budi.fhist~as in the re'p:reunta,uo,ns of ~~~ and :J'a&:Ms at· Ba.fbutarnd. 5a:nchi. and en the '~g p~im, '0.£ the Ja.m ;stltJ1(:i at MatkUlfii (;lib!) ,cd ,the tint' t:e~Wi£J B)C.). the :~efe:!!lt 5!OSU.0t!l!'D2~Sr and ~\!e:D .!)i.msualit7 'oi the art,heCQlWU m.mmoDwoUB :stiJL an int'etPfeta:tiM ,of ·spirit-ull love as a m~tiiop Of qmhiiJil. and oftbe wb ole p~sied w,orld as B tbeo-pb:any. helotl.g.1Sto' a much lateit' 'p'hue Qf:thlllJigb-t, and. we ,carIlnO't 'be'iurprised, tLat Buddbist monb wue 'PIlIaoed 'lillbrim a'WQI thEir: eJeS: bd, ~ COR!'Ve:n:ation, ~
p:icttu:li1:f. which must ba\le. been love S1Ce:fU',s

of11le.

60ft

w,e &ld

amonsst toe: 'paintin.p- 'of .AjaDoo and. in ma,~t Hindu Kulptur,e:. Old,. • ,the: de¥o:be.d ge:atpe ,ai w,mtdii'p:ping, fi;!.!mes. Im~g heto:re the WhHtil!~s; o.![''Bm.pty thr-.ones" is, there .~DJ' trae.e of :spidtUalpmno1 No .mud., imagt. aipp.eal'5 in ~a;11'1, Buddhist at;t; and e'Viep m ,~ the his<lia_rk;;d sceu~the Blirdd'h.a·s pltese.nce ~sindi(ilil.tE!dnot lwa h~uman "p:re:sen~tion. but by the fnll'ltlai:symbofu. ahead, menJ.iolIred. 't.Qjethet' 'with a fiew othef,s" pardc:pl!a:dy the fOQitp;rmts, (pad2tktil} 11ll!:' umbUlla ((:fi;altb'I(I'). ID I!hB Barhut: ,.D~scl!'nt fr,om tJae Tusitabeatven loll" "aropie., we see aDl-,t'be. tlU',eemhW ]~ddet" with one '!ocl'tprinrt art tbetD,p.a.nothe'f 'ai,ttM bli)ttom. hi the ,e~iihDra,ce i!lceQ~of the ~Goins lonh • Qt &Becht Siddhanha.·s presen:ce :is indic.~l'tefJi at u\l!I'e;sueeea-sive ~m.I,e5 of the outward' ilJttaley~,oob' by the lU:JinoriBc: ,pmMol bome besidgJ the hilrsi! i l"emainmg the Jkirest. hispre-senc;e is .:dieal1gtt b,foot prine;: ~rt.ammng nJligbte:nDle'fI;t by the 'railed Tree 'of E WiSdom. Th.e Nad:,,~~ is ill'U;sl:m:'~ted h~ till! lotus. hull. or ele;plJant" ,and in aftO'diez w~'3!IsQ art iarhUlt.) bJ 'the seated fillili~~of Maya De,'Iri., with the two, elepbailltSp~' wat«: &olD invm:tled.ja:r:s--a sdctlm!: of the ha:aunil ,of the new oom cbld.in w,hkh the: child. is ,net :seen. 0.0 dle ~the~ hand" iro, ja;bika t2Pfle.se!llmtioos.the scujptors a.repe;ru.ctly weD ahle.. and, dCl'liIot hesiti.\lle" to'me;prn'!unt -the BOOhisattv:aiu hu;_man sMl)f:. 'WlileRi'tbe S'li0n' 'l'£q"es i.t. The. ,e:~iilti.on ~f the absence of dle 'bllm.lUl B!!Idd1r.m m~ :f!l;o:m tb~ bistorieal S'Cenes: app,ears to li~ not iB auyklabWQrto, ~il!:p:t:eieWfdl.e. M~f:1; 'm an appwpdalte .m~rnn., but: is the existence: of: me ,a&e~di farniWa.'f method. af mdiCla;:tin,g tb!! G~t E¥e1'lItsofthe.Bllildha·,s6fe by m~s at $¥mboJs. The Si:td,P:~ors oi Bath:ut Sauehi. had, lar,ge spa:.ees,to eo¥e-.::~ they iill. t;heo: rstoI]' h, the m.ll:tkod: of OOgtin:uoU$ :nana;tioliii. (the FePlii~l'ilatic:n ,of saooessi¥e' seen~ iP. wh.icD 'the:sa;me 'ae~Dfliapp~ lli,mn aDd agam.)t with a,bwdMU:
i ~

nul'ress

m

ana

EARLY' BtJODHlST All'

MAtmYA~ SVNGAANDHRA,
at;

19'

it were. by fiIlmg in the liJijlCe5 bet:we'lmrh~, ah'eadJ,. 'well-lm.o,wn sJ!mllb~h. And asr:~g..& thesepuate image" it is ~!rid.wt 'that the apothemris, of the Bu.d.dba ]fad not Jjet. I1It Je~it; :m ,o;_nhodOiX cU-il§:. 'P-WG£!dl!ld so £a:r as,Iton~~tate the we

detail ull 'PJmrr;;;t lo,giEc~but Onl'I'

of an, i~()I!Ii.

DEVELOPMENT Of DEVOTIONAL

THEISM

THI, liI~vemOpmMtwhttb we: have iSQI far£onol~'!~dblB\udilhi'5:m od fI\'!ilId!h,~~tiQ't iis a.SpUial pbaiU e·f the c:onoompoi.a,: El·'I'elu.ti:on ofJndiBJill. dl€!ug~1t and ~t~f:iQn. as a whole. The a!pp.'e:ntpif~domhm[1!,Q~ mf Buddhist: OIit is m'iljjml~' ,dU!em 5~l!ciil~!ilh.l:;JU~t1,Ulf;e:s,afpaUQnillle !.lind
c:o~ I1!:qUfmI: lilJibwdtli!IJt production !:fenain (;e:_IlIii!U!$, .and nnt to OIlW, mal subwer:teiDe-e !d' die B~abl!lli!l.(;31tmditiimH. 'I'o 'E;:!!k;e; ~o:!lt[l:'eh: a ~t!:se. wbi&.~e!i.l, (iQv~l$thc:'9i!~o~e ,g~'u.Dd. C .sim::e wbilJ't Ii uot~o h;g: (!')Ulnd, :il1lII. the .Maltab,h~ is;no1!:wbefo!Jnd in. IM'ldia ':), dn!' ih:~l~;plD~t. ref ,tmi!'E!i Ep~~ mw't havebeeD continuous.~rom 41e' da,l!l 10£ ithem II'lmiSiU!m:c:e .inbiBlbdiOt. (10001 t~ .5CXlI B.C'l) hi ·tih~t DiE thd[ 6!1l:rlt ~J(!::ensifi!'D ab~Ult ·the: 'folllaJrth, cent:Iny A:,D~ 'rb~ first e~siol'\ll JC1E th~ ~hM r:at.t:l'tI~li'· ~ampie~m whIDch Siv~l.an'd.Vi~knu! md.eilJ'srde, wj:lib.

m

..

lIJ=bma,

'wen Mi Buddhisll::.
Jmdl ,~.

I!:~e

;~b',MdJr'elSl1i"ded

<ilSiWe ,S!iWp:Ife:me

gQds, Hindu

~i.l~m~Lesjla!l

stupr3lilll,.~~.rn1!:l1do:~e.d. :ruITIdthe Bh'tnlad~ GiN .ili!P';pea~, belQrrI-ils~Dtbe t..hwe a;gu:!Ties, 'b ~twe~iIl t)h~ MalllryaiUll.<lnd. K~sa:[!I. ~'OO.SI~ ·thc:h",l :5"tilge.w.ith it!! termple~iStll1telm.~t of Hind'll ,d'h{Jrma

'OIliiDi~'EI;tioPl, be~O'n. 'W' theK~san ;a,nd.~:tb Gu;p,m ~ri~dls. Intbe 6!We w.a,Y. tb.1!: l~wrD~®<ks..pani~YiIDal1b Manu ,and the t,ecll~cli Ii~wre suQalil the Bharildiy", .N~a $astf*lt :[m,b diev,et®'p.eQt l.o~S ~~edh!:El the f.21 Uli!iI!uiom., .And.• just the sa.e Wllil' the: app~m;'i~1i!: ,m~ ·Hind.~ sc:!!IiIDptJUIlli! "'<Ind. u:c:W~~'W!!:,e:.m tb~: lKilU~ au.d early IrJUPJ~ ~e:rlodl. ,ev~ W th~ I.lIbS8i1i1ee. 'of: an ,oliler(lyid!eGce. wOIiiI~.dpm,¥e a leDgtbJ'PIi2¥i~1S de"li!~op:01I~I1it, The :sum. of [~d.mn cwt.,!1l io tia:e Gup.tapedoo.! ;ili]Ieadl¥ e:!lS~li!!t:ian".ffidiurilither 11:::ban):,uddbist" i!il' ~.Q' .rich. SOl ·f~. or-pnhed, amiI. SOl Q,}Jl:S.;:;io~s, 'tffila:t we ,can. h~~~ i~ w KJal'id. flil,~ ·pr;ece:diiI!IllEl. -(i ~loow.1IIil :a~ th.e;penlld af h~~hest a'e3JIIi¥e a~tWitJ .m th~wb.D.~e de;vel@ip:m:e~t D.f ItiIIlIdu. IciriliztattioQ-;a;o aI(; tii~ty; ~QI lie fe:g.dedi i!iStnili :~GrmQ~aJnd :mate:!ia[ Itmb!:u:imiDilg,l!il rOf tie G,,oot

"

L

EDUI!h~emmrqt.

.

..
....

We obse~me;m'Whle~ thill emd1J)a] l~mlllf'genCl~ III ,Stw lUld Vishnu ~: Iltie wpi.eme powe:!r.s:.DU@;w~d'~;y~e FeCll;JllitielUll ~ftllborigffimll i :anCl, leto, deirtisl :mdud:iQSthe ~d!de8l;iest .~' ai,e~t;s ,ell Q:!!!,e Oll'e:rlotd 'Cl~ru). tb<a: uttm.;iI~ Qbjeclt; of aU d~l!lati~a. 10, the B~i:~. 6I'M: 'w,e, timd. in, t'he:womsof Krl8~WlIi" ,Ab@n(ilQlU!I_gal dutii\'!:!l.I.'!:~m e: UOiOOI Mre,,' and ,0£ de~tee5wb.o wa~.ship flthel godi!~ 5ay-s Kri:llhQ~ ·wQ ilhnl wiQ'l'~bip Me:·, 'l'lbc f1mdilimQiO,'tM. !cllIMa~~ItJ..~ aftbe e l!Q;bodhn,ew1t:, ,deh:m:lm~uio;Q,~![mteQIN.tj~ of dte spi:ntugll imp'!Jh~ bi. ,m lbCiI::! m b~,!£e1::Ognhed in ~c of ,~t'hejjs;Ii~ culrll'. ~~th ,th~iiai dO(:tlI'i~lll;!, and, PEactIcB of d!ev,~tieiliil,(:bMltl)i. Idd brete ])a,. [me imJlm!edm;~c 1l:1~~ty~ d,e;t~' tile d!e"l!!~lc,;m:~Ht01:,iJI,~,eJlig~GUiS ' m. , This ,is, not:thepJa~~ mw:bkil,m 'mt:ce:iw, ~ d.-!:tatltb~ be,~i~ nimrg M thg ~eis6.c (;,111cs.mt ,~);:iIl!:d:!; c:n1;¥ bE!;:[Je!.mo'ITk:edWJl;in W!!:, 'l.imie ,of' t'be Eiuidha, ~e .ostliil,onlJlml!rd :oam,~ ,is t:hat (IJ!.tB~a:bW:~!Mla in &ddllisr.: :U~uu:e:meB,mhma~ 'pan~o~ .~ ,[e'p're~~iIiIHd aI[Q(liS~ eKllehtebf by Bmbimandi 11l:d!::a!,wbi1e~ebtteil!' a'PElarlll!!l!!O liess hfl~JJeWllltly In. J aiillliil ,~lt1i!;m,tlH£ andm,Emhma :a.n:dndm. are: ,tbe onb I deities :mpI:es~.li!!trej intne GIiBIg(;;!:)-B1Jddh1SI:'aid: of 'G-andb~ and d~e [CIm!! DE ~2:[itam, of 't~B Bcu!I!bi:s~n:ty;a;i app,eear lobe d!erl.v6d. loom: tbe:se ImAm.ptokll:ofpe-s.. N'.e.i,the,[Qf' it:.ese gtl& is,the objeclt l{!Iif!UlJ' w!de~, l:p:r;eai ~tilt in la:~e[times :~hagwl! find onJ:yf'h~. gt~at:IQ& SiY3l~Iui Vi$hn~~aHd!,tbi.l: t;odd!u's. De~~w~ the.l!i' i!lU:!umef:'aJ;b.J~:fOfiWoS' ElliB:dl D:!ani,.. iI2:Si~IlD.OiS. SliiIqa ,~!i th!~ l!lUlb QIl£ oftlb.e' oldlV'edlic: de~d€.s 'Whor,e~_M in gltarnkd PQWW, w~~h :;lin'9tl!nd!(!Id! tu[t and k:oGiogtaph;r. • The ge$Q!i!S ,aI: al~Mt a1llaltu ,fnlJim'ii ",f HERdu ,imfl!lJ~iSlbil to he ara Qia(led, in the Up(ln:is:ba&, WJlli!;'Il. lha,w be:e~, ~talllmt~d by e.l:cb: adlGol '~11I its 'O,WlDIW,a,Jii, !lind." jUll~ as. t"be ~O{;re;Ss 'o~ formU1~adM.!i and de6mtio:ii:!i. ,~f JHjj}ilul ~'&miWJS: ~ ,gQmlll' OUt ,sid:e 'b,- ,side w.~tb the di~ iilevdop:m.eoil:: and ectana. :suibdi~O:I!I! of llh:u:lldhism'tSD is, it: cl.eat 1~a1t
i

me

.lUl.duillltt

W'aiS

d'WE!l'Oping

!Older !imME l.oditi,Qns.

MO~!IililIi!:iIiiIlrs

~~m

m'0ct:edi, mboli:lolJif 1M ~u!,ftici[!]al' 'dJeiligs :gJ~e.gQl!p'ie of t1ds is, a6mtd~. b,. 'thl~mseri~"iH at Bfm1a!f!M lel!'ectedi. by RelolO:lI'am the ,st)oond. ~entmJ' Eo.C.,. wbeI~eY'a$UdI~IlI@:, ,de's:edbed asthe Gad. ,o:f G~~lt is· is ewd!e'~_fEhae the 'teligiOD I)~ 6e B.bas:avataJS was OJ' tllls ti'rQ'~ fullY ~Usbed~hlJ.t the j!JUt 1M, lmil Burddhi:SI!I!I, Ithe dJciti:.@ wefieflirsll: :rep'I:'!i!:ie~!I:t:eld 'by. I~JI'm1bol'§ rliDl-elJelbeGa;rud~dbv.iili'a) :ratber ·than hi!
magel.WflJ ga;thei. lin:ow>e,V'![" om P-:a:t¥lj.mi" ,.,;ommenfQ;hr h
100

P;mw,

inse~o:nd(;ent~fJI'IU:~. ,tl!ia:.t:i~ag~s of S~va, Sb~d!a:. a~d. VIOO,~ 'W,er,e· Ueal!1.y ~Wbi~e,da.mu\ll ·S'~'ld. W'e, .I!m~~aia~ ,spoku lof the~g

VediGmf.e~e!3

~~ ,liI!lga ~W~~s

.,

,i:i3iDdw,e

m3:J!'we1i

SUip_·· !po_'. ~~g:

lw'iI:

pba.Uk sJID"is. parDJ;;marl, .tb,e &'eel: pi11M "were .Ma:de 1IJSeof as cult Cibj~cts:at m e..d), dat.1e.. 'The li.:nga!ID W,aBill.@W adop~ed illl.'~o otthodo:! faith and has ~mainl!d to this day the ~eneml Ckv,Ysbz 'SS'~1 !!If Siv,a. T.be aonelingam, ~o~d by the .mt,m T. A. Gopinatha Rao at Gudlima'Uam., 8 five Not, monolith Q'liwistin,g
of the. lingam -proper Mld.;m, ,Wil!mwpomOl\Phic im.ag:l!." 'q ROt onb 'the eatlli.~$t:boW:m!! ('fir5I~ or seoondcen.twy B~C.:)inJ,a,!Jlll o:f a Hindu deity iIIodthus (1,1the' higMU bhitoricw. WSJrest:, but II. seUlpwrll: ,of a:mazj,ng fQn:e ,l1'nd gAlk'ai-' 'otdUm::J t""ehniat ,a;c.;omp~hment ,(J"'tg. 15)Tbli!' fil:ure of the ,!Wit)' stand's Ulpri'ght .in. hig,h re:1id asmnst thi! und!er side, of the 'efJ!"" pbaUus. his met 5UPplilIted. b..1 B c:rnu~:biL1,1 ~M Of rtd'$~: hI!. w,ears,;a thin .'lQlin dibod ete:31r't,!il l',e.wmlil:!!,l the. ia,rm beD.'e-a~,

and h~vy jawds including loouillltS.,ueckl!aciii. brac:t1etS! and anklets. t'he[ll is, DO -sac:[ed. tht!.!aI.d. T.he .Ihud.r is iGt:efibr:mide(i 'I;II',I,itb stl:~nds, ,of floW\al'~" and wO'IJ.ind ahoult the had like a: wban. The eye's slant ra:tbe~ rg.p'wat,a~. and,
the ch£e.kbj)D'~'s,
te

hi~-al .Di\a,vidia~,n1:th£r'

tha!io an A-r-1ao Itype. The m.aterial .H! ,iii reddish igneous TOc.k1 tbg ~&ce highly polished, The dei:tJ! U ImJed" ibo.t.d.in& in one hil.lil.d. ,a .Am, me otbi£lt' a,Wilil.t0r-POt a·od lin He (PQ~Q.$i. ' wheB(';l!! die 1'ingam is known ;!!is, the

m

PaQ.5:~eswra, once thtthi'ii

]t wilJ he ~iD ;at ,(5 il!iWOr.li::. .~ the iw:me:d:iate

LWge.rg.

'

traditioo of older Indian. art"p~e-MalHl'an and. BMWt ~ t&.e' dmpeQ real. t1tQ of tbe fiSiw"1i! Dl :K~ ,Aja:taJIli'tiu (}lif. 6), the: JIlllksha

l.~!!th,unamls, almost idil!Dtic~J wilth Ithe ~sha
Rlla j'ewe.Ue,ry

o.f
Fq. ]5, ,Sinliq:l:m .• IGUdirlmJlml1t

the Barlnillt, Kuveri pedime:q;t.
too
a
iitK

The .herui drMiS
of BM.bur.

:Irr,~eent.

BUlt

this u

mOle

fnUy Cieveio.lleid. an ,;
teomen ani
mtgQrt

thetle is gr£:l!Itin:musoulu:
, mtlm'lJon

C0nS;i!'Qlla.til,l!! ill mOB; ,ellidfmt

~.e,tiVi~,. '~Wk the bleW, ,exP;[~iQB

aI.

m ,eul). StUtlp,~e: 'is now

D'EVErJOPMENT Of' DEVOrTIONAL'IHEJSM

23

Anrea:rJ.r :rn:u5m:'in,~m ~m Bhit.a. 1(ow[o the L:ucl!now M~eJ\!l_. b~: ~n i.M.t:dpticn iQ ,ch;~'tBt:s1 aSSil;lnah~~ t1otEu: fWit ceiD.nKy B.!~. The;'~ ofitie 'pita!: isrsha.ie.d· as· the he!;9ldQd ~b(l!Jllde:n of am:i!le. holJfin;e; Q"ase:in his left .b~!i:ld. wbUe; t'berighe isw!led, in !:d.l~'l::il ,~. B~rowtJliLr~s hlilSt ,~repfil;[efi:t~d, OR thl!:.S:bail of the Ingrun lou he:!tdi irn la'lilil'i~mid. The seme '0:1deVlotton to ape;:f8.0~Il1! ~d is: 'aJg,eneml ~eflde~c:y. o)lIiJiO' mea~ ueJUSilvejy Hhirl,U, 'b~f a1feOOog I!!qtuJi11y tbel'~ ,Gf .DUddb&t b~lie:f."'and I~O a le~: ~hDitme Jain. ,A.yexj,tabb'!l;U~orml.l:'l:iofll ofB~~mrb'a,d 'b,I!!~,QL flakimg pb:~e h!.~e M1I:~,an. SIlmSi an d 'ear1yAfidh[-a,enQdI&Whe~oo~: iD 'p,Ei~riye ,B~ddlbB:w. the .Budilh ii, 'wa.srB mat'!! w~o .bad :8:tta'i_Dled eMl1lute~~rruf ruId 'wh;f) ruter' d!l!~t3 "WIllS ~o ]lII)I1g111!'t .suibji!oGtto,the 'c!Im.diti:~, ~£ eilist£:i'lu.ibe (am£ ItQ: bE!iegrndoo intlbie M.mlQ'ana i'I:stibrli!: ISmbndimm,t or mQtna:tif]1mt m ,ai. prin<ci'pru". He Is ad)m2id m~ ·he:jliUi],eoo. .&Ci!!D. 'me wo:r,~hf,phl,gfig\tte:s ',0£ the .Al1!ii3i~a:¥a.til:''IillllB;i;.NGt @ruy is, ti'l! B~dldhath~s fI~i£i~d. 'but a p.atl.th~~ of Buidbis! deUies :I!;'ri,s".QV~iI:' ,i!,~d~balVll! 'the .·!1;!!!Uwefi.. bowl]( Buddhlnforrn:;, I~f the .Hindu Brafl.a aM klm1 and ,~ Yaksb3S ode Mo.,Sns 'who ,aQ: t8idmirt~etl tio the ,cdt m BuddhiSlllll at and.ri, 'period. !illS, pm~~.to:rs· a:o.d. :assi~~[I:t~ Tbrese:D@:W B!;I)idbist g<@ds.,u.dudratilie pl1niou;s; hUiliiafiB~ddJ!i1!a;s!, the D:hYQ[m B~ddb::a:s: ,M 'the Fo~ QI.W_r~ftS~ na,t;m::S~pfoml'll.e~t in CbiHl!tS~Blildidh~). b'he)I' ~piciwaJ.s{tm.tbe!
dncitmoD ~e:,

C_1O.es~ mtact.m

ibe lIiilliElHd~das a ,Imi.

ilimIld.

with

'ii'li'ha:t: p,assffi@ifi'alrll>

w;a'Sbow~ .tl!I t1temnal!~" and" uilt:i.at~!1" theteminifl:e ldivinities ('T'aIii1!s) 8isS(Jd,a,tedi :with tbe :b,tter ,!mel a:s,S'aw@ilK~e'S ~gvrith ~m. Mditii.a.Qlt:o,~~ ial!i£:
Ma;it:iJe,p
.<.lil.QDIIl:

DodWs.'B:tnas, (,or 'wh~

"

lhB many deifil,j!d ,S~Bl!s ood _aDitf,~m.s i rmd '~e di~~tifimead:, e;lI:,. m tio:~ed. ate.mamtip~ed, ituilll!JW:Htle:l,bJ!' '~I!: R,tlG,Im:tlon 'Ilf Q ~~firute nrle:f;? .cf£QI1";ms •.'~cem:taliild .i~~i~t'. ThWlW£ rue p£1e~dl ~:r" '~he de~~c:pment iCilt£i:t ~Qc:ee:dmiJ 'CBII'tRlties! W'he!l1l~d~oo g,e:mtrs~ tm:peUd h;ll'tbie iHJl!I('i~i.ty of i!"101'i~e of the Id,e;v,~tit:l.~ ~iults, ~at~d an .ia.p~CI,gl'a.pbJ'ail'e!qIill1il[~UI,tlie ~Etr'a'J'aI. 101 an ·~ose spidto.w!. Qdp:b:jliS~caJ :po:w.elCS and i~e'.!i' w~lehar~ dooed!. in. tbe Hindu and B~dd!hEstPM1ldlJ~;oD!.

SECTION
--

THE ElGHTH

KUSAN AND LATER ANDHRA PERIOD BEFORE, d.es·Ofibing~e aetna] art: of the' Ku~:an8lIld. lIate( .ADAm pmcdl,s l10dia pto;p.e;c"we must c'o'pwd~r the ,greu p,miluetron o:f Buddlhln 5C~PtU_Te, ~c:iaJ:ted, 'W1tb ,the :mO:UUIIli!l:_t ,and 'mCiD,3i~tb'i£:S 'fif Ta:ri.Ila ao,d of the IGandbw;e pmvrnoe:s of;::h ii!: NI'Oft'b. West Frol1'!Jne:r. These S'CU]ptulll!:s date. faT tbe mast part 'betwl(!e:gAD. S), add] 300:, in leven tbe enti:i!it: the type is already fiXed. The the'm.~s widiouit ,lJxc~p~ non ;u:,e h1diao Buddhist. 'The Buddha fi_'ufe occurs abundAn:tl!y 'both as, tbil: Il:ie'JIb'aI filum, of bi:s.t~ri,a1 c.ompo8iuoHs and in, separ,art1e: seatoo, and. st-lilndin,g, images: theandelft :Sl"mhDli!c iOIlI!ulae (Ire-very ~b' seen. Fcnm~: ana, e.o,m!j)Clsj,tiOJiii ,of West em CpiO,"oaa. Helooisdc) od_n meherywlier:e conspiUOtlSi in Gandh~. uti, side by side wid.. o~er: E~£.m,l!;ntl!l 'M Indian ,orilln. The Iq~.,t1 tbe ott ,is ,~aemmerJl)e ,~' aud &ens-tal" its i:!l:tep&ioo, f~jliai,C. l:t: ap'Pi!!9n, '~'Q 1:mt'fill! w!ilrk of ~ bliU'1i of fmeip. QJi~Q:I or deSClent, faWHar with late GI'i~e'k m od~~ UOipting tbeil: :s:tlllckmotif.s to. the ~u.i:reOlJe:nts of 'Buddbislt partr'iims. the Ind_~Gl"tb_tm and Kusan kings of die North West: ~el"e. is, nothing tu 5Ug~i!',5t that Indian Mtist-s. &om 'Wepfains bad. any pan in it" Ontbe: 'I:ontmt]', Galldhal~ Lrt £:xieqedili ool!uidaaole: inDu lmlCie: on -the l~o:ntem:p_onI'J sc:boo~.at Matbl!Jr.t" and 'to II less dtgreeeisewbu,e in Imiia PiIiO\l~. e"ilE!D. 'e:xtendil:ilg: t:o fhlit SOIilith. But. we .bliilllstnot lIiIimnoiilo-, stud the ,natu re' of bhm: inluua:t. The' li!.rulLlS af B~lenU;rlca_n is forei.gh Ita .lndiQ!. :(J,Q'ocbo.loS:f. W'este'fiIl ,!!:tt ,~!t U ti~ a tl:endi rio fePlie,51B!lltadon. 'Indian. to SJ'DJiboliism. tl'iil mHuen:ce ,of o.andltad, hardI:y

m

i

f,ecog;nlzable after A.n. comtitll:!lkS;an ~ode ,anino't a ~tage in a OOcnti:nuon5 oe.y,e'lDpm.,e:nt. 'Weblu;5t pause" howl!v~,to eo~eil.' at greater length the' origin of thli! Budalia, iPlue., It has. b~e"DM'S~li!dmm, "the G~

m

B,uddhas lof the A:pDUOI qtpe that tbe Buddha, :Mlld .fust Cll.:D.1,e ID100'belli ,a,t Gam.aham. 'Ihele

_,e ,40

bot

is of Greek origm uist le:idwt; :m

~I

II

Iii

01" in ladi'a PJlopet,l3tu.ddha iInaps. known'k!J be ,e:QIilierthan the fW an:turry A.D~ In botb areas they ap,p,.ear :mll<1.llttl...ne!oudy. lin Hclle·!iiitic. .~ .at: Gandhaa, !Uld 'in tbe: tradition ,of Imcient :lndian ,art .at M<l:\tb~.. It is .agreed. 'that ·the limrlies,'I; Gu.dhar,a .6gue5i 1ar,l!: "ahn.dy ..st.el'eCitypl!d. ana 'that fh.w.diba.figLU'eSWUltha:llil'E! ~ii!n .maCe as earbl m; tbe first centl1!Ity IU:. Wei!! tho _S'e: pt,~totlfpes lal BeUenisdl:: or of [otUMl ,origin? We shgU mLulalte the argumenb for ,e:llber v~'W ;Bind luv,e 'tbe ,question uodec:ide.d. FOf 'the Greek GUilia" ('1) It is Edlmitted that BudAmt figmes in GDdbaM <U'\l adap'ta~ uon 0'£ Wesurn t;vpq. A elUitWn. amant 'of lotigiiQllllm;IQ!'. or ra:tber n,o.y,iitty, is,_ ,proved b, the occlmle-J!ce of su.cl1 ,ype.s u ·those: ,0£ ,the fil!a1istic emaciated. Bludd'has,. which bl.!!~e ~OI pm 'Iit'lt,en in tQ~R ·Igdkim. 'Eudldbist ,iUt.Eal:t,. bWaD Hijgi,01l!l$ at~,on other band, lDaikes me of primal wmnols, witbout anth~po·DiI~hi:c;ieolil;s. (2)' The ad1Ui~d fate ~t formulae ,of HeUeDisdc m De ~,'daptl!d to a ~tet 'o_~ l'I!:!i$,extent in India ProP~I' ,MIdi.

Oall'!ldi~.

i,

me

CSin BleC!o.gm~ei

Mouovitt, s~hpbmwml!1ml Ol~. ~ot d~gethF new:. Westelm (lnnian rathe~ tban Gr,eak) motif'.s ar~ .a:d:r w' be ;re~ogoized Eady .BuddfUt a:~ iMld ar~ ,ccmspic:u.. DiltS in the COIiDIa::t; an of Aook"a; and. :m di."lCO·f,Q{hti IiDOtif:s. (3.) As DO' lndi'an Bultlillia fi:goim Dra:e:.fthm ~,e IGoodbua. 5G!l.llpwra is cm:itaioly knowD, it isi at least pOssible that the mitt Buddha. imag:~ wel,e made in Gtmdhara and. mrm.ed the blodlek 'Df lalille.rtDd~ B:uddhist QIit (The Iliipor;rypbal ~gen.u in Buddmst litetattl:m ~t be a,ccepNj <IS e"j.de~,etha.t ima;81e:s: iihe BuddM were ,of made ~kead~ :in the fiftb CImihlQ!: IU::...

m. Indian ~ mi'

ste:'¥e;ml

Q!Q.tvries.
'P...~

m

For Ithe :lilulian. o.rlgiD: (1) Thi! puely Indioo attitudes of the 'Glrutdhua :6g.q:, tluli use

'D'£the :t'o:~ s_t. lO:Em:1iIii:!J:W~a:!i'" rlpl,!::e5ented, tib.e characteristically '~~'tic wmdoRIili:lJdllfi 0'£ tb.e W'1IiUa, h .. lJUch ~ appeMS akeady in In(lj!a;a att at :Bodib.Ga;p) wauM i!'Be]D. to Unpbr the ,edstence of pHe1:r Indim prolOtJpes. ,(2) 19!ildliilsat'tv8: !lind Buddlha: fi_~s of the 8m 1!C"e:nt.p .A.D. d.cl aetu:al~ C"(!'~1falit ~t'btlla.in Ili. Hy.[e quill! ~i:t &om that: of Oandb~ ,Md. P1<1linJ¥ ,dneioped. bm ,eM'tier' :[ruUao.H~ aho~ ,IJ, ti:ttle latu~ at .NurpIittKhu· in Sbid.

'26

INTRODUCTION
(3)' N~Ia1i\fe

TOIND'IAN

ART

,evidence ibolds 1!I,~od :as m;ucD. in ,ORB' S~ M the: Dtlu~r'i,p1iuttic~ in ,{lpe.riod of 5ti11 __ ~1u(;)Q(d.oI!l'. (4) The '!!lIg~ ft4lted bene>a:t~,a U'ee, In, ~'t~~m ,ga~i uJlO~ the end ,0,£ bis nasli'. lin ~t'f'Jfmund bIU!djt:attDIiUi w'a:s dieD. as now. a fummu spedacms:, aD.«: Ithe need of an m:.:age had baen felt Ca:nd W'e 'bilrv,~ r~ognl~ dIe sources of such 8: need in Ithe g;eneral de.ve1lopment of ImiUan ~engiQ'U5; e~periel!il.Ce}',the choke of the 1D1e.ditating (II teadHni J!Q~ m,i!1Uire mu:st have been me-wtabJe.Wbliliit otbu fOOt ooul'd hay,e been ap~m:~teb seE hem:e!lJtb tbe~dm tree. whim h!l!d hilthe:ff"'- Slioad;,\l.cme as thAi! ~jgn o:f tbe Gr:e&t Elilig&itcenme:nt ? !t is ,ce.rta.im, iliilt!ii!OW,~ stern p.r,Il)~~ _!l.' - .;m ~... &., . d m ,or.. .l! 'tJpt;: li,lI,Io: a sealt,e!ll :Iilil~ ''''t!;llJl ,(<<I,sse, ':~e~ a~!J! L .!I'~ i:IIlam.~i in ,ihytma (lif blu;uni~rsa .udm: can be cited Of
_aginedl.

~enmn

(5) Rie,gard(!d SlIDpbl' ;ilS WiOl'ks of art. [blllII! ,ms no suggestion 'of primitive inspiraticn in 'Gaodbam sculpwr-e. In 'O'thK ~Jlcles cf aft" creative gne:rsJ" fi_nds immli!diate ~p;J1l~QD, in po,we:rfu1 an.d siimip~e fo,1'm<S:. Are we to eo~.e:r Gandbara" a ease tmique in, illie ,bistory ,of aft.? It, will. 'he; s:ee!!l,bom thiim!: elil~dlM~tiJtllills,t;b.at it ;beN.prid~a pnlil'ri 6kely a:~dJ .as bbtflricatUiJ'possib~e~ ,that. 'tb.~ Budd.b;a image, 'wherevelt' ;lotmd. is. ba:!ifi!d Inn hi~n pro'liotypelS : ,jU:!lt as; the, bn~gl!l!i o.f BodbisattAs and! ,tb.OSi~ of Hindu ,deiuil5 aI~ derL'Vied in dmect o,"en:t hom llldi~, sour'I;I~S:. Theroostwm:poltuftt remains of BvddbiSit sculpture of ~ K-usan
bptb
,IU, ,~

-!I'

pe.1i'Odar~ thO'se ,of Matbwa. AmaQva:ti and, Ce:iloD. The :mlD.~I"., J'iDW' fll!: the: m05t part ,0;£ the Mathur.\, M~ueQl., inG),ude the il'ildest :Buddha, figUl!~So de:s:ignaltm in, an ~ptiOD. As tbis; seated Bud(Jha &D.m! ,AfI,CIr. :is, 1m:.eadJ.eS!i"WB balv,ereprNuem Clb~.16~ mscrlbed 'Ealtm, 'BOfllI.b.kath!i.!i~ 'tbe 'po;se and. 'g~De~ apiJ:'ll~alillcfi! _of ¥ibiiC:b :M'£ identi,cat with 'mQse ,o:f tb.e An,or B!udclba. It 'will. 'be: II:)'bsefYlEldtba:t 'the :t'lebt 'band. b!raised m. abMW t1.1;ud;;;Q. dn~ left :band resClS OI!. the. dUi-'h. _Ithe: 'Biww being raised; IthiS position of the~ek ann: sf~cl.y recuts in lbdiM1l art'. but su.fllliv,esor re.aWeiKS in ,aJ ch:aractmistic :s~ted pose of Javoo~~ !1!etot$~ AnQtbE!l: Buddha. of tb~ same stha01 and pmod, th.e. eebe in tI.Hs iC--ase ,covedog both, sb.oulde.n" u.::in Ma, hlld

me

l,

Mw.ewn.

It will be, ftmat~ed. thatih'E!lle.

im,a;!g~ are

fer :mOlit!: 'Wil.figil!bc,

,~

\'I7il11Cl',~'''''' A.U~""

A'ND' n. ,"".

L"~'!'II -n.J!.'~

"'.'1Io."th1l!:ii'Tc!i,~. aJ."ui1Uln.

"Ii'IIE!'iI':ili''t''IID r'E,i.lUu:·

perbaps; representing

tbanl1:bose: Iflkft'be GiUldbata, SebOlD!' _d. helODg mdt11!: old. taI"di'bo:n, of &:rlll¢ ;aud. prl~.Mamy.a:1J scmPMe. 'h~.E1('eum:rkable8!l!e the lhcc.ba1Diali:anfJ:;(JIups lof MatbUlta "

c.ultsabsoflleld popl!l'!JM' B~dd bi!!:1!I!1., FiS!ll1i:U 10'1 Ya~ ;UI;.d NQ"os! both in tbe rQund and as :[ldi'em; en .miling 'pilla'tS ~ Ic()mmoDly found. 'The Naga Iclidt .5ll:e:mtSto' ba.v:e ftoumh.e:d. alit Mat:'hIHoO\!!., and it is :ruzIit1eworllhy that 'the la.,u imagu of Bia1atlllm.a a~ identi.cal with. ,Md, ,DO dau.bt dsriv:ed froli!ilJthe.se Na!lp ~., Mathu,~ :bas aka y:ieJd~ ,8, num!1;Ier of i..oscdbe:d funera;ry sm'tu~ of K~saD. K"mBsI CIY~ FiJg, 17);, tb.es.eshow' ,DO sign_s of HeUeDistic :mIu.£ncu. though the COSib.w:l~, lik'e tbat (If 'the ~san Ju;i'iJl)S, on the ,. '';L 'I . 'ki .Jl 'bi'..:1. 'I!. • ..1[., ,-_._,1 ,it ,_. OOlDS. iii eoat WlI![.J..Ii ODg s l:'tSi ana, -.~Y I!ilQ(IIbi~IS, ra:me,EeentiRU ~!an ~ (Yil£h IGhi) 'than Indian, .

wto

Kuvu{l1. and ill an, case ;£lOnne;cted wlith Ya,ksa

It

Budid:JiJisJt ~'Cu~,p,mtel:!l 'oE '~e Ma:wul!!. ,0'b001 have: been ,fa1:!.:!1d Samath and SahetbMd!eth I~Srn"ilItOt the !laney: B pa# o.f: Itt

INTRODUCTION
li

TO IN!D]AN ART'

BodhlsaU!i!l1 figEe with e.n in~ripti:'OD.~probilbl¥ older ~. the AnYOif: Buddha, and buor'i!:~kil.The: srnndmg Bodillatnn in tb,~ C'akg,bt;a,

'"
'I'

WSAN ANDLA:rEl

ANDRIA PERIOD

281

AII;".

:¥Wleu:m is a massive .and, redisacf:ig,Ute Qftb.e o:ld ladiian type. The iudcihis't Ig~~e, of P~baiw!!!i!i:" and T:a'dlilt in tb:e,ti.~ of J!a~.<I. in, the: in.!imbl!.d 'X'Ap,j'ska, ,cuket "wkh se-ated Budd bill fi~W\es. i1i ;dtiiJ'geJtn~r: in 'th,e; Gmeco~BIu_ddb[Sl ,CIt Ind~HeUetistic $tyll!oftbe North West 'W,e havf; Iru;lt' dacribed! the8e WGii'ks in ,jgta;i]" H; '1iI,.,fd, witbput the ,t.e:nml tmdlirioll, ,and ,Ilife~t e:vmlliltion of lliid.ialQ, Mt. A Jam litU:;pa 'ha!S been euavt\ited ae 'Mathum. ud huyield~d. m:a:oi.Y nili'Dgpillu.s d~r,a!ted wi. 1\'l<J!d:e:y:ak:.siiS 3~11le:d. 'wi,the ue-e~1Ithe womu illDd tme modi wilif:li, recur '110 eonnantl~' in. India:n a:['t from the Badlut peD:od o~wa:td!i. A" Itablet 101homSlle • with ,;:t, t~([d 101£ 8. jawli, Stl.1t;It!1 slm:a1W! that the, Jaim, WIUlumen-tl, ~ idrmriGd :liD, iOlml with the Buddhist. Cains of 'the period ,Me mtef'e-stin" both for their imPfOiV,~d :t:ectimiqu£ and 10.1' tbe: varie,t'y ,af iii1f!ilh,j,ec;tsr pip:1les:eol"d. TWO-;lU1TIed figUJ[es of S.iiw, hate; a'k,may ,appeared O~ the euins, Clfme: P:.i:hJan ,GandnphaJfes and the Great ¥ueh Chi. rhO$~ ,af KaDish show the .' deity som.edmu 'w~th 'tw,,!. sometimel with :fourum:s:. TheK'anisb. CoHlS bea:r I"rap.I'e5lenmtioml G,f avmed a:i!:tmlb~.a'l~D,f ZoIiomatcian. Gr£,e.k. Mi~ and lin,lIian d.eiti:i!S-: Buddbais liepll;1es'2n:~l!'a stondh!,I :in 3. costum it of Gr;,e,ekas:llict. and se!'lltiEld, Indian. :&shion., ]kDl'ains ,in, of HiDdd 5cijJphUie~ of the: M'athurm ,scbculwil1I11C1 d~u'bt-be :m:ognDed! when 'the scll!l'pWfie:sare ~tu,di!!d im g[-,e~t€! del/ill {r,om. this pow of A. tbre''e~head'ed 'K'usan i5~lvtu:m, for er>ample1in .the:. 'Ma.tbura Museum still awaits i.1i:I:mlifi.catio!ill.The old.t ~WIll!imJbmgj~i!ii t'emple:. ,aitbe: £it&t CeIlNfl' ll.C. ar' AD. and ,adome.d with Saiw. :re1iefs. emblail:: R"amoajar in 'the '8lllieU district. The o!dest S3iukril:

'~.I!..

ms~pliDLt

CIiiDlt.e:mJ'O'mQl' ith the K_n w Sc:tdptl:l!f,e lof Northern, .:mam is tile BWldhist ,m of 'the ht:m: Andhm. dynaJSty of ,the. De.o~D.t belt kno\VQ bJ" ~2 I"ce;ma:m,s of the: ~smC:Dt S:WPaJ, of AtlilMilvati. 1'b;: Q~igiQ!al. miJ~'a Id:aEe~1 &-om aoout200 EtC. :and :8Owe relidsi Ire of me filtst or ,5~CQDd cent!1JIlI' B.C.. the ,e-asiog ~sl:ab,and th~ great ,mums MId :~

(JOC-_S 00

rbe ~,C'ri6cjiJ:~, 'posts of kapur.

De: fgw Buddha ·fi~lI!!~ei!i dlk

.kD'Wtbe IatlMr pm' ,eJ~tb.e: ,sl!Q':IlId, e;[J:tDf)' c

A.:D. or B,t an, rnte .HDt late! tbS'Q! AD. a5t!1. 'Iibe:li.g: is mOSil: " dabomtekn:own of h;s kind, about m hundred feet in fiKumfej'en~e. it ~~ I!IOm2: Ithirteen, DI :fiC,une,elll :(ee:t. aba'¥\l!: 'tDe;c p31~f.d.bit I,c:vd. A:s: 1Hual it, OO'Jl9,5I:ed. of pi.l.Iars, CO!fitleC'red .b, CIOSS&a:r:s. :lta'Ddin,oQ a plmth. Ea£hupngbt: w.as deoo:~ted with. 'fuU ,gd hdf loms fOse~ mfinit:,eb' '~a'[jledl in. 'lcrea.tment" and l!iI.ith rdi~& in the mt'enll'!:lliiD,S ~poog~, &,I;b 'eiioasli::!ft' bore: ,!m.O~e:f hill lotUli fhetu on ,eadl,side"

we.

INTRODUCTION TO INDIAN ART
The: ~~g,
lllfitil

plinth

wBH

ela.~

ooIatdy ornamented. 'tibe: form,e!r witba loti' Qnd,ulRrilllg, sadand
car.de:dby bOYs and
mCD"

animals,. The caMg

the 1at~u'

'Wio

slab$;'or the mostpatt rep:re~&ftt ~e.a "u,om, the life ,of Buddha tte~t1ea in 8«;co:r:d8lnce with the Did trndilioa in wmeb, the Buddlla figu Ire i,s oWtlied. 11:: U!, ml1timaud tbat a total ~.u.tface of
Iiev~ntee~,dll~ftfi.d
~, oO''il'ilIed,
.~$v~

sql!i1a:ife;: lue

.-b
,~
l

lWf'5: it:

with 5I!:lJtp'l1!i!~edirePQ:s;sibb:!:th~lt: d:r~e
Clovet,edwitb

"Wllrte ,od.ginalt,.

thin coat p~d. aad £ull ,0£

of fine p!lastu

and ,.'

The fliiculpmlle. is very vi,gol'OUS
mo,vemellllit. SQm,erimes SODlie.tim~1

palsMe;JJateb davatianall.

humorous" ilwlI(ys V1U!lUipiNilIIilS and dl~Qota:dft", T~e wbo'~a i$ aJ,.~tel;" p:iecll'; a:~ pure .de,~p. nranuinFJ i'p d
,1!¥Uj'

detail .

.on the-other band. the: Bulidha figuw irs8'till ;~te'nsel, ascent: ~d Tadter
severe. le;presmting]j1ll1! thought dillalil design i sl;ulpture in tile [!IffilIndms :not yet pm£cdy a&~I;Irbe.d by. 'OJi"attlilned 'IiO, 'the lbl1'~ tb. €I,' U1e iill1cial ardol![ but has g !'kJol;\!e-.r t~PD ,and mOn!~~:smc~ed iCa:~, The ,Am.ara;yati, alDd Sin~ haI~se B'uddliJas .and Bmll.ll:iJSMtwl;l

tbl!. liiiQcood.and third ,oentury A.D. ,~B iUruiu:rp:as~d ,g, p'lJt'e :sttdp.. rum j, but it is in the: ,C;;upm, period that ~ulp'tl!Ke in. the [,Q~ th£ G:wt flg.. e. b pin';'i'ettly 'tid~ mlatgdw tile ellSemlb~.e. of ~e:

or

10.

and. reliefs" and shares their dlecorati'ilc qtWide~. We it tht beMire 'the Ithkd, ~DWil:" ,ooeJli i.m<l~is ,an,:w.d'i:ridual adUe:veDil eDt. ,and, iEilJoogmphy i"S IiilDt "et rigidly defineu. It ils, ,MIll m the mst ,eentlIrJ A.D'_ 'mat deiri!l!!i ate :~r,e:s~ted 'With, fiour at:ms~ ;md msn,-hel!lJded iDld,ma:miJ1'-,3inDI.edi. f.Qf~, am· stml Iuu: abCl'llt the S!e.Gond o't' third IceatuQ' ,the: oM, Buddhist 'w:Plesel1lltatdon 100i Nati",iey Cl-da;:ya D'evi witb 't'be, eJepb,ulIt$) is! I!;~jl ~en, ovm; into Hindu.
,atlchitect!Uin~

:m,a,

PO'IU

'(P'aumnic)

ioofiog~ph,

<1$

Gaja. Laiblnii" w'p.iiflethe de:velop,me;Di: _

Ganesa &om lamhaki (th~ m:,o,ng,oo:seof 'd'rIe:latter bK-u_g the mtof fODntt) tmQ'be: stilllail:ie:r. The (O,m:pi:latioDoftbe ,eadieJ.' S~!,,,,, mf'W' S m;Q be d~ :in -a gene:ral way as lat,e Kusan at early Gupta! ,dh,yrmauuillZr6mq 'Oof personal wO(!;·!ibi".~eCiomifll 'the ,lSad:ba'l!Ir!l Ii of the IUlilgu's hallll..ilbooks tbl!TeMitJer. image making b£le:'omella ,craft insepull;~ Jili!fiiolmJ, lH~wtlBC1tutiii1 and aU o:fui!:t ,crafts. The earlli~'St f1fth.e ,h_nuQJera:hfe tlkRillees til.) padintiDs tiD Indig, literaru:re. occuuing: in ~ Eple~,ruld E!!.!:(:iP ,. Bl!ilddhlst te~'. bespm a mghIy d,e"eloped art ~p.~! 10.11 doth. on wQOOPp3;l.1el:s1i and IDD.. walhi. liIl!d d!Jcp:rlqt:Eld b;aU:S of ro)ml pal~s at'€!' mentmoHl!!dl. To Buddbist. UI(lfiks 'd.1e: ~prue'l'itatio.:mI, 0:£ t!leb.u~m fi,gUEiI1 was; mrioiddeo. alii!! only that of wreaths and, c:r'i!lep~[$ p!1:m1itmd. Hen,,' SOOD, this· role was liIe'g]ected m.<\y be seen :!illllit l(ln'Iy from the nte~tur£, bltt ,~$O' in

me

thep~titlgs

of f;.ave,t:e.mlpl~ii NDs. IX

,and X at Aj.anta.E'angillg: £rom 100 B.C'.,'QO .200 ,A.D. Helie ,and. '!:belle aR 't'ii:~pmsenNi.UORS of J ailia.b OQles, ,and DE sealibd. ,and ,Sltul_ Buddllllis. 'Th~fine Rat'Diple ,of 0\ stWldmg :KWgi Dl'Yaba mp~c:ed by Pl'JofeS~ot S. Taki in the ICokka No. 33S~ cl.osdy; 'p!M;ille;1:s 1iIe;5c:ulp:l:tIrti, ef &m!!lt and SimQ. and 'tbe ,early wor-k lof tbe Ma'tbliml. st:h.ao~. Like "the·sc:u1p'tUim:. the Ji;rinbng is mtitamlll ~no.rmou:slJ diSo:ified 1i'lI1. 22.. It. &inee: liillltli'liLlQ ra:t'he.r than, ,e~£,p;e1iilt facile., '1'echnicaly it is 1M' advml;!edi the or f'a:c~ and, fi;§u;m ilemg slu;nmiin, dlree g,uzu,'t·~ with 'tbQllough Ufi,a,usta.Dding of the pmMe:ms mvBlved •. Ithe Idm'U(ghts!Danship-is am:~~·anCl urib~tmS, :'bur!: quite '!iit'heuit, 'the bm;'iIIIm'!J .M1d. ·th~
I, '0

'.

.:ilitebi~tm1!~ ~nd ~il!ieis. and. s.b[~!l: 'd!ieK deoorative quaIDiildil:! s~ W,~ may 'pot ~il::lt!arf bd"{lire the iiwd, ~ent'In;J earn imq!l!i is Bnilmdiwdi!!mal, ftcbi~!fe.me:!!!1t, am.d i~nogrl.lip~li" is Wlflt,r'~t ri.gl'd:l, ddine~. Ii!: io;: od., in Ithe iks,t 'GePitJW'll'A.O.tba:t dli.!:itWes .~ I'e.pl,e8~llted. widl £(liUr arms. and m.aD.y..:hif!:aa,e.da~d.m.:a:tlJ";a'rmed fu'li!nli are 'Stil 1Ja~~ • abf.n:lltdJe

It;

second, .0[' ihit;d, t\eD:~~ the c,ld Br!lddlW,s~!1:ep~~liIim,tibn c,f Nadvit,' (M:aYia Devi 'With th~ ,emepb,ants) .15.b~ t:ak1en '~a mto ~d111l1 (Paw:Imia) icoRogm:ph.y ,~s ~~ Libmi, w$fllt~ dIe dlelV~m.o~m~ of 'Galilleu&o. Ja.1b~ (the m0L1g~a5c tbe, :tat1JciI.' 1be(io_mg: tb~'m;t o.f. '0:1 f~ed im!!!j3\l be: stiD latru:, 'The eowpMaiEi!O:D ,of ,the: e'altM Sil,a S~M' way be da~d. in a j'Ellnem :as ·ht.e KlliIn~ 'Of le~~b1!'IGw,plta,tihe d~na mtmtl'1m~s ,of ~Bdnalw(1u1:;~~1FI beCimmilllg. 'tiDe:i~dhaflti io:f time ! ima,8~'s: hmdbo(llk:IJ:tbe~U!':. w_age ,mtikklsb~OOimes a ~&: miS.~pa:~... Me h:o.m ~hice~tur$.d an gWe>t ~&. The e.a:rMsli; ,ofdt~ inn~emble :r,efui!:\enou~, pa:i!D!~'m If;ulafll. lit~~:tw:e:, (loc:~g in.th~ lJ:ics, ill.Qd.eal"bl'

w~"

B~l.iui!ldbm5tt~t~!hopea~ a mg~b'd~¥e1i1jJped!. , i1i~t::, pM~'I!1:ings; dotb, '!Jill wooolil:nPJJITl~L~ on

_.

_

_

_'

oi! cn wruk! !lind. t~e:painlled: halls ,of r'o~lJJi pala(:~ He me;n:tioned. T'D B~d)dbist m_s tbe .[epre'Sen:tatiJJQ the,b~ ~f :6SM.n:eW<I!!forbiddd. ~M Q~Jl'~a:t ,~ wr_&i!l _d. tleepe1'S~~fmliltted. HOw 5ol:lntlds mile: was Deg]~aei mlliy b~is~~n liOt' C\fi1y~ro1!D'ifue lituaMe. li)~t ~J:l1 lin

,

.ma. X. at ,A.j.m, ranging nom .100B..G.m 200 AD. H~[e andthel1,e am ;rep:r,tselQ;m~ 'tJlIlMi @f J;atakl. ~nn~ arul'M ,seated. a:ruil
cmo$cl,
smnd.ing Budi:lhu. The:fin!! e,Xl.1iiWp,fe a. (1,( :s~g K:ing (Ii[ 'Yaik£:iIi,~e.l;lll~1l:adbJ' Proi~oit' ,$•. Tdd in, the • Kc-kta ··No. 355-

,t'h~

~oogs.

,of ~vet~mp,les.

'NQS.

a

pa:raI.eiistmr.e. sc'ulp:~!i 'Of Ba:d!,ut: .and. ,surl~ land .~ Il!l.Itlywo!tk ,ofllie; Maiit&il:!lm :Khoo[, I<n{~ 'thg' oou1pt~,. Ithe ~~ fu~al:ie:ud !eIlOiI'MOUiS~ dignifie4~lS. ::£.A~"L':e; .d>g:@ [athe!ftbmJ: Jill~gellt OJi t'aic;i:k!~ Techmical!ly it Is :famc !1!i~ced!, thlie '~ md ij~.~~Br sb.(l!WIfi illltMe~ 'q~t~ p!,!:nfille W'ft.b.thOfOlil,gb. utl.id~tali!tdm\~ 100ffhepliob:]s!)m$ jlQvoIDved.tbe dmugh:tWlEa~lIsWp :b, a:ble and l\a'flbg,taWilg. b'1.I:t ,t3!.~b!;!: mtm:to!1tiiliil\:: b:m.ViUD.. ti:e

aa

.'

:SWlctone~: of Aj_m painting rm!' the (jupta. ~ri~ 1'h:e Bu,d!&, 'figlU'es in~e, ,SiIlWe. ca:t~l'~ aJltlD~t~e:~,M' b~ Q'uUu 't:lmntblli :moond I~e~~ AJJ~ The poo,l1¥ p:r:~~ed :rHtd mU9h. ri!l!'swl:ed,rn~lI!:S '9f 'We JQlgi~C31Vli!; ~ ~ Ramprh bill I~Ori'!lS3<} a:mpmDa!M,. ,aJ'~e ' figt eeIlml:'y B.C.pm:isi'bb! ·,Som~wh:~tI~e;r: i!'i~a'ted and! :st'anding fiSMiliu ~dl le;uQ,~.bill. :~~d. detiGIEI!tift~lkwi'ltJ. ~ilS qd] 'G'i:her m~f! ~omte:rs am :~i!:ese'nt~d~ bu.tthe whole is. Kia bitldlJ 'e:lfmoetJ t10 ad,mJt aaoCit idtutUicaUo!!!!.

THE GUi'ta.peri~riI :m 'the g91d.eo aile o~: India. tle ag~ of .~tudtJ wh~'D Blbat<ltiil'l!l\o'Hslu!. !liitt'BImed theltliWit ,oif h>er bh~b. PQmirti~~lpowet a:l'ldi aWl:ld:ant wealt.bmeV'wrall1~,p~~",.id~d th~ "b'.ilJ\t5almii!diuDli~l: mat: unlq:t111} .m~~egr ,~f ·'life 'Whi,~ '1Da::r1~!itbe ,ulwwiIi1!i!w.n of hldiu. cl'lidli'l!;!litfo;Q.
,itl:UlJt~du3:1

The

eQm.biE:ill::~QRaf

briilm8ilillf

aud spir.itu:al dJ!!;'W'l.opme'lttwitiL the u:t:mOSi! :seDSltou~~s.s 'o,f !l!xJHmen.ce and ~~p!es!S~oliil, ,H1,oIe:than ~Uil5iti~y t'be bidbtn. U'ad,~d'on, ,04th ~Cio_t' ~f.Vik:r.ama£ili~a. Clim~e: rt'e]a:l:iOfaiS with the We:s t bJ'W<l::r of: Ba:cttria, .b1 tbe-North IlIID~ltmrue~cma:~ Ittade: :i.Q.tihe,
b:<.t~el1:Q'wtu~eiD. b~'O'k~f!I. M!1tdia";5I i:!\l'g~SQ rare now, find for a dlJou.lsllInd. ,SOU,51 '~n fuU(lw. with tt1u~Fair E..'s't. by wa.l" ,of: ael1tta~ ,A&i:a.:a:~d ~th [ytthe:rIndia Ali!:d kd~DesiQ 'by sea; n b 'lIn(!ie!r bictla:u infJ.ue,u(';e tliDlat t:he 1Jifi.t:f of &la Ie'~e; bnobeiijj!!~ Fig. 23. nOOldM~tlai.'!.'a :l!IJ;.tmm IDdi3i, betli'~U:. :is W<!ow to:!; d~e ;mst 1im!~ sp:i:r:imarum:r<lind Utt:ell~cm~ ru1y o~e~ tt.e P!(lrm,alrbydiw lof .tie is '$tablig!l!l~dl i~ amd. bl' 't~eEpi(;~. a.nd .31 ~'IiI~d!amentam~t5l (If leJ~'_fl}&!e<lliDd ,ehuClch:r tmns~e~dls JlQUlt~C;:a]. l;;IcH.~a:l'lIguistic: and ifi!£!.lf:WO.aW:l.dlstincti()il'!$. V~dkrriNans." a sL!f'ftnl :from a ~:e'mote'l*l!t. a,pd primitive Em!ldh:lsiWl., CQ[liec:tl,p' mti!'l~ pl)e,ti~dbg mediev<lrn Hmdf.uthcuJigllrili H ~ trad. 100f b~i,ew Q~' ttef!SDD ~I'!I!iID!i1i tbe iIlodd 'Ci~d~. are J.\!.Q ]on;!'el :state :reH'gL@DS. V;affishrnlia~:!l!l!', Sb~'Uism" Sh~kiU1:5'1!!1! MibaJiaJQ IhuildMs:Pl. Itlirl,e :reli1Rio:ns! @f d'2;vodoo and
retaQOli'li!l

So~th

an

.

tol

1", :kn;ag~:s; and,t£mp~e!l
~

Vis:bnu! ~M~a, D~~. Bta:ddha

Cit' Eodlbis;a:tt\i!a! ~re:p3.tt'Q'_ii!iIil:d.10lpiil'riial-

2'ppr,op:rlillJtG!

to

I~

o:ftb,e,se"rsJi!im~u o:f
~

INTIIDDUCTION TO INDIAN ART
HiindlliS!i1l apPeM lin 'p!l!io,fu:do:o ~d detetndne
l,

,tbe: leadi:ng fOlms ,01 all la-tell:i~ecry a.pd Qtt.bi~~tut,e. Iconogr:aph" and, ,the d'ltecny of lDusic and! d1il.adn,g, are, dassified. In ,tOe an of tile Guptmpuiod, aU Iii~t telildellgn ccmr\le:rge. rIU jdGd~'l Q.l1aUt1i1ippe~fi nat O'nl, '~n i1ift oE d~'I,1"i!t::~(! ,s'Betal'ian ilJlI1)Hcation. bu tin the ,art ,O'f ev,I!['l'" PiO¥'.iPCI!,; from, I:be Hiimala,liIs to Ceyien. We no longer me:~t with ptimitiiw qWl!:lities ,Il! mmrele mbldian. if:l-its char,a,delt' is seH.-~adl ut'oon. at ance ,ellubemnli PiI,a ,formal AI fur,eignwrlB~eD,ce5 have ~Il. abS)Ol'h-e.d. and ,inti ian~d. There is no ,diverg"'!IJcJS of 'f'eeltng, between d,ecbrwe .lInI ,exp,lIt'esslofi - it :bas com,1! 'to be undetiS!oodtbalt: th£ mrms, ,and experieuCies, of :nliilm~ Hie lI:remvelatioL'l.$ ,of ,tile ~rdini:te: in dE; ag~'" we: can m,,' 't'lla:t'~e HQ'ege,MeS, are th,e cb~ciinre~~,Q1f ' 'the, s9uL Pbi)omph, ;andbi,th, pmS:e!lS a ,tQm m~;1lI. '[anguage in 'this Mit that is at oaee abstract and sensuous, re::seil!'V'ed and Pa!l!SioMte. Buddhism. is no,w comp!:"e~l, fmsedwith tlb£IiIIiClti(l~dlBe ~die BGddb~ fi~u[e. still e1tai:I:II1:,OIlS:'ft Ma:rnvati:" hI's become an integml ~ pa['i~ of a.rc'bibl!ct1!mlUie. The 'p,!inting$ of: .Ajanta f'~Rect d:u~ 'sa:me abundapt', e:x:quj,si~e:,slJlJiiIHsticated andbri'lliant li~1! that lanDs the: theme ,of Bana"s KadanlMri. T1iiIliswas au ,3.)f,e Vlbricb i;ou'ld af.folld to permit' co' itse:lf the :~U!t1e5't possibllB enjO)'ftlent 'Df life:. by right of mete ~i:n:U!I:. III tbW!i loonnoli!~-tiDn it i$r 'W'Grti:rwhile to :temark. dlllt now fer the £irse and ODlY rim!! iii Indian histiIJ'IY. Wifl mii!et mf<lbi. B pt:adke of' the; ;]lifts as 3, peno;naJ adlieve!l!l1ent. sjde: by s~d£witbtbe!l'Cleationa1 and 'b~el''''tic: 'W'odu.cri,GI[l,. Indi'llidualm a-Ii of Jill w~:rs the ',ni!llegems, '0£ VikramadiQ!l1I's cou['t_" w.bo ar,g not b Unnu!,d'iue prof£s!lion f,e.ligious; tllachel'S atta;n 1"0 fame ~ p.aio,ciog is ;ana:ccomp1ishment OiEking.s aDd queens '[pcnmjtpaiiftti~~, :is <I. lcommon de'!i1'ic£'of Ith~ c]asaicru ,!hams]1 ~ all/Ii th~ ,au.~dica.dDfUi' helle;" and! ;inthe emtl~ 11i!~mtill:l1ie.ha;t ~£eWa[ t pm,tine was ./f,e,gal"ded.Hk'lil mUMc and. poetry" ,3,5 a source: of the elC'~

tRim,

pe:ue .. ee of r:asa.~ ~mydmgupta's'

mlliliMeru

Solem

is

lCiO!DlUil'!e.Ofated.

itn,

''libe UCI~ R'amll: elilnita ol Bhllvl;l'l!ihuti. 1. 39•• pe:d~!l;i,0.( W, queen R1:I!'.iv.i:ng t btCt.D:t i'mPl1l1Ili'OllJ '~Mm~lIg) by l:Mkil:'l(l ,I&t til>!! p! ~mfCl. VIl~'l'lI'nI":!I &_ .'5'1tmI: 'I, !<4;E!iip1iladmt !I'E li~dJ!l!!,DJB,rerioI. peil'hllill m~de _ inJ thil: e,,,d, Gu:pm paind:. me<lilclOM
I.ut.:r !i:(l!DiE,l'!iI!ilnlY Ulumemtl!'iti!£

pWIting

be:

RiPre~nt;;1!l).

~. 'lme or d:n~ riInY..fJ:l~i' ,~~ ~llf01liiti~ t" [!ift ~lef!,aim~ '?""!e!!.!Ciao. __ ~Uodb4H':1i Y 3ilrl' limbs (,iJuui-aJlga) of .pnnan;;~, fd~,.'I; RliJ)QJJi,:;.:I'f1. dli~r:incclIilJ:l ot ('omQ! (i.,f.,. ItRQw]edt::e of ~h~ ~,t~.brIiu cd; ~);Is 'te'
PM~II~.lJil'oputltl!n

,(',it,;, lI;o.ow'leQ:II'e

o~l~he !;:aOllS of :P:Ill:lPORWRJ, ill iii

kiI~m;lJ'.
III:RSt,

Ii!!! ~

co~pbD.dlq

BlkulCl. maott. ~~l:l!Irli:QlJ, 'Eib;: il~ of emction r
!(QIiIUty~R!lJWl!Ili: oj ILrt.

mind [pm'lliouRY

hue

c:haPI. ,f,me.e,1dI1!!i!'e, .hee Ellie, 'iIlWl1llt1 ,bk;e'

l.m~lIiiV!l'l"''OIaMm. mEQ:51.ofic! salU1'~:S' ,(l~""u. :in ~ h1!!mi!n &!.!>inS mMliIi!I bceur.,y.
m~lI~g,(dg). llriith ~'~eI'el!l,Ce ~o pg:rtmimre~.,

S~4m,'(1o.l&'elII~5.li, (P!=~P!i •

.'

"

,"
THE! aORTA PEIR]OI) geM eains w~ere he .is ~mpJ';e::Sle;Qted plllil1'inll!I: vias. The gNlIi't the ,~u'~nce g.f the Gupta C'oinage must: be ,attdl!n!rred ED the ,dtivalt,ed 'tiikSteoftlie kings. lliu!t these pa;smw alcbie:¥elll'eIiilUi, ShOUlM: !,;caIl\cetl1" be :r,egarded" lib tiholl'e o.f a: HlElde:m. g;eniu:s. lIS abemttio.mi; .&-om !He or the 9.ploimtiGll 01 a pJ!'tso.naLi.tr·,tU£y:am tbe: Ol"lIIIUDcnts and pinna;... ~s 'of dille strl!U;;Itu;re of the face, :pedectbr. bPlDlolU' wim all its, h ~cltitect:tne" Ea:di:1tt lnefuI:g artis" 8-0 to !'ipeak" a pr,od.'Uc.t of Nature, rnthlir than of 8i'dfil::e" andchirmf;t;e:rl~ed by naturalism Mid 5imp1ic:j~l". Gupta aEt is thl; flQ'Wu of an le'sltablis~e:dI ttad:idol1ll, a,polished a Qd pedeeltledm,ediuDli lillie we SruJIlSkdt!angua:get f;Q,[ the statenu~Dt 0:11 Ithought and feeing;, and baving thus beeODteaR o)'dered mant!ui5g:e witlbi a,Bram Inilll: and. V,(!IoC<I buliU)' of: its OWD. it's b.lItlli aee by hl'Potllc.sis; ,ecm¥entioD~d ,. agn!iiild lIil.lQIi!! andL Meat:~ir5 truth of ul~te:rmu do~ ') not depe:nd upon., tbol;!,gh it m,ay include.
n8ill!:umJI,larm:i:'

as

,~ Wro4L EeSem,bl!lB~e

Ito

W,e :mml ,haw refell: toUle mOiSlIl: im:pD:I:'t'lllnt S:l!In;iv:~n,11IiloDum~ntl I of the. pe.riQd. At Bhit'ug;loll thue ,emts .au ancient; brick mm:ple! sq~e: m.pJan wi.th iii biBb to,W,I!!['" pmbablB 0'£ the siJ:th een ~iI:'y ~ it jS\ d@cc!f'O!b!d 'w~th ('a[¥ied b:rid;:w'Dtk ana, 'b:r.ml~a.iJJ!tbtn:ac{l'tta: pa nE!~S ,of SbMfm. themes, Th~ SJ:re(avettmp,les at Ud':a.,agtd near Be-m:agnr

in Bhoipal. ,on;eof whkfl Hmsan,

i:nsc:ciPJUoP1 daoodtquhrlllent £:0,

M:e'th~ g[ia:;J!; Jr,eli,~lmeade!'! the: roU.sM.g of Earth f.m!!D the waters by Vishnu as! Varo b a" ~ Pau:raok subject, and the :repms£ntildOJl of DIioI'I!::II: godd~Mes" c.Qm&.on in Gupta at:" in Wii! 'Cb:a[l,dn:glL1ptal 'c.~~" A ]a;rge: iI',~6d at P,adlati. al5!DtU Bhopal, repr,e5enU the na tiv~ty of Knshn!L. The f:emple ,of Deogr:ab. jbmg DisfriE;t., bi.xth cm.tmj')1 !bas,:reUef JlMIe]:S £If Vil~5b~a'!ll3, :subje,cu.• rneludmg th~ Haith ,of BfaJhma"and,ehe 'salvation of the Ki:n:gS of Elephab~ a them'i! ,tho't .recur mudit :liltJl!r in. ltajput peintillg. F.fag.entautll" scnIptures of the ioul[tb C~'Q~u:ry at Ma:ndlll neM' 1OJi~pl[lIf sn'inlI :iilane..,s;from, tibe' K:ri~"~a; mfcmce$ .. melu_ding d]~ m:i:siug ,of Mr. Gomdban~. Tbe Calcutta Ml!l!s!!lum !la.s a
!ii~ul.p1Nrei5'

,A.O", 401. H~re the~cipd
rqflUeDting

'fine. ,sbiYilli and P,M'VatigrrOup,iJ,Qm Ko:saDl lile'uA.lmb8bad!. dated eqirlv-QJent m A.D'. ~:..g,. T'betei s ,atWre,e~~ud!~d Vi&bo,ul o:f dlii!:.Dfitb or sixth ,ce:nt'ufl\' in the BO!>llI:mMiusel,lIlU, and .~fo~heii!ided COppE!.l' Ole
IlO

)i'!!:IVl,btl:~II1S'D, m$mbUtIDn m' p~gnlentli (;..c .. 1I:Dni~~~gc of die CO]ollHpw,e:r ,uch, m'bj;l:Cf'.

'YS:6iOd.ha~ Ililids. ··Tibe'.$~ gm; avail m IIJw4bll. ~io:n
pa!!timCI
U

Lm 'l!Idu:n IIni lOt

llNITRODUCTION
bron:;!;e imilge of Brahtlu!J. of euly GUptl dare. :&10 m 'Mirpur ]({bail.in tbe Museum a,'t.Xaracbi. The: dan,ci:Qg Smva tl'P~ a:('I-' !pean,iJ!T&

TO INDIAN

.AR.T'

the !)lh~~Qrn.tioQ ,oEt.be

D.~Si<l ttm~le. ~m AihoJe. This te,mple:. af jiflli:hce~~ date, is l',emubM,e for its a}lsidal pllUilJ; it is. likie a IiUuctut1l1 Buddhist c;bllP',dt, with. ~ .Hindu shrine in pb.~ at the $tlJpa. 'T wo old
Buddhist at in c.:bur!1:bes, with ap~,

plan Rn.d.b:~lei to af respe,ctively
T ~I£' C the a:llc;ir£.nt T:aig~;;l:I!., Hyd!ernb.!!:d) 8.pd Gbe*'h Odiisl11'lB,district) h'3.ve:~en oon~ ,¥,eftOO ,~o V llisb.ban Ind. Sba:i va uses and. 50 preserved. A se:ri,e4j of ,ancient temples alt Aihole. Lad K:b:m :and Dllrga tem,p1es. fifth C'i!DtW'J!. Meguit and Hl!i!C-

,.II

cbndi.

Gu.

r,~mp!,es. ,!ji:s:m.

cen:tl1i£]':, a!!!;d ~'the:r:s; ()f tbe :same pedod with fm~V~,\l'a, Rlliets as emiogpands are: c1ose~ll' ribbed to the: l!!X!ca,vated ar~WIll!lctmal forms of the neigbbow:;~ iPS BadamI laves. Tbe: la'trer

indude Ca'fe Iii at Sbaiva ce:-mrph~ with. ,B,'T~Qda.vaulptuwdi relief. u caves n andm. w'bicD ,;[['111: VaUhn:ava, b:mrDlei. 31'1di.a J aina., cav'£:" .No., IV. wiw,re'~(!Ii I5I;NmDlpnrres o,f dl~ nnlli!i'~ thefuSit three of the. ~;'l!th ,ceIlt:iJt,¥. the ma:tb!1' ,0£ die: &!venth. Cav~~ XVI. XYU and XIX. ,at Ajilinm date trOlD time ,t105e of the fifth CII!Otuiry. cav,e XXVI kom abou.lt AD. liliOO. O!'!il.e XIX bas a. v,ery

'THE GUPTA PllUOn

':;11'

H ooe""p:i~d: '!:I, ,animme.be

rj:dillll!i'~c:ruiIDptmwI ;ue.•li!. wit~ J.;Ba'fi:¥B!:Wdha, filllim. R.efated to' u this iSlt'b,e ViwatanD;.li,lhil!!ill$biWst CaI¥1l: .ait Elora. of ~e sb:th !QI.!:' ,e.utbr iie:vend~ ~'nWllJl'. W'~'El:, .!:I:s, ,at Aj'laDta. tJb.e 'kpot ,oftb,e: Slmrp,",

BIl!d!~~ M thi:sc;u<~ "Slktedl~ with lw,o

,

a~dMllu.A,t Sallmla~" the: JJftal:lm,kh :6'wp.a aail a riehl, ~ed illJllill:e'~, wirth. latalka s!ilbje(lti,sillll§:ta;ate the: wealth nf <lin:Mt!eCHlnU ~~ma~IIiIIJji~w~ne the si(i!1l has !!:1~cl.i;e:(dJed, malTIl'Y'w,e'Iim.-~M!ier"ll1l!cl, uddha , B ;ijg!ln:es; The liw:dd.lt8'f temple ilI,t Budcilba G~~a" oou:wlled! bJ A_.i5tib" dal~: iQ 'the: m~~fi;o:mthe: :si~t'b te~ItlU'Jl, 'W'ith~~s;tata,ti:ons 'I.!IptCI t~etw'e1itffill" and,lJ:I.rOdeto l"l1l'sm:ra.ti.ans. A~Qdhmt"a~O'fiCil fr~'I!IiIi, s.Iecbi in, ,~be V;ict~ria and Alb,e,:[lt M~seum, Loil,d~I:D, samrO;l'Igst dlle; ~ 'fiD~t S'lilwi~irmg e:~3ftI:ph!scd tffime: ,Jat£ Klug:n OleeM~" Gu(ptaJart. The gtea:t ,s'tiaI!<i1mg E1;Jidlclha (fig.a4J) at Malthll[OI ,(:fWJflth ~illlt~')' ii lIi!~iQ mQI'e .i.l!Ilip:l1e$.i~!e; Ebe ,bea:utiJ'IlU, de(;QMcedi ~il:%MMkl"a is ~~iC'31 of the (]iu;ptastll!!,. and. c:ctt~!tlS, wjjthfhep~a.io~!i'l';y~e4 Ilt tbe XillJS;ln {J,EH7IAflIi Man, Me Buddhist boo~:2le!!iba'le!be~D. ~ol:l1Gde:d lB~dAI!:,aaill tll,!:l: ,3Iit B!3'~wadi!l. cist1;fficrf:;: e~~tedllh](:!I"a, IQ£!simk ~baur:'<lc!te:t' flre!1ID. Ba:du:tla is HOi~ ~.rhe Cedomb(! MuseP:l aO!d. it smn..dio:g tmqer sn.td. tei ha~e b'0~Dfomlidl •• D.ma is. now ~ .t&e IDSiCtyl'lL MMlSel!ll!ll. Tb,e: &!:.est 10.£. I:!b.e s!lIil'Il't :SCUh::lt,~ ,M An~dffiilapOOi!rn, ilI,tr,ea:d" !elened 00 (fi(;. 21.) HB' li'IobilbJy 1M ]i1Ite KUUD and, ImlfiY lot'h:ets ali)~of ea:[Jy 1i:3:u;ptlEl <aitl. o.f oth.e:r D~d)dl{1SiE~tallptw:'es,the ~m!~JSt im.portalJlt are th,e .Bu:ddba ,and lBo8m~;)ttva :figU[d froM MaWiIlIta ~standifl!!l Bllidd:bili~. ,24) Sam:u::,bi, :a~d. ,Sa.ma:th (am,Qn,~c ,Qth~:~, We W\eU~lmowll1l, to[;So,wtiherVkt:o:ria, and Albii!:[1t Mus'I1:um, Lom1.onJI.the ~O:mssaI OIlt,Pi:T !!tatlU!~ of .BIIUl:ldbOl\ BrD'JEI ,S~g~n,j" no'w jn~e Eh.[~li!b:am M!JS.f;'~. daMC aboulm A.DI. ·460 ~d. Wl~iS.lI'lg @lljl,e:ra, ~Clll, t>'be:; se:am4 B~idha ,of ~aDJ~JaJw:a,fl ,dll.!!ted Il!lqm'!ii\3J~e~~ tio AD. ,ft~'owith ~bbBd ,bwd~,.IIiDjth:e: Kangm lhirass.1B1lddlw. ()f ike. .smtihoe.ptlJrY' initaid 'with sl"rji!<~ m1d (lap'~t" fiOIW' m, the La.hm'trE!MiU1i5e~. :Ie.ahi:s of Ilhe G~ptai petioo will n~ ,doubt be

~ound at Nalanila as d1Je lB:ilI:CaSl'iliticillpliO~!I1!ds. Tne: searls Sind gaM ooins of the GlIiIptl~ ·;lIlIie'.m<lll~i,ec!!:s G,f d~[gll tht t'Oi~lrs .stlIH'!riiOt'00, tb:QS~ ~. al.1(Jo~et pba~ lOfln:dian ar!;~ The"re.~ a small gllld i!J'f.andifDIS ;iJ::g:a,ge Buddha. aftlbe 'G,uptaage'l mtillile Bdtis:bMnmLrm. of Wemu:st ~ot ,omit :iII, ~rde.reJl,'le 'tothl! w,el ... :u:own ~n Pil.la~ ~f D~lbi. euC:lioo. k ab~u:eA~[lr.,415 by KUIIiIIl;EI:m G~,t3i 'l. ThE:: fres~oos; '0'1 Aj_UpI:esll!f'!l1'E:3n.inEinitei'p pH!clrousr;eit:~:r,d Ii ·fb.e S(Dllde:n. ag;e 10:1 I~~ pliiifldai)g~ Tibie .9'~a:lter pQ:n~e:lK~ptio,g t~Olie m. Caves, IX. aruLX" ,.ead.::r Jr,efeil'EiIild,tQ:, M"11l be d~r~eiWCIolilrI!ll!Ii!I. to' AD. ,500 ,aarn:d thOiS~.WICav'e,.1 h~ .~aJtesf~iIlrld,flfiDttm,~rku:(liIlS
i ,~!

.:10'

':I'llii .

mTRODUCnON

'T'D INlUAN AR"r

wJ<th the mama parimin,g~ Bagb in M.fdwa. Tbis is, tbe pic:~ureof a. at hal.t:yDD age, whiilfie I'e:nun~atioin and enjoy. eDt are Plefecrl, <!itn.e:d, in ,an, art at ronce of 'utWOM iAtimaC)"aud Iesene. EVefJlgestrn~ spting5in Icd'like £asbman directly :hOln lb.!:naoonl disposi'cioO. of tbe min~ ~ 'tMS lSi DQI~ the: s(!lf.,bet;raryal ro,f in:nocence. but UUefa1lC~ in


39
te:IrPlS

Cicmrte51, the language of la:i:twc had mread', :itt~ le:dcoDS" th~ anWJ'J5ES ,O!f feeling, h3id b~en made In leamed tt~ltiSleS. AU this is ollmlpuabbe Ii),nlywith 'the 'vlrtol!still tD be recogruZleld ill bdian and: Indooesiaa Id!!fttin:g and music, w,here J£3Qed! fomiils Ibe lm'UL1'a!i1 'm~il!mm of ~p:teSsion of the d;elepett fiSleHng. lit is of no, ;,m:pfirtan!i::e ,tb~1t "!NIl! kDQW PClitlilinJ I~ thepi(m~tle:rs' :oam e~; ,aU J.odia; Wlilsrii:~b' ;paillter3iin t'be~ lIila,s, amll tllrue n is tllJe aft 1M at MU. ;and a

o:f

,iii Stllpfe'We

1'Iot ,of any i'ndiwdu~l. The Sllh$£Ch; tn~tj:db, Ajan:ta,paint.e'f,si ue those ci1,tu:Bc;t e<risitic of Buddhist Mt ,It aDtimeci EC!l?l'IeS fx;o,m,dn~:1ife of
l

l

Buddha.. ,aad J~Jt<lka!i. The foiowiD,g a;re amoD,gst Ithe bl:llst important
tOlJIiP.05lti08S ;

Cave I:

M.ua Dhar.na.
~DVI!! :SC£'l!!!es:,

SOlichii.•~ ceiimil,g wtlm

Gi,Ut !od:hioottva" "lndro aod and, • P~rs;aliil E'.bar:ss-y ',! I(uat!!)' a
l •

,B.a.cc'ha[!]iliimPaocbika). Cave II: Gre"'t Miracle a't 8m~li Kshanln9adiD. ]a.tak-a ,lnira,...· 10k'll scenes" detomt~d ce:iJing., Cav,eXVI: Buddblll triad. GNat Renunciation. D,..ing, Plllilcg'SlS. A {raIment fliom this cave is in tbi! Boston Museuml. C8i"li1i?' XV]! = Se'vlen Budd!ba!>. Wheel 'o~ Causati'oD, Mahabamsil. Maup(!~hab" Sa:ddamilra,Silhi (with in~~cri:p.ti,on)o.am:d1 YisVHl1ital',O, ],atabs, A;PDf-.a~:s;.d~tC\l:ilIted c;eili,og.. Cantempor;8[],wkb some: of Il,;be ,Aj,ErQtil 'painu.o~GallQ: the simillJlr (fifth ,c..entur'l'J' ftescoes, ,m a t'OGk patht aedle: Sigiriya lorro?£S ip Cey~oll" te\preB!I!'Ilt1n.gApsarr,ailij!5,ttOe 1:O,w'er'p8lit of the body in eBich. cage is ~oDceamed b, clouds indicating 'thaI: celestial ibeml,II'S Me io:bmdedm the like:nIlIlScefpdncl!5S>elS l:Iltcomp<mied 'bY .pl.md~ iS~tvaIlts. ~CMryil'lgt:tI.U'so:fflowe~)i. Jain paintinp" eridl!!ILtl, of gre;a'[ impomm::Je a.nd beauty. have be>en rece:nt1, diSCDlflilwd at Sittaoll:v,amJ neal" .Pu:duka:t:tai and <ls~gned b, M. JQmt,eil!~~DllblreWil!ilto t& e:tlme ,of

M!!henikavarm:an I (&lO-~.

"

EARLY MEDIEVAL
THE pe.riod ~WIow;ing the IGupta lind oo\twg the t@nritiOIilL from a:m::hmt 00 m~diev,iiJllodia., is on.e of i~ft_fi more :abwu:la:nt :lJind ,etaboratll!: piifcducriOfi. The 'th~es, 'mbe. il:iillpre:.Dli:lI!d, ifj,t;'B mor.e Yili.ri,ed. in ~!;:I~!)t' .. dlJJn'Ol! widi. thll! fuU d'e'ii",aIDo,m~.!lt f dffi.e;mythology o ~d. ~m.oloO.

Hindiu. Bl!ild~st an,a J.Bin. A teekliqu~lima,n:ow bufievolved and wen estab!WI:e:d.. fulJy made adequ~te not Q:riJly 1)0 tbe ,prese:nradali!!. of the various hmmlic le'gend'sbut tOo e~p:r~~~ them.ultifanow. C1on(;.epm _Qf 11
o

F.il"27. Sb[~ ~

Pllnati
;at

veQ' iDtritat"'e. theotogy.

The ibtilfler :had

:bia comm:;wd run only

el'8i& uadi"tians.,bul

j:o,:nll,ublilei ($~dhantU. dllyallia 'mt.ln:tf"ms~ e!!~")1'PO'Pl!'t

to aD. the dli,'V~t ,,"/pKts 8Ad, 'manffestatillllWolwe Oue SupI'lem,e. 'who 'bkestht jo!!:'.s im:a,gffillle:d by.~ WOn:hi;PIP"SI and ap:pm,.. p'dat:~ liO thefr J!l,~cd:s, Eai.b' ~,ediae''Va~scu!l.pt.,e :!la,sgrea:t dramatie lo:r.>tl.Ie and :frl!reI' m:d1it~mer.u:; t1!Hl,g i~ the IGI!i!!p:l1a. pe~ji.Qd. Theutii@:m.ll Willi;:! (time: Imi['C!I~d i!iboulde:is ':irlldtb a1 IOIi!lW,Mst of the :b~1l. (]j,!!; h~l;it.e"B h£;a'!lFb:r~aSt.S. Dl:d SQI ~ortb)i!i£IJl!l'l:y c~DsdQlm :aoo, detemlllW!l§we: cbm'.ilI~t~rofworb ,of wh~cb. It\e. dida&, lu;erriWl!!!U, pl',t!!sc:dbed].~thl!ilrews .3: ml1l:('hrn~ to ap Wa1!ICRlilBng: I~tegll!:~ ,l!:~ :sJj~nd~e~ of fQ.rrm. T.h2ItylPe:SO'~ :m.'t~e\lffl.l i;m::hite:cJt:oc~ seJ~iWI,~o spriPg iPIe-o being :~m;dde.1J]ly l!ilZlIi~~£:the; ~tl!:die:r D de\il'ido~wefit tbmQh w,ll)odm poo'OO,tJTMS has iDle'illlitab~1 been mOSit.
P;I)W~[
t

E.'\l'.etJ'wh~te

Ibool

:!:helle

WiUSiJi:.ba!vle: 'bee~ ~ID:l:edwa~~"

ex.teif~3iIl, ·.wd

mt.emalllJctw:b:iMibno.trn!~e;.oodd.be:pJI!llf~.ed.. W~[Je it pOlSlSih1eto "tltba:e~ d!le.hl;iUdIs: ~t tbe d~cl: :a:ndfe-:Wsit • .cirep!t Jnd~. it ~ PiliiDips t~ ·th~ ei;ghl1l (:~nmlfJ' tbat we JlhG wid tlllD, cbao~g 1101' loUr pi~a,~ a Mum!0iIU w;h'el1ll ~~:tm:prne_MUifding; aJl'li ~ulplwille w~tejn th~fufle:Sl~tide Il)ftb~u;a:~Iti:virW. and ll:rtl!t !little ,oftTIilewlor.k 10£ ronm,1!1I;: c;e:o:tm'ieshad. :~e:l: b.'elen,destm;¥ed.. .At; ,il~ ,jiS"tb.emelillume:gu ·,of the, ~itbthce:E!!!r.UIr:f.i!:tti' l~uL:ad., those Qf E~!!!Im. E1e,pilaifll!U\ ia:~d. MUi!!illitti!pu~.,a;[e beu~j[
m~eif~ stuileiD;ts thaw iil~Y othmll. tid "s(!lDlie.DQt !\1Ilitlio'Ut pa:s~n, ha:!Il'e.'Ial:d~d thi~' .~ri~d as ·n:P[~~rtQtmg pe ~mtb. Qf
bQWfi'Ui,

Indian.~t. At Ellm!l, We
gre!lIlt

librinem ,~£!It auiHt1l!ric.r ~i:e2¥a;fio~ •.~£ tbe 's,a[li~[calve IlElm'lll'llEl:, b~&: a mQdel of a. sttruC4t.a]t~lDp~e. iIiI't hom, ,th~li:vmgmd£. audstlliiDd.C

mose.

l1er:!owned.

mOJllJimtl::lilt

is the Kai1'asa.

Th~s

fus&~e f~om jjt~'Lighr rSiIIIlk Oil:!!: It we:re intha: s]opmg sidleo! tbe bit &:o:m. 'WhIch it hH been: 1I!ZiLla!,v,a,ted. H~mt!be ~P'!. ,of 8if1~fb ll1i.diam (DRlIv,i~.!i!!) ,m;(;hil~~c:w:m', with th.ef1a:t[,oof5. l!ffiOtmOM ,c~d.c~v,e.s,. and !lI:o:med 'lIi~\IkI Ot slliiham is ~.ill dl1l:'~]flpe!d.'l'b,e m~ij:!mple _d. 1Il.'@5t o:f: ~{S c~pem5 ate Sb[ya. ''Ibe bfi5t-lmOW'Jili,[e1ie::f (F~g:, 7) 2 r,e,.[!e~ts Sm.va .iI.,PII:n'OliliiuiI,lDfi Mt;.Ka~~as3:! ..hiy,;rma. bel(\lw I!!t~e.mipling 101 ,S~llItt!th~.~ :&o!ll!wiithi~. a.nC!lSii.'\1i!!.. !i~ell.d¥.g,itwJ:thtb£Pimss_ii!!: ofhi:ifoo~.-3: DU!gnifi:.c.ent d!:,!!.mad,~aJtian of tb e W~>'SI oi StitaD.l.iUlI~ lie.s,is:t;l1~ce ait wOllin tb:t unh ts eiflUS(;(Wit [W,IStRI,n fGtge1tthart Im:diiaJ!Ill mfm~kJlY is, ,a.s.u.'l;:h a Wilatur·iI;~ :pml:QS}jphiy a'S 2n! al[t). On the nouh wall &ftb;e; Ocaiwnoll i~ a ~Jmidlil:e(iJ!e.\1IQ'ted '00' the dm~!lJ dveI'eoddetlSti!l1 mlli (.\:ol~ leUe~s ~£ lGa:n,~a, hJia!iS:'I1'ali ,!!.~d! 'Y~gna. AfJ(I~~d_ re1i:ef Qcalilp~~s H. angle m dn:~ i:m:tti!f~U :;'!lld fep[Ie!S~nts Shtva d.e.st~O'jlmg tbebriple lci~ 'n~the,Amr,aii: ~i!i,I;lOltiH in! the 'L'_£!ih'!!l'imiI,h~tion.
p.~~ba,'Pj ~

,

,t!~gt:ury 1ater:~miPtJ~e~I~' a

lq .... 'll'i!'Il1 ,.;iMWlI .:ihiv,ii:lI. '1'mce~

.

INTRODUCTION TO IND'~
of painting can been seen be d3!lted ,aboLQIt A.D..,

ART'

m

DB

the roof of d!le maiD ~e:m:ptell hich must w TbeDa!S<l ,Av,atan.. c.:a,ve.on 'the: ,RIme 'hill

Fig" im~ Trlmmu,

5:I:o,pe'!, may be ,da~dalmut -700; ,it cootains :OODle: import.a:ot ami "pfiwe:rint rue-fIl. of w'hith paiba:p;Si th'e: :6ne!s;t mp.ms.enta the death t)f ~'"IlIkas'h.i~pu. whelLli!: V'ishmiu lappeus hi! m~n-~oR iQllm. emerging from a pi.l].ar to, la, a farmJ bMd 'U'.mll dm s1u.ouldje'! 'of -dle impioWl .' kiD' who baa dgilild Ws,

,ommplts_".

P'tuumal) 'Ill ;f t h ,e seveD~ ceQtur.rare 'tD be f'oun,d lit ICm~
d:liipur.am:
VIlfMlll1.

The B"Ifavah!:a Sbaii;va mDWp~i;s at EJtUl'hanta ne:ar Bombay, " ]neserv,i!. Hmdes maD)' other Kuirpture;s ·of yeat im-,OLtanOI!" tbe weUB known ~OJ'olid "'fiim:wMi' (M.ahe:S:b,Vilfll m,mti) ~a, relief Ie;Pl!\eun~ ith~ ma[ci~se of Sihi~ ad P,M"¥'I!I,ti, and a :f'o... q,.eaded iiitawe oj i, S'a:d'a:5ihi"l<l.• m die IOUDd. In 'the Sotith1 the moslt fatitaua MOOuments, of PaUs:va M',t 'consist of ,em.avamd mrlnii!'5,: :ill'liUta!ted B'ttuc:tu:@lwn(des '(ritilthQs) ~gt in. the 'living, rgr;k ,iliQd known as tbe S,ven P~godas: the gr,e:a't rceUel IClIl1mPllSii!trrm ,known ,as Aduna's Pena:noe:, snd the slightly Inter ,stm~tl!lttd. • SibOllt T eWipfe;," allal!: Mahabrilipmam" ii, litde south, oi Madras. Sttuc1tU(a] temples (Ie <Ii. i lao is i'I.~ DliI tha and V i1tikwt:a

(c.Dujee-

,

Tbe monUlliDJ!Ili:S,i!;lt M:a&:abarHp1LlmID. are

,assigned IliO Nams i m.b ,a,,, a rman I (c'ir c a) ,625-65, Ch >th~SB of bis pEle!ilecessor Ma:bi!wdm~!f~

m'an I (~) t\'U~; ;aU "eaves'. The e~di~ 'e![ exeavab!d, shrines
indudethe two in whi~:baE,ie fowd fhe .['eplieS'.tn:tatIDlIU,
gf

5brilUi.shnO,

mis;j~g }d:t. Go,Vil.iI:-

dbana. ~nd the ,g;rl!at DUf,ga .. Mehisbawi'iili
and

tasay~na

V;WIIDrIillAuan~(ilDposi-

!lions" the Sattel" illlu:~ sua.team Fig~.lO.tb:B lata': group ,oOJil,Siis~i

.o!the se'\renpsel!d@~truthKill Itemf)Ies (Senn PacC'dss) ina. pw-:e Df'ay,idiElll! Sityle. some pn:scwmg~e desiign edt ilIncient Buddhist VilLa:w, ilnd one with. at c1IrV,ed fOof preserving "the form of bamlx.o, arn:hiteeturoe Mit Dl3Jf ~till be 8eeo. in EaS'be.m India. The H:nu:;tu.nd ,sho!:''e T:e::lUp1e" belongs tQ 'tlb.e time of Rllij,a'sUimb<l!.y,a:J:mj],o at :ilill,! Ute', DOt taur Ulan iliemnthce'ntmy. In OWlS!;, mmru1 at Bhuvan1!iShV\at. Pwi mld KoDMl1k" die
I,

cr:m:.

m-ntinulilus (ievefiO(prneQ.t (!If tibe N ortbBm style of ,u,chitec,ty~. with slopin,g :sided .shilluim~ I!Io~edl bF ([p,aJ.1iIa~, marl" be fellowed :&001 theflaifi: Q,r mur'fl" f'la,1t ttn,.l~d P'airas'u:mmeshvara tem:p~e o,f tbeseve-n.tb ,!If eighth. 'ea!!n'lQ' OPlwaW$. Simil!alrto the Pa:ras_ame:sbwimJ. tem,ple is, the gre~at B'apan:a:t:1e ~:p1e at Patb1tadaJ. and a 6ttf~ 'I!adjw; is, H'uce,bimaJIgudii ,t~lDple at .Aibol'l! _in the w¢st,. In. the ~onb.~n ;ibe 1[1I:1IlgJ:'a :ilnd KuiJliiI, a_leys :r~-S,llIective]),~ile ~ a .fo1lUlld,the '!'ock-i:~t tem:pljJ!j!il, ofM'lSfiB'!, ami Lfle sUiUe,tm-ID ~e'Pl~l~, of Eiru,j,na,t1J1 ll!M BajiJ,UI1Ii.
The hnl'l::lU$ andp;icturesque
l

Sun

tem.'pl~ &'t

Mad'and in

Kashmir" witb its! poiuted ;Q:k'es het'IilD,S:! to, ,the ,,,,~ry ldifferent ~oalII Kasha!it; 'sc::ho~l (A .D. ElOO-UOO).and: pr~uves, a, We:.'5~el1'liI! (c:1u:sied)
ilIppBa:mnce.

'Is;olaih!d sculpwes of ,e~ily mediaeval

.alate: 2e ~ompanti'i1'e~,

.few 'or .Utdeknowll!I. Tln~ coot. of Mathu:t:-a sce'mr5 to have (uOOuce:d. DOJtbing a:fitt:1!' the iii/til cenlllrJ. Of tbe Bl!1'ddbist :mDllaios al Na,];acnd:a. ,Sama:~h. ,and, athu N:ai81db.a!!J~i Orlss,a.sit~$,S@ttliBl mllilsl: 1M ,cdd.er than A.D~ but lime Raibeelill done: ttn~alid!itheiil' aecun()e classi~j

ficatiou. Budahbt br.c)m;es f,miIiP Ce:ylo!1! (the w,eD~knoWfiAvaliok:lteshl" VMa and Jambhahl iQlhe Boswn Mu~e:um) al'lf u-ndcubtedlY1oi the ,ejgbth '~lltUI'J" ar.nd 'in. the 5tJl'I1l 01£ the; E~W'IiI. Hefs., Tbe best :II,U!imt ... m tWjI Cli tile .snu~pture" hOWle,ver.is f~lJind :in the [tlJiefs atE'I'Il[3,and, Ek:p,1:umta ahead" menti,olled. and! jn die: compom;io:ll,calIDed AtjWllats; P,enance at Mahaba6pmam.. This ,cava. a \lC1'ue~lliock ,sumc,e; abQQt 'Q6 fit:. by 43 ft. in ef:e~ divided into ·twop"urts b, a dile,ft. 'The ke, 1.0 :tThli.e;me:aningof the QOImposiuoliII is ,tel be tOlmdi imt"hc: ~bMe a~d,"Oli
WOffi.p'PU.'

om. tile left 'D>f the

ddt. TW'O'inl;e~fet8Jtioubl\!e,be,efi

.'

oi£erced. According ,to that im,plied in, the po~w.'U name !. Arjllna"i5 P,em:alKeI the emaei.at;ed ,ogi is Atiuna, who 'thus pwpiUltli!d 5bi~_ in 'Ith.e Hi'llI1:nhl}l'll!5. in ID~~ to obein:tliwe. bOGB of the use '0£ fb,!! .miratulou;s; ,1i~ll'I.!! of Imrudim. Slrlv:a, a'pMl':edin. t'he £Om ,of a Ilm!!mitu. e.ngaged Arjurna in ecnp'~It: (the: Xi.rnm:rjllill;fa) Ml.d afite:r o~mms birnbeswiWedi on him ~e We8paiDS ,at Indra. ~fl1'[l'Ig q" anothe:r'
II

i ..

in:t~:retadQn,i,the wihQle loomJl(JIslti~!l_rep:r~~Dts, :the: deseent of IGM.fJt!.• ill,whicb use ,the y""gj,DlIIJlst bJ! id,El'Deified! 0llS, Bl:tagiRtba ~ ~he H~j'" fig:e:res: 1~~Up:,j)~tI '~he!li.w.ft :n:r~'ciJl;~;dill ~:PPO!l"l o:f t~~ sugusn@Jl; bliW!'I:: it is h..db' pq$ibIDe th<!ilt wo1l,tie!1' mcnl1fdl,evc;t hcay,ei a:.ctuelly .fLOiWled Wl'Ui: ~or'!i'e. utbe ~d,v~a:te-:!:ii ,0:£ tbistbeQg"bave iSlWp~sed. ht iilln:f ICiirse,w---e ba.vl!!~dmil.',e us in :ma8)1l1if~"l1ln:t :re,~~!@nt-atioa 0'£ a!, ~Q~mi.c

aoc:taimed. bi5" iaU lo:meI'5, Qfb~gs a;pipil:Q3:cMng tlicacet\~ IGiD side., 'Jibe; le!f:OO~It::is,WOSIU;~m.pI~~!!I'~~ aLlIlIj mlPst hav,e 'b:Ben IDm1'C s;o, whe:nr die m\Senll~ be:Iclw ~as:fiUled witilll 'W3Jti!ir. The-t'~RreSelllllt:ado:llii' ,cd eleJ;lbaots. d'I:II!'E <Iud I@itlber;:l.Imimals 3ilf:B :mastle:rpiEliCua:1 ~l'm:patbetiCi .i:_nteIP~emd_o~. 3i~d.wiJtb. 'liIesefiig;U!il'!!'i .tmJl1Sit bi! ,l1lmu(lI'B-d. IWe t.emt:ltkab]e: • M0~ FamilY" wch:i.;b. ~00f;S ilIli, anJso~tE!l1!lGe,UJ!'tlJR;, ~mme dutan(j,!:
1eN'Ii!!HI!:,

lei,tbelf'

to tile DO,rlilll.

._

,sECTION

MEDIAEVAL SCULPTURE
THE COUiJi!l! Qf Ind;a.g 'temple Du:ilding and .s.'Cul:p:wre ,COIliWlUU unint1ermptediy u.ntil. Ithe end. ,of the twelfth. ~le'lltUry :in N~rth~iP. Wes!liem and. ICAI'I:t1:'ali India. 'm the :tiIfd ~f the t'hirteeowoenrury in Orista ana 'GQ.kll1, ~~ 'lJp Ito tbe p.~e:sen';,day ill 50tfiltb ~l'n I~dia. The:

F.ig.· :39.. LOV-mII; Kro:rl~mk

r

crest iQf ·the Wilve which llO!e 'En its high.est in ebB! GtI:p.tl'll pe:riod! mI.d ad.wnc:ed. ftEI!!I1£1".during the two iillilocee!lmg eeRturies D.o.Wbfealcillg mt-o, foam. We see anmem'a:siQtS comp]icatioEl!,.beiglnenoo 0liP~ md iii :iiU\p-elrb t£i~ooJ ,IU';:OOI;D.plilhm:e;m:and patien~e£hat are apt 00'

is

1:0:-

femp~e!i.

I~

'tAiwe .lll~an,,, D

whe~!

.ilt

:mal De fliOtedl.,

man:y ijg.,e-~, ;a:lI."e igll'~i & bl't1!1ieKa:QMtile :artists. a thlmIg PdiC~tfcill" 'U~.~ lntlw~ :li!iil eail'lie!' p~dO>.ds~ 'w.lb!ll'll the 8.lICt~St·:S namle

is

'D~

be WmIldf i:i, t[~e CiOln!or. The marv:.i:sibQse. of d~~{lll."ativlil: ,(letaU.

lQo:tJ:o:ned ''Wb~n.

'n~ttb!l; ijg;u.T:e.~e

balil'ld. m hand with ~n att~[J;uati!Oncf ·dI~a.dlUll!:l e~.eme:JI't~'of deshlilil. and
tffile

~:cd:ng

fJ'la~e 'Gfthe:e:ssenti.a:1
:dc.he:Si 'otE tibe G!:!Ipta p~i!Jd, fhile 'eEBt.icst,.dp~ tlilll~0S lGf .i{QOO!Ir,ak are

not

1@!Il!B:

bill

50

v",l~p-

tJUQu:i a's

the

G~1l~
i1s- '33.LiIil~1 .. T~ple :W.lIJjWimtmVD~ we ean s;n~ak: lU, ItWs ~~~.Q~ t if 'WIt) ,:1JWi!'pt. a~ V;1'e·:sh'lltiJ~.acc~pf., the. m~dil1!val buildinss ,00J1Jid m::ulp!tlUlI."esin. !lind io.lt;h~~II!i1'Q ;;md
whlJ~ mifi.tior:tllll' itbe'~f Illiw.m Itnv!ir-0i111mmr; we ICaJm!Iot .fail 11Q
'1Il!lr~~.

Eluildbas O!l' :eV'~D the n:lil!f\i a.tE[i!:~bant~ :a.~d, .Maba:bdIDilln.1!DlI. Bu.t it:

is conti,. '1ilytefeli(!inl(l1'!

'to w.hi.llt :lspas@thaf

i~fiHl!l1e dillw!hldi Wi!5!ii~Qne: JLik~ :m,BtliI) , and OOVl!R1 w:hol'e; ~-:e;i1i:n;1Il witbmll'!a:ths 10'1' d~~Cle:m ICEj~ Clw.iltb :f~en la:ee. The ~t Lm,g~rnj:atlemJ!!i1ie • Orissa &;as 11iIeeg,~aJ]:ed ·the :fiu!liI:: Qtamp:l:e lOll ,3:. I:l~e~, fli;:lIiffiu t1!;mp~.
1I:'!£'iOotniz;~ and

tm:.ekc:bar,1IIiI

th~~e:n~!!!!5

,3n'

!

i~ India : it: datei5ifto. 'the.mnth Oil' t\mlih ,~ent\'lq' wi'w IllIilte:r aa6ulJDB. 'The grealt tOWei' is impo;sing bgO:ad,WaI'ids ;mddle x·U!lp~I!;'ii!d. eeM!: d f,1ill of beaut¥. Tb~ ~ome:w~:u1i't stanilsr J <lpnrn!!!tb:a f JlilOemaut') temple ;l"t "Pll!lri tia!l:iing from th,l!:~ateE' part of the eWe¥enro centuJ:J'" has 2, 'world-'wide~~tebrity 'througb Ithe MO'IlJ" ,CiU: fiesllyal. 'tbeBtac::k P:,g,OO ... at Koli1ll1!Rk. mllelle,to mll~.sno[t1h..e'IUt of Purl. is a:ssi_ed te the mildl£ 'oftbe ~hirte!.nth C;!'Dltu EY.3:pdi now Mrms one of the
II

i

mon
WlllS,

magmn(;ii!Q,trums, :M, India. The temp~e ,dJilii(;';ated to tbeslIII'D. an.d. d,os.erny eonnectJe,di. with the ll;P)tiS lilf Vis:buu. The.ain, tii!mple is, in tbB: fOml of!!: ~r (aa1'M 01::'

~)

borne on imOlense wheels ,dfilwn. bi'
D,

,1li.m.'S!£s. Jr~LI!t.bof the: S"f:U}ptYN ;maybe d'i$-'
C:E:l1}~d as

,detaned

iijljrlSt('ahOIill 01

dle Ka:m(ll

SlltWra.. ThUc .cl!ch extarna[

" of 'thelatJe-r Hindu. 'e.mpieli gepe;f,aijy we may 5"ilY' that: tbl!n! :is !i~p.Ns'emedi' ~ffemd, IlIDd, dedieate"dl to Ithe: deity au 'the. forms of Uk and all die OlI.cti.vities tbca:tC:Omiu,tilite; the umV,Ilts£, thr.-oulib w'bicL hem,aMasts. and 'bl' which. he is knOWIl ~O~ii; and in, ,sua, a, ~.a:ti:oliil.. E!SSi!Qtial ~o lhe re1igious.Iilt, the ,t:xetu.slOU led any M:pect DE lie. leV~1l on gttili!ind, 'IIi hUIIlI1EIIn CQQViemenee. w,ouJ!d ,amount to de;n~~a'm God. of Nut ,in .inCe1'l!!sttm ,t,b'e"" OrissEI:.o'temples are th05£ sf Xh8!imaho nnd. 'GwaliOlr.. Jama. n, 36. Dai~.o VO'iiiisbna,va Rna Sihaiva. :rMIgilig &-om. ,th~tenth tOI 'the etev~ntb centmry. The lCanliarya. Mnhad.evatemp~e at Kibil':iiumbo is 'Bm.oot imp~ piD:.:: the I!D.e:mlll as:p.eet '''ii'e:~ ,deafly :te"fJei;t!S,the mterior ~DBStruai:On.. wb"mh~s step, bJ' ,SUP' and tuminates in Ithe imm~~ Sh'illkara:. wbkb, is IOOceful, suiP"PO.fkd by !maHu r:ep'licu~! itseUon i,u SLQpjDSsides. Huell I~oo.tb.ete: are mDiI.a:tkab1e ~tic Ktdp~~es.;.\gd more beautiful tEt.m diose of 'IGo:narOik At Gw;aio:~ ·the Chamrhh~ji ~pl£ ldaU.S i150m the nintb C:entllil!lJl:. t&leSu Babllma.n:i T;e:lika Maadlk temples :frg.mthe 't,eDth 'ilt ,emell'£n:tD. The: lattK has ~ s:Mllhm-:a, but h'il-Gt8 bm:u1",vatd~ea I100f wlidii ,c:lh_Mqa, :wmdOW"Ii~f!it eilleh ,eliD,~"
I

~efti!C:ts me llie of the wcdd and energiiing: po~et of ,t'be liiUIIl: wi thin u in 'tirf.!: majority of Himlg: teBlip!es aD is, plaifi., 10f the utu.IIIIal d,oooration
aeGD:rii,t)p.D

fill

One ,O'f the: D.lIO'<5It fa,tIiI0U5 of ;aI Indian, buildinfS, is 'the Sbld,V3 temple at ;Solnetb" w~k-h 'was tme&tte,ed b,. Ml1bamiUid,of Ghazm, about , lm5 and liebuHt 'by Ku.ua:pai1a, in 1168. ,P:l!'t:ha:ps'idi,gi .mOft:re~m~bboJe ,mewevaJ'temple, groups lof Wes~m Iindiil'.. howe-ver. are' dloS'1\:of tbe Jams. at Mt. ,A bu, Girnlf'" and, P;alita:1:I:1i ,All three sl'~dace ,saaed bins.

where an ~g,l('e:gallie oitemple;s,fo:nnJl ,a.eitll' 'of tlbe gods. not u.'Iled,b, ' men. l'ho.se 01 Mt. Abu me: j-miltl,. fa,m,ed '(Jr' the: c'!Ili!Q-Qlll:ocJl .Ilrl.-, cac;y of t&eu- de.(;Ofllldve ,Si!oqllti:ilre; 'they aIle: built entird, ,tI:fwhite; marble! traIl.ported ,from. 8. di:stM~ of lweat)' Ol' thkty m1e~ MIa, carried up a hilt, fum: 'tbo~nd, fe,e;t; irq ,height. The must iD.ota:h~e: mm,pJe,s,Me 'th~e bUliilt II_, Vj.mmain lOOt a:nd ll, T:cjQfPillin ,'12301 Tei~palaJ,~ t-eiPiI];l:1e. is I'ven mow ela,bem:t-e ~ :II! detail lro.~ :1 ,dG~ (tilli~g, ;a b!l!llli ,m: ian~efs,1i is, f'eflmduc:OO in Fig. 3,7. The Gimar Stte POled 'W NeDl!inathis a po 1M iilil:-mJIe51 'bdt on fhe l:e;d,§:eoj a ,cliff :s:aJlle~ :hwdred ie.e:tbelowtbe ;SUIIiIlW' ,of the- ,hi11,m.tb oeek(J Qt ~Wl",ed in tie .fifteenth ~enlltty.. It will be ,observed" liOQ, that, 'atAJIimJ.ed;;l!bad" .. .I, lelsewhthi in Gujatat. there are ,maD¥ be--autifuJ mosques, builth,. ctQfQm,(I'D of dlel Jam, a:ad!iti:on @nd bar,d.., d.i:&'rln, &'Oll!l faiR work ~V,l!! m t'be ,omi$si.aA of ,QIU, KQ~p:tued
:6ePfleS'.

1

)

lNTRODUCTION TO INDIAN ART

l

;a.rt:biN>ct!ili!:'leof tbe.' HllySliltaJs .bas !likdd,be~n ~afJl'!iuea. 'm", ~stbe: seem, :in tb.t 1JiI1~![ d~br,iL':ilt. Y1rs Sb3;~,ya,t~mpI~ at l~ta:l!1i. the ~m~.hwM: liiIld. "Ir.tlIte-sb"",~aIt!~m;pfes,'altGada:g,SlJgda. Plup ,of oid ttmph':Si :at I.a:!iiL~ndi. 111~all'~Y aN the o]d!ei'iit. [n M~~
'n:!!, 1!1t'J'Ie em

Thee

l'

5,933

,
proPJ:r' the DU};st mlDKb.ble temples ate fotu:uI at Belur (aOOut 1111) Il!nd Halelbid. where mmp1e;. Ihl!d:mdlng WM sttl;pped 'bJ' tb~ Ml!$Silltm<a~ ,about 1310* The ROJ5aleshvru::a Item,ple lit Halehid ,is 01[1£ cdtbe ~ost tii;hl, aDlla:me:otedi.in ,an India; aImed the enme- :field of Ind~9in m,m.ology :b: ilb,.15kat:ed, and the de:edtalti life mQtibal't supe~r:iim,pO:sed
:in.

frieze, gponfrieze.

Jlt: is

moom,pfuu. as work was soo;pped hl" 'the

MmHlm!)D invasion. in. 1311. 'I'beiJ£'l KfIJ~Q!ify Gist inta:ct, teim.~iD.!i l":~ all' oIthieBuddb;lsll mODalllimes, aIld bm~~es Q['e~ted. I'I.t S3!matn, NJIanda.Wild elsewhere :iD. Bihar'. O!!'Iliai D.d Orissa during cbl! 'mid~D1ediev!U pl!li:wd" 'but Qft the Q,thet.f hamlrbeB~ddbist Md 'Hindu iSC~iPruf[te~ ,of the'Para: ~1JI':[I:astl" (741).1l97)t Meailuftldian.t: Ind we:U ~H'\l'£ld. The Ql1tu,tQ Museum :has, a w,g,e G!eties! Iud oth£:ri. Pl.II:,be ,seep at R..mchi! Samatb, and, in

MEDlAE'VAL SCULPTURE
'II:me mrger E'Wrope{!l~ and, ,j,. m~C8lQ :mu:sellllms:. USIIiI&iU, in a fi~e bl.acl£:. ~~, the)" <me ex;tiClu:d[ 'wlth,gl\~t preeisioll. of· d'ctaJU ,8!ncl ~oi:ldme~, of sm:f.ace:, hut witLout deep' ~e,e;liOiS. 'The; uSlilial 5iUl'ljt~Cts E'l:!C1:lf: in, Buddhist Mt" sce;Jlile&bgm ~e: life of itheBnddha Gtbe Bight 'Great Mwadels is, a h.'\I'Qpnte: ~uhject),.and r:ep[leJWlItacio'lJs, JMBodhisatf;¥,aS,l,

T<lt'iM. ;and ,otber: divinlues;. ,in BJindllil llft:. ,ill, wide :rang.e: of Shaiva and VaiSb:nava images. The:IIUllW £ig!!l1re"S, Oinme whole: alfe suped.o1" to' those: in :swue,:' 'tlJos.e in 'we B;e:os;sl 5abitn. PM.d c(JleeuOOl HI, Cal~utlm, iicnd thos'i! &,Ont Ral1,!1lp',Ur(p;a'I''tw ~otbe CaJCUtitl Mwe:um)1 are of excep't'ioD<I'lheauty. ,and! so. too" i!inump.n ,of smaUer Hindu. In~onzlee" DOW in the Ei11lstoD. Museum. a~d. tbe smaU :Sl!IIddbi'st b:roQ~e:s which ballleJ ~ately bl!ilil:ril {oUlli 3I:t NdpdJa. The Mm~5, O'f D.him;:m: IJInd h~s ~on Bitpalo are .e:ntio~e:d, 05 IthosE! til :llmou'S IWLster£ound.e;m, ,of Vateruha in 'the ej,ghtb ilindninth ,"i!Dtuties.

INSO'l1ltiheJ'B I!ii!dlmallil'll!nost .lmlKlrtant of the 1~f.Ii~ rm,ediievat te.,mgS is tki! g~t $hai.?f'a SbLine. o~t Tujolie. [m. impas.g ;EI~d fo~.teD.if~" ,la_ed. 'd:fin;I!i:, witb abi~Jh P¥tam.ldal '~~wlr riSla.E!!!!i'¥~i' tbEm,., sbttijrne i i~ Wa.lSinpKi'f.>e~lli of 'I;~Ds:ttll~tion by lhjH[iil.j:a, D~ ,lliibl{l,1I!IiI: the: end of .~t:entb, OCJDitiU1J'. Rem:ams ,o!the odJm :D.~ail13ian item,ple.,;: £af,'Iaill';t~a11l: fhemitdle of the £(I·l.!.Iit<~e;!ii!lli 'eent...,. .~ ~ lew. By tbemidcle lid the tlilmtell!ll!lic:elr!tNlQ![ :howewr. 6.estl~!1Ii:5i:f~ [ev.alved; :iiCi:lifi!;3idimg ~bat.l:ct~WtiCi il1!c;~iUi!dl!t:h1! Iltei!:lt;ptewJ' (·GoP,umm). p~IDmal!\e.d .balls (KulYanamamfa,am)~ the: ['e-t~ii!!a eerDl[!:les eh!bQl'a. gono'idJie CQ~tflmM and 'Gotumn br!'<a:~gr~i (If :!rearing: hnirsesor mo~ts !(Pli 0:1" UO~1l'!, nd 'the g~.t p:r.oo~!!ldGOmd(jlS. a Mo:slli: Q£we So~tlh I!iiidlm sb[m~.·fro.mJ lJ,5(lita l75t\l [CQ{fi!jiM Qf a~ aClcl!llw,ubtii.!DlIiI, of
l[
j•

f;Iec;tii.a:ns

OIi1blJut'3: small

and, iwtlolilispih::ruo\!!s

,CI!IIl.tmt. :sbrln~D£

gm:tt~'

the:. e:no:rmoU!!i, t1jitkW3:yiSl :dm..g m:_ilil!Ove eV'eQ'tWnge1sB~ ,S~Wng their di~till:li(:ti"'!I! [c:!b~Q~hI!.1"'t~ ·tl'b~Ijl'£aJiIi: ~a:~ ItiJ~es:. I\lrrs (If the: tempJe: <li,t 'G.hidam~ @Di6l (If the m,a5;t i$ac!i\edl. [01~. ,southe-m shf'jQ~~ ilI:m1d!edicatedWI Nialmmj~ :<meas, o.fd ,as the: ·tenth 1M e1e"'eD!tb!l:eiQ:t..,,~ the: N~l;tJ',il\ Siblla., Of' Dam.!;in;g,ti3!tl [o:E~ht,y",s:m:omtiQ!:!!{tJ:,
I.d
II

pWl1~ .i!i,bGut ,e'iiEllbt fed
,B~em!llnt.

hii~liDI. be.~l'lgth.e

oldie:s;t aD.a:

:m.~!t

&eaultiul

'!

l'h.e: PHva:L;i,te[m:p,l'e: Is (lIIft'b.e f:c;l~~t:e:et'l:t:h o~6fteen!th c~nW!liJf. th~8liMt Aafe.~;still IalJC!'. Thi!~e :is an ea:r~;, (~g:U1Ree:n:m [~entlm:'J') m!lImlg;Nlm 1'Qth~ P:e.all::temp:h: atV:~!I'I.1tt ~ the g~3.·terpMt G,l t&:e w;Wiple.j; at: Sm!~I. T:ilid:pai;il:i, Kllmb<,[d':Q~a:m" ltaJJlIfi!5!b.v,a:mrn, ejtc.• ~
.1?11O~ ~1J1t!he :siXteenth
.3J~d ~eveD'Ile<i!!mlith cei!l:WU!l!'.!\.

The lYiaS alt 'Hu;mJ~:;dm;ust: ",5;piia.ili)):5! ;mJen.dEl:~e:a.H;um!p~~U 'VfjaJ!'iill~3,ga[~w:as :ioUlnd:ed in .13M. atmil!l.q:ilts~e.fll.illi _dle:!i" -Krishna ]iJ,e;v,l!:~,~, C~JJ!OO} :ani was isaC~~B.nj d!'1lst:m.yi2d.m l565 .• ~<!! Dea. lb:r~l'W w.hnm. tthe:bM~.ty of "~b.e- [e~Ey 'Wa:S ~IH)inl;yIl1II!:!)e. W.; ill Y~Hfm SiDNjer :3iid. a polished! p;nt1el:tltan and! a pa:t;[iOI1!l .1~~EU1Je : of

'e

SOU'fHERN INDIA lO-lBTH CENT'URY

55,

with hismo qUi!ii1ens.hebi, Wiorfhil]r commem(im~d in the DeauriRd , ~u.. ss tis.,ei of the Srili.lii,vasa P,e:ruma:l ~e:m"J,~, t]lLllilllullli, Ti~iU,pa1i. a 1:':9 hi•• and. to :bis qQeBWli. ;Is doe dl.~ m!iii'St 'ripl,~:p(lid'bWildmg, ia chie: ,etity. the Vithal8( temple. till! west builJdlimliS Itll its kind. acmthem.

~

Indill, ,MIdi W, thJ words ofE'e:Jguson. mukine '!he extr~i! lEmit: ,in Hmid magnilficeil!lJ;i£ *0 wmt:D the CD~,vidian) stile ad,vmUiied. ~ Xa'da'llailuillJU, 'te1Pl1'p,Ie(~I!tesb.a). 09. the otb,e;1C band.b~iS plain ,ROne walls gd a fin i!:,oofine. whieb lend, ,il D'eeuJjar ldiigmt,- 'to, the pillared: mcr.1iidapam bdome i.t. 'I'hete is: RIse'an Unpm;ta.mt POtlrf;'i' ,of JailQ~fD,pl'e~ andi, :sewml E'timI(3Irkahle 'IiItODollithic Br,dmimrlmi ,KuliptUra (NQmr5imb;ll. IGane:sb:l). Thill: ~~el!it tlemple of SIIUl::dlueshwra 3i~d,MmWhii3i£ Madum, is 'to ,m:odem,uatv,e:Iifer.-s:the Lutk:liilo:v;m, of {he Dl'ilI,1JjI,hliarn teMples: it is ma"qb' due t.o TituJ:Wli1aiNa_ (162$.l..659) , T1!ufm.Qstt~tbbt~
(TmmmlBi e'lnn:dtl)') and, ,the :ba1!l,of ,BldmuSl'md (i(!"~Jll.llWII$ beiliU" nine bundted, Im,d, e..ithtJ'4ive. the , p~~ of Steeo. ool\J.D!1111!1s beiDg 1('!C~u,pj~d libe Sa;hb~pe.thl SJhrin~:)1 ~d!;e 'b,. 'pi'1J!us ,nf- bolth .'e, \l,~tte:iI'mle:b ,e'I8IIb~te.ma:niY baying 'lifei"~ fii1Q:'il!1i; fomDng pa'['t of 'then- :mlss. The ,chol.!!fu:r U!ok ,tw~l,,&,~ to 1imi:td fro:m 11623 Co' 1635. It, shoukl lila: Ilemafked ,tIm:t in the, M:aI:ras Pmidtng alii!., ,in. T:raNDIC,o!re 'th,; l~arned ,ttIlditiou of~mp)e building hasbgefi pn&lllfYOOJ bufldinl" ate the V~!Ildla M-.d~pa'm

_the P1!esent day. The craft tlad!irliQmiiliR ICifefulb handed! ii1mlilD by thefCamma:~afi, ,Of Sl!i.:!pe:riorbdtmlen. who claim .. ,,eguaig;-wi_d,

.BrahmlUiiS; these Kammalati ;
Ceylon.
lill'geliy

and tb,d!!' (lonterers. 'the Nay,aods!MQ of of Soutib Indi<ilR origin! still pOlSsessand ma:k:e: !!1St o,f

'.

,sam:kdt ttr.Ii8!US'cDpfS o~' the S,jl'pa S~tU IiU'vle:m~u:um: ,eq~. 'net~ 2If,e wt£W:tio£l Bilndu tempJig,'ll;m the twelfth and tbkmntb eel1tu:rie, :in PQloMam;V,Q; in Ce~lQIIIlo

I~

g!;eaJl'; ~9I:11th~~Jl :S&G~l 01: breDze co:ppel" lalr.ml~iliera~e'~y! br~SI5)1t!lu!ldi~lg. The liOlltS 0'£ this madiitio\l'l. g~back·to f.ludtID~Wsf ,arrt:~nt~e l:!!iotlitb .(Amlollft.'o1'a;t:i!B~a.d:a!. Gl!iy]~n. etc). 'The leafli~S't Iid~:~~~(:e to ~I1S~t:i,o~! Br,ahm3iMe~l

We JiIDa~e,still t~· m.E~[ro. t'h~

I{actualb

mg:

meti~.imlag:e:s.hQwi!:vli!if, seeiI!M.~Db!! 'til,ar!:: of T'aFtl,Jiares

saintllJ lSet up 'h.JRajara:ja De1!la: t(abiluit 1014). Fi:g~rel,
'of li;1e

:t:em.pl~, msai~doM reie:rdng . to Igu:r~ a.f S'adyoi!,

llIei'tybimseil:f mEt ldv,e been. miadilt b!i:cfoli€: dds, lof S~y!a a:l!:efOlmd i~ ,the:
DuI!jJmW!p~e :alii .AibQ~e,ili! ,tho!l!lgffii!, ,dtanc;fl!~.figures

But

the Gup:~,pe:ricd L~d~11~t[e
tate:[ ,at Eh~ipbal!ruta.cI1!'liJ::. ,we

do

DClt:

find a:w:o.nsst il:ue
,e~<'J[c:t

s:l1o.ne-is'Iim~lPrur~<li;jy
p![~mll;'J~

orequix!.1I1emt ,oi tlm~' Nitra:ra,jii$i and O!~b:!!llr tY,.k:Ei~. meta), im.lg'H., awdiHt is ~a be: mkUill!d,tmla:t ,th}~ Dm"hlu!lll:bc ~1olffcI1JInil!~ ing,. ~O! fIlIf as Sb:aiva and
V>tii~liIII1!lil!\i!.aima~Els ilIlIt ,ccrn~

Icc;rneil!, de.ve~CiP~d 1000Dte~PD£;.'fil~o,usl, wid!!. 'dle t:heol!ZlU' w"mic.h th~refJ,eC't. i~..

the: nirnth 'O:f~mb Cient~Q1'.W~th thepo.sdbh::: !ell}Cl.Qtio~ '01' the B~lW'Niliti3!: :raja.M w.bidlrlhe dl!l!te: .iB
:a:IMUif

.l:'E:ai 'by saMe <!is' Il!iq_Va.tlillt to A.D., tllO (:mo!r>e U~e:"[y.

JlSlJJ)".
i!i!i:lutbem

't.ffil:e Clld,es'~
~~E01i1:

.b:QiWGI,

:appear
Fi;g~II§\.

~GI ~l;:!tffiI!OS!~

:&~mtne Shiw of
P~I'I1.n:.J:I3.ruVIiiJ. P~m:a. B,~hl!J: PQIO~{iUR. 'C~~on

lniQwm

De-y,afe.s 8

'me

Como:mbIlJM~l!!l!a!m, inRQst(;l~ •. ~

ilIlod Le.r:liol!),

Il!'kJ ••

~

,m exce.]]enc

Tb ese an only b~ da t0d by ~ ::sense of ,style: f!!1!Iooem uamp.~~ ate
w.ll1!rkmau-

ga:!illi' Jdatiye:13

ship. Tbere are proD.. a,bl;y Qthers ,clld'e.r amlil pedll{l!p5: ~[!IiiI~!Il' still ill

th.e ~em:p~esOlt' huri~d. Th~ m~jDrity I5t
IiQutlleHi
bIO[u/~ s:.,
3;::],

m~ght be' expeCI:i!d. Bre

,srm:a~'Y<I,Tbe Nota:mj;JJ tJp2; illl parti (l: uhu~ ~!iery wellkno !l1O!:tl. (F:~ t7). Sicnifi£a!:m:e
i

mi b.a s ,o:ft~ne~p]ain Illd ; ilt,t~lese'nti th~c(l~c
he'l1lIl

'0£ dlisrlift~m

~Five.

actiy~t.Y U"a~c~aihlt'y!i:. Adionrs,') 'Cit S,mva. th~ drum in .th~ ~i,ght hand. indica tilllllg

'.IiIi!I_========;;;]
m

c.[ea;tio.:IJ. the me _ the ·Fig. 'tIS. ,sEilitedBliillUl.lI. ~ PO]GI!lIUKIl;".~. Ceyllllll ldt, in!;'!)lu:ciQ~ ~ndrh-e ,dance: ';(1.11 ci'Ilu:llm:~<1 magni~icO!JI; co,Hce,ption. of tbe Absolum in al!'ti:~n b.mkM.' m,;;Inifun.m 't (I(I<mpli:l:m~!liilrarJ'to t.be aVl/liI'li.llaJ (lJiomiln15este:d)" symbol tin: ~i'l]gam.wlli£hI(lll:'mstbedh~~ (immovtlIb!e,i!;on in most Sba~v,at~mp]e;s1o Other Dana of Shilil~ com-monly met' Vri~id\in m:etaJ.mni'lg:e.s M"e I~h~ Bh.1k:sha.n.d:aMurti':s~ DlliksWna Murfui. ;;omdt:be va!~(!~S U.ml'!. Pa,~a tier ,Shin Ka_ ii. '()if Ith,B Shaiva
S'<):i:1'I ts,

M{:!nikkaV accaLf~ Ulig:;.49)

0,

Shnld~I:iI MiU:ui Sw,ami frig., ""

App.at" ~wami and Tirugna.n SamblllTidha 5\v1l mla t~ :rilZ!'pJ:-.ei~ntled!. bel' cult: im i'!ge;s" cdun &1 comffide.raii:de :imjRltmfcJ,~t.we fiQ~t el";am:p,]e:!l: h-e:il!g Itb.ne in the Colom.bel, M~;e~m. V !lLisbDBVa, imal~:S are

Gm~[I'~"" :£r,eq~c!liiI,t.hutsO'mll:fin~ I~m,pli!:s alEe koO!WJ!ll (9n~: Il.)s ~@<n M:u.seu:m) ~tke £@r[mlI!Si'IIdlu1:e.\fi.sltnu a nd Li!i.ks..bJmi~ R.am:a g!Jioups. a:od ,d iilu::iml :and 'DdI~r i,o<rm5: ~f [h~1l:ClIiUllllg.Kr.i~b;1!a!3" and Q~ tbll!' 5-aim:s, Ml1~'U:lli!iIlIfl" 'G~fUda!..t.he Tw~~lve Am"r,!!'iI!lr~, aud Meikanda De'lla. The'[l:! is a.]!!lt'} ~ ~m'a~BIa'£ S~a~m:t the C(do.bo
IntJ'he liIl\tllsemm.

Of DJr3 vidJan pOImtil!llJg;, die ol:i:y ,o\l:d:1~.amJJ:e to which

[

Cilf!!!

.'

r-efe~ Ill, tbefin2

'e!'.iglll~ ..a:[mC!d ,Na:t;J,~.aj:a.f:res!!;;o oftbe

5Ibiva~~ple

at'

,SOUTHERN mnlA

10J..18THCENTURY

I

EtbM'aI1UE' in. Notltn Travi<l!I1!~ ~ Dutmo __e s:y.stemlilth::: !I!<lkbt fen; pdn:tilsmifi!l has k!gili!n im!aae.lntb.e o:l~t:t pa.lts :mli 8,0. W~ m{lU!: D!~g[ei;;:too.

sud@Joes:

Ctf'ftili'Viii!:AOom:

;:!Jo:d

Dth~f 5QWlth~ll'ot!em,fI~et,

MOI~ :wodcnlI.

Fl·,. ·49. :5~

MIIl!JI'd SW!I!:IIIl: ~rmll

waU. pmW!lltillA thi~flilgh C!f,<,u:me. in e:~dC'l.'lUO~i,. hGlwill ver. ~!i'mdeotty noo:, ~g;I:'~~ivab,Q~ ·a:1l GI.d~a:dlidD:n! S!@mEl ,of f.h~·Sle a:~e le~~el!Dlt~d ~:niSiIu$.

Tbe lat.! ,£'.iigbt~en~ and early nmetee!lltlh Ice:ntUlll POttrd,ts '0:£ T:;:mjoIe fe:p:rese Qt iQ the main 8!1i!I offsh~ t of Mo,gbul ,a.rt.

AltCHITICTURm
THERE
1S
;at

UNDER MUS5ALMAN RULE
to

'\1\as,t

v.a:di!.~ (iii blill~.]d~ngs ;atl!ldiPilICIO:IJJm.!1!'l'!Itswb.ich ca.e.

~e@nstroI:t'!i!d

in India tll1,'Qugh 'the: patmna,~e

(liE P.atb:~:n. Mogmtul

ana. ctb Elr Mull a mmadian

f~1l!!:rn. The~e canIDa:!; be d!e~ilg~atm Mus.liGll

a~\bi~eJ!,";Ulre s:lJrictly. muau:se

the$ 'Wii'!['".e- p:dm'nrllv die WQ~k of 't~El ~11?lt\~i(Hta~ind igenilus c:m:ft:s:meno:fi l~dl~!li18nd. su,tlt a!ren Itttj!S"ilnS <IS ,ea:WIB wj,th ihe iillv;J:if~~s~ r:t!l,th!bftibaJfI, th~wOll'k m~, of MI!.i!l51i0'l.b~iiJClI~;J;s. T.be[d'O~e. it is, b~st ·ttld~;'lil wi tU ~b1spb ase Gfb~~dlng iliS a dn,~~o;p.. m,eo:t gf Irnd~nn .aKblwctu.~~~I ..';~:r 'ML1:s11~'1'liInfluence. :I:1l wis •. ay, i we :!lbl ,keep 'c:~~ of t'h:.~ two extf,eme: \flew.s wmJc;i1 aI'e.pfiIl:'l!lalent ;'lIiliHllM bi:sJlO:riarn'Ssf lndj:a,nart ~ on~ 'we: ;shall, not o"!1eli~m!plilI;j:s[z;~he t 10:1',1\: cf each fitw rle$~giQn w'hkh 0Il1105J1ll: ie India 'by du bbing t:b~w@ik.
pmduced
lIlilnl1lC[ .~.ts lm:petu 5, 1iJya$llict<3ltian

ride ~ a:nd!two~ W~

sbiall

.l1ilIote;m:pha.:sijIJ~ dI~ !!;!!DntmuitJ' of .Indian ,del1',e:~O'p.m.en;l:s 'widulllil:' Sa~!li! 3.~:r~~ess ,of t.he ~C!t that ·the- ,ce:l1ruttm n,aditi)oD w.as- &If:lShntl, r,g-il:a!a~ by each n~w flljd:l •. ',[ba't ·the. Indian buildellshald 3Jc:lIiE!\\!iI!d .!!<llrealb .slkill b" ~h.e Itilm.1! thB:M~~a:'!iIlI,[I!I!HI,~lani'> dme t1omwdiii'l. is eV:ideJl~ f.mll!! trlbutepai:d. b, l:hi! 'CD~q"U,tf.Ot' Mum.ud. qf Gb:az:ru to tbeit gemu:s. Mte[' bW5Sil.ck of MildDllJ!rEl.. i.' 1"h~~ Me b~re,••,, h.lil:wl[Ioh! to a idl! nd •• , at.hQ,Usawd e:dHme;s, aa fi~ ast;h'e: mffi/ili of ·the. fuitilf'ul'. E.0E' is' it ~e.b'tJi;ut thi'S1

me

IJ::i;t:y

ha,'a:t'tailledit.!l;

mUUflns ,~f ~illiM'Si nor could
~tiDd

'(ionMri<)1l but 3t the ~!!l1ilIse rol.fmany' 1~tl!in .0000Qth~1l' be 'consWi!cted under .a; of twO! an:tu[j_~s.". .And 8:mO~g ·methou.sa:nds ai' Uptill'\EH;' dla:t
plie!lll1!'GIt

M..:h!mud

to@k il!!01!a,.thEl.:['e ~'e:re o~l1'EIinl,OOIP-¥~ft:ime:n.wbo

tiofaurUd ~b,e taiW!IlUS m ... ble: _lil!d gtl;!mIin:: P!l!O!Siql!le~ callai r BIi.,lcle·. w.[~b wbliclJ he ee~~brlltle:d b~ vk' t~rle!i" T~el[l.ets, Je'l'icil:ence of lb.!; $,ynthlt~b: beltween tL'JI!am:::il!!:nt Indian u.d M.uhamm.;:!.dWII.t'e!chrrlq~e:!l,in 5w;cb E. motif :as di!,e S(o~caWl~d. ~b Of Sma~~.~ p0:Ult'4la. alc~< If Owtl!! ].asb at 'th.e m,cb,e mr~e W0.& of

b~lped "Cemestim

,-

ARCHITECTURE

UNDER MUSSALMAN RULE

63,

a B'lJ)ddbist or '3Dcien:t Indian. sa:nctUai[)1' ilind ilDagrrlii~s, what: il: waHbl ~ook !me when image ullder it has been rll!iInBviI!d,one can see the 5a11J.lU~ kind. of ;.lfd. as tbe Mihrab. Of C~inlm~ liIl'a"n, iu~

me

mllill81ree tDpmdUCCJe each Sity1Je;.~lilIId we do, I1€U: km:rw' which Qm.e: ii 1: sr. Similw::ly. the, <'!.ttempt to io.terpt'et the: diBme IliS an Arab inv.eotiion. 'shap~d afte'E
flUleDCl!!S

the wa tet-m~lon. !'O' .a:Qund.
oot In .. Ar;ab.ffi, .i$DLVii.UOUS. he·e:al!m"se: the: pmnteid domre

bad! .ilk,e;alliy o~-~U\~ in Bu&:ibist, tbe H.b:!,du. Et:Jpti<l)n, 'the BahJITmilll1 other stJles. AJlRin.

the the a,nd. the

\5i:i!ilactii~e peJ!.dentive. wbic:h is aSG:riibedto the At'abs. 'Wu 'probilllh:~.y';1 toDe;cclof:l ,of . .mm:lI.atm'e Mihmb nichWi. tak,en .&:113. the use o:f semiQlllndrkal t~les;,set!n ll!Ionar:,

p.1a~e: '. hrie}. 'flomicie arches tba,t s;urPPJ!I'rtd, the: d!og]!es:. ru: tihe-se i~:a.rut,l!',s began to ,e:nwr Indiau (lIIichi-·
ill
Olr tec:tultie. JDl)r,e &:equently afilier th.e Muhammadan iU'lilasiQus\j they .may, buw£ver. be del-· cribed as a l!!DiIJUi! cO"ntd~

bu,tion: of the Mus~bnan!i~' lililth,.·e; nadji t~O'nl, w~th whicl! ,tiley ~ntlITle.s[Zli:!d. The P.iJJtb:!l!fl tin,~, who :__:--.: iol!o\!illed. ne ~~othet Jn quick o
the :sU!OClI!'ssion on the: thrOB!!
'of

~1!!!!iiJ"_ !!=:5:~i;"--· Dl!lhl and North-Easlliar.n ,ud
rCeo·trai India. as well as; io Fig. n. Kwu_b lMUn ·the Decc.an, wetJe mveter.am· li;llli:tdef5, because thiey wantedtJQ

INTRODUCTION

TO IND'IAN ART

,display their: :power by eacooJl, spfeliild:id vmc:torytQwe:rs. impIegfW.b~e felts. 30d lUKlt:l'fioJls 'Pal.l'lces'lho!, 'PJa~e~ U 'w;el[ IllS1milus@IaUil!I1s ta man them.,s<~lves iIDllILOrIi~1 after: death. So a gf,e,alt mau:y mB:nu,~ menrn ca[l]fe ,to be: UQdu th~ir reigns both at D:ellii ar.u:lthe Pro~d.lil capitals of Ajmet. Juunptllc"i 'G"uje:rot,Mal "fB,. B~ng,al, IGu.lb~f!!aJ, flil,a'pl;!:[ and Sind.

Vii- 5a.

M!olillU,!:: IIi

AIH~&hru:I liE Dhulb

A,t: fmrs,t. the, Pathan:s 8Rm£d ta' nod i.ndle ,oolo,nitai!l,l!d C:OUitsi of ,the Jain '~~mp]e5 :r:ead"r :made .!llosquetii by :['iZmO'!i\',mg the s:tn:n:t..£ in the midd~e and, by Oi!Cting a pew wi};Hon the w'esr~Il.dOfoeilwith ~s wibi.cbpoifl.ted dle \V,ay t.o Me(i~~. I.am'r.tbe, bega.n 00 erece screens of ;a.iI:',cbes in ft'flD~ 01 ,t'Ila£: lain 'p:itIl;U;s and t.obave them. carved by Indian antiisan:s in il nidl lind,

inmc:ate st)le wi,tb m:b:ed

Uld. reijgfous ·wQtivt.s., Them iKe two! ell fly W,qSg1lU~.S. Q,~.e l!.it Dellii and. anaitbet at Ajme:r~which .. e M m8iiimW buih, '!iiul: of old JIrin and Hindu t.em'ples. The n~ monument in. th,islUu:luiehi7 lis the Kuwb Minar, a gmnt mW1llet, 242 ~~i!;t:.in JinJeire,ht ,al~i:Jl 4Bme:t 4inc.:be~,m .diame tel'. II:!i .main (IOhUDft is pm'twated n, fouf P:lroj,~ctingbalccnie:Sli the fim
n.i!llturnJ

---------------------------------11---------------------

t:b!e second at. 148 lee,t.the rlIruWl alt 181, fut and tb,e, foutth at '2JL4 '~oot: from the bose. the: heautiful tQw,er e bv~ous_1:r dii"tla,Sl fllnalt engtue;eriDi'!:skill lIHd..is ~:llsrintt with 1:he am_hition 0,£ ~a:b,Dillti1et. ltu tub..ud~Din!to tOlu.cb till!: stars. Th.e A[tuwub. If:ieattlbe Ku,t~bl' usmaJIU in 'f!mpeeti:'o'I~ but: a fine n:ample ,of Jnd:illiD '~'ork ulildel' MU$:1im. enlers. It ~,the oldest knoiWn mralll$[II1'l'1m'l • l!lildil. ,In the same "ldlillitl' thePatbao king. Ala-·u:d·Din Xhimji', .had a strU(lture bullit. w'bich uO:l\l;l;S tluit: by now br!dia:DI ~gftSDU!JIIh_.ul fl'Igtef~d the aliWlSb'm~s of cle-e:of,atioD, blio~bt by d_}e 'M!l!Islim_s" fer the ,deeOGltiYepe:mil1nfi!!'esm tm:s building .intJf,od.llCe B In!sh. g;~~~ >Df ornamentation 'Ofil_ tibeol~e1:' :&imp~:e. -P:a:t:hin !-~'I&'i. The rugged s-impWicit]! g-f the Patiians refl-5'se:rt~d m,ts:e.lf. :after the dellth of AIa-ud.~Dlnl' 'I;lbe: f'o'iii't1ies~ caUed T.urglakabnd.lo'I.!!Ddeel by the: StefB Wan1.n1:. Tualak SbaJh" in 13'21. Thie tow" ,of l'utlak, ,eo:.pleted aftJ:i .~ death" also expI~"Sse.s l[be: sew Sl:erlil 5i!mplid~. The Lad! tomb!, .m!: ie\l~nm'I1!iW em:pb:atlcaWIIy, bard and b,a,re 'than. tbe:TUlSreilk mraWllG:iellllm. Sbet Sba:b'SJtomb istbe last of suie~ ,S'f P,atban bl.1tid phliees. It ~s mthermofe elabnmtetho,n tli!:el'l1IIIsf,ak 'o:[ Lad! 'me'o;uldahi~ but is ,still nfl!Jge4!1 .• isimple and solid. The baslcphm of .a 'Path ~Ul! ·tQ.II C:'41nmts of In o~t~goDaI 1 jieeit in dli;mu:ter .•5l1!miDUnded. Dy' iii, v,~rud8)b- of i:tpMtIlIll,m t.. IttllJlllibly 5'0 ·the 53me ~,orm. e!u:b hoe being ,omamentloo by three-arehes of the stiIted !ityb~. and. 5U:pipo~t:ed b) d.n'u,blB ~qu;ate COh:lIlrfiS. Gla'dy,deri¥ d fl"om the Jams. it bas ,ch~ged, co!Dple;tel1! :so' Walt the 5tJ'le be81'S no r,eoClgn~z:ab:te simUmtF tc, i:ts Pli01iot~. 'The mosqlil:e&of ,the: J!atban~ were as :!i.imple es thek lllombs. Towards ,tbe time: or Sbex Sbah ther,e .is visible a lo:ve: o:f detail. t,,,ile:iOcin_g a. deb,=- ima;gifll8ltion. But as; l!io.pa~to ,timelatter. more 'QrnliDle:ntd. mos-quU. the CQDtou~s of the: 'Kala Musjid in Deihi,lof w'tam:ce. remain b&E'd. The hillmMdingsof thilPathanl are the; mde~ o:~ therougb and readJ" c-ultulilo! bi~h thlJ' brought. w The I'UGiledneSSJ 0'1 P'~tbat'!i architeftufeWi'li, meUowedl in ·the Muslim. pro¥lD.cW. kinQdOlmS t&mugh tb.emou in ti'lil1l~lIJm c:ont:~t 'Whi~h the Su'ltan:s 'EStah6sheja" widt lib\! local tuditions. To, the arched domles a!:lid m,d iating \l:3!Jllmlts, o:f the mOSll1_ues of th.e Nllfth. theft IW-e:re add,~ in toe lii.ttle lidnglio:ms:. doisters dinK s:uuoun'lllJed the Iil:om'ts; w"hU.e the; gaJilmu 'of tbe int:e1I,io:[~e:ft e!lalbomtiedi with. s'l:uart S'lU1'II-lt!
lat:: fI1£I!IeL

m

me

9

,
p~Uu~, i'.adke.t reap-imls. b:Diri:ml]JtalM'iCbwa:ys, b llli!e!:lu'!nD:e.r c,f t'h.e,e.d1lirl amd JIlI!in t.emptlfs..
[!'I:'~d

~_& ~ffhl!: :!da'b,s: iImi

The @lcilm~sqU:l!:al!: J:a;UmlIpuris: d:istiiDf;liu'isbild by aOI!l!!Dber IOf t:ilr~ed, piJ[ats. wbk:b. wepe o:bv~'I]iIJ~1:y' ta,kg:!J,fro. amm,pl& Tb~ Ju:n'U:I~a! MiusjJd ,~fI,the :sm~ dltl'. ~mmre'n{!(!I~lby .shall. 'fhml'dm io 1419~iI1Idl fifWL!ik.cdlHldeitHUMI], afuOlYItWitJ',i1!.iUi'S; Jl~Ui~'![ ~.liiko'We'li!e:f. Qlattempf at·ahl;s0~bing Mj:ddlle; ~tB'm Rod EOp~iBI~~n~es" The Lal DanlJ';)z,SIi
l'hoaql1e"1

a:n:d the~on1:5'

A~ala, MQ$jid~ ~

~'l!I.Chm;Oit~ to the lndia:w,

n:l?~e5ibc::!tll Hindu ~~d. '11:!!d)dl!aJ~st~ S~ta, Ki R.<IlIS\:J[ W'atS a]:M~ 'fte:!I![de: n~ar JaU:h:pur w'htc:b ,",,115 ClO:P:!V'~,n~d, in'~Q am Qs;q1m, 'tI, Ibmhillll SbaL,
:iiI!!!

1416,

hi. 'l3~ii!ii\at'. ,eS.p;eciallil' in ,Ab:mecilaimd, r'h~ s!"nthesi:s 1M 'Hindllil ani Miu~;Um.uadil:[on:s ~ ~)ti:ts mostpfdi«:t.

Wg. $3. EJJbmel:P:m~

o:f otMoque

ovullOW~mdWesfem.

seeol1:d king ,ofl d1:eMwMillim:adl_, ~!J:yna!liqr, whic.h l:niia"ren9JIWed KUl'Il3.'V3tj. 3$ .AluEielMalbad, and. bIl:;Pn .~~ .a;d!o:m ;~t wit'b, s.p~ew~~d b!!d1~p. ~miOS! 'beau.tiid 01: dD:~ ilthMi! )''1111~ MI!m!'i~[d.pel'aps' Me 'o:~:'the: '.O's't bta:u:tii:f!ul :I!I:Ig:.'ltlJl.U~S in the East. 11: m'¥,eflll aIn a:ooa. -@f 211001 [5qlUaN feet,bi!i~S 382: reiet by ~ feelf.witb 200 piUars. s.u'~P'!!,ntimitli1$ dames. ;!lr{8ng.oo so mill: 6em:litldle tlme\e::!:I!iI.',eJ 1la[g:a a:ea: hit~.erth;n ·.e· !l:Hkers..A ~Q:mJPa:riOOD o~: tlrls; ·w,idli.t:be ·t:e.pTebuilt by- :Dumlilo:railillil, ,about l00mii~e~ 3Wa;, &<I. Ahmed;'iJbad sbow,s. how ne;aiH~liiIdlfll Iud, M'u51-'.m:uamtli.oos

Ahmd"tbe

----------------~I---------------------•
161
Th~fi tbeR me ~ebtllm liIli8:uSlolBUll!Ds, ,and, sm'iillerDlosclJJHlS in Ahme:dabad. si'mihu: ill ehmlictiefto Ibe Jumma. MU!ljii,4 ,MIld mspimd by ill pecutiar m<mlie.Q' whiieb is Bat "Y'isibl.ecl5gwhete ;in Indian Muibam~ lb3id'ln ardrd~ltw:,e. M(lst lof theMubam.m,~ulaD 'buildIo,8S in Ahimed'a,-, bad aee, in stile Hdi liemil" ,,~u:nterpar:ts ,of'~ amIde at c:Ew:Jdra'Vati aod Abu', witne~g to Q filow,(!!ring, of' tb~ native seosi!hiliq-with. I, ,new Iav~do[ decomtion which, came bo,m the ICalipha:temuliitiou. III the eity (If MaDdUi. fQunded en 't!he S'it,e of Dba£;. the capital of .aHiado. :ldngdolD in, IO~u:tr.al :I:ndia. w,a:; bu.ilt 3 Ifleiilt mosqug b;, 'BM,ba'D!g. iI!h~ i!!!Ii!;ClL'!i!id kms: cd'tiIe, IGb,on ,aiYna5t:ywhc,wmed fro.- 14,0;; liO 1432. The ,t~qUgS 01 Bmdu1 Jain, llIud M'uslim :il,gli'!!S: ,aile again, mmed he~, but dlere ~ 5upmmposJed,DID. me w.hole ,a herQrc unse 'l!Jf 'bull,ding!, sil!rifitmt of thepGwe£ ·of the SIll'tan. As i,D the afClUteeltUf,e
,I

iii'.

5!1.

,All;

Fa:t:eil:pm:' ~ihi: Blrhal:Kl

Beti KaM.W

0'1 Gujer:l1t and Malwa, :S'D,bLtba:t of Gaur, 'the 'old capital O'f Muslims in Ben,gd" ,the, ,mdn, Cu.e c<ame fr,om, lccal !iig'h~'. F':curiin_itanli:e"th~ use o:f brlc:ka.flId tibe: CIJlE'!iI:i'liIl!ZilE: 'ow of nmf dleiii'\i'edam:m tbB we 'ilf the durlcbam~ ws.deady visjble spttially :in the mosque 'of Kudam-ul~Ra:ssuL The \1'i~.ws. fol!iiilille and law .relief, wbicb WaJS, the O'f
l

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