'1 r«<t»J f**;, A T R A H A S Ï S









A . R.





M. C I V I L


Oxford Umvemty Press, Ely House, London W. i JÏZs

PREFACE THE following is the history of the présent volume. Lambert, in preparing a still [1968] unpublished corpus of Babylonian création myths first planned to include the eariier portion of Atra-hasïs, and with this in view he recopied the tablet known here (see pp. 40-1) under the symbol E, and identified among the copies of the late Dr. F. W. Geers in Chicago the fragments J - N and K 8562. A t that time Miss E. Reiner made known to him her identification of K 6634 and K 13863. This material with the other then published fragment of Tablet I he prepared for publication. However, meanwhile the big Old Babylonian tablets A and C had corne to light in the British Muséum, and Mîllard was invited to copy them for publication i n a CT volume, to which Lambert would also contribute his copies. Dr. R. D. Barnett, Keeper of the Department of Western Asiatic Antiquities, British Muséum, who initiated this plan, also suggested that the two authors should co-operate on a critical édition of the epic. The CT volume, no. 46, appeared i n 1965 ; the présent volume marks the finition of the second part of this plan. Millard made a first draft of the édition, contributing the initial decipherment of A and C . He also first worked on D, which F. R. Kraus had identified i n Istanbul. The final manuscript is largely the work of Lambert, except for the Glossary, which is largely the work of Millard. The copies and collations on pis. I - X I are the work of Lambert. A i l the original tablets have been either copied or collated for this édition, except that B has been read from photographs with the aid of collations supplied by J. J. Finkelstein; x and y have been copied from photographs since the originals cannot be located. While this is a scholarly édition, the Introduction has been written with the needs i n view of those who are not cuneiform scholars. I n doing their work the authors have enjoyed the co-operation of numerous scholars. Professor J. J. Finkelstein not only supplied collations of B, as mentioned above, but also made known to us privately the results of his work on the epic. He first read the vital sign arhu i n I 280-1 and grasped the sensé of palû i n I 282. Other suggestions of his that we have adopted are mentioned i n the appropriate philological notes. Professor R. Frankena generously allowed us to see a rough copy of D that he had made. D. Kennedy collated D for us. J. Nougayrol sent us his copy of © before it had appeared. Professor Benno Landsberger has been consuked on various points, and
x x



suggestions of his are noted in due place. Professor O. K. Gurney read the final draft of the manuscript and suggested improvementa. Mrs. A. R. Millard and Professor J. Emerton read the Introduction and contributed to its darity. Permission to copy and publish D has been given by Mesdames Kiwlyay and Çi$, curators of Near Eastern antiquities in the Archaeological Muséums, Istanbul, who rendered every assistance i n our work. The Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft gave ita permission for the publication of x and y from the Babylon Photos. The Musée d'Art et d'Histoire, Geneva, consented to the recopying and republication of C , and Mlle Dunand facilitated the work. The Trustées ofthe British Muséum have allowed the publication of K 14697 and the collation of the other tablets i n their collections. For ail this help and co-operation the authors express their gratitude. Thanks are also due to the craftsmen of the Clarendon Press for a difficult but well-executed pièce of printing. W. G. L A M B E R T A. R. M I L L A R D Aprit t$6S


C O N T E N T S Abbreviations and Références Introduction Excursus: Early Human History A Quotation of Atra-hasïs for an Assyrian King Notes on Orthography and Grammar The Manuscripts List of Manuscripts Atra-basïs, Text and Translation Tablet I Tablet I I Tablet I I I 42 72 88 106 116 iaa ta6 128 IJI 134 138 146 173 175 198 ix t 25 27 29 31 40

POSTSCRIPT Thanks are due to Professor \V\ von Soden, who sent a list of corrections and suggestions while the book was i n proofa» Thèse have been adopted where possible. A lengthy article by G. Pettinato, 'Die Bestrafung des Menschengcschlechts durch die Sintflut' appeared i n Orientalia^ N«8. 37. 165-200, too lato to be used. Its main contention is that 'noise' (rigmum, hubùnm) in the Epic means or implies 'evil conduct', so that E n l i l d i d not destroy the human race for mere noise. The idea ia not well founded philologically, and dépends too much on preconceptions about that mythological being, 'der oriental ische Mensch'. Attention is drawn to Addenda on pp. x i and 17a, Octob&t içôS

S reverse x, y U 3 W The Flood Story from Ras Shamra Berossus The Sumerian Flood Story ( M . Civil) Philologieal Notes Bibliography Glossary List of Names Cuneiform Texts


h British BM Bu DT K Rm 3m Th



Muséum, L o n d o n B r i t i s h Muséum Budge Daily Telcgraph Kuyunjik Rassam Smith Thompson

Vorderasiatisches Muséum, Berlin B E B a b y l o n Expédition V A T Vorderasiatische Abteiiung, Tontafel O r i e n t a l Institute, University of Chicago A Asiatic U n i v e r s i t y Muséum, Philadelphia C B S Catalogue of the Babylonian Section Musée d ' A r t et d'Histoire, G e n e v a : M A H L i b r a r y of J . Pierpont Morgan, N e w Y o r k M L C M o r g a n L i b r a r y Catalogue Archaeological Muséums, I s t a n b u l : Ni(ppur) Musée N a t i o n a l S y r i e n , Damaacus R S Ras Shamra A s h m o l e a n Muséum, Oxford W - B Weld-Blundell II. PUBLICATIONS CITED BY INITIALS


F . R . K r a u s et al, Altbabylomtcke Briefe J . A . C r a i g , Assyrian and Babylonian Religious


Archiv fût Orientfotschung W . v o n S o d e n , Ahkadischss Handwôrterbueh American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures F . Delitzsch» Assyriscke Lesestilcke R . C a m p b e l l T h o m p s o n , Assyrian Médical Texts Analecta Biblica J . B . P r i t c h a r d (éd.), Ancient Near Eastern lexts Anatolian Studies . Archives royales de Mari (texts tn translitéra i ; Archiv Orientdlni Assyriological Studies Beiîràge zurAssyrologie ' F . Kôcher, Die babylonisch^synscheMedtm H . Z i m m e r n , BeitràgezurKemtnuderoaoyiorni L . W . K i n g , Babylonian Boundary atones





The Babylonian Expédition of the University of Pennsylvania Babylonian Inscriptions in the Collection of James B. Nies Bibliotheca Orientales Babylonian Records in the Library ofj. Pierpont Morgan Berichte der Sâchsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften ( L e i p z i g ) W . G . L a m b e r t , Babylonian Wisdom Literature I . J . G e l b , B . Landsberger, A . L . O p p e n h e i m , E . R e i n e r , The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Muséum W . v o n Soden, Grundriss der akkadischen Grammatik A . Poebel, Grundzuge der sumerischen Grammatik Journal of the American Oriental Society Journal of Cuneiform Studies Journal of Near Eastern Studies Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Journal of Semitic Studies Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute E . E b e l i n g , Keilschrifttexte aus Assur religiôsen Inhalts, i , i i ( = WVDOG
28, 34) O. Schroeder,

Publications of the Joint Expédition of the British Muséum and of the University Muséum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, to Mesopotamia, Ur Excavations, Texts VAB Vorderasiatische Bibliothek VAS Vorderasiatische Schriftdenkmâler WVDOG Wissenschaftliche Veroffentlichungender deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft WZKM Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes YBT Yale Oriental Séries, Babylonian Texte YOR Yale Oriental Séries, Researches ZA Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie ZDMG Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlàndischen Gesellschaft


E x c e p t w h e r e otherwise stated, quotations from the following work9 follow the line numbering o f the following éditions :



aus Assur verschiedenen Inhalts


H . H . Figulla

et ai, Keilschrifttexte aus Boghazkot, i - v i


E . E b e l i n g , Literarische Keilschrifttexte aus Assur Die lexikalischen Tafelserien der Babylonier und Assyrer in den Berliner Museen, i ( L . M a t o u S ) , i i ( W . v o n S o d e n ) MAD Materials for the Assyrian Dictionary, i—iii ( L J . G e l b ) MAO G Mitteilungen der altorientalischen Gesellschaft MBI G . A . B a r t o n , Miscellaneous Babylonian Inscriptions MIO Mitteilungen des Instituts fur Orientforschung MSL B . L a n d s b e r g e r et al., Materialien zum sumerischen Lexikon OLZ Orientalistische Literaturzeitung Or Orientalia PBS Publications of the Babylonian Section, University Muséum, University of Pennsylvania PSBA Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology R H . C . R a w l i n s o n et al., The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia RA Revue d*Assyriologie RU. acc. F . T h u r e a u - D a n g i n , Rituels accadiens RLA E . E b e l i n g et al., Reallexikon der Assyriologie RT Recueil de Travaux relatifs à la philologie et à Varchéologie égyptiennes et assyriennes G . R e i s n e r , Sumerisch-babylonische Hymnen wjLf I * ^ . « » Sumerian and Babylonian Psalms àJzM E. C h i e r a , Sumerian Epies and Myths SGL A . F a l k e n s t e i n , J . J . V a n D i j k , Sumerische Gôtterlieder, i , i i A . D e i m e l , Sumerisches Lexikon ™*] E C h i e r a , Sumerian Lexical Texts fSE |f K i n g , The Seven Tablets of Création frrrrn 2' j ? ; . ^ Sultantepe Tablets TCï ?™> ™" Texts of Varied Contents Musée du Louvre, Département des antiquités orientales, Textes cunéiformes
L a n d o n
G u r n e

30, 36)

Ahiqar A . C o w l e y , Aramaic Papyri Code of Hammurabi A . D e i m e l , E . B e r g m a n n , A . P o h l , a n d R . Follet, Codex ffammurabi* Enùma EUS W . G . L a m b e r t , Babylonian Création Myths (fortheoming) ^ Erimb-uï U n p u b l i s h e d édition o f B . Landsberger, quoted b y permission Erra F . Gôssmann, Das Era-Epos GilgameS R . C a m p b e l l T h o m p s o n , The Epic of Gilgamish, supplemented from CT 4 6 . 16-35 Surpu E . R e i n e r , Surpu (AfO Beiheft n )

A T R the proofs h a d been corrected K 1 0 0 9 7 was identified and joined to columns FE
i i a n d i i i o f S . I t supplies the ends o f n i n e lines o f i i after a gap of about seven lines f r o m the previously k n o w n part. T h e y are so numbered i n the translitération below,




T h e







a n d the paraliel lines from the main recension are added i n b rackets. I t appears that the A s s y r i a n Recension abbreviated this section. T h e portion of i i i o n K 10097 restores part or whole of the first eight lines of the previously k n o w n portion, a n d supplies traces of one preceding line, w h i c h i s here n u m b e r e d o to save r e n u m bering the rest. S i n c e the spitting i n line 4 i s p u t after the recitation of the i n c a n tation, whereas i n the m a i n recension it cornes twenty lines before ( I . 2 3 3 - 4 , 2 5 3 - 4 ) , it i s possible that the whole process described i n the m a i n recension w a s condensed.

I N T R O D U C T I O N THE Atra-hasïs epic is one literary form of Sumero-Babylonian traditions about the création and early history of man. For some 1,500 years during which Babylonian civilisation flourished it was copied on clay tablets, but as Babylon sank under the eastward flood of Hellenism that followed Alexander the Great i t was lost. A i l that remained for two millennia were some related Hebrew traditions worked into the Book of Genesis and a synopsis of material simiiar to i t that Berossus, a Babylonian priest about the time of Alexander, had put into Greek, though this work did not survive for long, and i n Europe i t has been known only from excerpts, occasionally garbled, quoted by Greek and Latin writers at second or even third hand. Its recovery began i n the middle of the nineteenth century A.D. when European diplomats, travellers, and savants began serious exploration of the mounds covering the ancient cities of Mesopotamia. The sites of Assyria first attracted attention, since they yielded big, showy reliefs that could adorn the galleries of Western muséums, and British and French interests were competing to secure prior rights to dig, which at that time automatically conferred the right to carry away anything found. The mounds yielded clay tablets inscribed in cuneiform script, which at first attracted little attention, but fortunately the decipherment of the script was proceeding apace as the early excavators were finding more of thèse objects, and they were then assigned a proper importance.
1 2



23 24
25 26 27

... BN ]

. ..] x x . . . e]n-lil (125) • • • ] an-nu-gal (127) tâhazt(KA X E I ) (129) RN . . . ig-rd\-a giS.lâ (130) . . . b]âb «en-lil ( 1 3 3 ? )
û d

28 29

N o t e : I f 25 should be restored fer I . 128-9 and 140-1 i n the m a i n recension. i i i 0 a-rt[a . . . 1 A X [ . . . . d]c-â is-sà-qar N 2 A x [ . . . ] X û-ïâm*à~am-na-$i N èf-/[ef-i/î tam\-nu Si-ip-ta 3
d meâ

. . . d\-bu-su (136) • . . ] en-Ul (137) . . .] X [man-nu~um-ma b]el tâhazi, the s a m e

c o u l d be done

4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9

tf-tu-ma tam-nu'û ïi-pa-sa ru-t[a td\-ta-di eli ti-it-tUM 14 ki-[ir]-si tàk-ri-is 7 ki-ir*d ana unsttt(zag)tai-ku-un 7 M-ir-si ana himëli(giib) tas-ku-un ina be-ru-hi-nu i-ta-di libiitu tep-da-a ap-pa-ri ba-til-iq a-bu-un-na-te tep-te-H tal-si-ma er-ïe-te mu-te-te
[7] & 7 fô-su-ra-ts"

To [ ... . . [ . . . . ] E a spoke . . [ . . . ] . he was prompting her. Bëlet-[ilï] recited the incantation; After she h a d recited h e r incantation [ S h e ] spat o n h e r clay. S h e n i p p e d off fourteen pièces of clay, S e v e n she put o n the right, S e v e n she p u t o n the left, Between t h e m the b r i c k w a s placed. S h e . . . the hair ( ? ) , s h e . . . the cutter of the u m b i l i c a l c o r d . S h e summoned the w i s e a n d learned T w i c e seven birth-goddesses.

Kuyunjik, which covers part of ancient Nineveh, is the only site which need be mentioned here. Paul Emile Botta, French Vice-Consul at Mosul, first dug there for some weeks in 1842/3, but found few of the results then expected. British interests were furthered by Austin Henry Layard, supported at first from the private resources of the British ambassador in Istanbul, Sir Stratford Canning. Layard secured rights to dig, and this created a nice problem at Kuyunjik, which was solved by a gentlemen's agreement; the French considered one sector of the mound theirs, and the British the other sector. This arrangement lasted until Layard finally left
F o r the éditions of Berossus see p. 135. F o r further information on the beginnings of Mesopotamian archaeology and the decipherment of the cuneiform script the following are recommended: the early chapters of R . W . Rogers, History of Babylon and Assyria', £. A . WaîHs Budge, The Rise and Progress of Assyriology; Seton L l o y d , Foundations in the Dust; S . A. PaUts, The Antiquity
1 2

of Iraq, chs. 11 and n i .


Rassam. which is now known as the Epic of Atra-hasïs. The Chaldean Account of Genesis. I t was planned to issue ultimately volumes in which the cuneiform plates would be opposite pages of translations. and \àê interest. he read a paper to the Society of Biblical Archaeology announcing his discovery of a Babylonian version of the Biblical flood story. appeared i n 1851 and consisted of Assyrian monumental inscriptions. which did not help the matter. but only George Smith collected and joined enough broken pièces to reconstruct entire épisodes. The légal position was certainly obscure since both French and British had at various times been given permission to dig at Kuyunjik. who was replacing Botta. Ashurbanipal. E. had ridden roughshod over the rights of a local gentleman who held a lease on Kuyunjik from the Turkish Government. on 3 December 1872. was made up from three broken pièces. and in 1866 at the âge of twenty-six he was appointed Assistant i n the Department of Oriental Antiquities and worked on the Museum's publications of cuneiform texts. Inscriptions in the Cuneiform Character from Assyrian Monuments by Layard. Norris. Large portions of the monumental inscriptions and simiiar texts on clay tablets were read with case. as always. so Rassam arranged that a select group of workmen should dig there secretly by night. Birch. began work i n the French sector the natives were watching just where he dug. a Christian of local extraction. though others did much of the work. His famé was assured when. Spasmodic digging had taken place. and. therefore. Others knew that works of mythology were preserved. proceeded to work openly by day. He soon became en grosse d in the new discoveries from Mesopotamia. His lack of philological training was made up for by hard work and sheer genius. Other scholars. Thanks to Layard. But the place was i n the French sector. in which he gave a gênerai account of ail the Babylonian literary texts he had discovered w i t h excerpts i n translation. Gladstone and Dean Stanley. This was done on 20 December 1853. sorting the thousands of fragments of tablets from Ashurbanipal's library* I t soon became clear that his understanding of the texts was equal to anyone's. British interests were served by Hormuzd Rassam. Place's trenches were being extended i n the direction of a particularly rich spot. we must not blâme him for this. contributed much to the progress of interprétation. The first volume. The local Arabs were on the British side. from an Old Testament background. practically everything that was recovered from Ashurbanipal's libraries was taken to the British Muséum. which. as we can now conclude. During the intervais i n officiai excavations thèse people had conducted their own explorations of the mounds. There he was put to work. was to become his life's work. Keeper of Oriental Antiquities. formed a library that excelled ail others i n the Hellenistic world. I n London the work of decipherment was forwarded when the British Muséum began to publish texts. since the correct choice of sides was only finally settled i n 1956. They were far from restoring the whole of the tablet and Smith mistook obverse for reverse. . At first he was just an amateur who stinted himself to buy the books from which he acquired knowledge. but much of the religious and literary compositions was not understood* The man who contributed most to their understanding was George S m i t h . and toward the end the palace of Sennacherib and two c h a m b e r s rich in cuneiform tablet» had been found. was published. Rassam. Also. Ptolemy I . apart from particular obscuritics.2 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION % the country in 1851. What Rassam had dug into was the palace of the last great Assyrian king. among other things. George Smith knew only one copy of this epic. Also. On the next night the diggers struck reliefs. like that of many others in his century. who well understood the people of the district. However. fat 1876 his book. aristng. after Layafd's departure. Secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society. under the title The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia. while Layard had voluntarily paid some compensation to the man. Botta. abetted by a particularly brutal local pasha. and i n addition to the reliefs i t yielded thousands upon thousands of broken pièces of cuneiform tablets. About 1857 the British Muséum committed itself to publishing a séries of volumes of cuneiform texts selected by Rawlinson. The solemnity of the occasion is vouched for by the présence on the platform of such Victorian worthies as W . at the âge of fourteefi he was apprenticed to a firm of bank-note engravers. but by his fréquent visita to the British Muséum he attracted the attention of Birch. and on the third night they began to expose a large room surrounded by the most magnificent séries of Assyrian reliefs ever found. considering that like a prospector for gold his claim was now staked. and the French Orientalist Oppert. Among them was 'the story of Àtarpi*. Thèse were the remains of libraries that were collected under AshurbanipaTs supervision and which had made Nineveh a forerunner of Alexandria. who had done sterling work i n the original decipherment. when i n 1852 Victor Place. knew where best to dig. but the difficulties of this were underestimated and only the plates appeared. and gave up his career as an engraver to enter the Museum's service i n a lowly capacity. Born in Chelsca of humble parents. especially Rawlinson. Thus. where another royal patron of letters. they urged Rassam to act. an employée of the Muséum. and others who worked at Kuyunjik after them. and only he could understand the content. When.

There was an account of the gods' plagues on the human race for its sins. 1 the correct séquence. Since dates eariier than xooo B. 173-4. but was not joined to the other two until work on the présent édition of the epic was almost complète. But the ancient world had no proper titles. man was created. composed an article i n which he gave the transliterated text of two of Smith's three pièces (as mentioned above). The next stage in the recovery of the epic seemed at first unrelated. I n 1898 V* Scheil. 700-650 BC) and clearly they do not . I t was an édition in three tablets. ' smaller pièces both Old Babylonian and Late Assyrian. and thereby produce a story. Enlil. an allusion to the flood. ii 'should be v and col. At the end of each clay tablet there was usuaily a colophon giving such détails as we expect on a title-page. since it is the most complète. Sidney Smith aoticipated Laessee in 1935 by roundly asserting that coi. Ancient Mesopotamia. was copied out in the reign of Ammi-çaduqa. and though two of them were joined again by 1899. great-great-grandson of the famous Hammurabi.c. Some new small pièces were published. However. A n d there the niatter rested for half a century. L * Oppenheim. 1 . With Atra-hasïs the only 'title' in use was the opening words 'When the gods like man*. While Smith had transiated two portions with remarkable accuracy for his time. for the god Enki warned his favourite Atra-^asls. and that the hero's name was not to be read Atar-pi. T h e following year Heinrich Z i m m e m . O n the rare occasions when complète tablets are available the colophons usuaily seule the connections of the text. but others differ considerably and probably belonged to variant éditions. a French priest. when a translitération into the Latin alphabet was published with full translation. so finally a flood was sent to exterminate the lot. but they did not alter the situation. i i i 'should be reckoned col. was frustrated. and to it there are added in this volume still more new pièces. iv {RA as. so that some two-thirds of the complète work can now be presented. and this contained a mythological fragment of roughly the same date deseribing the création of man. A list of Mesopotamian kings with dates (where possible) is given by J . but Atra. T h u s i n 1900 both Zimmern's article and Jensen's book appeared. the results were scarcely epoch-making. say Oliver Twist. by Ku-Aya 'the junior scribe*. but as the human race multiplied its noise disturbed the most important god. and to this day it remains in the Morgan collection. There ia nothing in the tablets to suggest that K u . 31-41» below. a n c J ust what is the Epic of Atra-hasïs ? With a modem literary work the question could not be put in this way. and 67).. no sensé of literary rights. . copied by T . proved that what Scheil and Pinches had published belonged to the same work. I n 1965 the présent writers made available a large quantity of new text in Cunei- form Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Muséum. however. B r i n k m s n i n the Appendix to A . both Old and Late Babylonian. who tried out various means of reducing the population. Most other pièces are Late Assyrian copies (c. It is this accumulation of new material that justifies the présent work. First. G . who built a boat and escaped with his family and a sélection of animais. the third pièce remained unidentified for some eighty-five years. They ail failed for one reason or another. who was preparing a complète édition of ail known Babylonian myths and legends. or that his work is a school exercise. I n the same year part 6 of Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Muséum appeared. 1 1 f Only in 1956 did the Danish scholar Jorgen Laess0e finally demonstrate For full bibliographical références to this article and to the other publications mentioned i a dus and the following paragraph see the Bibliography on pp. A work of Dickens. or Atar-hasïs. Pinches. Even this. Jensen saw clearly that the choice of aides for obverse and reverse was in doubt. published a fragment of a flood story difFering from George Smith's. we have usuaily accepted Brinferaan't as the best available. the three pièces got separated. Zimmem had made his copy of the London fragments available to a cornpatriot. After Scheil had had the fragment it was acquired for the American miUionaire John Pierpont Morgan. and he too became aware of Zimmern's conclusions. so that no firm order of the varioue preserved extracts was possible. was finally published i n 1965. and dated to the reign of king Ammi-çaduqa of Babylon. and no aversion to what we call plagiarism. part 46. Succeeding âges often rewrote old texts to suit new language forms and tastes. more text material was needed to fi 11 out the détails. and some lines about the création of man. ft consisted of two large tablets from the same scribe who wrote the fragment that Scheil had published in 1898 (they had been in the British M u s é u m since 1889I). but the following summary may be useful. i n 1967. are still not settled. some thousand years eariier than Ashurbanipal of Assyria. But where only small fragments survive the question of identification ia complex. What is available for Atra-fyasïs is discussed in détail and iisted on pp. T h e main édition used here. and this was soon fort h corn in g. will always be that work no mat ter how many éditions it goes through. While they put the study of this epic on a firm footing. Of the other pièces of about the same âge two agrée very closely with Ku-Aya's text.4 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 1 5 after his prématuré death in 1876. a German of outstanding ability at comprehending Babylonian and Sumerian texts. Peter Jensen. With the séquence established. 63.A y a was a mère schoolboy. he understood nothing of the story as a whole.

Garelli (éd. The one from Nippur is a pièce about the flood. I n this epic there is no express statement of purpose.6 . Atra-hasïs is anonymous. However. The M y t h and Ritual school has an answer to this question: that many myths sprang out of a cultic environment and served in the cuit. but Western music since the seventeenth century has developed harmony to an extent that now a musical hack can dress up a simple melody w i t h ail kinds of har1 monies each of which conveys a particular flavour to the tune. which we call the Assyrian Recension because i t shows Assyrian dialectal forms. 1 2 . but are expanded by the insertion of extra lines . The story is essentially the same as Ku-Aya's.000 years. The basic unit is the line. B . What style of singing. i f one may use a musical analogy. two i n number. as do both Middle Babylonian texts. to turn from the English classics to Atmrhasis will be like turning from Wagner and Chopin to plainsong. A simple melody may occur i n many styles of music. Literary taste has changed over the past 3. occasionally obscure the development of the story. Pritchard (éd.125) and the last two lines of the Epic of Création (Enûma EUS) in the fortheoming édition of the first-named author. then. The advice it freely offers on marriage and midwifery was hardly intended for the loneliness of some dark cella shared only with a cuit statue. but i t has been substantially rewritten. This is George Smith's 'story of Atarpi'. The cultic use does not seem to have been intended by the author. but lacks rhyme and mètre. The Epic of Création is known to have been recited to the statue of the god Marduk i n the course of the New Year festival at Babylon at least from c. but the 1 2 English translations are available by E . The lack of dynamism and lush harmonies may give a first impression that plainsong is just dull. There is no scope for that kind of rendering of Cicero's speeches into modem English where the thought of the passage is extracted and re-expressed i n another idiom. but its subtleties occur within such stark simplicity of wording that most of it is inevitably lost i n translation. The use of elaborate literary style to dress up thoughts is of course much older than Western harmony—Plato was already a master at it—but the Western tradition. about the atmosphère of the occasions on which the 'singing' took place. but one must nevertheless ask what prompted its writing. with which the content wholly agrées. with very few exceptions (certain monosyllabic particles not being counted for this purpose). No other simiiar cases are known. however. As far as Mesopotamia is concemed this is a hasty généralisation from one spécifie example. Our text is poetry. The content gives i t its exceptional interest. Of the other Assyrian fragments some adhère more or less closely to Ku-Aya's text. and perhaps eariier. but the ancients were content with simplicity of wording. and by A . Apart from modifying some metaphors and putting the words in English order the translator can do little but render word for word. Corrections from paraliel passages. From this source there is the only other édition which is known to have gone under the title W h e n the gods like man'. Hooke. The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels. Speiser i n J . See S. 700 B. differ substantially from the Old Babylonian text. The same can be concluded about Atra-hasïs. not three. A . I t was written on two tablets. Plenty of literary ability existed there. 1 See the concluding section of the Erra Myth (Iraq 24. which came down from Greece and Rome. Ritual and Kingship. This information conveys nothing. A detailed scientific bibliography is given in P.c. GilgameS et sa légende. our readers find the style of the translation bare and jejune. and even with this one it must be observed that the épilogue to the epic states its purpose as being to educate mankind generally in the greatness of Marduk. Myth and Ritual. A musical analogy may help again. chanting. though most likely the music came from a stringed instrument. Since there is no means of knowing i f ail such pièces belong to what was called 'When the gods like man' we have adopted the practical expédient of including ail related text material except that version of the flood story which George Smith discovered and which belongs to the xith Tablet of the Epic of Gilgames'.). I n Ku-Aya's édition the lines are grouped i n couplets (again as a matter of sensé). others are clearly différent. we must assure them that study of the original is more rewarding. i n the authors' judgement the literary merit of this work is not outstanding considered within its own world. which is a unit of sensé. Our use of 'epic' to describe the text is simply modem Assyriological convention. but other recensions are not consistently so arranged. Anything else would not be translation. and. That from Ras Shamra on the Syrian coast dealt only w i t h the flood. such as are well known i n manuscripts of the gospels. but appréciation of literature and music dépends very much on acclimatization. Ancient Near Eastern Texts 9 3 . and Myth.6 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 7 ail belong to one édition. now associated with other pièces. The visual arts can often make an immédiate impact. Simiiar texts in ancient Mesopotamia were called 'songs' and were therefore 'sung'. A modem reader must not expect to find our translation immediately appealing or fully intelligible. H . omitting ail the eariier épisodes. is altogether alien to the ancient Near East. or declaiming may have been used is unknown. I f . As with the majority of works of Babylonian literature. Heidel. The shortness of the line was a great inhibition to style i n the modem sensé.). The Late Babylonian fragments. and i n this text i t consists of three or four words.

on which. unless he was mentioned in the eariier missing section» ia introduced very abruptly in line 364. and a little later i n the Assyrian Recension. The god slain is called either Wê or Wê-ila. i n historical times the agriçultural prosperity depended. The latter détail ia taken from the Assyrian Recension (obv. EnhTs vizier Nusku was sent out to the rebels to demand an explanation of their conduct. the females in the other. but there is no reason to suppose that only scribes sang epics such as Atra-hasïs to audiences. Under their conception of the universe like a tiered wedding cake we are told that Anu went up to heaven.8 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION o content gives the impression of having been intended for public recitation (note especially the conclusion). We must therefore suppose that an oral tradition existed alongside the copying of texts on clay. since there is a gap in the main recension. was commissioned to put this plan into effect. and Enki (also called Ea) went down to the Apsû. which is much more fluid than the written. which will be discussed in more détail later. and Namtara. We now pass from myth to legends about early times. The existence of widely difFering recensions may be accounted for as arising from oral tradition. and Bëiet-ilî. the work was not over. forty years of such labour proved too much. Enki. The next stage in the process is lost. was petitioned by Atra-hasïs. man was to be made from clay. but Anu replied that the grievances were well justified(l. Enlil and Enki. From line 231 it appears that the clay was at that point of time mixed. The moulded figures were next put into two groups of seven. First Enki trod the clay to mix it. Enlil put the junior gods to work digging the rivers and canals (Babylonian has only one word for both). After this the text is lost or so incomplète as to give no sensé until line 352. He returned with the anawer that the hard labour was too much. A t the suggestion of A n u . The gods generally accepted it with alacrity and summoned the mother goddess. However. the maies in the one. set fire to their tools. and the Homeric poems offer a fair paraliel. The human race multiplied and their noise became such that Enlil—still on the earth— could not sleep. The actual stages of the work are not too clear. A t this point in the main recension. then Enki spoke up and presented the same case for the rebels. To understand the narrative properly . He therefore resolved to reduce their numbers by plague. but mixed with the flesh and blood of a slaughtered god. With the arrivai of the tenth month the womb (the formation of which is lost in the preceding gap) breaks open and mankind is born. However. The story itself begins i n the time conceived by the Babylonians and their Sumerian predecessors when only the gods lived i n the universe. I n this particular story the three senior gods. namely G . the mother goddess takes the opportunity to give advice on obstetrics and marriage. agreed on their sphères of influence (i. and by bringing in this object the author related the myth to actual births in contemporary society. but neither name is known elsewhere. There is much interesting cultic and anthropological content in lines 206-30. Nintu. like a figurine. helped by fourteen birth goddesses. While not declining the suggestion she deferred to Enki's superior skill. Enlil (we are left to infer) remained on the earth. He was roused by his servants and at once convened an assembly of the major gods. 33-152). and they therefore had to toil for their daily bread. I n efFect. The main recension sets i n again at % 189 as this suggestion is being made. No doubt there was a class of illiterate story-tellers who had memorized their stock-in-trade. since i n line 241 Enki and the mother goddess proceed to what i i called 'the House of Destiny* and there set to work in earnest. separated by what is called 'a brick*. so they unanimously decided to defy authority (1. but when the main recension sets in again (271 ff. variously called Mami. and after the gods spat on it the mother goddess talked as though everything was finished and accordingly she received congratulations and the assignation of her name Bëlet-ilï 'Mtstress-of-the-gods' (235-47). iii). This was probably not a single builders* brick. W i t h tears (whether from pity or indignation is not clear) Enlil suggested that A n u should return to heaven and there exact exemplary punishment on one of the rebels. whether for édification or entertainment. who. from which springs drew their water. but added the praçtieal suggestion that man should be created w i t h the help of the mother goddess to take over the hard labour. 7-16). Oral performance was necessary since the cumbrous system of cuneiform writing restricted literacy to a small élite of professional scribes. column i l . and the junior gods decided on a showdown w i t h Enlil.) the various divine actors are waiting for the end of the gestation period. then the mother goddess took fourteen pièces from it which the birth goddesses moulded into seven maies and seven females. but a brick structure referred to i n other Babylonian texts on which women performed their labour. Marna. no doubt fully insulated from the noise in his subterranean abode. the god of plague. At this point the main recension breaks ofF. Anu. Whether a religious aura surrounded the recitation is unknown. a body of water believed to lie beneath the earth. but we can only speculate on how the two traditions may have interacted. but i f a fragment of another recension can be taken as the continuation. 166-81). and in any case sympathetic to his own création. and surrounded his house (the temple Ekur i n Nippur) by night. and so the arrangement was worked out that the two would co-operate in the task.

a kind of primeval monster that had been subdued and was held i n place by a cosmic bar. of the main recension. Anu and Adad guarded the heavens. This second attempt of Enlil covered the first column and the top half of the second column of Tablet 11. the storm god. and Enki was bound by an oath. The lines deseribing the actual happening as explained by Enki are broken and very obscure. i f suitably provided w i t h offerings by his client. and by them to the people. I t is possible that the gap between the preserved parts of columns i i i and iv of the main recension contained an account of Enki's interrupting the famine a second time. he set guards at each levrf of the universe to watch that no b reach of his rules occurred. For the moment Enki saw no way out and communicated only his benevolent intentions to Atra-hasïs. so now water would be used to further it. Just as column iv (and Tablet I of the Assyrian Recension) breaks off i t appears that Atra-hasïs is making a final desperate plea. and the gap between the preserved portions i n the main recension can be filled from the Assyrian Recension. Whatever the exact détails Enki excused himself to Enlil for this escapade.INTRODUCTION one needs to know that he was king. and when. but instituted a rigorous renewal of the drought. T h i s much was probably contained i n the bottom half of Tablet i l . However. i). We are to conceive Atra-hasïs aa living i n a reed house such as are still found in southern Mesopotamia. but perhaps there was some kind of tussle down there and as a resuit the bar was broken. ii. in column iii. and especially for the remainder o f Tablet H . therefore. just as i n the story A t r a . The human race was to be wiped out by a flood. and having failed w i t h plague. A t this point Tablet II ends. He d i d not. Enki had used water to frustrate Enlil's plan. I t appears that Enlil was now thoroughly suspicious that some god was deliberately frustrating his plans. Enki gave h i m instructions for averting the plague. and breaks off at this point (n. to look after the latter as need arose. but i t was his duty. Tablet U i contains the flood story and the version known to George Smith from Tablet XI of the GilgameS Epic is in fact largely derived from the account i n Atra-hasïs. One pièce of the Assyrian Recension dealing w i t h the flood also survives. v and x rev. They were ail to direct their dévotions to Namtara i n person. and when i t résumes again in n. but Ku-Aya's text is the main source. to co-operate. which was again successful.h a s ï s approached his personal god Enki. at the beginning of Tablet n . so a new plan was formed. we find Atra-hasïs absorbed i n dévotions to Enki. He himself (one Late Babylonian copy substitutes Sin and Nergal) guarded the earth» while Enki supervised the régions below. The only surviving account of what he then ordered is x rev. against his wishes. From this point onwards to the end the difficulty arises that fréquent gaps obscure the development of the story. under the divinely sent plague spécial measures were needed. column i i . I t appears from the Late Babylonian x that a cosmic sea was conceived to exist at the very bottom of the universe. and Adad discreetly watered the earth without attracting Enlil's attention. Apparently the king had received a dream on which he sought more light. and the use of the two Late Babylonian pièces does not fully restore the narrative. Since previously the earth had been watered without his knowledge. Thus the drought was resumed. The following reconstruction seems reasonably sure to the présent writers. T h e text is very damaged. mankind multiplied once more. A i l this happened and. we may be sure that he ia disturbed that the renewal of the drought seemed to imply that Enki no longer cared for the human race. did respond to his pétitions and communicated with him. Enki did then act. (Enki had already found a way around his oath 1) I n reply Enki addressed the reed hut with the instruction to pull down the house and build a boat. Enki's hilarious outburst at this solemn warning ( i l . As the tablet begins Enki and Atra-hasïs are i n communication. but the latter was far from satisfied with the course of events and held a council of war i n which he laid down that no god must again rescue humanity. Enlil again lost his sleep. where reeds grow to an enormous height. Somehow i n connection with this fish were apparently caught up i n a whirlwind and released on starving humanity. F o r most Babylonians the personal deity was very minor. W i t h the relaxation of the drought mankind presumably multiplied (with its noise) so that for the third time Enlil lost his sleep. The Assyrian Recension is as incomplète as the O l d Babylonian text. iv the rigours of the famine are being described. which were m e d i a t e d by Atra-hasïs to the city elders. i i i and x rev. Adad. but this seems unlikely. was instructed to withhold his rain. The normal custom of the Babylonians i n time o f need was to pétition their personal gods. Enki. who would be pleased by the unwonted attention and would relax the plague. vi) hardly reassured Enlil. who repeated his previous advice. i . though what he did we can only surmise from his explanation when called to account by Enlil in n. which can be compared with column v of the Assyrian Recension (which contains some of this material conflated w i t h other things) and w i t h backward allusions i n later parts of the story. No doubt the wind might I T O U TO NR D CI N ti . think up a third method for diminishing the numbers of the human race. and a few small pièces of uncertain connections. This was done and i n the ensuing famine Atra-hasïs once more entreated Enki. however. he now tried famine to reduce the human population.

ZA 5$. there is no certainty that other items did not fill ail the space. since it was no longer himself but the w a l l that transmitted the message. but he excusée! himself and in the damaged portion of column vi Enlil was presumably prevailed upon to accept the continuance of the human race. and. which is built up step by step until eventually Enlil does his worst and thereby brings the other gods around to sympathy for Enki's cause. w i t h this interrupted. I t would be interesting to know i f the O l d Babylonian version already contained this item. To make it watertight it was thoroughly coated with pitch. The toil which men had taken over. 1 See R. since this would powerfully remind them of the advantages of fiving mortals. Since reed boats were as common as reed houses. but while there is room for i t . 1 . H e told them quite truthfully that Enki and Enlil had fallen out. supplies of food and drink were eut off. to explain actual necklaces of fly-shaped beads around the necks of statues of this goddess i n the author's expérience. certain catégories of priestesses. The only preserved portion occurs at the top of column vii. Enki and the mother goddess were sorely grieved at the loss of their création. I n the event the gods were not pleased. being overcome w i t h horror at the impending destruction. then. the human race was wiped out. Purely as a work of literature the présent writers view Atra-hasïs with mixed feelings. that is. This is aetiological. When Enlil discovered what had happened he was furious at yet another frustration of his plans. I n Tablet n i especially one has the feeling of a second-rate poet.ia INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION sj through the reed walls. I t should be remembered that the first hearers of this epic were vitally concemed with many of the issues presented. Enki accordingly set forth proposais. Of course Enki was blamed. in Atra-hasîs Enki gives the hero only seven days in which to prépare for the onset of the flood. The Old Babylonian Atra-hasïs does not have the midrashic élaboration of Gilgames' x ï . where the boat is a véritable Titanic w i t h six floors. and i n this condition they would be less likely to take a severe view of the survival of this remnant from what was planned as total destruction. i n which he could not participate. interestingly. whistle The flood lasted for seven days and seven nights. Journal of the Economie and Social History of the Orient vi. I t opens by setting the scène i n a time well known to the first hearers. The other gods began to find the disadvantages of a world without humans. The ancient author nowhere shows any real poetic spirit. After establishing thia common bond the author proceeds to the remarkable épisode about the gods refusing to work. Once aboard. Atra-hasïs promptly instituted an offering for the gods. the obvious course was to pull up the bundles of reeds which composed the walls of the house and to fasten them to a wooden framework as a boat. From this he turns to the main thème: Enlil's désire to extirpate humanity and Enki's countering this plan. that the Gilgames Epic at this point inserts the épisode of sending out three birds to ascertain i f the waters were subsiding. W i t h this explanation the boat was built and loaded with the hero's possessions. n o f f . By insisting on the view that what happened at the first création of man is repeated with every human birth. so he. There is a simple charm about the way he tells the story of the gods on strike. where Ku-Aya probably worked. Léo Oppenheim 106-35. Before embarking w i t h his family he held a banquet. H e must. So the story ends with the salvation of man and more about social classes and their fonctions. I t so happens that we know thèse women best from Old Babylonian Sippar. she appropriated some lapis lazuli Aies which had been Anu's and insisted that she would wear them as a perpétuai reminder of the time when her offspring were floating on the surface of the waters like Aies. and w i t h animais and b i r d s . This gap is particularly u n fortunate i n one respect. which leads on to the création of man. and there is a real dramatic build-up throughout the story. that Enki and the mother goddess organize them better. in which the mother goddess shared. Save for the concluding épilogue the rest (perhaps nothing very essential to the plot) is missing. and Enki seems to have whispered to his devotee i n the same way. a protégé of the former. could no longer live on the Iatter's earth. Indeed. digging the rivers and canals. On disembarking. and they conceived that their existence was really dépendent on what Enki and Enlil did. psychologically a good move. and save for those inside. and bitterly blamed Enlil. was part of the agricultural process. and this concerna women who do not bear children. Harris. He required. Renger. however. and. sets his water-clock for t h e seventh night. 121-57 and i n Studies Presented to A. the flood came. the author brings home the relevance of his myth. and the purple passages of Gilgames that grip the modem reader are absent. The mother goddess was emphatic ia her condemnation of Anu and Enlil and wished to exclude them from partaking of the offering. The sociological system described was that which they actually knew. for example. Yet the author has his strengths. no doubt to spare him the noise. be off in his boat to live with his own god. and i n the gap at the end of column i v and the beginning of column v the rain must have ceased and the boat corne to rest wherever i t did. before man was created. The mother goddess wondered how she could have consented to such a scheme. J . Atra-hasïs now has to explain his actions to the elders. Using her grief as a pretext. This is the closest paraliel of any Mesopotamian flood story w i t h the Book of Genesis.

which will be discussed under (iii). there would have been every encouragement to add the antediluvian section to make the work more complète. CT 46. Contrariwise. I n cuneiform the best-known document embodying this tradition is now named the Sumerian King List. it is noted that there were copies of the antediluvian section quite separate from the King List. This conclusion is confirmed by différences i n the way that transference of power F o r the literature on this topic and for extracts quoted see the excursus on pp. I t is unknown i f the Sumerian epic survived the fall of the First Dynasty of Babylon c. I t can be read just as one reads a play of Shakespeare. C from the eariiest times to c. only some of the copies contained the antediluvian section. 57 1 . but only a summary of results.c. is largely dépendent on Atra-fiasïs. Furthermore. so imparting to it his own stamp. The only other closely related work of literature is Tablet x i of the Babylonian GilgameS Epic. I t contains the end of a list of antediluvian kings and mentions E n l i l and the noise. the second w i t h the early history of the human race. The first is the gods' downing of tools. (ii) The Early History of Man 1 From Berossus i t has long been known that the Babylonians had a traditional history beginning with a line of antediluvian kings. the conclusion becomes inescapable that thèse kings were at first an independent tradition only secondarily prefixed to the King List. but this cannot be proved.). I n its présent form the Sumerian text is hardly much older than the tablet on which i t is written (c. The first column deals w i t h the création of man. and perhaps some récent expérience in actual life suggested this. though there ia some identity of wording. led on to the flood. 1800 to 1600 B . The fullest understanding of. but for scholarly purposes something more is needed. The idea that man was created to relieve the gods of hard labour by supplying them with food and drink was standard among both Sumerians and Babylonians. détails will not be given here. the size is quite différent (some 300 Sumerian as opposed to 1. Only two aspects are new to us from his text. I t is possible that the Akkadian author knew the Sumerian text. since i n détail it différa widely from the Old Babylonian text. 1800. others lacked it. 2 -. (ii) the early history of man. 5.INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION I 5 To appreciate Atra-hasïs as a work of literature a translation and a little understanding of the life and history of the author's times are the essentials for the modem reader. and a number of more or less complète copies dating from c. G . the relative dates of composition cannot be fixed.c. and the results can be grouped under three heads: (i) the création of man. 138-45 cornes closest to Atra-hasïs. so the author of Atra-hasïs was just following a common tradition in the main thème of his opening sections. but a review of related materials w i l l at least give some perspective. This. Despite the similarity i n content. (i) The Création of Man Since W .245 Akkadian lines). Civil on pp. Was the author of Atra-hasïs merely retelling a traditional story. Shakespeare's Julius Caesar is only possible when the various sources for Roman history available to Shakespeare have been compared. Had this section been an original part of the compilation there is no explanation of its lack from some copies. though probably on a lost Middle Babylonian édition. When. had the original text commenced after the flood. furthermore. For a more comprehensive view of the background of Atra-fcasis the whole range of cuneiform texts must be combed. but another possibility w i l l be mentioned below. so that one may see how he selected and modified his material. have been published. and this i n ail probability is the time that the Akkadian Atra-hasïs was first being written down. and the wording nowhere agrées. as already remarked. The wide divergencies between the Old Babylonian copies illustrate how the scribes and editors could take a free hand in rewriting the text. There is a small partly bilingual fragment. that cornes from Ashurbanipars libraries and might be a late édition of a missing portion of column i i i . which. the fifth describes the end of the flood. It is a list of dynasties . whether i t was a new composition or something borrowed from an eariier text not available to us. The other original aspect is the author's anthropology. and the various éléments of the story are suflSciently well known outside thèse two texts that one must say that the Akkadian author did not need to know the Sumerian text to write as he d i d . and (iii) anthropology and sociology. However. 1600 B. Lambert has a corpus of Babylonian création myths i n an advanced state of préparation. however. this is sufficient to show that i t has roughly the same content. as we know from Atra-hasïs. The Sumerian epic edited by M . or was he a créative artist? W i t h so much written material perished and with no surviving oral tradition there can never be a définitive answer to this question. say. and the sixth and last column tells how the flood hero was made immortal. 1600 B. Although only about a third of the text remains. the third and fourth (which are consécutive) cover the gods' décision to bring a flood and Enki's divulging this secret to his client. This kind of critical dissection is ail the more important with an ancient text from a milieu that knew no literary rights and had no aversion to plagiarism.

years]* are visible. but the . A i l the material i n list form just described is f r o m the first half of the second millennium BC So far there is no évidence for this tradition o f . [in that remote] day. served. documents of the same type survive. and fourth kings of the first postdiluvian dynasty as known from the Sumerian King List Column i i i is completely gone. . Unidentified fragment I n the primeval day. has eight kings from five cities ruling a total of 241. line 4 1 . 5. . . though the allusion no doubt refers to a current version of a flood. There is one reasonably certain allusion to the tradition of the flood as contained i n the King List. since the country is notoriously liable to them. . [ . i n a text naming Isme-Dagan. that day . a great flood among the Sumerians of the t h i r d m i l l e n n i u m . T o compensate for this. the Weld Blundell prism (W-B 444). and the seven preserved reigns add u p to somewhat over 186. . but the context— kingship—is the same.ra. (The présent writers do not belong to that school which relates flood stories ail over the world to one prehistoric cosmic disaster. however. Chronicles 11. and not only is the wording identical with that of the two king lists. nothing here connecta i t .000 years.200 years. . The problem is that the first postdiluvian dynasty d i d not begin until some little way down the second column. . T h i s . [in that remote] year. Ur-Ninurta separating strata of différent civilisations. In that year. . . offers ten kings from six cities ruling a total of 456. . however. I t follows that some eighty lines (or more) wej?e occupied with what preceded this dynasty. the kingship was i n Kish . .INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION l 7 from one city to another is described i n the two documents. . After the flood had been brought about. and this begins : 'After the flood had raged* (egir a. 1940 B. and though 'bring about* is used of the great flood i n Akkadian texts.\ T h i s is far f r o m certain. then more than seventy lines a column bas to be assumed. I n the remote year. The first column is ail but gone: traces of 'reigned [ . Unfortunately no single copy of the original. third. I t is impossible to stretch out even ten kings for this length of column space. CT 46. I t has been suggested that it began w i t h what is now column i .ta). .C. short form of the King List has the opening fines preserved. What survives from column v ia a listing of the small dynasties about 1000 BC The sixth and last column has no writing pre. 143-5. The missing kings of Babylon from the First Dynasty onwards are known independently. [in that remote] night. the year . that the opening words were.ùr. A small tablet now in California. n i g h t . From the second column ail that remains are the second. Most is now available only in copies from the first half of the second millennium.. and the importance of this question is that i f this conclusion were accepted the original King List would have contained no mention of the flood. pp. may offer the solution. . The Ashurbanipal fragment mentioned above. In that night. T h e antediluvian section lists from eight to ten kings i n several cities ruling for vast periods of time. or i f the literary tradition is more loosely connected with actual events and has telescoped memories of several disasters. an indépendant form of the tradition. Ashurbanipal's libraries have yielded one pièce of a related dynastie list: King. or two. The best preserved copy of the Sumerian King List. Quite clearly this document listed kings from before the flood to nearly the time of Ashurbanipal himself. . I t is possible from columns iv and v to calculate that each column must have contained at least some seventy lines.. remote [. Several ancient sites have revealed flood layers 8 13 15 3 C . are not of spécial concern here. The five cities of W-B 444 are also given i n column i i of the Sumerian flood story. had either seven or eight kings from four cities. king of Isin c. is an argument from silence.ma. . . . not quite complète. I t is not u n Iikely that the Sumerians d i d have traditions of destructive floods. indeed there is some flooding o f the rivers every year.. since very little Sumerian literature has corne down to us i n third-millennium copies. but iv has remains of the names of the kings of the First Dynasty of Babylon followed (apparently) by the beginning of the Sea L a n d Dynasty. Presumably at various sites and on several occasions floods did wipe out the existing culture. What we do not know is whether the tradition of a flood in this part of the world reflects one particularly bad expérience of this kind in a certain year of early times. Between this second-millennium material and Berossus only one. sensé can be extracted by comparing a small unidentified Sumerian fragment: In that day. For some reason the kings of Lagas are omitted from the standard list. I f the list contained more than the names and lengths of reign.ru ba. 1900 BC) T h e copy seems corrupt.) Thèse problems. [ . A less certain allusion occurs i n a simiiar text naming Ur-Ninurta of Isin (c.000 years. A pointer i n favour of the opposite conclusion. The small tablet W-B 62.: 'after the flood had raged\ T h i s occurs in a sentence deseribing the appointment of this king. n i g h t . 'After the flood had swept over the land and kingship had corne down from h e a v e n . of the longer édition: 'After kingship had corne down from heaven. i s contained i n a rival king list. When the flood ( . but there is mystery about the first column. I t could be part of this dynastie Thèse lines merely speak of the flood as occurring i n the beginning. there is a list exclusively of kings of Lagaâ.

but only secondarily and i n some cases synchronized with i t . W-B 62. his shrine i n Nippur.. and that is the way to understand kingship coming down f r o m heaven. has a prologue stating that the hero inter alla 'brought news from before the flood*. gave a list of ten kings i n three cities reigning 432. but i t was not accepted i n the Old Babylonian Atra-hasïs. Alulim. for example. Jacobsen. Works of Sumerian literature express this concept more precisely as the giving of me*. one group: 'Thèse are postdiluvian kings. ZDMG 78. RA 60. therefore.B 444 and Berossus. 13 states that before the flood the gods were i n the city Suruppak. as an extra génération between Ubâr-Tutu and Ziusudra. seed preserved from before the flood'. of which city no antediluvian dynasty is anywhere recorded. have been . Ashurbanipal himself professes to have read 'stone inscriptions from before the flood*. i n the second book o f his Babyloniaka. Here only Enlil remained on earth. ' A l u l u . the flood hero. This no doubt reflects a local tradition. Berossus. A literary work. and i n litanies. T h e first king. k i n g from before the flood'. The idea of the flood as a point of time i n world history became generally accepted in ancient Mesopotamia. Only four are named.000 years. which contains three well known Sumerian roots. and he lived i n Ekur.c. I n cuneiform Van Dijk has published a list of seven sages (the more usual number) dated by the first seven antediluvian kings. However. There would be no difficulty i n fîlling a whole column w i t h a literary version of the flood story.survey of traditions about early history just given is a necessary 1 2 T h e most interesting expression of this idea occurs in a Sumerian m y t h only partly translated. no. as quoted above. 17. see RA 55. of which copies contemporary with those of the King List are extant. There is. so that ail diviners considered themselves his sons. Civil and R . but not i n chronological order*. however. 186. One antediluvian king is named i n a third-millennium document. 2500 B . and ail alike were given to man and had to be respected as divine ordinances. but not one of thèse occurs in the other lists. T h e Epic of GilgameS. Also there survives part o f an apocryphal letter alleged to have been written to h i m by the sage Adapa. 1 2 H . but then suddenly breaks out into literary style mentioning Enlil and the noise. Early Dynastie fragments of c. who occurs i n one copy of the King List only. since the source of the extra génération has been identified. a i . I t contains the end of a list of nine antediluvian kings. A médical text confirms this picture by stating i n the colophon that it is 'according to the old sages from before the flood'. but here the son's name is not Ziusudra. and allusions to i t and to the antediluvian kings are not scarce. T h e Babylonians explained that i n early time the sages had taught the human 1 race what it needed to know. the same basic idea had other expressions. . according to W . F r o m Sumerian literature to Berossus i t is everywhere assumed that the human race was at first and naturally barbarous. but T R § I t is J. T h e second was born i n Kish. Sumerian King List 75 . 32 . A me was the concept of any one of the numerous aspects of organized human life. I t consists of admonitions of a quite gênerai kind. T h e 'sages' (apkallu) play an important part i n the Babylonian conception o f early times. professes to be the teaching of Suruppak to his son Ziusudra. set out i n list form. at least by 1000 B. A related bilingual text describes a king (probably one of the Second Isin Dynasty) as 'distant scion of kingship. The gods gave i t as an institution for regulating society. is no longer acceptable. 1-5. i n its Late Babylonian recension. D . M. the last witness. especially as i t is bilingual. T h e seventh king. from sexual intercourse to gold-smithery. and the Sumerian could still have been taken from the source already suggested. lists of divine names. but i t can hardly have been Ziusudra. I t is misleading to refer to this Late Assyrian copy of the dynastie list as a copy of the Sumerian King Lût on the basis of three names only. brought up to date by the addition o f further material. The first. T h e . is addressed i n at least one Babylonian incantation as. The names of antediluvian kings occur i n omen texts. Z i m m e r n . A n exorcistic text offers a quite différent group of seven sages. but one can consider i t a descendant. This diversity surely proves that the sages were only fixed i n that they had to appear at the beginning of human history.i8 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION io list. no certainty that Suruppak as conceived by the author of the Early Dynastie version of this text was a king (though this is not unlikely) and no assurance at ail that the son was the flood hero. C identified. a postdiluvian king according to the King List. This is Suruppak. Berossus names eight of them and correlates them with the antediluvian kings. Biggs. The first is attached to Enmerkar.. He was fish-like in appearance. A learned compilation of names for philological analysis (hardly eariier than 1400 BC) explains . Oannes. This view. and throughout the ancient Near East such moral instruction was often presented as the advice o f a father to his son. A2 uncertain how thèse two signs should be pronounced. I t was a tradition not specifically related to the great flood. T . Suggestions have been made that since this is the dynasty of the town Suruppak the extra name results from a misreading or misunderstanding of an epithet 'man of Suruppak' applied to Ubâr-Tutu. emerged daily from the 'Red Sea' for a period. Enmeduranna (or Enmeduranki) is named i n a ritual text w h i c h describes h i m as king of Sippar and patron saint (as i t were) o f diviners. GilgameS x i . Civilization was a gift o f the gods.

T h i s follows f r o m lines 352-5. though no ancient text formally offers a commentary on the meaning of création.B 444 has i t ) .B 444 or the 64. wars.200 years the population increased and w i t h i t the noise. but this does not mean that spéculation ts out of place. u . was looked on as ideally conforming to a divine pattern. AU too often thinkers and poets have considered themselves above the world of pots and pans. kings. I t is well < 2 A Hittite fragment. as restored a little from the same passus at the beginning of Tablet 11. important or trivial. I n fact there was (i) a tradition of sages unrelated to the flood» (ii) another tradition of kings which may have begun after the flood. This can be learn t from a number of passages that speak of death as a returning to clay'. 'Clay' i n this context is the material substance of the human body. reigned for a comparativery modest period and he it was who survived the flood. W e are toîd that before the end of 1. 63. b u t one could have expected another 1. The présent writers have not found any simiiar Mesopotamian clue explaining the blood.000 years o f W . T o understand what the author of Atra-hasïs was achieving i n his account one must know not only this fact. and probably the building of at least one city was described. Every aspect of society was of divine origin and was worthy of study. the number 1. Certainty w i l l not be reached u n t i l the gaps are fllied.0-1. Also a king must have been appointed. The acute problems are» which city or cities. SENS 117. 118 and 133.200-year intervais are part of a chronology of the reign of Atra-hasïs. heroes. which has been lacking in many civilizat ions. Gûterbock. but at présent it seems that Atra-hasïs had its own version of antediluvian history. 7. civilized only by the express intervention of the gods. 337-8. Erra 1. This does not of course mean that literature lacks plenty of gods. The loss of most of lines 307-51 from Tablet 1 is most unfortunate i n this connection» since they dealt w i t h the initial organisation of the human race after its création. conceived of the human race as originally barbarous.zo INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION ti background for a study of Atra-hasïs.800. who rightly comments on p. that man was formed from clay mixed with the blood of a slain god. x i . I n the third tradition as we have listed them (the order has no chronological stgntficance) one would expect the king who survived the flood. and which king? D i d Atra-hasïs name the same five cities as the Sumerian flood story. the same in which kings reigned according to the lists ? A t présent there is no way of finding the answers to thèse questions» though i t is very doubtful if a list of kings was given or alluded to. Ziusudra i n Sumerian» Atra-ljasïs or Uta-napi5tim i n Akkadian. and this excludes anything like eight kings ruling for 241. as mentioned above. T h e two 1. since that was plenty of time both to multiply and to make noise. the latter of social history. Thus every aspect of civilized life. A translation ts given by H . 6. Tbe Sumerians and their Babylonian successors. I n Berossus ail three are combined. With such a conception there is no such thing as the unmentionable. public or private. whether that be an effect of social snobbery or moralizing prudery. 1200 ia neither a mystical nor a terminal number. Keilsckrifturkunden aus BoghazkSi vm. Due to the damaged condition of Tablet n the scheme cannot be followed. 3 târu ana fiffix BWL xo8. Atra-fyasïs. This first shows i n the account of man's création. since the list is summed up. This is the fourth strand that was worked into a common tradition in due course. The author used what was the generally accepted view of this matter among those who wrote in Akkadian. but even in the traditions of early times the kings are matched by the sages.B 444 he is missing. and to earth you shall return* (Genesis 3:19). which is on an altogether différent plane from the 36. 74. One king only. There has been much spéculation on this point» and Atra-hasïs seems to offer the reason as w i l l become clear.600. 1 . but also ita implications. names an Atra-basîs. Gtfe. show that shrines were being built and canals dug. The former are an aspect of political history. Even i f i t is supposed that the gap contained a list of kings.200 years (as W . and that during their reigns both reproduction and noise were somehow inhibited. The only two lines nearly complète. Note also fiftiS êmû/êwûm i n the lexica. Exactly the same concept is shown i n the Hebrew account of man's création where the penalty for disobedience was laid down: 'You are earth.200 years to be interposed at each successive reprieve of humanity. 93 that there can be no assurance that this Atra-hasïs is the flood hero. G . Atrahasts shows more interest i n anthropology and social forms than any other Babylonian epic. The account of Berossus and what can be gleaned from Ashurbanipal's libraries might suggest that views about the beginnings of human history were fixed and rigid. I t is difficult to conceive that this could be anything b u t the initial growth of the human race.200 still suggests that we are not dealing with the tradition of the lists. son of cjamsa ('Fifty')» who figure i n a story mvoîviag Kumarbi. and this cannot be explained as due to scribal omission. Such a scheme would probably have given a total of 4. and (iii) still a t h i r d tradition of a succession of kings before the flood.800 of Berossus. 1 (iii) Anthrapology and Socfology The Sumerian view of the world provided a stimulus for a compte» hensive view of human society. and conquests. Kumarbi 3. Presumably the complète text told of mankind's instruction i n the arts of civilization. unlike 7 or 3. to be a key figure* Yet curiously i n W . and no king or reign is missing.

but is found in other ancient texts. the marriage célébration of the same length. see the note ad l o c . 229-30) are tantalizingly ambiguous. the mother goddess lays down i n the story certain norms of ancient midwifery (1. and at death we 'expire'. whether i n animal or human. since m a n does not yet exist. T h e iealîty of this is that breathing is an essential accompaniment of life. A Hebrew paraliel is again helpful: the Pentateuchal laws i n a number of respects work on the principle that *the life îs in the blood' (Levrricus 17:11. T h e flesh of the slain god is the source of tbe spirit of man. Hence i n ail probability the Babylonians conceived of man as matter ('clay*) activated by the addition of divine blood. and the problem is as acute today as it has ever been. 225-6) mention the slain god s flesh. the epic concentrâtes on those matters of local custom which might easily be forgotten : the need to have the birth 'brick' i n place for nine d a y s . but they seem to say that living man is a mémorial to the slain god. I t w i l l be appreciated from what has been written that no précise date of composition can be given. and to blend his sélection into a dramatic whole. as w e l l as his blood. but since 'clay* was the material substance of humanity its mixing with die divine flesh and blood could be so described. and that the social structure of the author's âge is being described. 289-305). The careful build-up of the material used. and how did it arise in the first case? T h e Hebrew account of création in Genesis 2 ex plains that God imparted "the breath of life into man. The Babylonian conception of society as c o n f o r m i n g to a divine blueprint means that no distinction was made between immutable physiological requirements of the human species and local customs which hardly two «vilizations will share. 1 97 .). which could. 1 T o this traditional concept the author of Atra-hasïs has added one item. L i n e s 216-17 (cf. when roughly was the text written down i n more or less the form we know ? The eariiest surviving copies are from the seventeenth century B. A t first this seems a non sequitur. etc.—that they are copies is shown by the scribal note 'broken' found i n two manuscripts of 11. but unfortunately most of the section is lost.C. but i t must be stressed that he uses the term democracy i n its classical rather than modem sensé. or at the most 1 JNESz. T h e freedom of individual scribes to make their own versions does not conflict w i t h this conclusion. W e might have preferred the blood. but i n traditional mythology it seems that blood supplied the purely animal life. and so animation began. 5 Both aie mixed i n the clay. AU one can ask is. Instead we may présume that the divine blood was held to supply life to matter. I n explaining the material substance of the human body one has by no means explained the phenomenon of life. 5 -2 . I f only i t had survived i t would have been an important document of social history for the Old Babylonian period. I t was a common Mesopotamian view that man had a spirit that survived death. L 12— and from gênerai knowledge of the history of Babylonian literature the text can hardly have been written down more than one. From what remains i t appears that there was a classification of people by marital status.n (<£. ZA 52. and the interest shown i n human life and society clearly compels belief i n one author rather than i n a traditional story that was worked up over a period of time by successive générations of story-tellers. N o simiiar doctrine i s known among the Babylonians or Sumerians. 227) is quite obscure. L i n e s 2 1 0 . T h e technique of finding a continuing aspect of myth i n human life provided the author with his first oppoitunity for dealing with social Thus Atra-hasïs may be analysed as follows. trouble the living. The plot was traditional. etemmu) that the author i s explaining in addition to the usual material aspects of life. Under this heading one may also note that the kind of city organisation présume d for the reign of Atra-hasïs—a king and council of elders—is not peculiar t o this text. This is one constituent of Jacobsen's theory of primitive democracy i n early Mesopotamia. and parallels to this idea among other peoples are well known. as not being so material and soiid. 90 ff. though the author had to choose from variant forms of the tradition. Enlil's demand for a reorganization of the human race after the flood provided the author with his last chance. and t h e invoking of IStar (goddess of love) under the name Ishara during t h i s period.INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 23 known that many catégories of Sumerian and Babylonian texts are i n themselves incomplète» and need to be understood i n the light of explanat k m which in the ancient world were no doubt given by word of mouth. so that i n lines 212—13 this i s spoken o f as a mixing of god and man. 9 institutions. especially Sumerian. that ends at death. which occurs i n a passage ( l 208-30) full of perplexing phrases. and his spirit (presumably after death) likewise. i f not properly buried and supplied with offerings. N o other surviving création account from Sumerians or Babylonians attempts to explain this. but the following fine is abundantly clear. T h e statement about the drum i n 214 (cf. O n the assumption that every human b i r t h repeats what happened at the beginriing. Since there is no freedom of choice in the physiological aspects of birth. What is the life élément imparted from the parent into its young. I t is this spirit (Bab.

has argued that the title nam. (ii) T h e Sages T h e Late Babylonian tablet giving a list of seven sages correlated with the first seven antediluvian kings is published i n H . is saved. D early history of mankind has been noted. Journal of Theological Studies. when great poets w e r e competing for the drama prises i n the public théâtre. which are rightly considered its classical period. From at least the time o f Josephus i n the first century A . N. J. The lastnamed author. W .ra. 56. M ..lugal in a catalogue of texts from U r ( VET VI/I. Finkelstein. 1-11. AS 11. H .ùru). I f one could trace back this story it might of course have antécédents more closely resembling its Mesopotamian counterpart. W . quite différent version of the seven sages is a bilingual text edited most recently by E. silver. xvi. written about this time (see the édition on pp.two centuries eariier. i . Noah. 30. 39-51 . We have considered Atra-hasïs i n Mesopotamia» and i t remains to look at its relationships with other literatures. published . in ZA 50. Hallo.mâ. xx.c. a Babylonian flood story has been found at Ras Shamra. Rowton. (iii) Other Allusions to the Flood (a) [egi]r a. 156 ff. T h e first eleven chapters of Genesis begin with création. N. .. cit. RA 55. i n JNES 19. in which only the tenth. 1400 BC I t has been mentioned above that a pièce o f . While Sumerian was still taught i n the schools and was used by scribes. vorlàufiger Bericht ûber die von dem Deutschen Archâologischen Institut und der Deutschen Orient.Gesellschaft aus Mitteln der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft unternommenen Ausgrabungen in Uruk-Warka pp. cf. Reiner i n Or. 79-80. Kraus. as an accident of discovery when so many tablets of other content are known from this millennium.29-60. and they spread to Syria and Palestine i n the Amarna period. There is hardly a scrap of Semitic literature i n cuneiform from the third millennium BC. c. o n the coast of Syria. the similarity of Hebrew and Babylonian traditions of the . 2100-2000 B . Lambert. Even f r o m this brief and inadéquate summary i t is obvious that the différences are too great to encourage belief i n direct connection between Atra-hasïs and Genesis. 9 rev. 171) proves that the short form of the King List began with i . New material and . T h e Graeco-Roman flood story with Deucalion and Pyrrha as ita heroes ia not certainly related at ail. 52-7. The sages are specified ME4F as antediluvian i n a colophon to a médical text: H pi apkallé la-bi-ru-ti sa la-am abubi (a. Real. loc. J. 1 EXCURSUS E A R L Y H U M A N H I S T O R Y (i) T h e Sumerian King List THE standard édition is that of T . offered arguments i n favour of a date c. One possible expianation is that the origin of thèse traditions is to be sought i n the Tigris-Euphrates valley.s. 1 1 I See the extracts quoted i n tbe éditions of Berossus. 131-3).. worse. R . They were p u t i n w r i t i n g i n Babylonia first. but just as obviously there ia some kind o f involvement i n the historical traditions generally of the two peoples. C a little new material and proposed that the date of compilation be in the Isin-Larsa period. W. As the waters were aubsiding Noah let out of the ark three birds in turn to discover how far the waters had abated. AMT 105. p l . until mankind is wiped out for its sins and the chosen pair.ta 'After the flood had raged* (PBS x/a.25.. w i t h his family and birds and animais. since the O l d Babylonian period ended several hundred years before Moses. Unfortunately i t is only known from late sources. J . today with large numbers of cuneiform sources at our disposai the observation is still valid. and proceed through ten long-lived patriarchs to the flood. 40 i n the Sumerian King List. and the more recently published king list of Lagas (JCS 21) begins w i t h what is i . . T h e only certain paraliel occurs m the Book of Genesis. Jacobsen. t ( UM ) NN E . started off the human race again. 1900-1800 B.The other. Babylonian was the every-day language and despite some literary archaism there is reason to believe that literary idioms and popular speech were doser than at any other time. JCS 17. F. This was.ma.s. JCS 17. saved i n a boat. C appropriate discussions have been offered by: M . and this cannot b e explained . T h i s view is advanced by W» G . I t is difficult to see the logic i n the argument. termed gold. However» the question ia very complex and cannot be discussed further here. I t was an âge of much literary creativity. Sumerische See art. then. Babylonian literature first developed i n the early centuries of the second millennium. Lenzen. but in its known forms there is no certain connection. the traditional author of the Pentateuch.Encyclopédie. 23 = TCL 15. Ph. 'Deukalion* i n Pauly-AVissowa. Civil. 44ff. 41. 123. a period comparable with fifth-century Athens. who suggested that it was first compiled about 2100 B . Rômer. XVIII. Josephus had to dépend on Berossus. 22. 1 2 I T O U TO NR D CI N INTRODUCTION » s the fui lest form is that i n Ovid's Métamorphoses from early i n the first century AD This portrays a succession of âges getting progressively . JCS 15. etc. c. cf.ru tir. 27.

256 18-19 = F.an. 12.si]pa.li'l.gal. u . every détail referred to is either lacking from. K 11035.sù. this is another flood. i? 44. K 761.ùru. K 3843+ rev.lu.lu. | f p K 5044. D mu.na ~ [MiN] CT 24. The document. egir a. which are obtuse.gar. .ri.ul.ri.sù. 6: ia . . T h .[sù. ' ) : am-me-lu-an-na MN [.ta] u a. I 132-48 and I V 50. i i .ru ba. .ri. 19 and 25. 20).an. then.n[a .an. (This is cited i n a ritual section in a broken context.na am.. 9. 19. 15 ( = PBS x/2. 21. . (c) is the opening passage of a hymn mentioning U r .) én a-lurlu sd-nu-û-um B M 45686 = 81-7-6.me. x m .an. am.me.l]u.na] # E x x x 1.na. Presumably. .ke li-i-pu ru-û-qu là lar-ru-ti z[e-r]u na-as-ru là la-am a-bu-bi JCS 21. STVC d 4 4 6 4 2 6 E C RU XU S S 87 B u .li. 8 (LA) (d) I n ritual text: en-me-dur-an-ki làr sippari JCS 21. 15) (OB) ^m.ta] gig. i . i .an.91. .râ. "Enmeduranki and Related Matters" i 8 (iv) Mentions of Antediluvian Kings 4 (a) I n litanies i n which they are equated w i t h Tammuz: am. Both passages are saying in effect 'in the beginning'.[ta] Sumer x i .me. Bël-lë'î of the Egibi family (rev. and was compiled by a Babylonian incantation priest. Bauer. Das Inschriftenwerk Assurbanipals 80). 1-2 (OB) am. . g i U ri bi ri g i ba su [. 14.ri. ] a.na = dumu.ma.) (LB) (/) I n an apocryphal letter: a-na a-lu-lu qi-bi-ma um-ma a-da-pa ap-kal-um-ma T o Alulu speak. . 91. .da ^ [ n .l[û. was published by R.ta u . i .me. Campbell Thompson. .ma. A KAR 434 rev.sum) ab-ni là la-am a-bu-bi là kak-ku sa-ak-ku bal-lu T study stone inscriptions from before the flood.na ~ [MiN] [ am. p l . A Q U O T A T I O N O F ATRA-ffASlS ASSYRIAN K I N G FOR AN ONE of the reports sent by astrologers and incantation priests to advise Late Assyrian kings cites our text.râ. 243.na.râ. (/) Name List: an-nu-tum L G L là U Ae a-bu-bi a-na sa-dir a-ha-mel la sad-ru (v. Lehmann-Haupt. 119-24 for the context). thus says Adapa the sage (STT 176. 7. 6). .me. . Reports No. or cannot be reconciled with.bi. .[sù. Nouvelles Fouilles de Tello 211.i.me.ma. am. . k i . and on this thème i n Sumerian texts see Van Dijk. 1-4 4 4 6 6 (b) I n god list as names of Tammuz: am.ru X [.gal. .an.•• an.an. en. . where (b) is translated.da m u ba Si [. (d) Ashurbanipal: hi-fa-ku mihilti(gù. However.ri.fna. K 7663+ 7-9 (LA) d d d d E C RU XU S S Vf d d (c) I n omens ('the omen of .an. One may suspect that the text of (c) is corrupt.sipa.. .ga[l.ta u . (The continuation has nothing relevant to the king.an. i i .ta gi . 10.ra." i i 1 and 23 (LA) kl (b) is a fragment from the Old Babylonian period not further identified.ta mfu. . i i ( + K 15160) 6-7 = CT 25.a. cf. y (e) I n incantations: én a-lu-lu sarru là la-mu a-bu-bu B M 45686 = 81-7-6. rfam. the various versions of the story of the great flood. . . . b i ba Si? la [. 8 = 12. Samalsumukin pl. 7-9 m CT 24. (g) Bilingual text related to BBR 24 (below iv d): EI G R . s ff. CT 30. obscure and confused' (VAB v u . (b) and (c) l ]»[.na . i i i . LA) m m (e) GilgameS: ub-la tè-e-ma là la-am a-bu-bi (1.ta] mu. ( L A ) d Allusions to a flood brought about by Marduk occur i n the Erra Epic.zi.an.na . i .[zi] [am.me.an.N i n u r t a of Isin. Acta Orientalia x x v m 31 ff. .me.m[e. (?) 14 (LA) e-me-lu-an-[na . Gros.g]al. xxxv. . . "Enmeduranki and Related Matters. The line occurs in a sentence explaining the appointment of ISme-Dagan by Enlil.fzi.'Kônigshytnnen' 46. .na [. A O 4346.ri.

7-10) consists of instructions on 'how to make Adad send rain* ( adad èèg a-na xa-na-n[i])> of which the only preserved détail is the use of 3u. Orthographically the text must be classified as Northern by the rules of A . I n a text internally inconsistent a few other individual 'Southern* usages are of no great importance. 16. namely that what was done on divine instigation i n the beginning can be repeated at intervais throughout history. Examples elsewhere . Only the Old Babylonian material will be used. which gives the compilera name. or perhaps deliberately. 1-2 and 3-5) quote astrological omens with explanatory glosses. i i . is as follows: meô d E C RU XU S S N O T E S O N O R T H O G R A P H Y G R A M M A R AND 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 [(là) ad]ad-ma Si--a bâb-sû bi-li û-p[u-un-tû] *à}-na qu-du-mi-Sû lil-lih-Sum-ma ma-a[S-ha-tû] ni-qu-û ina se-re-e-ti im-ba-ru li-s[d\-a\z-niri\ eqlu ki-i Sar-ra-qu-tu ma-a-mu lis-s[i] d ki ^ . is the longest preserved Old Babylonian epic. do this. see notes).la prayers or incantations. as advice on a drought. but examples A of the signs qa and pi occur (1. 1. 40. my lord. Mimation throughout is optional. especially i n matters of orthography. So that the field will furtively bear water. on which see the notes. 48 Sa-ma-ii ni. Evidently the conditions stated i n thèse omens were then prevailing. Bël-lë'î may have made the change by accident. 5 ki-i zu-un-nu ina mât akkadî i-te-qï-ru an-na-a e[p-sà\ Seek the door of Adad. and similarly there is one example of naSSïku (the title of Ea) against several of niSSïku (see note on 1. d d O n Ùm prineiple in Babylonian thought generally. i . but attention will be drawn to points of interest which occur. L a m b e r t . 69) and lïteddilirtaSa (11. bring meal I n front of it. G . see note). up[untu] for e-pï-ta. a phenomenon also noted i n the Assyrian Recension. i t is of course of great value for study of orthography and grammar. The significance of this direct quotation is that i t reveals the Babylonian priest operating on a principle that is put forward i n the epic itself. This statement must be qualified. and 19 of Ku-Aya's recension with a few variants. and be done with a knowledge of the other contemporary and eariier speech-forms of Akkadian. see W . 339 te-i-tam 11. Goetze. The lines quoted are Tablet n . n and n i . in Neugebauer and Sachs. There are two striking sandhi-writings: bâbiSatmâni (1. Maihematical Cuneiform Texts. and this créâtes a variety of 'Southern* forms such as is-sâ-qar and si-iq*rà.63). but once a-nun-na-ku (1. T h e technique whereby Atra-fcasîs got Adad to send rain could be used again whenever there was a drought. 284) and lïti[lu] (= littï[lu]> 1. 1 Normally the syllables qa and pi are written with G and BI. We have adopted sqr rather than zkr as the root 'speak' (see note on 1. The following section (obv. the substitution of 'water' for 'grain* (su-a) i n 4 cannot be explained i n the same way. Its various sections are separated by rulings. i i . 1 xm. 16). ail of which were omitted by Campbell Thompson. note the following examples : Sa-ma-i 1. save for the last line. The first two sections (obv. 11-13. for line 6 includes the words: 'Abundant rain will fall for the king.maâ). A fundamental observation is that the édition of Ku-Aya is not always consistent. m . though in other connections. The offering of sesame-meal may be pleasing to him. Several interesting phonological phenomena occur. i . Twice a doubled consonant is resolved into the glottal stop followed by a single consonant: u'pur (*= uppur. The reverse. since his point i n the use of the line is made clearer thereby. 7. or i f the compiler omitted them to shorten the excerpt. 19). JSS 104 ff. a Southern usage according to Goetze. however. 5. 146-7. pp. i i i . He may rain down a mist i n the morning. mât e-gi-bi ^maà. vi.300). This falls outside the scope of the présent volume. However. and ki sarrâqûtu for ki-ma sa-arra-qi-tu are substitutions of more common words and phrases for less common. 35 ti-i-ti-iS 1.' ( à è g gap-su-tu ana sarri be-U-ia il-[la-ku]). in that linguistically speaking the epic's extent is inadéquate to provide the basis for a c o m p r e h e n s i v c study of its dialect. 9 (B) SINCE Atra-frasis 5 When rain has become scarce i n the land of Akkad.aS mà m bël-î>A. Since thèse are particularly epic words used i n stock formulas they may well have had their own orthographie tradition unrelated to that of Sippar. Normally Anunnakku is written a-nun-na. though the syllables ti/te are often written with the Di-sign. I t is similarly uncertain i f the four missing lines were already lacking from the text then i n use. Serious linguistic work would have to draw on ail Old Babylonian literary compositions.fl. 19.

T h e nominative case-ending i n the construct state occurs i n the following passages: nahbalu tiâmtim 1. . and so the one which is used here as the main recension. v i i . has no sound basis. 14 iti. . 16).tab. i .sâ [ud.ta in. R m i l . viii. vi. see 1.| M o n t h Iyyar [ x t h day]. 30 (gen. 19 m 33 simânu Hmti 1. [x]x[. the year when Ammi-saduqa. Stamm.silim. 305 cf.as. see the note) meaning 'to heaven'./acc. von Soden. and they are dated as follows: 1 I iti. 14 Ending -um azoïlum 1.zimbir . i-ta-mu (1. normally written Mammïtum. G. The consonant w has not completely disappeared. . 17.28. Several difficult uses of the acc. 6 ( C T 18. and the former has been generally accepted. i i i .kam m u am-mi-sa-du-qâ lugal. 113). a statue of h i m s e l f .kâm mu am-mi-sa-du-qâ lugal.di. 61 and note). i n Die akkaduche Namengebung {Mitteilungen der vorderasiatisch-aegyptischen Gesellschaft 44) 301 f.ni 5u. but i taprus (see 1.di'. A detailed study w i l l be included i n W. tisia for Hsia is paralleled in Old Babylonian letters (see 1. Scheil i n 1898 {RT xx. I t is replaced by m i n the following forms: ilmû (1. 12 ianîttii[ka] n i . viii. vii. Thèse seem to be the eariiest occurrences of this m though it is normal in Middle Babylonian.babbar and once a phonetic writing ka-sa-apiitar ( VAS 8. 15 (acc. . T h u s in ail probability the scribe was called Kasap-Aya. i t is without paraliel. as pointed out by B. however. 366). note âlittutn i n n i .ra.an. 163 ff. in m . 26 Suffixes: qâtiUa X 11 . ZA 40. 2. .a. 55) proposed to read the name either Ellet-Aya or Mullil-Aya.gud. the king.ma. the king. A less common ending is -ia (or -i$a) for -lam (or -Uam) on iamêSa (1. 214 == 227 bubûtiS niH tîitâ [Ui] 1. Lambert's forthcoming Babylonian Création Myths so the material is quoted here w i t h little or no comment : y % T H E M A N U S C R I P T S THE best-preserved édition of the epic. 94.) ina c&qulàlu samH 11..ba su X ( X ) ù alam. } . con* structed Dûr-Ammi-saduqa at the mouth of the Sippar canal.silim. 339 pûtii nâri 11. the year when Ammi-saduqa. T h i s . and 41.gar ud. 5 (gen. is an édition i n three tablets from the hand of K u Aya i n the reign of Ammi-saduqa. 5.di i s suggested by Erimhus x. . Landsberger privately. iv. (t)umaSier (11. a statue of himself [. 8) is a form of bukra.ni mâs. 6 « KBo 1.kâm] m u am-mi-sa-d[u-qâ lugal. III iti. S i i i . we have used the Sumerian form.bâra.a.zag. One copy of each of the three tablets survives (for détails see the list below). the year when Ammi-saduqa. 28th day.) A totally unexpected révélation is that the t h i r d person fem. commenta that the type kù-f divine name ia Sumerian. 587. 29). . 280 M o n t h Nisan. 8-9 (perhaps also n i . but also kù. 295 and note o n 1.ORTHOGRAPHY d AND GRAMMAR are very rare.a ud.e dûx-am-rni-sa-du-qi** ka. and i n the period of the First Dynasty of Babylon one finds not only k u i n this type. v i . but note ma-'-me-tum (DP v i . 37 mûHiu seems to have the ending -ht or -iiu = ana. 1 The only unusual thing here is the ending -um w i t h the meaning 'like'. v .ga.dim. 13. viiL 14 could be a scribal error. 19 (nom. 33) with notes.. but since there is no proof. 21 st day. i i . 47.2x.silim. K 214 » C T 1 9 . iii. 44. 90 ff. I n word forms one naturally looks for 'hymno-epic' idiom. .gaba. 20. bâbiSka I. see the nota» I f burra ( n i . iv.di = iit-ru-sû in the context of its group and by the meaning of the éléments i n Su. 1 kïma iarrâqïtu I I .silim. 8 . v i i . occur.si. . a kid held at the breast and a statue of himself victorious ( ? ) .) Hpru iiqû I I . 22.a f Alone: Ending -U Hkrii n i . X . J .) ina birku àlitti 111. * T h e meaning o f Su. see the note on 1.) màrû râmânika 1. 3). but $anitti!![ka]. v i . N o writings *el-le-et-iitar have been noted. 69 ahriâtil ûmï 1. A t the beginning of words i t may be simply lost.id. 37. 96 (acc. v i i . n i . 2 II ba'ûlâtuHu 1. 1. 4).[ni.ma ab. on which see W. 17 Construct: bâbis atmâni 1. 6 ) : su.a ki M o n t h Shebat. for the normal tanïttù[ka].a. 113 tërëtii\ka\ n i .e alam. [the king].e) alam. Also i n 111. precative with f-prefix is not lû taprus.

Rechlsurhunden aus Nippur D 58. JCS 11. The t h i r d tablet is dated i n the second month of a year which cannot be certainly ascertained. The rest of the colophons of thèse three tablets concerna the number of lines and the scribe: 1 dub.4a. H . and Tablet n on the 28th day of the eleventh month of the preceding year.' L .2. and in view of the close resemblance of this to B. 1635 B.S]id. I t could well be the same year as that of Tablet 1. The two have the same eight-column format. C . and viii. .kàm. v i i . F. However. like this one. H . he had said substantially more. 'When the gods like man' Number of lines: 439 Written by Ku-Aya. 5 ) . The author wrote it as an uninterrupted séquence. i 2 t h . unidentified year formula of this king begin with mention of a statue. certainly corne from Sippar.sar.ma i-nu-ma i-lu a-wi-lum [mu. except for i i . 55» Bévue biblique 7 . From the first publication of Tablet 11 in 1898 by Scheil (RT X . at the meeting of the Eleventh International Congress of Orientalists held i n Paria.). which has not changed since Scheil wrote (see Finkelstein.sar. I t is true that the bottom of the last column is broken away. 114 says. 'When the gods like man' Number of lines: 390 Total: 1245 for the three tablets Written by Ku-Aya. save for the last one. Ku-Aya's Tablet n .bP 390 0 1 r n su. the number of lines and the name of the scribe. and that there is no colophon preserved. but D na-al-la) and orthographie variants i n i . X 55) i t has been argued that Ku-Aya worked in Sippar. p. somehow the tablet became Scheil's property (cf.bi 439 Su k&. I 5 t h .c. inscribed in the reign of Ammi-zadok. 9-10. 1897. the j u n i o r scribe Tablet m . . bear Nippur numbers. W . Scheil only wrote on its origin that it was 'parmi les découvertes de ma ueptiksnt campagne en Orient' (RT xx.bi 416 Su kù.' However.3* THE MANUSCRIPTS THE MANUSCRIPTS Tablet I was thus Written (or finished) on the 2ist day of the first month of Ammi-saduqa's I 2 t h year (c.kàm. W .a dub. vii. one i n Geneva. the junior scribe II Tablet 11.a dub. that D uses ten-marks on the obverse i n the style of Ku-Aya. Edikt 12-13.a dub. results from the combination of two pièces. cited here under the symbol C (see the list below). p.3.<*a. 83-4) is that the overwhelming majority of tablets from Arnmi-saduqa's reign corne from Sippar. but reports are given by two British scholars who attended. 18 (B has na-as-Sa. 1 and i n . since they both reached the British Muséum together.sid. states : At the récent meeting of the Oriental Congress in Paris. which is shorter. and one other. then the total is given on the bottom edge under each column. D r . is certainly lacking. Altbab. F i r s t . Cuneiform Inscriptions 41). 'When the gods like man' Number of lines: 416 Written by Ku-Aya. The way that the two pièces are broken and ail other considérations suggest that they are parts of the same tablet and might just touch i f they were put W i t h B there is a more direct pièce of évidence.ma i-nu-ma i-lu a-wi-lum?* *'^ *] mu. and the two London tablets. . . since the 5th.l. The division of the work into tablets is purely scribal. he has concluded that this too is from Sippar. the junior scribe together. K i n g ' s Babylonian Religion and Mythology (1899). Johns.kâm. but even i f the date was put there and is thus lost. but neglects to do so on the reverse. 1 1 a 818 16 8 F . 48.tur dub. 1 2 m Finis Tablet n i .Sid.ma i-nu-ma i-lu a-wi-lum mu. and where both are preserved they are sign for sign identical. . Another copy of Tablet 11 belonging to the same recension is now in Istanbul ( D ) .nigin 1245 Sa 3 tup-pa-t[im] Su kù. Sayce and K i n g . . A . R. The Ku-Aya tablets are written in eight columns of about fifty-five lines each. reached the British Muséum in a collection mainly of such material. The reason. and other éditions divide it differently from Ku-Aya's.H a b b a h . Kraus has shown that other tablets in Istanbul which. the other i n L o n d o n . and each column is numbered consecutively from the top (the wedge for 'ten' is put against each tenth line). Sayce. Kraus. in the Préface to his Early History ofthe Hebrews (1897). the site o f the ancient city of Sippar. which should have followed close o n the last line to conform to Ku-Aya's style. R.sar. 36.tur d I Tablet 1. . story of the flood . Scheil stated that among the tablets lately brought back from Sippar to the muséum at Conatantinople is one w h i c h contains the • . and the informative paragraph i n Sayce's book was omitted from the otherwise unchanged second édition of 1899. a. Other différences are that the text is not broken into columns at exactly the same points. 'It was found during the excavations that were recently undertaken by the Turkish Government at A b u .tur m aLtil dub. T h e Actes of the Congress conta in nothing by h i m .

by way of addition or omission. and again differently arranged. and they can be divided into three groups. From thèse one can see that the couplets were written on a single line i n this copy. The first. Old Babylonian orthographies remain unchanged. However. Landsberger. e. T h e only identified fragment of the bilingual Silbenalphabet from 1 1 See B . Ku-Aya's tablet (A) does so after 1. P also has a correction from a paraliel passage: cf. L is derived from a séries of which one (presumably the first) tablet ended with 1.255 P. or in other ways. as in the case of Gilgamei. But when allowanoe has been made for the différait format. F. Only four of the nine pièces seem to be from the same tablets. and O and P. can be regarded as descendants of Ku-Aya's édition or something simiiar. cannot be identified at ail. The tablet has only four columns. and they may well be unrelated to each other. and in view of the small extent of thèse pièces generally one cannot be sure that their recensional connections have been properfy assessed. T h a t is.kâm. can be assumed to come from Sippar on the same kind of évidence. and the same copy transposes the coupletJ 301-2 between lines 295 and 296. before 1. and 82-3-23. which should come near the beginning of Tablet 1.110. This émerges from the colophon of K 4175+ Sm 57+80-7-19. and there was no one text. though offering many orthographie and phonetic variants.me [kûr. and J$ covered only the flood. i t may not have contained ail the same épisodes. 275. 189): e-tm-ma t<-& a-[me-hm] dub. and is given i n this colophon as the second in the séries which begins w i t h the Silbenalphabet itself in its bilingual version. The fourteen Late Assyrian pièces ail come from the Ashurbanipal libraries and are ail i n Late Assyrian script. the use of -sac i n 1. and the traces from its first column. since its obverse covers the end of Ku-Aya's Tablet 1 and the beginning of Tablet n .33-4- AfO Beiheft 1 {Festschrift von Oppenheim) 177-8. 146 (see CT 18. or is something differing recensionally f r o m a preserved épisode. However. C . The catch-Une is the opening phrase of Apa-ham? so the epic formed the t h i r d . Thus P could have contained the same number of Unes as A. Of the two Middle Babylonian pièces. Iraq 4. which is only explicable as due to its déviation from Ku-Aya's édition. its readings in 1. They do diverge more seriously i n places. 227. two on each side. . but i f so they attest the présence of at least three widely différent recensions i n the one town. The traces of its column i i i are totally unidentified. this tablet had six. i n this combine d séries. They are not uniform in any other respect. so that if they contained ail the material from Ku-Aya's édition they probably formed a séries of four tablets. and its columns must have been very wide. Certainly there is diversity among them. they often agrée verbally with i t . I f this is a correct understanding of the traces. G also offers a widely différent recension. as i n the majority of tablets from ail periods.ma me. which is written over two Unes. M turned from obverse to reverse after 1. The second group of Ashurbanipal fragments is formed by V and W. and a ruling is put after each couplet. E. I f the édition represented by G covered the same ground as the main recension. that had been thoroughly worked over and was standard i n the late periods. but M and L must have been only about two-thirds the length of A. j and K. J . not eight columns. Q was no doubt Tablet 11 of such a séries. F is a small fragment with traces from the line-ends of one column and better-preserved beginnings of a second. 241 P has some lines not in the Old Babylonian text. Even the few words left i n its column i offer variation f r o m K u Aya's text I t is not clear i f its column i i is to be inserted i n a gap i n the main recension. E has a text which is basically the same as Ku-Aya's. Thus L omits 1. L obverse has a ruling and some damaged signs just above i t that seem to be colophonic. Also there is no standard format. i t is clear that there were recensional différences from Ku-Aya's édition. while its reverse overlaps column i i of Tablet i l . seems to have some relationship to the Old Babylonian G. i t can only be said that they differed recensionally from Ku-Aya. 31-3. 116-17. for the Uttle of i t preserved. Gadd. 241-3 with the main recension at IL vii.g.2. one from Ras Shamra ( f t ) and one from Nippur (3).kûjr i-li 4 T E M N S RP S H A UC I T 3 5 This tablet itself contains the bilingual création myth with the Silbenalphabet alongside. 150 . G . also there are no ten-marks.34 T H E MANUSCRIPTS The other Old Babylonian pièces. Even i f some were appropriated by Ashurbanipal from other existing collections there is no reason to suppose that any one is more than a century or so older than he. 181 . 413-15. Q has remains of five lines covering 1. We lump them together because they seem to be unrelated to Ku-Aya's édition. and the whole tablet must have contained much less material. T h e first line of G corresponded with I . 295. of nine mostly very small pièces (J-R). 184. 157 of Ku-Aya's édition. and no doubt also subséquent tablets. V. Somewhere among the eleven Ashurbanipal pièces just dealt with there are no doubt remains of one Ashurbanipal recension of the epic in which i t was part of a larger whole. but w i t h many orthographie variants and one more substantial one i n i . P did so at about 1. i t must have consisted of some eight tablets.47 and RA 17. L (a pièce from the righthand side of the complète tablet) did the same at about I.

1880. are of significance for the study of Late Assyrian rather than for Atra-hasïs. Assyrian influence also occurs i n orthography. First. 33 vi. Whether this recension had a longer history i n Assyria cannot be ascertained. George Smith first made the epic known from S. A few examples only are given: Unusual writings: ti-ta iv. something very unusual in Akkadian texts generally. so obviously i t was a two-tablet édition. tS iii. 17 1 su-hu-rat (sahurrat) e-tar-bu-ma l In his Chaldean Account ©/ Genesis ( 153-6. Thirdly. clay. since often the Babylonian form occurs more frequently. Secondly. vi 19 30 48 27 lu-har-ri-sâ lu-sa-bu-u (lisebbû) lu-ti-id lu-ri-id Vowel harmony.l. however. 283-8) show the same mixture of Assyrian and Babylonian forms (see also BWL 334 on b) and the same orthographie features. The only post-OId Babylonian text of Atra-hasïs o f sufficient estent and of such character to be called a recension is made up by the remaining Ashurbanipal pièces. 11. and only i n 1967 was K 8562 finally joined to the other two. which is now represented under three K-numbers. 1 2 THE MANUSCRIPTS Short form of verbal suffixes iii. 59 it-ta. The small pièce T is almost certainly the concluding fragment of the same tablet Script. 6 tam-nu-u (ittanaruti) tàk-ri-is (uktarris) tas-ku-un (iikun) rd-se-e iv. and the line of colophon therefore identifies i t as Tablet 1 of Atra-hasïs. AS 16. 12 û-ka-la-la-ti-na Assyrian I I / i iv. For example. 7). which shows s for a. 35 kat-ra-ba-ma 3 7 Thèse forms certainly resuit from Assyrianization of an underlying Babylonian text. 49. etc. U rev. and confuses obverse and reverse of the tablet. 18). and reason w i l l be offered shortly for taking U as the only surviving pièce of the second and last tablet i n this édition. and for grammar si-qu-su siq-si-qu (rev. The use of GI for Ai in iii. S. 5-8 is a pair of repeated couplets like S iv. Along w i t h the three joined pièces i t covers Tablet 1 of the main recension and the first half of Tablet 11. They are of a kind not found i n any other text of the epic. 42. as against the one example of the short form of the verbal suffix there are three examples of the longer -UnâU (iv.rf K 3399+3934 and then from K 8562 as the last preserved portion. 155-8) he refera to the epic as knownfromose copy only. T . Such Akkadian literary texts as do survive i n Middle Assyrian copies (e. For orthography note W-ta-sa-a (ittasâ: rev. 42.kam. It contains some glosses. Single consonants are often written where most scribes would write double. 3 iii. li-na-di [linnadi) Inconsistencies: pl i-tm-ru/i'-ru iv. îs the occurrence of Assyrian dialect forms (the corresponding word of the main recension.g.7 lu* instead of Ii. 20 and S iv. 26 = B M 98520 (RA 17. as is characteristic for many Middle Assyrian literary texts and copies. 52 Single consonants: a-li-te (àlitte). 2..[dar]jat-ta-ar* "dar iv. 32 | i ka-i-la Late Assyrian préférence for a (cf. iv. and the tablet is not self-consistent. * dub. 52 ta» 15 The most striking feature of this recension.rna ji u[m mui. Smith knew ail three as parts of a single tablet. 5 is an O l d Assyrian custom. He translates the bottom half of column ir. 23-6 (both are restored a little). and some of thèse features are very curious.15.THE MANUSCRIPTS AshurbanipaTs libraries is T h 1905-4-9. 202). ':: Three reasons support the assignment of U to the Assyrian Recension. but i t is possible that the correct expianation is . and content lead to this supposition. From internai évidence i t may be suspected that the Assyrian Recension goes back to a Middle Assyrian original. this can be called the Assyrian Recension. but after his death they got separated. as already observed by Laessoe. RA 53. On the same basis of script one may wonder i f V also cornes from the same scribe and so belongs to the séries. is given i n brackets): T h i r d person fem. and as this could well be from the same scribe who wrote K 4175+» i t is probably from Tablet 1 of this séries. 5. 5 i i i . T h e format of Tablet 1 is one of six columns. where preserved. 30 both use K (gù) for rigmu (as proved by A the main recensions paraliel Unes). U obv. iv. U shows the same kinds of divergence from the main recension as S. For reasons which w i l l become apparent. 125) iv. and U .38).i n precatives iii. which.

affect the gênerai r u n of the story. the small surviving portions of the obverse are inserted i n the course of Tablet I. While there is some phraseology i n common. in opportune gaps i n the main recension. T h i s occurs only i n Tablet I. So far as possible. i t has been restored from other Old Babylonian texts without any spécial indication of this fact when it is reasonably certain that they can properly be so used. Metrically too the Assyrian Recension is far less consistent than the main recension. Tablet I is cited by line only (e. the ancient line numbers are used. the Assyrian Recension follows the order of events i n the main recension. 44) 11. column. and that Tiglath-pileser I had a library of such material (AfO 16. i . where Ku-Aya's édition is déficient. t n (zumSu) li-sa-aq-qi-il = zu-un-na-su lu~td-qir (iv. 44.38 THE MANUSCRIPTS T H E MANUSCRIPTS 39 grammatical rather than orthographie. iv. t h i r d . Generally i t seems a reasonable conclusion that the main recension is primary and the Assyrian Recension secondary. so thèse tablets have to be cited by tablet. its Tablet 1. 15) = i-na lu-par-ke-e napisti (v.). and they too may not always keep the Old Babylonian couplet form. but the text is arrangée! metrically. This is also found in S iv. This is particularly clear where obscure words and phrases of the Old Babylonian text have been altered: 11. i t is perhaps more probable that this recension was Assyrianized i n the middle period. but i t is différent i n détails of the events. 26 = 1 The same kind of corrections can be observed between Tablet 111 o f the main recension and GilgameS x i . Since i t is known that Tukulti-Ninurta I used his sack of Babylon to acquire literary and other texts (AfO 18. 171 ff. but the larger portions of the columns on the reverse are given on their own after the end of Tablet IIL And so with the other divergent pièces. S 12-26 = v i 1-15 compared w i t h 11. ail other tablets. however. 2-11). I t s lines more commonly diverge from the accepted patterns. 29-36 covers 1. I n the description of the averting of the first plague the editor has avoided the répétition of the main recension (his iv. However. However. This applies almost exclusively to E i n Tablet 1 and D i n Tablet 11.g. e. 1. T h e biggest différence between the two recensions is i n wording. but distinguished by smaller type. where possible. Lines of poetry spread over two lines of script due to the narrowness of the Old Babylonian columns have been joined and spacing is used to indicate couplets. e. and 251 ft With the divergent texts.g. are cited i n the apparatus. 372-415 î). or something simiiar. There is nothing to suggest that i t differed i n more than détail. but conversely his account seems to conflate at each occurrence the events o f the second. 241) since. there is much more of the epic where the wording has been changed quite deliberately on one side or the other. I n short. the smaller pièces have been inserted. column i i . 7-18. Thèse do not. 197 ff. There is one passage h shows that tfae other Late Assyrian copies could have connections | P b the Assyrian Recension: for 11. But clearly they do ditTer from the Old Babylonian édition in some places quite substantially. the Assyrian Recension is a reworking of Ku-Aya's text (or a simiiar one) and i t is scarcely an improvement. Q has substituted a couplet of . where local dialectal forms were inserted. or whether both sets o f changes were roughly the same content but differently worded. and line number. Where the ten-marks enable i t . 5-6. 1) and the total number of lines given i n the colophon i t is possible to give a consécutive n umbering throughout. So far as can be told from its incomplète state. they are used to restore the Old Babylonian text. The two Late Babylonian fragments. that the Geers L a w d i d not fully operate and the word should be read girfu or qirsu. 17. 14 i-na H-it-ku-ki na-pi-i[i-ti] vi.g. they do not agrée among themselves on who guarded the 'middle earth\ Our reconstructed text is based on Ku-Aya's tablets where they are preserved. Whether the éditorial work was done i n Babylonia before the text was taken t o Assyria. I n Tablets i l and 111 the gaps between the preserved portions of the columns cannot be estimated accurately. offers a fragment of narrative sharing some wording w i t h the main recension. and some parts are not written i n couplets even though the corresponding O l d Babylonian lines are. 4-5. otherwise the preserved lines are numbered from 1. i v . alone are preserved. and fourth attempts of the gods to quieten the human race. which b o t h obscures the plot and pads out the narrative. The location of each can be found from the following list o f manuscripts. Thus of the first tablet of the Assyrian Recension. with the help of the ten-marks (those for 220 and 320 are omitted i n CT 46. m . iv. x and y. Where the Late Assyrian fragments that are descended from Ku-Aya's text. B rian is at présent an unanswerable question. For example. both Old Babylonian and later. are hardly big enough for their recensional characteristics to be drawn out.

Johns. 122-4 iii).253 #. vit. u . 4. 170 ft). 271-300.20 158-66. CT 46. 169-75 .LIST OF MANUSCRIPTS 41 LIST Symbol O F M A N U S C R I P T S Copy CT 46. vi. 319-20. 6(8562) (11. p l . 114 JSSv. 3-54. 1-27. P. (11. 334-89. i v = Le Poème p l . (1. i). 18-40). 33-7 CT 46. i-35 . viii. P p . vii. 1324. Pp. (Photo B a b y l o n 1601) 5 116-20 ( i l . 131. 106-14 CT 13. Haupt. ( n i . 31 (11. 28-55. pis.iV. 2-23. 123 07*46. CT 46. Where a recension widely difîering from K u . Cuneiform Inscriptions. X CT 46. 94 7-8 P i s . 11 . 1 CT 46. Pp. v .and column-numbers o f his recension are given i n bracketa. a 3: S: BE S e r . 237-60. 30-535 viii. BRM i v . JR 50. (n. ii. YOR v/3 p i s . 1-20. N OL T BBL N N E . w i t h p p . 340 R — K 4539 S = K 3399+3934+8562 JSS v. 1* ZtiVse* preserved1 Symbol Muséum number K « K 6235 L « K6831 Copy CT 46. i . 38-51. 9-10 Unidentified. 5 BA v. 103-24 1. R? Additions p. 49 Pis. i i . 9. iv). p l . 10-18? (1. MD L BBL N N I DE AYO I A $ 22. v. 115-30» 39-7o. 56-8 YOR v/3. 360 ff. Pis. 65 1 (l. 2 Nimrodepos p. 8-14. (182-97). 11 BRM i v . 68-80. Ï72-9 I. v m (part only) Sollberger. 324-5» 3^7-33. n i . iv. P. Catalogue v . 28-52. iv. 1-25 . Frontispieçé and p . 39o~ 416 1 (J and K are probably parts of the same tablet) M •* K 7 1 0 9 + 9 9 7 9 N ~ Bu 8 9 .(*• 352-n.2 6 . they can be located from the page références given i n the above list. l63-8l I. 1-33. 9-21.A y a ' s is offered. i . 1-50.7 P OORP S HTGAH T h e semicolons separate the material of the preserved columns in séquence of each tablet or fragment. iii. 109-11 ? v RT x x . vii.) (m. 126 L T ASR N (ail from AE SYI A | « K 10082 1 B: Ashurbanipars library) CT46.4 . 226-33 OLD BBL NN AYO I A A = B M 78941+78943 (Bu 89-4-26. CT a Delitesch. 421 3 « C B S 13532 y = B E 36669/243 Ugaritica BE v. 1-6 T = K 12000c U = B M 98977+99231 ( K i 1904-10-9. iv). (T is probably the e n d of the same tablet as S) 116 9 Al? 1 ( m . vii. the corresponding line. 128 iv. ii-iii). 188-220. 235 + 266+ B u 91-5-9» 524) and C « M A H 16064 (see JCS 5.i. 310a) B M 78257 ( B u 88-5-12. 116 Ser. (1.v. i). * Collations are given on pl. 7 (r. 3948. p l . 92. 52. 168-77. CT 15. Muséum number 10' 1 identified Lines preserved I. 1 p. u n i d e n t i f i e d . D « N i 2552+2560+2564 RA 28. 11 CT 46. 11. 13 292 (complète) (O a n d P are probably parts o f the same tablet) Q *= S m m . CT 46. 8-9. 4 CT 46. 37 Collations are given on p l . i i . The Babylonian Legend of the Flood. 1-32. (1. 36-41 n. 9 1 . D v / i unidentified. ii unidentified m (n. 322. 101. I. P. 281-308. 5 PBS x / i . 123-46. 11. vi. 14 BWL pl. 113) * RS 1. i-ii) m . 167 (ii-ni).i i i ) . traces c. i i . Pl. 3-19 m . 132 (ni. 49-52). 28-50. 8 Pl. 189-91). 57-114. D v/x Bezold. p l . 6 + 263) V = K 6634 W = D T 42 (3399+3934)» (1.A E AYO I A x = B E 39099 (Photo B a b y l o n 1804) X5 l 44. i i . 11-26. 1-27. 8-36. v-vi). 13) . 688 (7816 only) I. Where the lines concemed have not been used for our main text and are not given adjacent to the corresponding passage. 234+236) I. 1a CT 46. 3-28.i).18) 2 RT x x . i . 288-306 fi « M L C 1889 C * C i « B M 78942+78971+80385 ( B u 89-4-26. 97 O « K 14697 P K 7816+13863 CT 46. W : E. p i s . i. 1. Clay. 3 2 II. i v . i i i . P .).v i . 31-7 1. 20927. F G B M 17596a (94-1-15. vii.(n. . 228-51. 410-n. B M 92608 (Bu 91-5-9» 269) CT 6. Origin of the Biblical Traditions 223 (enlargements of some signs) RA 2 8 . 37-54Î viii. w i t h 55-9. P. unT I06-22.

is offered by K 8562 (S). . .• . 12 Had east lots and had divided.]-fu-nu il-tâk-nu 7-xo cf. . 8 Their counsellor was the warrior Enlil. ] . . . . 11 The gods had clasped hands together. 35). .] i-na naq-bi 9 ^ . ] they were digging . the earth to his subjects. . .i~her]-ru-iï nàra 6 . 7 Anu.] x [e]-lu H-gi~gi •§£»'•] i-fye-er-ru-nhn ' .û ta^-me-e-la 18 [ù *en-ki a-na a]p-si. ] ^e^-tar-du . i]-fye-er-ru-nim na-p]i-il-ti ma-tim . ] . 9 Their Chamberlain was Ninurta. 10 A n d their sheriff Enitugi. . • * * * * I The Assyrian Recension of Unes 19 ff. 17 [After Anu] had gone up to heaven 18 [ A n d Enki] had gone down to the Apsû. ] û X [ï]a-ma-i . . . n]a-pi-it~ti ma-tim . ] the life of the land ] went down rulerjship of the Apsû went] down ] • • Ea I I ] ] ] ] ] were digging the river the life of the land . .e^-Sa 1 x 14 [X x ] x x X W-se-tam ba-û-la-W-ul-hi 15 [H-ga-ra n]a-ak-ba-lu ti-a-am-tirn 16 [it-ta-a]d-nu a-na en-ki na-ai-H. . .W d T 17 [ii-tu a-nu-u]m i-lu. ] the life of the land . 16 (They had given] to Enki. . 4 The work was heavy. ] they set up • • . 15 [The boit].(42) (43) T A B L E T A I TABLET I 1 i-nu-ma i-lu a-wi-lum 2 ub-lu du-ul-la iz-bi-lu fu-up-H-[i]k-ka 1 When the goda like men 2 Bore the work and sufTcred the toil 3 The toil of the gods was great. . . Gilg. the prince. the Euphrates after it from the deep their [. 13 Anu had gone up to heaven. . a. . their father. . ] . the bar of the sea. was the king.] they were digging . ] X pu-ra-na-ta ar-ki-ld 8 . column i : 1 2 3 4 5 . . the distress was much— 5 The Seven great Anunnaki 6 Were making the Igigi suffer the work. . . . idtjglat na-ra-am .P [t]-ta-ar-du r r 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 ' • ' . ma-li-k]u-ut ap-se-e . . 14 [ . 4 8 i n 4175+ (see p.gi-gP d r 7 a-nu a-bu-lu-nu ia[r-r]u 8 \ni\a-li-ik-Su-nu qû-ra-d[u\ en-lil d 9 [gu -u]z-za-lu-lu-n[u] 5 d [ni]n-urta 10 [ù] gal-lu-lu-nu d [en]-nu-gi 11 [q]a-tam i-hu-zu qa-ti-la 12 is-qd-am id-du-û i-lu iz-zu-zu 13 ^a-nu i-te-liî\a-mé\. . . -rfi-du-ma . . the heavens . . ] X-di/ki-tam ' ^ * I K . upon the I g i g i . n]a-pûl-ti mâti 7 . .] X ud £#(idim) d 3 lu-up-U-ik i-li ra-bi-[rri\a 4 du-ul-lu-um ka-bi-it ma-a-ad la-ap-Sa-qum 5 ra-bu-tum a-nun-na-ku si-bi-it-tam 6 du-ul-lam û-la-az-ba-lu H. . . . . . .

S-i\a-ak-nu . J . . ] .] sum'-i/-im*-iikakbu?la 15 traces 5 J .] . 36 [They] counted [the years] of the toil 37 Excessive [ ] for 4 0 years ] X sû-si-a ra-bi-a |35 36 [s'anâtim im]-nu-û ia iu-up-H-ik-ki . let us unnerve him in his dwelling! 45 [Bolil].] . ajp-tsa^-a . . backbiting. . . 46 Come.hi. . . .. pâ-su] i-pu-ia-am-ma 4 [is-sa-aq-qa-r\a ana Us ah-he-e-iu 5 . . . the hero. ] x 40 itfm&tm(mu.m guzzalâ i [ka-a]b-tam du-ul-la-m ni-im-hu-ur-ma li-sa-d-ik el-ni 43 [ X X m]a-H-ik i-li qu-ra-dam 44 [al-k)/BMdm i ni-is-H-a i-na su-ub-ti-su 45 [*€*-& m]a-ti-ik i-li qu-ra-dam 46 [al-k]a-mm i ni-is-H-a i-na su-ub-ti-su 47 [ X ] X pi-a-hi i-pu-ia-am-ma 48 [is-$â-qa]r a-na i-U ah-U-su 4 49 50 • .a i nir^na-ra^-a [i-tu\ È&Ê • ] X i ni-ii-bi-ir m-ra 2 3 [ .. . .a) at-ra-am 37 [ X X db]-iiMeai iz-bi-lu mu-si û ur-ri 3 8 38 [. are broken away. . % * J « the Chamberlain of old rime . let us unnerve him in his dwelling!' 47 [• •] • opened his mouth 48 [ A n d addressed] the gods.. .•] opened pus mouth] 4 [ A n d addressed) the gods his brothers. 1 ^ S f 29 3° 3 32 14 . ] .J X gazait kt-bi-ru-tim 3 [• . let us kiU [him] ê # .Si ïO~l . let us break tbe yokeP j» î 2 d . the Chamberlain. 34 [They counted the years] of the toit 35 . of the land J . . .l Ia-bP-ru-tîm r 49 ' . 43 [• •] counsellor of the gods.. i-na n]a-aq-bi .ATRA-rJASlS 44 j k 28 . 42 T h a t he may relieve us of our hezvy work. ] X-at ma-tim ' ' • J " * qi-ri-ib-iu u!-ï\u-û re-H-su from] the deep ] they set up ] the Apsû J . 44 Come.. . 39 T h e y [were œmplaining]. 39 [i-da-bu\-bu-ma i-ik-ka-lu ka-ar-n ¥> [ut-ta-az]-za-mu i-na ka-la-ak-kz 4 1 [ X x ] X . counsellor of the gods. the hero.. the Chamberlain of old time M4* ] KH»1 2 _ _ J E * * * * * 1 T h e last four lines of Column i . b u t K 10082 ( J ) probably belongs at this point: K 10082 ( J ) . . 40 Grumbling in the excavation: 41 ' L e t us confront our [. his brothers. the great rnarsh. 53-6.. ] .] they sufïered the work night and day. . . . within i t ] they raised its head 1 *T-S*. they surrounded . è]û 33 [sanâtim m-nu-é\ f n sa-di-i iu-up-H-ik-ki * * * * * J3 • • »] ail the mountains. .] X GVJA.

•] 57 tna-li-\ik] qû-ra-dam 58 al-k[a]-(nim} V ni-is-H-a i-na hi-ub-ti-su 59 en-lil [ma-li-i]k i-li qû-ra-dam 60 al-[ka]-(nim) i ni-û-H-a i-na Hs-ub-ti-Su d ii 57 The counsellor o f the gods. your temple is surrounded. .a-a-a/ [ I*"* 73 K : . . 82 Enlil.] 76 Kalkal roused [Nusku]. . let us unnerve him in his dwelling! 59 Enlil. .] Enlil will appoint . the hero. ] 78 Nusku roused [his] lord. 75 He slid the boit and watched [. let us unnerve him in his dwelling 1 61 Now. .] d d 78 ànusku id-de-ki be-[el-hi\ 79 i-na ma-ia-li û-k-et-[bi-hî\ 80 be-li la-wi bi-[it-ka] 81 qd-ab-lum i-ru-sa a)-\na ba-bi-ka] { 82 dtft-fiZ fa-fp[f bi-i]t-ka 83 qd-ab-l[um i-ru]-^ 84 <^-#/ X X X a-na [b]a-bi-ka û-ïa-ar-di a-na su-ub-ti-ïu 7 1 K : g K . but Enlil did not know.] X X iq-qû-û X X X X d 1 57-84. 83 Battle has come right up to your gâte.ATRA-tJASÏS 46 6 7 8 . 74 Kalkal observed it and was disturbed. 73 Ekur was surrounded. 79 He got [him] out of his bed. 77 A n d they listened to the noise of [. 65 Fire to their spades they put 66 A n d flame to their hods. . 71 The temple was surrounded. * 61 a-nu-um-ma ti-H-a tu-^qtP-um-tam 62 ta-ha-za i ni-ib-lu-la qd-ab-la-am 63 i-lu is-mu-û H-qi-ir-Su 64 i-ïa-tam ne-pi-H-su-nu id-du-û-ma 65 ma-ar-ri-su-nu i-sa-ta-am 66 hi-up-H-ik-ki-hi-nu girra d 6 7 it-ta-ak-su K 68 i-ta-ah-zu-nim i-il-la-ku-nim 69 ba-bi-sa-at-ma-ni qû-ra-di en-lil d 70 mi-H-il ma-as-sa-ar-ti 71 èfta /a-«w i-fti M/ M mu-ïum i-ba-as-H 72 mi-H-il ma-as-sa-ar-ti mu-sum i-ba-as-H 73 é-kur la-wi en-lil û-ul i-di à 74 û-te-eq-qi kal-kal û-te-[H] 75 il-pu-ut si-ïk-ku-ra i-hi-it [ x d X] 76 kai-kal id-de-ki [nusku] 77 ri-ig-ma i-h-em-mu-û s [a . . 80 ' M y lord. 58 Come.] i-sa-ak-ka-na en-lil . half-way through the watch. ia]-né-e i-Sa-ka-an . the hero. 62 Let us mingle hostilities and battle/ 63 The gods heeded his words: 64 They set fire to their tools. . . 81 Battle has come right up [to your gâte]. [your] temple is surrounded. .] will appoint another . 60 Come. 72 I t was night. proclaim war.* 84 Enlil to his dwelling. half-way through the watch. . 68 They held them as they went 69 T o the gâte of the shrine of the hero Enlil. . .J 6-8 • • * * 6 7 8 . but the god did not know. counsellor o f the gods. . [/]f-ift^u-r[a S! i S f i * 75 70 K : m]a. 70 I t was night. . .

03 W i t h the great Anunnaki présent 04 Enlil arose .'. 07 'Is i t against me that it is being done? 08 Must I engage i n hostilities ? 09 What d i d my very own eyes see? 10 That battle has come right up to my gateP 11 A n u opened his mouth 12 A n d addressed the hero Enlil. 87 'Nusku. was in attendance.kP r r 03 ra-bu-tum a-mm-\na(-ku) w]a-ai-bu 04 %B-JSF it-bi-ma ia [. . 05 Enlil opened his mouth 06 A n d addressed the great [gods]. . 90 Took his weapons and stood before Enlil. . 93 ' M y lord. king of heaven.*. L .' 99 He sent and Anu was fetched down. bar your gâte. [. was présent. 91 Nusku opened his mouth 92 A n d addressed the hero Enlil. sons are your . • I l ÛW ma-[ri-ka . . . 17 T o [your] sons [ . . I X07 F r ^ ^ ^ f 108 L : ] x x x à t i [ 100 F : om. 16 te-er-ta X [. 00 Enki was brought also to his présence. 94 W h y do you fear your own sons? 95 Enlil. . 02 K i n g of the Apsû. . [ . Enki.4* * A R . . . ba-bi-is-ka 13 'The reason why the Igigi have surrounded your gâte 15 L e t Nusku go out and [ascertain (?)]. . 96 Why do you fear your own sons? 97 Send that A n u be fetched down 98 A n d that Enki be brought to your présence.[nim-m]a 98 en-ki\ H-ib-bi-ku-mm a-na m[a-ah-ri-k]a à 99 ik-pu-ur a-nam û-se-ri-[du-m-i]s-su 00 *en-ki ib-bi-kti-nim a-na ma-a[h-ri\-hi 01 wa-si-ib a-nu 02 sar-ri ap-si-i é d sar-ri \ia\-me-e en.' 89 Nusku barred his gâte.AÎ T AH SS 85 Enlil opened his mouth 86 And addressed the vizier Nusku.ki A-[me-re-é\k.]-dijM-rm 05 àen-Ulpi-a-su i-[pu-sa-a]m-ma 06 is-sà-qar a-n[a i-li ra-b]u-tim 07 ia-a-H-im-ma-a it-te-ne-e[p-pu-us] 08 ta-ha-zae-ep-pu-uiia X X X [(x)] 09 *'-«* mi-na-a a-mu-ur a-[n]a-ku 10 qd-ab-lum i-ru-sa a-na ba-bi-ia 11 a-nu pi-a-iu i-pu-sa-am-ma 12 is-sà-qar a-na qu-ra-di en-Ul é 13 rf^ra fa m W-ntu-û 15 U'si-ma *nusku x [ . / ^-slû835 113 116-17 d d 85 ffien-Hlpa-a-su i-pu-sa-am-ma 86 a-na sukkalU <huisku is-sà-qar ma-ah-ri-ia ma-har en-Ul 87 mtsku e-di-U ba-ab-ka 88 ka-ak-ki-ka U-qi i-zi-iz 89 <htusku i-di-il ba-ab-iu 90 ha-ak-ki-su U-qi it-ta-zi-iz 91 nusku pi-a-su i-pu-ia-am-ma 92 is-sà-qar a-na qû-ra-di en-Ul à d 93 be-K bi-nu bu-nu-ka 94 ma-ru ra-ma-m-ka nd-m-su ta-du-ur 95 ^en-lil bi-nu bu-nu-ka 96 ma-ru ra-ma-m-ka mi-in-su ta-du-ur 97 su-pu-ur a-na[m] ti-ie-ri-du. ] . 88 Take your weapons and stand before me. 01 A n u . 16 A command . . sons are your . .>.

"' *r m 124 ii-pu-ra-an-ni [a-bu-ku-nu] a-nu 125 ma-li-ik-ku-nu [qu-ra-du en-l]il 126 gu^-uz-za-lu-kur[nu *nw\-urta 127 ù gal-lu-ku-n[u en]-nu-gi d 128 ma-an-nu-um-nd [ qd]-ab-Um 129 ma-an-nu-um»[mi.. . m qd\-ab-lim . 138 [Your Chamberlain] Ninurta.. our [. 127 And your shenff Ennugi. [and repeat to them] our [words] 124 " A n u . .. J | . . 122 I n the assembly of [ail the gods] 123 Bow down.[an-nu-um-mi ig-ra-am tu-qû-u]m-tam 143 qd-a[b-lam . . . ta-h]â-zi 130 ma-m-nuru\mrnù ig-ra-am {\u-qu-um-tatn 131 [qà-ab-lam 132 \irna 133 [ib-baà j X X X •. 1 4 9 tu-up-$S~ik-[ku ai-ru id-du-uk-ni-a-ti] *&> ka-bi-it du^[ul-la-m-ma ma-a-ad ia-ap-ia-qum] M * FL'pa-a-fu L : )-n* n J U < z * a i-x [ 146 E : *-TJO 9 uo L:jrf-le .. [your father].] . 128 'Who is [the instigator of] battis? 129 Who is [the provoker of] hostilities? 130 Who [declared] war 131 [And battle] ?' 132 [ I n 133 [Bring ] .. have sent me (to say). Enlil.. . . . ] X X X ip-hsrur 136 [ii-pu-ra-an-ni a]-bu-ku-nu a-nu 137 [morUrih-ktirnu qii-rd\-du 5 d d 134 [Nusku went to the assembly of] ail the gods. in the [excavation]. . ... . . 125 Your counsellor.• 122 i-na pu-uh-ri [ka-la i-li-ma] 123 kz-mi-is i-zi4[z d I 11 S-150 118 Enlil opened his mouth 119 And addressed [vizier Nusku].. open [your gâte]. . . [the warrior] Enlil.jÊ^ . ] ... 139 And [your sheriff] Ennugi. . . . 149 [Excessive] toil [has killed us]. . # > . . ] battle?" 144 I [ 145 Bring [. ] x X 144 i-na [ . 121 Take your weapons [. . . .. 140 "Who is [the instigator of] battle? 141 Who is [the provoker of] hostilities? 142 Who [declared] war 143 [ A n d . 126 Your Chamberlain Ninurta. 147 We have ..w ] ^ 146 'Every single [one of us gods has declared] war.]x . . [the distress much].ta-ha]-zi t 142 ma.] X X ] X X X X en-Ul â 134 \il-U4k nusku a-na pur4thrti k]a-la ûU-ma 135 .] Enlil. . he explained. . • 145 ft-&a-[.. . ... ] . . . n m-[tt]l 138 [gu -uz-za-lu-ku-nu rî)fn-urta 139 W \gah-bi-ku-nu ^éfanm-gi 140 -[an-nu-um-mi. 150 [Our] work was heavy. stand up. your father. .. the] warrior Enlil. ..ATRA-tfASlS 50 %!$ *m-Ulpi-a-hi i-\pu-ia-am-ma] 119 is-sà-qar a-na [iukkalli «nusku] 120 *nuskupi-te [ba-ab-ka] 121 ka-ak-ki-ka l[i-qi. . 120 ' N u s k u . 137 [Your counsellor. <V»-/]tf ni4g-ra-am tu-qu-um-td\m k[a-la-ak-ki] % v 3• *. 136 'Anu. . . 135 . 141 ma-[an-nu-um-mi. [have sent me (to say)]. .' 146 ku-uLla-a\t ka-la ûli*ma 147 ni4i-ku~u[n x x .

. . ] . [ ] •• • 179 [The lamentation was] heavy. every] single one of us gods 165 Has spoken i n favour o f .m^^. [. . 180 181 ||. 155 be-lia-n[a 156 al-l[i-ik G 1 151-181 151 Now. 1 3 ta-ai-pu-ray^an-ni ] X X 1 157 ap-su-u[r 158 na-ab-[ ] X ra-bi-tam ] X X zi 160 r 155 ' M y lord to the [ 156 I went [ 157 I explained [ tu-qû-unfl-ta-am 158 •[ you sent] me ] •.] X »**Jf * * • wm * 163 M : fa-ap* 166 M : Ai-tf-W M : ] X : is-sà-aq* • û * * I M: qar ana a-tf-su a-nu 169 K: en~Ul t-to.' 174 A n u opened his mouth 175 And addressed the gods his brothers.X L: ] x x x mu x x [ [ ijs-W-aq-qar ana a-bi-tu a~mê 17© K: e-toi-a M: -nijfi-mi 177 K: à . 154 He went. 176 'What are we accusing them of ? 177 Their work was heavy. 168 E n l i l . . ] . . . their distress was much! 178 [Every d a y ] . ] great [ ] . . . . . with you to heaven i v 171 Carry your authority. . 159 k[u-ul-la-at ka-la i-l]i-ma-mi ni-ig-ra-am 161 n[i-ii-ku-un x ] x-ni i&a ka-la-ak-ki r 162 «*-ra W-du-uk-ni-a-ti M 163 [fcz-W-tï du-u\l-la-ni-ma ma-a-ad Sa-ap-Sa-qum 164 [d ku-ul-l\a-at ka-la i-li-ma 165 ïpi-i-ni na-X-X-am 1 159 ["Every single one of us] gods has declared war.todo . . the distress much. . assigned] tasks i û it-ti d en-lil 166 a-wa-tam su-a-ti 167 en-Ul [i]l-la-ka di-ma-lu d [K II 168 en-Ul i.x -ar a-wa-assu 169 à-rd-g[ar a-na q]û-ra-di a-nim d 170 e-te-el'U iï-ti-ka a-na ïa-ma-i 171 par-sa-atn ta-ba-al-ma li-ql id-ka N 172 a£-6u a-nun-na-ki ma-frar-ka d 173 t-fe tf-fe-«i Jwi-m[a t]i-id-du-M tam-ta 174 da-HM pa-a-su i-pu-ïâ-[am-ma\ 175 [tt-*à]-ag-0ar amz x-tf aJ}-hi-M 176 mt-fwm kar-si-tâ-nu n[i-ik]-ka-al 177 *a-6# duUla-tû-un r m[a-a-a]d ïa-ap-Saq-hi-un tt 178 K-wi-fam. .)]X-na-a-/ 179 [te^te Ao-ft]iW[( 1 8 0 ni}-h-e]mwn-ig-ma .)] 154 il-U-ik û-X [. his words 169 A n d addressed the warrior Anu. 161 We [have ] our [. . 163 Our work [was heavy]. .'" 166 When Enlil heard that speech 167 His tears flowed. [we could] hear the noise.^-x (.]. . 162 Excessive [toil] has killed us.' 153 Nusku took [his weapons . . . . with Enlil. 164 [Now. with Enlil. . 172 While the Anunnaki are présent before you 173 Summon one god and have him done to death.t ATRA-tfASlS 151 ti ku-ul-l[a-at ka-la i-li-ma] 152 ub-lapi-i-ni [na-X-X-am 1 it-ti d en-lil] 153 ^nusku il-q[i ka-ak-ki-Su (. in the excavation. . . he . take your power. 170 'Noble one. . . cvcry single [one of us gods] 152 Has spoken in favour of .

6 tu-uk-kum ka-b[i-it. . smce this offera a third recension. Column i i 1 Ea [opened] his mouth 2 A n d addressed the gods [his brothers]. C o l u m n i i 1 «é-apa-a-su P-[pu-ia-am-ma] 2 is-sà-qar a-na t S ™ a[h-ki-su] r 1 B M 78257 ( G ) . . since they overlap i t where i t is preserved at the bottom of column i i i . .* ' where the main recension sels !V * " ) ° ^ i ] " * Assyrian V substantially duplicates the latter part of Ea s speech on the Old Babylonian G. . . [take] your weapons [ . [the distress was much]! 5 Every d a y . . The différences are recensional. so thèse two portion! are given here. but i t is q u i possible that in the main recension Ea spoke after A n u and repeated some of his words before making the suggestion about the création of man te ^ n f \ « P .^ ATRA-rJASlS S i i . [. 7 i-ba-as-H x [. Column i i [.. 12 is-pu-ra-an-ni a-[num abï-hi-mt] 13 ma-Uk-ku-nu q[u-ra-du «en-IS] 14 traces u tne5 0 mei d * * * * * * * * * * B M 78257 ( G ) . the birth-goddess.x [. addressing [ . 'Nusku. . 8 tca-ai-ba-at «[be-U-et-i-U ià-as-su-ru] 9 U-îb-ni-ma lu-u[l-la-a 10 ab-ia-nam H-bi-i[l a-wi-lam] B I B U O T H E Q U E BiôLHjUfc wÈÊÊÊÊÈm . I n the assembly of the great gods bow down [. obtained from the Late Assyrian fragments. . M) 9 «nusku pi-U bâb-ka: ^ kakJâ -ka [li-qi . . . is présent]. however. -. 10 Let h i m bear the yoke [. 10 i-napuhri sa item* * rabûti : ki-m[is . 6 The lamentation was heavy [. . â adk 3 * K « ••- 4 K-q[i. Also your counsellor. [ . . by which the proposai to slaughter a god is followed by a further trip of Nusku to the rebels I f E r a W v b t h e 8 T e e S e t h e ^ K 8562 ( S ) . 6 And while Bëlet-ilî. Firtt. . 3 You [. . 8 While [Bëlet-ilî. Speak to them [ . open your gâte. . " A n u [your father] has sent me. 9 Let her create Lullû-[masï] . . . . . 3 mi-nom kar-si-su-nu n^i[k-ka-aT\ 4 ka Mît du-ul-la-hi-u[n ma-a-ad sa-ap-sa-qum] 5 u^-mi-ia-am-ma ir-si. . . [the warrior Enlil]. but then diverges. 4 Take [. 7 Summon one and do [him to death]. C o l u m n i i 1 trace 2 IK-X K 8562 ( S ) . . have been numbered and organized as continuing the O U Babylonian A . .. 8 9 10 11 12 13 Anu opened his mouth to speak. is présent. column i i of the Assyrian Recension S is mterposed. 3 'What are we [accusing] them of ? 4 Their work was heavy. n qi-ba-su-nu-ti [. G ii 1-10 The last eleven lines. . 5 às-bii-ma [«a-nun-na-ki ma-har-ka] 6 âs-bat be-let-i\W sà-as-su-ru\ 7 isHën H-si-ma i-d[i-su tam-ta] 8 «a-nu pâ-su tpusa** i-qab-bi izzakar ( U [ana . 5 [While the Anunnaki] are présent [before you]. [the birth-goddess]. 7 There is/was . . /. Column ii of the Old Babylonian G has a speech assigned to Ea which begins like 176 ff.. . . . . .

. 190 Let the birth-goddess create offspring (?). Obverse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 g të-bat *be-fa*t-i-U sa-as-[su-ru] sa-as-su-ru lû.] X X b[e-le-et-i-U ià-as-s]û-ru 189 While [Bëlet-ilî. . is présent.[man]. . [aWtf-a-»]am K-bt4[l. is 11 Let him bear the yoke [. 195 Create LuUû that he may bear the yoke. seventh. trace x x K 6634 ( V ) . creatress of mankind. 191 And let man bear the toil of the gods. . 206 i-na a r .ATRA-tf ASlS 56 u [ab-S\a-n[am l]i*U4[l. is présent. wise Mami. 194 'You are the birth-goddess. a]W*-*[<w* ***** 1 4 broken away. ..ba-af r A . aoi Skill lies with Enki.. . 193 The midwife of the gods. aoa Since he can cleanse everything . .# w-6ti-fï à ïa-pa-at-H 207 te-ti-il-tam lu-fa-al-ki-in ri-im-ka . n i a [iu-up-U\-h* * [X X ] x x *. 197 Let man carry the toil of the gods/ 198 Nintu opened her mouth 199 And addressed the great gods. Let her create Lu/M. and fifteenth day of the m 207 I will make a purifying bath. . [Let man carry] the toil of the gods.i S j V obv.' 192 They summoned and asked the goddess. the birth-goddess]. Let him bear the yoke [ . 206 'On the first. 196 Let him bear the yoke assigned by Enlil. Let the birth-goddess [create] LuUû. t r a c e • • traces. 12 [Let man carry the] toil of the gods.1 8 lum I 188-207j O i i u . Obverse a 3 4 5 6 While Bëiet-ilï. . ^ 203 Let him give me the clay so that I can make h / : 190 [f]d-o^Mi-ni U-gimi-mai-a HiMb-ni-tna 191 s'u-up-H-ik itim a-wi-lum li-ii-H 192 il-ta-am is-sû-û i-ia-hi 193 tai-xii-irt ttf * e-rùii-tam m 1 A ma-mi 194 at-ti-i-ma ià-as-sû-ru 195 U-ni^ma hi-ul-la-a 196 ab-ia-nam li-bi-il 197 su-up-H-ik itim ba-ni-a-^af a-wi-lu-ti li-bi-il ab-ita-nam 6 d H-pi-ir en-Ul a-wi-lum li-ii-H 198 «mn-tu pi-a-ia te-pu-[S]a-am-ma 199 is-sà-qar a-na iU ra-bu-ti miA 200 it-H-ia-ma £2 a-na e-pé-H 201 t M I ^n-fe-ma i-ba-ai-H H-ip-ru 202 fn-ti-ma ^-«T-iï-fa]/ ka-la-ma 203 fi-it-fa-am li-id-di-nam-ma 204 **n-ki pi-a-fu i-pu-ia-am-ma 205 is-sà-qar a-na *& * ra-bu-H me a-na-ku lu-pu-uï 204 Enki opened his mouth 205 And addressed the great gods...l[u-a U-ib-ni-ma] tu-up-8-ik-ku i-U W-[me-lu lii-H] U-ib-ni-ma lûJu \\hi-a a-me-lu] fàb-iâ-a?-nam U-bi-i[l. the birth-goddess. . • • * * * * * * * * 188 189 wa-af. [*-«*~ X [ 1 7 . Let him bear the yoke [ .u . * * * * 1 * * * * K 6634 ( V ) . 200 T t is not possible for me to make things. .

239 Y o u have sfcrngktraed a god together with h» persoaali 240 I have removed your heavy work.kf-in rti T 219 218 HM pm-mk-ri i-pm-Im a-an-na pa-qi-éu HM ra-Av-im 4N S 223 %e € . 224 H i e r slaughtered i n their assembly.» . 210 From his flesh aod blood 211 Let Nîntu mix day. i-iu ra-bu-twn fi-if-fi am td-du-é e-èu HBBÉ^HM" p*-o-$& te-pu-ia-om-ma 2 3 6 [is-s]a-qor a-na i-b ra-bu-iim é-ia-ak-b-il 3TJ7 W*jhrm ta-aq-bi-a-tà-im-ma 239 irlam ta-af-bu-ka qd-du fe -im-su t 237 'You commanded me a task. who had penooshty.u Ni a-wi-[l\am e-mi-id • H K a i l EiBhm&M mm IsâfnHM **7 * . 225 F r o m fais flesh and blood 226 N i n t a mixed day. 217 So that tins be not for gotîen let there be s wpkaJ 218 I n the assembly answered Tes' 219 T h e great Anunnaki. 223 Wê-Da. and fifteenth day of the month 222 H e made a purifying both.i P te^-e-tma r 224 HM pat-wA-ri-im-mm d-fa-ah-hu fo^S H M g-f*-Jg » I226 é^fà^baNS-S 227 MiM ntt-SM ti-ii-îa flè-f**^[t-f? W /J *ï-MH*]-if /X K JO T é4*-éi-s[m-ma] e-te-em-mu [ib-n\ 227 For tiie rest [of time they heard the drum]. r w 214 mk-ri-a-ti-éS u^-mi 215 H Jt-t-àr î-fi M 216 bmml §m it-ta-m 217 *$-J* It mp-pa 1 mi iT bm e-té-rm mm H-sb-U K-se-és^su^ma e-te-em-mu fcib-si si-ma-fi mu-vs-sï-s 22. 241 I have imposed your toâ on man. the great gods.HM MM H p-fà^Ba^M^- S-JI ra-èii. 2 1 2 That god and man 213 M a y be thoroughfy mixed i n the day.a r t O: aay O t é f c rfwffi 228 Ozom. 215 B : * * * » 8 1740 Mtha&-tamt tÈu-ui-La—tcu-nu u-sa-as —ss-tk pgl h*-up-U-ik~ka-ku-r. 2 3 5 M a m i opened her mouth 2 3 6 A n d addressed the great gods. 214 So that we may hear tfae drum for the rest of time 2 1 5 L e t there be a spirit from the god*s flesh. tbe great gods.* i a IM r . 231 After she had mixed that day 2 3 2 She summoned the Anunnaki. 221 O n the farst. 2 3 4 Spat upon the cby.1 *r-J* se-bm-ii m sa-pa-at-ti 222 te-U-U-tam m-sa-as. 216 Let it prociaira living (man) as its sign. T 228 From the âesh o f tfae god [there was] a spirit.l!p r 233 H-gi-ps. I kave œmpkîed k .ATRA-HASlS s 2 0 8 iêm B*4e-m K-if bm km ma 2 0 9 h-t^-fc-h sim^ i-na îi^P-hi 210 i-na n-ri-su ù da-mi-sn 211 ^nzn-tu b'-ha-al~li-il ti-if-fa Swk ta al B-bt pm-ku-ur i-na fs-it-ti I aat-Sfi 208 Let one god be slaughtered 209 So that ail the gods may be ckansed in a dipping. seventh. 2 2 9 I t proclaiœed fiving ( n ) as te sign. 1228 HM J*-MT ihB 229 ba-aî-ta it-ta-ht 230 o£-!a Je «K-uf-i-f 231 û-tu-ma ib-bi-la 232 ifrsr 4 . who admîmster desdniefc. 2 3 3 T h e Igigi. . W9r§^€m-mm0k. 2 3 0 A n d so that dûs was not forgottea [there was] a spirit.

. 6 [Seven] she put on the left. 247 Now let your name be Mistress-of-AU-the-Goda (Bëlet-kâla4H). Between them she placed the brick. f 242 ta-ai-ia-i-fari-ig-ma a-na ^a-wi-luMi 243 ap-fû-ur ul-la an-du-ra-[ra ai-ku-u]n 244 ii-mu-ma an-ni-a-am qd-ba-ïa 245 id-da-ar-ru-tna û-na-ai-iï-qû iê-pi-fa 246 pa-na-mi ma-mi ni-ia-si-ki 247 i-na-an-na be-k~[et] ka-la i-li d 248 lu-û 249 i-te-er-bu a-na bit ïi-im-ti 250 »fWW[f-A«] é-a e-ril-tu ma-ma d d 251 i[à-a]s-su-ra-a-tum pu-ûb-bu-ra-ma 252 [fwQ'"' i-kab-ba-sa-am ma-ab-ri-ia a 253 [Jï]. tatn]~nu U-ip-ta ii-tu-ma tam-nu-ù U-pa-sa 4 [qd-sa ta-at]-ta-di eli tl-i\-\i-ià 5 [14 M4r]-fi tàk-rUq 7 kUir-fi ana imittifag) tai-ku-un 6 [7 M]-ir-fi ana iumlli(gixb) tai-ku-un i-na be-ru-iu-nu i-ta-di libitta d am 1 [Prince] Ea spoke 2 • .f H-ip-ta it-ta-na-an-di 254 iP-ïam-na-H é-a a-H-ib ma-ab-ri-ia r 1 x d 255 ii-tu-ma ig-mu-ru H-pa-as-s[a^\ 256 [A]t«£r-<fî 14 a*-to-ar-n-t[f] 257 *7*1 ki-ir~si a-na i-mi-it-t[i] 258 ki-ir-si a-na ïu-me-li iï-k\un\ 259 » Û ô]i'-n-iftt -ww it-ta-di li-bit-t[t\ [W 260 . 5 She nipped off [fourteen] pièces of clay. . 7 [.' 249 They entered the house of destiny 250 D i d prince Ea and the wise Mami. 258 Seven on the left. . 255 After she had finished her incantation 256 She nipped off fourteen pièces of clay. K 3 3 9 9 + 3934 (S). Qà-d]H-um fè-mi-su 244 P: qa-ba-ia 246 P: *47> 248 P: •Ijetp lu fum-hi 250 P: [ nin]-Ji-kù 7 T a b l e t : ba^i-iq . Obverse iii 1 [^nin-H-kù ]é-a is-sà-qar 2 . 257 Seven she put on the right. she . ] . .. (saying. .] X X a-bu-un-na~ti u[§] X ( x ) r 1 * * • • • * * * * * There is a gap i n the main recension and the related late copies. I have established freedom. seated before her. • p -d]a-a ap-pa-ri ba-ti\-iq a-bu-un-na-te l l ^ ï p P û tep-te-H ^ * # . . Obverse i i i K 3399+3934 (S). 245 They ran together and kissed her feet.. but the Assyrian Recension fills this gap and overlaps a little at beginning and end. . . . the umbilical c o r d . was prompting her. . . 243 I have loosed the yoke. 251 W i t h the birth-goddesses assembled 252 He trod the clay i n her présence. Seven she put on the right. s iii i-^7 242 You raised a cry for mankind.]x ù-lânh' -na-H 3 . 253 She kept reciting the incantation. hair ( ?). ] . . . 7 [. 254 Ea.) S[u-utn]-ki 246 'Forrnerly we used to call you Mami. 259 Between them she placed the brick 260 . ] • he was prompting her 3 • • • she] recited the incantation After she had recited her incantation 4 [She] put [her hand out] to her clay.' 244 They heard this speech of hers. the cutter of the umbilical cord.6 o ATRA-tfASÏS 1 242-260. .

v i 281 The tenth month arrived 282 A n d the elapse of rhe period opened the womb. the cheek of the young man . . Ué~$à~twn . X x [x 272 . . [ . . 286 She girded her loins as she pronounced rhe blessing. . j X B-à et-b' *75 276 277 îb}-ra-ti ù su-li-i ]-4I-£I as-sa-tum i mu-us-sâ m a-ûs-sjû-ra-tœn pu-uh-hu-ra-ma 278 [«M-al-Aa]-tf/ «nsn-tu \i-ma\-an-nu is-sù-û es-ra arha 281 es-ru arku il-li-ka-am-ma 282 [ $ ] * . R | 2S5 B: *tf(error far iàyeb^e^'ta\-am 289 P : qd-to-e-'* é& E . .ATRA-HASÏS 8 [pah-r]a-ma er-Se-te mu-îe-ti 9 [7] ^ 7 fà-sit+m-ti 7 û-ba-na-a zikarî^niti"**) 10 [7] m-ba-na-a sinni$âti 11 [s]à-su-ru bc-na-at si-im-tu 12 n-na-ionr**-** û-ka-la-îa-H-na 13 B-na-sànt^' û-ka-la-la mah-ru-sà 14 m~n*-ra-te sa nisï ^^-tna û-sa-ar ma-mi r meè 90 d 8 The wise and leamed 9 Twice seven birth-goddesses had assembled.& M f p pa-le-e si-U-tam ip-te 280 [ IJ . 1 11 12 13 14 à The birth-goddess. . Since Mami conceived the régulations for the human race. 1 283 [«Jtf-am-rtt-nw ha-du-û pa-nu-la 284 ii-p&m ka-aq-qà-as-sà fa-ab-su-ta-am i-pu-us 2 $ s P286 \g}a-ab-li-ia i-te-zi-ih * irha-ar-rarob 288 a-fMr 9?-j!uz â K-bi-it-ta id-di 2 7 289 a-na-ku-mi a6~m i-pUrta qà-ta-ia 290 ia-[ab]-sû-tum I-M fa'-à qà-di-is-ti li-ih-du 291 a-ti OrU-it-tum û-ul-la-du-ma 992 um-m se-er-ri û-k\a-ar\-ru~u nhma-an-ia 14 cf. may be honoured. . 283 W i t h a beaming. . 18 And when the pregnant woman gives birth 19 Let the mother of the babe sever herself.MJ ] ar-H 277 The birth-goddesses were aasembled 278 A n d Nintu [sat] counting the months. wife and her husband. 273 . 280 [ A t the] destined [moment] the tenth month was summoned. ] . ] . 291 Where the pregnant woman gives birth 292 A n d the mother of the babe severs herself. 288 She drew a pattern i n meal and placed the brick. créâtress of destiny— They completed them in pairs.] i-ir-ti-sa x] 272 273 274 275 276 * * * * * . 6g 15 i-na bH a-li-îe ha-ris-ti 7 «n•** li-na-di tibittu 16 f tuk-ia-bii bëlet-i^dmgii. .. . joyful face 284 A n d covered head she performed the midwifery.9 . . 271 . They completed them in pairs in her présence. the wise Mami. 289 ' I have created. ] .màh) e-ris-ta 17 îab-su-tu-um-ma ina Mt ha~rU-H li-îh-du 18 ak-kî a-li-it-tu ù-la-dii-ma 19 ummdsèr-ri bt-har-ririd ra-ma-an-[hi] 20 \x\^ka-n ^a-na [ordaté] 21 [ x ] x d fi x [ . . . ma-mi 15 I n the house of the pregnant woman in confinement Let the brick be i n place for seven days. 20 The man to [the young lady] 21 [ . ] .. . . . my hands have made it* 290 Let the midwife rejoice i n the prosotute's house. ] her breasts . 17 Let the midwife rejoice in the house of the woman in confinement. S 1 P: }-ta<Ju~û-m[a] 293 B: é~ba[r}-ru~û P : ra-ma-an-Ià 9 . ] open air shrine and street .W H-ma-ti J. beard . I 212 2 S iii S-21 7. . 10 [Seven] produced females. 16 That Bëlet-ilî. . . .J-3f ? zi-iq-nu 274 . Seven produce d maies. .

/ i H i d . the bed is laid 300 Let the wife and her husband lie together.I IWC . • . . ] .[ ]« ID5 *TA. 329 Cleanse the dwelling ( ? ) [ .. . 337 W i t h picks and spades they buih the shrines. 328 333 334 1 «a-Js x —« Mi-imr [. [ .i e J .[. . . ~î]a-ab-bi-x .. . .PZ 209 E P : g * . 33° 33» «w-mO-JM X giS x a-in-[iu. praise Kesh ! 2 9 9 When [ . . [ .. [. . 295 That Nintu. * x IM »s x 3*7 r ' H * € 328 W*-ÀM 3 2 9 sru-uk-ki mu-sa-[ab . . v i i 334 He saw and [.64 AEP 294 9 f]i-Ù9-H42-di li-hi-it-tum 295 1 tm-*k-t[m) èi it mm-tu sa-a$-$à-ru é 4 A R . 305 H M [ 306 3°7 308 trace 3 9 x i . ] . l*ê£k 335 ^oMB X £ x X]-«r | | m ^ ^ l a q d ..] . . 301 When. . ] X ir x X [. . . . the birth-goddess. 301-a P : 9» B : -t}ak èiùHe-U-et-i-U (-*)«-«-t». 330 The son to [his] father [.' 2 9 6 Without ceasing proclaim Mami their [. 304 L e t them call IStar Ishara. ] x .i w h'-im-tî . ] .t i x X [{X)]X 337 «~à ma-nr-ri &-*»*é et-[re]-*i g p B î-fc* ibmm m ra-bu-t[im] 296B:infidMî 298 P : *#HP-*I^A: Jùt T * b k t ( A ) : 33* > • 332 They sat and .] .W. A man [ . i i %] X HM A e e-er-$i M [301 i-«r-»w! <M-»a> â f i [ » .* * . 335 E n l f l . r 338 They built the big canal bardes. ( . . . at the destined moment 299 H [. . 336 Were becoming stiff «|L. -d\* itiwprmib) ^ » bttwem *95 3*3 P* IM* JMs £ : mm?***** *. 297 Without ceasing praise the birth-goddess. * * * * 3» 322 333 3*4 ffî&ï . to institute marriage. . . . 305 . 3 0 2 They heed lltar in the house of [the father-in-law]. [.V M 303 9 * -»w 304 tfcar 4 1} mu-tu-ti i-ia-i-duif-tar [li-ti-sja-kwiî ki-du-tum fait «iJ-fuj-ra .£ t ] 302 H Infr [HMI m . «' 333 H e was carrying . .AÎ T ÂH SS 1 **f-3jS 296 mthm[i x ] X -of-** i-ta-ab-bi 397 i-t[++d sje-assû-ra i-ta-ad ke-$a 298 294 Let the brick be in place for nine days. 3 0 3 L e t there be rejoicing for nine days. . . . . may be honoured..

364 ù Su-[û at-ra-am-ffa-si-is] 365 U-hi en-ki û-ba-[as-sa-ar] d 366 i-ta-mu i[t-ti i-li-Su] 367 ù hi-û il-iu it-t[i-$u i-ta-mu] 368 at-ra-am-fu2-si-is pi-a^-[iu 1369 is-sà-qar a-na be-[li-§u] l [ 1 i-pu-ia-am-ma] 368 Atra-hasis [opened] his mouth 369 And addressed [his] lord. . so that one of thèse 'lines' must be an overrun. . ' 364 Now [Atra-hasïs] 365 Was informing his god Enki.]iu-X-[t]im iu-[(x)]-nu 1 . . see pp. 356 [Enlil heard] their noise 357 [And addressed] the great gods.] 356 [ en-Ul ti-te-me] ri^gi-im^-H-in 357 [is-sà-qar a]-na i-li ra~*-bu-tim d r 358 [ik-ta-ab-ta] fri-gi-m* a-wi-lu-ti 359 [i-na hu-bu-ri-H]-na û-za-^am^-ma ii-it-ta 360 361 362 X [. l 362 • [ ]. . 360 361 . ..] X H [ [i-li] ] 1 3 93 9V rev.] H X X j . ] x la x . ] x X Si • • • d]ijk]i-il . . Su-r]u-up-pu-û U-ib-^iP .] 345 346 347 348 349 350 350a 351 ] pa X .. ] Ii X X [X ( X ) ] X-am-na . 359 [With their uproar] I am deprived of sleep.] X X X [. 358 'The noise of mankind [has become too intense for me]. . ] X ka-an [x ( x ) ] X-Sa .1.. . .. . . . . ] X X H-n[a] . ] &*X -- H-na ki-m[a\ £]u-rH*up-pu-u [ . the numbering is consécutive' and 350a accounts for the extra 'line' [. s]e-er-ra * * * * * 352 [û-ul il-li-ik-ma 600]. . for the sustenance of [the gods] 6 7 341 a-[. . .. 342 . 3-6. 339 F o r f o o d for the people*. . 355 The god got disturbed with [their uproar]. 1-8. .[. .i i-Sa^-ab-bu 355 t-na [hu-bu-ri-M-na] i-lu tP~ta^a'-da~*-ar r r 352 Twelve hundred years [had not yet passed] 353 [When the land extended] and the peoples multiplied. 3 • *' m e n y r c V > : W 1 1 v Note: the remains at the right of the column between lines 340 and 350 show one more line than the ten-marks at the left of the column permit.] X X [ 343 .2* oo A ATRA-tfASlS 339 bu-bu-ti-U ni-H ti-i-ti-ii 340 . Since the overrun cannot be identified. a t n i 1-8 A diflering recension from this point onwarda ia offered 352-9: restored from 11. . .-] 363 . ] let there be plague -. * £ * f ^hup^u [... n-fjwsby S . . . 363 H-X [.a 353 [ftia-tum ir-ta-pi-if\ ni-$u im-ti-da 354 m[a-tum M-ma li]. J | •. . 354 The [land] was bellowing [like a bull]. . . . .hi.600 mu.. . 366 He spoke [with his god] 367 And his god [spoke] with him. . ] XXX .]-na-an-na . . 344 . .. 106-14. [ .

380 But seek the door of Namtara 381 And bring a baked (loaf) in front of i t 380 nam-ta -r[a] si-a ba-ab-Su 381 bi.la e-pi-ta a-na qu-ud-mi-Su 382 U-il-li-tk-hi ma-as-ha-tum ni-q[û-û] 383 li-ba-al-ma i-na ka-af-[re-e] r ï Y 3 8 4 li-sa. .P 390 [ii ? a-ni-a qi-ri-ib bi]-ti r 1 v r mil-ka 1 39 [qi"ba-ma li-is]. . 371 Will they impose disease on us [for ever] ?' 372 Enki opened his mouth 373 And addressed his slave. 374 i\i]'bu-ti 375 W?-[r]ai st-[m]a-m. 404 They made a loud noise [in the land]. . 383 Then he will be put to shame by the gift and will lift his hand/ " 385 Atra-hasïs received the command 386 And gathered the elders to his gâte. 390 [ .qi-a? te-er-tam 386 si-bu-ti û-pa-ah-hi-ir a^na ba-bi-hi 1 382 The offering of sesame-meal may be pleasing to him. 394 [Do not] pray to your [goddesses]. ] counsel [in] the house. 391 [Command] that heralds proclaim.% . 377 And make a loud noise in the land. .l . 374 'The e l d e r s .68 ATRA-rJASÎS I 370-406 1370 a-di-nta-nu w . . counsel in the house. . . 401 They built a temple for Namtara in the city. 375 . 387 Atra-hasïs opened his mouth 388 And addressed the elders. 395 [But seek] the door of [Namtara]. 398 Then he will be put to shame by the gift and wiB lift his hand/' 400 The elders hearkened to [his] words. 379 Do not pray to your goddesses. . 378 'Do not révérence your gods. . 403 They commanded and [heralds] proclaimed.aq-qi-il qd-as^-sû v 385 at-ra-am-ha-si-is il. 389 'Elders . 396 [And bring a baked (loaf)] in front of it. ^ nu 401 [n]am-ta-ra t-na a-[# bi-[is-sû] 403 [iq]-bu-ma is-su-û [na-gi-ru] 404 [ri-t]g-ma û-te-eb-b[u-û i-na ma-tim] 4^5 [406 [û-ui]ip-la-hui-[li-iu-un] \û-ul]û-se-el-lu-û[ii-tar-hi-un] . [. .t a m ii-mu-û si-q[i-ir-hi] 402 {jb. 387 at-ra-am-ha-si-is pi-a-su [i]-p[u-$a-am-ma] 388 [wj-jd-^ar fl-«a £-&tt-[rï] I 1 389 H-bu-tt' si-[m]a-ni.su?-û na-gi-ru 392 [ri-ig-ma li-ïe-e]b-bu-û i-na ma-tim 393 [* ta-ap-la-hd] *i-Urkù)-un 394 [g tu-sa-al-T\i-a i[ï-tar-k]u-un 395 [nam-ta-ra si-a] ba. 392 And make a loud [noise] i n the land. .P ni-a qi-ri-Hb bi-ti mil-k[a] r 1 r 1 376 [qi-b]a-ma-mi li-i[s-s]u-û na-gi-ru 377 ri-[ig]-ma li-[$e]-eb-bu. ^ 406 They did [not] pray to [their goddesses]. 405 They did [not] révérence their gods. • 371 mu-ur-sa i-im-mi-du-ni-a-ti a-[na da-ri] 372 en-ki pi-a-hi i-pu-Sa-a[m-ma] 373 is-sà-qar a-na ar-di-[$u] d 370 '9o long as .as-su) x 397 The offering of sesame-meal may be pleasing to him. 393 " [ D o not révérence] your gods.û i-na ma-tim 378 e t[a]-ap-la-ha 379 e tu-[sa]-al-li-a r 1 r r f-li-ku-un [i]S-ta-ar-ku-un 1 376 "[Command] that heralds proclaim. . 400 [ & . . .aP-su 396 [it-Za e-pi-ta a-na q]û-ud-mi-ïa r 397 [li'i]l'li-ik-hi ma-as-ha-tum n{i-qû-û] 398 [li]-ba-aS-ma i-na ka-at-re-e [li-S]a-aq-qi-il 399 qà. .

. 4 » Q : -z]i-ib-Si-na-a-ti ] u ne-e-ii.hi. ] 416 Twelve hundred years had not yet passed 412 [ht-ru-up-pu-û i-te-z]i-ib-H-na-ti 413 . .a] 413-15 Q : ] * J . .] 416 [û]-ul il-(U)-ik-[ma] 411 600. l M D™ 416 Q : ] x fà-na-a-tim y Qi yqilqa-as-su n-gtm-h-na. . .. .]-na it^tu-ru 1 414 . . they returned. . .m «ir-rt. .] X [. [ ..600 m[u. . 412 [Plague] left them 413 . . ] . 414 . ..ATRA-rJASÎS 70 I 407-416 A 407 [nam-ta]-ra H^-si-^û [ba-ab-Su] 408 [ub-hî] V-pi-tam a-na qû-ud-m[i-su] 1 4°7 Y «ought [the door] of Namtara 408 And [brought] a baked (loaf) in front of [it].] X r u X 415 X am k u X [. . B u t t h e 409 [i-il-li-ï\k-su ma-as-ha-tum ni-[qû-û] 410 [i-ba-a$-m]a i-na ka-at-r[e-e û-sa-aq-q]i-U qà-as-su 4 1 1 409 The offering of sesame-meal was pleasing to him 410 [He was put to shame] by the gift and lifted his hand. . ..]. [ . ] x . . J tt-tu-ru. ] . . 415..

2 3 . | ••%rfCoi^ m Mttfe wfecwîfae O B crôkaoe « n s i i H Ë é ^ mi Q .f » g u MKAI M mm**f-èi M 11 Adad should wrthhold his rain. 21 [. the flood should aot corne up from the abyss.] must be ni|l|ni HT rt 22 May there net t . 4 The god got chsturbed with their uproar.J 4 M l i » . 7 T b e noise of mankind has become too intense for sac 4 ànsà^nw < M t-Jf M-fcMMI » M 7 AV ât n i *t g* An * M ât 8 Wrth their uproar I M deprried of sleep. Q 1-13 1 à-wl 0JV^k-m$*] r 6oo. 5 E r i i l beard their noise 6 A n d addressed the great gods.731 T A B L E T I I T A B L E T I I C o l u m n i : B i-ao» D 2 . S 9 C u t ofi suppbes fer the prnpics» 1 0 L e t there be a s u a u t j of phnf hfe M sansry their hunçcr l » I ^ M » â # H U ^ i 14 f . i a A n d below. r 4 r*-«r* *»4»-#t-&-M -<**-« 3 The Und was b e u o m g like a bull. jj. T é w i i » : r « i 1S-19 c£ S ïr- î f r r t ^ w » ^ SQ i w * 9 te i mm .6oo »u~hLa 1 Column i 1 T w c h e htmdred years had not y et passed 2 When the land extended and the propfcs niuMpaed. ao T h e r e m e t be no rçoicing among Aem. . 14 L e t tbe wind biow and parch the g r e i d . Jb f ft mB-**r-ri 1 § *Bêt*iéP>ëir m mmAUià êmêm ^mmèm 19 L e t X k a b a stop up her breast. • . M d fc. m S11 i l f [ — ] tr -ir - m » • Sr T i r i r a * s n » fines o f C o h a n s B are a b o HÙMiiif. 18 L e t tbe fields dirnànsh theàr yiekis. j i f k 2 1 1 ^ Jàià'J******* . 16 L e t tke douds thîckec bn* not release a downpOM. firxm tike O B tabkts.

15' '[Command that] heralds [proclaim]. H-ia-aq-qi-[iI] li-ïa-az-fd-m qd-as-su na-al-la 13 [The offering of sesame-meal] may be pleasing to him.. 26 [And brought] a baked (loaf) in front of it.j ana ha-la-qi .f-ii~ku-zm 10 e J*-£a^-4£-&-[<z is-ta)r-ku-un r r 13' [ .AÎ T AH SS Column i i : B 8-9. . . . 8 [And make a loud] noise in the land. . 14 Then he will be put to shame [by the] gift and will hft Us hand. 5 ï 5 * * ^ 3 3 ff Y g' 9' Io' II' 12' mm . . 23 They did not révérence their gods.• .*** 20 They built a temple for Adad i n tbe dry.-Êiîfa • p}u-uh-ru «1 «a-*»-*» r mxk a a 4 —3 • • -] to go . 21 They commanded.] to disappear '.** -] . ] .%$ ima se-re-ti ib-ba-ra U-sa-az-m-in 17 b-S-ia-ar-ri-iq i-na mu-H-im-ma 19 «fia fc-m ïa-ar-ra-qi-tu 20 i s adad i-na a-ti é 1 8 iu-a fi-d-Ji ib-nu-û U-ù-su 21 iq-bu-ma ù-su-û na-gi-ru 22 ri-ig-ma u-h-ét-èu-é i-na ma-tim 23 û~tâ ip~la~fei î-k-w\-un 24 [é*d\ ^û-se-eT-h-éU-tar-iul-m H [ adad i4%-u ba-ab-su 4 r 1 26 [«MB] e -pi-ta a-na qû-ud-mi-hi . [elders] *4' [• ] counsel [in the house]. ] X 8p-r»&-na . and the heralds proclaimed 22 And made a loud noise in the land. .] ~^ ~k* . 24 They did [not] pray to their goddesses.] X -ri-im-ma X * . . 10 Do not pray to your [goddesses]. 9 " D o not révérence your goda. '•'•§•] assembly 1 1 13 ' p» t » lî û-Wia\mé-e 14' [*?-«? i l ?•"•*?-*? §*-n& &*-**]« !$* Jf*-A*-*** IHV-W-S] na-gi-ru 8 ri-[ig-ma b-it-eb-bu-u] m ma-ti 9 e ta-ap4[a~hd\ . 13*$$ D 8 -3 ^ Q 6 f**M Column i i % 1 . à\i-ia-si . ] his lord • • ..... .]..] X -^-ata .. ] x rMM" . their work g . . 25 But they [sought] the door [of Adad]. . . . 19 So that the fields wiîi furtxveiy bear grain. 11 12 ifï-tf ba-ab]-iû e-pi-ta [a-na qù-ud-mi-s\û 13 b-il-b-ik-iu \ma-m-ha-tum m-qû-u] 14 B-ha-aë-ma [i-na ka-djjt-re-îé 1 1 5 . ] I shouted -. . . 16 H e may rain down a mist i n the morning 17 A n d may furrively rain down a dew in the night. 11 But seek [the door of] Adad 12 A n d bring a baked (loaf) pn front of it].74 A R .] be-U-su .

. .. . .]. . 18 û-id-^for a-na 19 # . ] x . ] seated.] .] the temple of his god . . 31 And furtively rained down a dew in the night. . finished 3 [t-na] X -U ie-ep-hi iî-ku-un 4 [u*\~mi-sa-am-ma ib-ta-na-ak-ki 5 [m]u-ul-$a-ak-ki i-za-ab-bi-il [i-n]a ïe-re-ti 6 7 [ x ] x-a i-li ta-mi-ma 8 [inr-fia] i-Sa-ak-ka-na i-na 9 [ X X .n ] en-ki ta-mi-ma 10 [uz-na i-f\a-ak-ka-na i-na d hi-na-a-ti hi-na-a-ti 12 1 IJ&L * ] i W . . li-b)i-il na-ru 17 . i-t]e-zi-ib-si-na-ti . . 11 ia 13 14 15 . . . [ ] . . 19 'Let the river take (?) [ . . i . .] of the river.] they returned.. . . 9 He swore by [. .f a 17-33 - 21 T o . [ ] my [ 22 May he see [ 33. . he set his foot. 30 [i-n]a fsei-re-tiib-ba-ra û-ia-az-ni-in 31 fiS-ta-ar-ri-iq i-na tnu-H-im-ma 1 3 2 [«-/]a-a [ar-in-*]* na-al-Sa 33 [eqlu ki-ma 34 35 36 fa-ar-r]a-qt-tu iu-ati-h . . .. ] X û ri X X X • Remainder o f column lost • • • Column iii ( D ) • * * * Column iii | * 1 . . . 20 Let i t . . 28 He was put to shame by the gift and lifted hit hand. . 5 Bringing oblations i n the morning. . . . .. . . 33 [The fields] furtively bore grain. . ] i-li-Su 2 . . . ] . ] their [.| f .^ ATRA-tfASÏS I I U 27-iii 22 27 [i-iI-U-i]k-$u ma-as-ha-tum ni-qû-û 28 [i-èa]-aS. . ] X X à*-<£"i *4 l .a 6 ib-ta-ak-ki r 3 . 35 .] X i ki/di 2 . [ ] • • ] ]• 21 a-iw ï * ^ a * . . .# f [ t ? 20 g ^ j ï ? . he wept. 4 Every day he wept. . . the famine ( ?)] left them. it-tu-ru . . x rev.[ . . [ 16 I n [ . of the god. . 30 I n the morning he rained down a mist. ui-i]a-ab ib-W-ak-^kP la-hu-ut-ra-at 5 *-[• • • p | • . . he wept. . . ] seated. 34 . ] X 17 A-if*/?... . . _ . .] of Enki. . . ] x û-am-rw ] na-ri .. . 7 He swore by [. . ] .ma i-na ka-at-re-e [û-$]a-aq-qi-il qd-as-su r ] 2 9 27 The offering of sesame-meal was pleasing to him. ] and bear away. . 10 Giving [attention] to dreams.] of his god 3 [ . . was still ] . . . seen 18 Addressed [. . 8 Giving [attention] to dreams. 15» Y *3 c f x .

27 On the bank [. S t* 7^-8 . . ..& 2 . [.. 5 Végétation did not sprout [ . . . x 11 «i »3-iv 16 23 May he [. 24 I n the night I [. . . . 14 [And they were living] on the verge of death. 8 I * . S iv. 2 ia-ap-ti-iJ û-ul i[l-U-ka] 3 mi-lu i-na na-aq-b[i] 1 Above . . 10 For the second year they suffered the itch. Remainder of column missing • * * • • Column iv ( D ) * * * Column i v * • 1 e-le-nu-um mi-[.. . 29 Enki heard [his words] a 8 a-na ap-si-i û-[ . 57b-58a *» v. [ . 13 [Their faces] were encrusted. . 26 Facing the river [.a m .5 9 * Ï*É1*VL L^É7-« cf. . .» w &-«/-[. 29 ii-me-r-ma *m~k[i a-toa-as-su] 3 0 a . . . . 28 T o the Apsû he [. 16 They walked hunched [in the street].a A . 32 Let this being .M la-ah-mi û-[.. a s â-tu-ma i[S-.• • •/ • -3 24 a-na-ku mu-tfi. the order [ . a7 t . ] 6 People were not seen [.* * AiMfr-n X [ . 4 û-ul ul-da er-fe-tum re-e[m-ia] 5 ia-am-mu û-ul û-p-a [. . 31 a-wi-lum ïa X [. . .] 6 ni-fu û-ul am-ra-[(a)-ma] 7 $a-al-mu-tum ip-çu-û û-g[a-ru] 8 se-ru pa-ar-ku ma-li id-r[a-na] 9 iî-ti-ta ia-at-tam 10 ïa-ni-ta ia-at-tam i-ku-la la-a[r }-da ?] û-na-ak-ki-ma ! n a . . 33 Go. 6b~7« 3 7 T a W e t 10-12 cf.. like malt. 30 And [instructed] the water-monsters [as follows]. . x [. 33 al-ka-ma 34 te-er-t[a. . . a6 />*-**•** na-ri [. . . . . . the flood did not [rise] from the abyss... . . û-na-ak-ki~ X [ 4-* cf. 34 Ask . . 3 a « .. 15 [Their] faces appeared green. 11 The third year came 12 [And] their features [were altered] by hunger. [. . 4 The womb of earth did not bear.f w * . 8 The broad plain was choked with sait 9 For one year they ate couch-grass (?). . 2 Below. 31 'The man who . . ] 7 The black fields became white. . . 5 8 b . 25 After he [. [ .- ATRA-tfASÏS as « • [ • i f e * ..* [ a ] i t ia-h-ul-tum la-at-tum il-li-k[a-am-ma] 12 i-na bu-bu-tim xi-mu-H-na [it-ta-ak-rt^\ 13 A M bu-uq-li ka^-at-[mu pa-nu-H-in] M 14 i-na U-it-ku-ki na-pi-i[ï-U ba-al-fa] { i f ar-qû-tum am-rw /w-w [ .M ] MJ W t 6 q&-ai-&4i T 3 i-il-la-ka P-[na r su-q{] 10 Tablet ( D ) .i t . .

. .. . . . . 2 iq-bu-û X [ . 20 qi-ud-mi-ii ta X [ x ] i X [.& [iMi-Au-ma] d 19 ip-fii-ur ul-l[a an-du-ra-ra ii-ku-un] 20 û-[m]a-ai-ï[e-er a-na ni-H mi-ie-er-tam] 21 ii. . . . 20 He let loose [abundance for the peoples]. ] . . . . Remainder of column missing * * * * * Column v (D) About the first 25 Unes of the column missing Column v 1 x za? X [. . ... x x [x] X x [.. [ . [. [ . J L 22 23 24 25 te-re-et X X [. 5 I n the fifth/five [ .[. x-la-te Û-[... [. 18 Where Enki [went] 19 He loosed the yoke [and established freedom]. . 19 20 21 22 23 The command which they received r 1 r Before . 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 n 12 13 û-X [ x ] X X X [. . . X at? X [. 13 He was filled with anger [at the Igigi]. 1 17 Their broad shoulders [became narrowl 18 Their long legs [became short]. i-ba-a-ar x [ ... . .g o ATRA-rJASÎS U i iv 17-v a i 17 ra-ap-iu-tum bu-da-H-na [is-si-qd] 18 ar^ku^tum ma-az-za-zu-H-na [ik-ru-ni] 19 H-ip-ru Hl-qû-û [ ( x ) ] X X [.[. [ .. .[.. . [x] x x [. 3 Barred . . . ... [fl]ii-«</-»if-f [/. . i-na 5 [ x ] X X X [.. & o f the sun]. . .]. " l i l é 12 A pomegranate ( ? ) . .. . 8 . .]•[. . ia-ap-li-tam] 17 I guarded the [lower] earth. . 14 ' [ A i l we] great Anunnaki 15 Decided together [on a rule]. [ . 16-18 . ed-lu-[t]i[m] i-za.. sa-a[b-4*] x [.. ia-am-H] 886 113 O 14 ra-bu-tum-mi a-n[un-na 15 ub-la pi-i-ni ii-ti-[ni-ii d ka-lu-ni] ur-tam] 16 if-fû-ur a-nu [adad e-le-e-nu] 17 a-na-ku as-sû-ur er-§[e-tam r 1 18 û-fo-ar # ï . [ . [ . . . ed-l[u. . . . . . . . 21 iz-za-az-zu-ma pa/û [ x ] an [.x [ . The decree [. 10 Was firm/Rebelled . . .. . . . . . . .x [ . .[k]u-un x [ x -taro iv *-na ai-qu-la-lu 19-22 cf. • 9 Barred [.[. 21 He established .]. Before [.[.[. . 16 A n u and [Adad] guarded [the upper régions]. in/from the .. 7 Barred. . . . .. v " ar-ma-na i-te. li-ib-ba-ti ma-l[i ia H-gi-gï\ â 2 They commanded . [ . . . . ... S vi. ] . 6 . 3 ed-lu-tum if-fo?-[. " ' They were présent and . . . . 4 . .

. [ . Jr. . • •] • . . ] x Si a-na un-[x] .. •] t n e m . of the sun]. 4 25 L e t them [send] them into [my] présence.. . . in/from the . . to . 32 Where you [went] 1' [You loosed the yoke and established freedom]. . . 17 [Enki] got fed up with sitting.) 3 4 5 §P * *1 • •••] . 28 ra-bu-tum-mi *a-nun-na 2 9 ub-lapi-i-m 1 k[a-lu-m] ur-[ta-am] iï-ti-ni-ii d 3 0 i$-sû-ur a-nu adad 31 a-na^ku af-$û-ur e-le-[e-nu] er-se-tam W-afy-H-tam] ta-ai-ku-un] !a-am-H] 30 Anu and Adad guarded the upper [régions]. . . 31 I guarded the lower earth. .. 16 [In] the assembly of the gods laughter overcame him. . ia i>H ia i-li 17 [<**«-&] i-ta-hi-ui 18 \i-na pu-tfft-ri . . ] u5 x x x am-ma * .0 ATRA-tfASÏS r 22 *en-tilpi-a.iu p*{pu-ia-am-ma] 23 a-na Htkkalli *nusku [is-sà-qar] 24 J c ? n a X [ma-r]i U-ib-[M-ku-nim] as U-[ie-ri4i]u-ni a-na ma-ah-r[i-ia] 26 se? na X $na-ri ib-bi-ku-n[i-iS-iu] 27 is-sà-qar-hs-nu-H qû-ra-du [en-U] d I I v aa-vi 18 22 Enhl [opened] his mouth 23 [And addressed] the vizier Nusku. . ] filled the fields 12 [And] t h e c l o u d s ( ? ) covered. . . ] .Â. .] X i X [ X X ( X ) ] r a [û-Sa-az-rri-i]n adad zu^-un-ni-hi d [ .' 26 T h e y brought [to him] 27 And the warrior [Enlil] addressed them. ^ te-m-ie-hi nu-hu-ui ni-H 13 [Do not] feed his peoples. 3' [You established . . ] X hi-nu-ti . . . . . 2' [You let loose abundance for the peoples]. . ] ti-a-am-tim . ] ur-ri x X X W-nu-H . j X mu X X X ur-tu . 18 [In] the assembly of the gods laughter overcame him.J. •] X pa W X X X r [ i ] . . . 24 Let them bring [to m e ] . . 28 '[AH we] great Anunnaki 29 Decided together on a rule.] X ir x X X . 14 [And do not] supply corn rations. . .' 32 a-ia-ar a[t]-ta ta-a[l-ti-ku-ma] 1' [ta-ap-fé-ur ul-la an-du-ra-ra 2' [tu-ma-ai-ie-er a-na ni-H 3' [ta-ai-ku-un X X -tam • • mi-ie-er-tam] i-na aî-qû-la-lu * • • * * * * * Column vi (D) About the 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 first Column vi 25 Unes of the column missing 1 2 8 9 10 1 1 . .. them 7 6 g 9 g . on which the d nisaba a-ïa-ba-am &ifatum si-ih-tum i-tm-ul-ht i-ku-ul-hi a-ia-ba-am 15 [The god] got fed up with sitting. . ] . . [. . . . .• } -M ï "de M -§ - f|§t.] im-ïhP-û û-ga-ra 12 [«? erî-p]él-tum û-ka-la-la X X X 13 [la tu-k^-ka-la-ïnim 14 [à la t]e-ep-pi-ra-nim 15 [i-k]-ma i-ta-hi-ui 16 [i-n] pu-ty-ri a 1 10 Adad [sent down] his rain n .. ] . ] sea . . .

•] of the gods . * [&-up-H~i\k-ka-ku-fm [a-m-lam e-mi-id) [la-ai-fyh'i-fa ri-ig-m[a a-na a-vn-lu-ti) («/o»! t]a-at-bu-ha qd-d[u fe -mi-fu} { r ^ ^ ^ « a i . Y o u determined on a [rule .aWiÏw . in/from the . . 42 *Why w i l l you bind me with an oath [ . ] ? 43 A m I to lay my hands on [my own peoples] ? 44 T h e flood that you are commanding [me]. 35 36 37 38 [.] 40 E n k i opened his mouth 41 A n d addressed the gods [his brothers]. . . .' 40 *m-*pt-*hiip+ §i k-ié^ÊF ana i~[h 0 [ia-am-ma] afy^iu) . . .] x x I * . M [ra-bu-tmm *a-nun-n]a \hà-bê^m\ 24 [«*-&] ^pi-i-m a-tP-[m-a 5 f£Ht&' * °^ ^ 26 [a-n}a.^ ta-ar-x [ X ] X JW-*w 1 ( « M } * * * » k . . .' 3* 32 !>. [. 0^à:mHém tu-ta-am-mu-n[i. . 46 A m I to give b i r t h to [a flood] ? 47 T h a t is the task of [Enlil]. [ .# 12 q]û-ra-[du] f:i eti~' hl • * # * * D : * 3^53 * * * * * C o h i m n vii : B : 37-54. . V Let us birtd prince E n k i .n u u [ r .b a . ] the warrior Enlil 2$ [ta~a)p-tû-uT ul-la ta-ai-ku-un 20 \tu-m\a-aï-le~er a-na m-H mi-ie-er-tam to [ta-al-ku-un] X X -Usm HM aï-qu-la-tu * la-am '--H §Mw».ATRA-y ÀSlS n vi 19-vii 47 21 r * -I fa X x ud 9 20 x • • 1 slander in his hand .lm ûs-m ur 2 ur a nu à a r L ai aa ur-ta-am] Iv-tam e-le-e-nu er-fe-tam §a-ap an-du-ra-ra 23 ' [ A i l we great Anunnaki] 24 [Decided] together [on a J 25 A n u and Adad guarded the upper régions. 27 Where you went 28 [You] loosed the yoke and established freedom. . .J * «-sa A» ««.] • . . .] bring [. . . . . . 33 You slaughtered [a god] together with [his personality]. Let i t t u r n to . ] . . T h e first 29 lines of the column are missing 30 31 $? 33 34 35 36 17 |àu.:. 26 I guarded the lower earth. 29 [You] let loose abundance for the peoples 3 0 [You established] . . ] by an oath. 45 Who is it? I [do not know]. ..* # .t e . . 43 é-*b-ba-al qà-ti « M w [ i H ma] 44 a-huim la ta-qà-ab-b[a-m-t*-m] 41 47 « H N fa i:'.] . Enki and Enlil. rule].k u . 34 [You] sat and • * • [ .i b . é C o l u m n vii 31 [She( ?) imposcd] your toil [on man]. of the sun. MWW * . . .t a * * «• ' U-tu-ur a-na ufc\*. 32 [You] raised a cry [for mankind].

99-102 36 B : 3 4 i-lu iq-bu-û ga-tne-er-t[am] 3 5 H-tp-ra le-em-na a-na m-H i-pu-uS 3 6 at-ra-am-ha-si-is pi-a-hi 3 7 is-sà-qar a-na be-U-su l d e[n-liï] i-pu-sa-ma 48 D : h-ib-te-e-r[u fa-a[m}-ma] 4 9 . 33 D o not obey ...4 8 B4b-te-ru fu-û [. . . . 4 9 su-ul-la-at A [ha-tii-i$] 6 à 8 6 ATRA-tfASlS 5 0 li-il-U-ku i-na [ma-ah-ri] 4 8 Let him [and . . ' 34 T h e gods commanded total destruction. D : 31-7 Column v i i i The first 30 lines of the column missing 31 X X X [. .. 3 3 e ta-ai-mi-a a-na f r . One or two lines missing t o the end o f the column * * * * Column v i i i : B : 33-7. 3 2 pu-uh-ra X X [. [ . i-pu . . [ . . 14-15.. x i . . . U rev. 35 Enlil d i d an evil deed on the peoples.5 3 cf. . 36 Atra-hasïs opened his mouth 37 A n d addressed his lord. Gilg. .. 52 Let [Ninurta] go and make [the dykes] overflow. • .] choosc. 32 The Assembly .K U - X [. 11 vii 48-viii 3 7 * 7 51 ta-ar-ku-ul-U ^-[ra-kal 5 2 U-il-li-i[k mn-urta] d 5 3 li-na-si-ih] *¥-tr-[<# mi-ih-ra] 51 Let Errakal [tear up] the mooring pôles. . .. 4 9 Let Sullat and [Hani§] go [in front]. 54 X [.

[ . ] be equal [(. . observe ail my words t bu-ul-li-it 22 Destroy your house. 30 So that the sun shall not see inside it 31 Let it be roofed over above and below. 25 The boat which you build 26 .)] 17 [m]a-hi-um-ma lu-ui-te-i 18 H-ip-ra ia a-qd-ab-bu-ku ta-qd-ab-bi 1 9 20 i-ga-ru si. build a boat. 'Teach me the meaning [ofthe dream]. 21-31 «g. .)] * mm * • * * * * * 2 8 Élt-J x r P a ? t i X X 29 [k]i-ma ap-si-i hi-a-ti 30 a-U-i-mu-ur samai d sû-ul-li-il-H qi-ri-ib-sa ia-ap-li-ii 29 Roof i t over like the Apsû. •] X X • t 1 A t r a . ] . .ta-am-mi-a-an-ni 21 ki-H-su su-us-si-ri ka-la si-iq-ri \-ia 22 û-bu-ut bi-ta bi-m e-le-ep-pa 2 4 23 ma-ak-ku-ra zé-e-er-ma 2 na-pi-ii-ta 5 [ê]-le-ep-pu ia ta-ba-an-nu. "What am I to seek?** 18 Observe the message that I will speak to you: 20 Wall. 32 The tackle should be very strong. listen to me ! 21 Reed wall. 23 Spurn property and save life.[H] T 1 26 .(88) (89) T A B L E T III T A B L E T III C t h r o u g h o u t unless o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d . 10 11 [ ai-ra-am-ka-si-is] l pi-a-su i~ pu-sa)-am-ma * §* 11 12 13 14 * * * 12 [is-sà-qar] a-na be-li-hi 13 [la hi-ut-ti w]u-ud-di-a qi-ri-ib-sa 14 [X X X ] X -di lu-ui-te-e si-ib-ba-as-sà 15 [ en-ki p]i-a-hi i-pu-ia-am-ma 16 [is]-sà-qar a-na ar-di-iu d Atra-hasïs opened his mouth A n d addressed his lord. . e-mu-qd hi-ur-U û-ia-az-na-na-ak-ku bu-du-ri nu-ni 21 T a b l e t ( C ) : Gilg. . hi-us-si-ir at-ta 17 'You say. 34 I w i l l rain down upon you here 35 A n abundance of birds. AI. X i .û . .2 f r o m B D i 1 at-ra-am-ha-si-is pi-a-hi l i-pu-ia-ma i 2 is-sà-qar a-na be-li-hi * • x • • • . . that I may seek its outcome/ 15 [Enki] opened his mouth 16 A n d addressed his slave. a profusion of fishes/ 3 3 cf. . ^gjj 4 si-iq-zi-ia . .h a s ï s opened his mouth 2 And addressed his lord. i 1 . and so give (the boat) strcngth. 33 Let the pitch be tough. W 3 34- 31 bi-û fû-ui-bs-la-at e-U-ii ù 32 lu-û du-un-nu-na û-ni-a-tum 33 ku-up-ru lu-û da-a-an 34 a-na-ku ul-li-ii 35 (u-ts-at ï$-su-ri Gifr cf. ] mi-U-h[u-ra-at * u * (.

14 The poor man [brought what was needed]. . . [ . 48 [i-na] ir-fe-et en-Hl û-ul a-[ia-ak-ka-an d 49 [it]-tii-Kû-x l. 16 He/They . . 44 They have expelled me from [my house ( ?)]. 12 The reed-worker [carried his stone]. . 49 W i t h the gods . . 40 Atra-hasïs opened his mouth 41 A n d addressed the elders. . 46 [He told me] of this matter. 37 He announced to him the coming of the flood for the seventh 38 Atra-ljasïs received the command. 43 Enki and [Enlil] are angry with one another. * * * Four or five lines missing to end o f column * ii 9 i[k-. Jâ? 10 fi-bu-[tum. . . 42 ' M y god [does not agrée] with your god. 50 [an-ni-ta]m iq-bi-à -a[m r ] . . 50 [This] is what he told me [ . na-ga.[ru na-H pa-as-su] 12 at-ku-up-[pu na-H a-ba-an-hi] 13 ku-up-ra [it-ta-H ie-er-ru] 14 la-ap-nu [fyi-HIt-ta ub-la] * i i 1 0 The elders [ . [. 47-8 * * * * 29 Bringing [. . . . 45 Since I révérence [Enki]. ] . 13-14 ci * . 48 I cannot [set my feet on] the earth of Enlil. 1 5 . .9 0 ATRA-HASÏS 36 ip-U ma-al-ta-ak-ta hi-a-ti û-ma-al-li 111 i 36-it 29 37 ba-a-a* a-bu-bi 7 mu-H-Ht iq-bi-iu 38 at-ra-am-lta-si-is il-qi-a te-er-tam 39 ïi-bu-ti û-pa-ah-hi-ir a-na ba-H-Su l 36 He opened the water-clock and filled i t .. 18 Atra-hasïs [ . [ ... v 7 * 28 me? [. ie-pi-ia] 47 I can[not] live in [your . >1|| 29 H^uJhb[a-al. 39 He assembled the elders to his gâte. . . 13 [The child carried] the pitch. . . i . [ . n The carpenter [carried his axe]. •' Four or five lines missing to end of column 4 0 at-ra-am-ha-si-is pi-a-Su i-pu-Sa-^'am-tna l 1 41 [i]$-$à-qar a-na H-bu-[H] 42 [ t j M i i-H-ku-nu i-K iP-|W ma-gi-ir] r 44 [if]-fa-ar-du-ni-in-ni i-na [ X X X ] d 45 [if\-tu-ma ap-ta-na-a[l-la-hu 46 [a-w]a-tam mi-ni-[tain iq-bi] en-ki] 47 i^nl] û-ul-la-ab i-na ![a-.

43 They ate and they drank. 32 el-lu-Hit-[ 33 ka-ab-ru-H [. [ 33 Fat (animais) [ i i 34 i-bi4r-[ma ui-te-r]i-ib 35 mu-up-pa-a[r-ia i$-$û-ur\ ia-ma-U 36 6»-W-[«r? 37 na-[ma-ai-ie-e (?) 38 X [. ] he invited his people . . . 45 But he was i n and out: he could not sit. .t i i-na f]ii-w/)-n-fu [ti-fa-ar-rtW/] Sa-ma-i ih-pi rev. 7 [ * u . • * * * Three lines missing ii 4 5 ÉJÉI 4 6 48 M -mti ii-nu-û pa-nu-û-iu 4 9 ii-ta-ag-na adad i-na er-pé-H à 50 *-4a ii-mu-û ri-gi-im-iu 51 [À}i!-fg>-n* ba-bi-il i-pé-efe-ki ba-ab-hi 52 ii-tu-ma i-di-lu ba-ab-iu 53 adad i-ia-ag-gu-um i-na er-pé-H d 54 fa-ru fur-su-*» i-na te-bi-iu 55 tp-m-it ma-ar-ka-$a * * e-le-ep-pa ip-tû-ur * * * * T w o lines missing 3 4 5 d • x x x •. 50 As soon as he heard Adad's voice 51 Pitch was brought for him to close his door.i w qé-re-H ] he put on board • • •] the moon disappeared. 52 After he had bolted his door 53 Adad was roaring i n the clouds.]. ] .. 48 The appearance of the weather changed. xi. .] [.1 0 cf. . 9 [He ] the land 10 A n d shattered its noise [like a pot]. 31 Whatever he had [. . . . . . 1 0 1 0 [fe'-ma ka-ar-pa-H r]i-gi-im-ia . . . w e r e ea pu-ra-i . . . . . . ... 49 Adad roared i n the clouds. Gtfe. ] to a banquet. 47 For his heart was broken and he was vomiting gall. ] X ] X fwt 36 The cattle (?) [ 37 The wild [créatures (?) 38 • [ 39 40 41 j j # ul]-te-ri-ib . 55 He severed the hawser and set the boat adrift. . 31 mi-m-ma i-i[u-û . ] X kP-im-ta-hi 4 4 ui-te-ri-ib i-!a-at-ti ti-u/ û-ui-ia-ab û-ul i-ka-am-nù-is i-ma-d ma-ar-ta-am 4 3 [fl-fe'-/]t* i-ik-ka-al 45 i-ir-m-ub ù û-us-d 47 he-pi-i-ma ti-ib-ba-hi 4 42 . could not crouch. 39 40 41 42 r 34 He caught [and put on board] 35 The winged [birds of] the heavens.] V .. . 54 The winds became savage as he arose. » 30-iii 10 30 Whatever he [had .02 ATRA-tfASlS 1 1 1 v 30 mi-im-ma P-[iu-û .] fd-H-iu iq-ri . ib-ba-b]i-il ar-hu . . . . ». ] x-en me-hu-û 8 • * * & e stonn ? 6 Ss&ô y°k * 7 [Zû with] his talons [rent] the heavens. . he sent his family on board. • H 32 Clean (animais).*. . . 16-19 9 .

the great lady. . . 28 N i n t u . . 16 [Like] a whinnying wild ass the winds [howled]. .. ] the noise of the [flood] 24 I t was trying [ .) 'Let the day become dark. 29 Her lips were covered with feverishness. of the gods. 23 . with them. . 14 They were [not] recognizable in the destruction.î -[fm] 35 ti-tu-ur li-ki-[il] 4 7 r 1 36 a-na-ku i-na pu-ûh-ri Sa * .5 0 11 r . 35 Let i t become gloom again.] " . iti n . ] ri-gi-im a-[bu-b]i .[ f i ] 37 fo'-iaj-fW] it-H-Su-nu ga-me-er-ta-a[m] r n 38 36 I n the assembly of the gods 37 How did I . the wise Mami. .]-W i-ô" uS-ta^ka-an 1 27 25 [ *n-& t^-ta-M te^é^-em-Su 26 [ x ] ma-ru-Su ub^bu^-ku [a-n]a ma-ah-ri-Su 28 [«WJn-fci be-el-tum ra-bi-tum 29 [&tt-u]/-$j-ta ù-ka-la-la Sa-ap-ta-Sa 30 [ ]a-ntm-#ta i-6* ra-bu-tum 31 [a. there was no sun 19 .. . 22 . 26 [Seeing that] his sons were thrown down before him. . .. 13 One person did [not] see another. ù-ta-$a-a] a-bu-bu 1 [ki-ma qd-ab-l]i Wi ni-H i-ba-a> ka-Su-Su 2 12 I t s might came upon the peoples [like a battle array].a-a£]-A[i*] i-na fii-mt à bu-bu-H d 32 i -mu-Kr-ma il-turn i-ba-ak-k[ï] 33 ta-ab-su-ut i-li e-ri-iS-ta ma-m[i] r n d 34 u -mt*-ttm &-tt* -da. » . he uttered abominable evil. 44 M y offspring—eut off from me—have become like Aies! 46 A n d as for me. 42 As a resuit of my own choice 43 And to my own hurt I have listened to their noise. 34 (She spoke. 1 0 9 . like the occupant of a house of lamentation M y cry has died away. . .] . ] x -Su ki-ma su-ub-bi 20 .[. -i]n*? a-bu-bi 21 • • •] X [(X )]-*--*« b u 22 23 24 d ai* . 33 The midwife of the gods. . Gife. . . 48 Shall I go up to heaven 49 As i f I were to live in a treasure house? 36-7 39 en-lil id-pi-ra 40 &-ma ri-m-rw d û-Sa-aq-bi bi-i-[Sa] fa-a-*[i] û-Sa-as-hi bi-i-S[a] 4 1 42 a-na ra-ma-rù-ia ù pa-ag-ri-i[d\ 43 i-na se-ri-ia-ma ri-gi-im-H-na eS-me 44 e-le-nu-ia ki-ma zu-ub-bi i-aw-ti li-il-li-du 46 à a-na-fe* fe-i a-ia-W ? ^ «-i* di-im-ma-ti sa-hu-ur-ru ri-ig-mi 4 5 4 48 e-te-el-li-i-ma a-na sa-ma-i 49 to-fa wa-aS-ba-a-ku s° ^ 11*14 cf. ] the flood [set out]. 13 [û-ul] V-fM-ur a-hu a-ha-Su 14 [û-ul] û-te-ed-du-û i-na ka-ra-H 15 [a-bu-b]u ki-ma li-i i-Sa-ab-bu 16 [ki-ma p]a-ri-ina-e-ri d 17 [X X (x)-ni]m Sa-ru 15 [The flood] bellowed like a bull. . 18 [Sa-pa-at e]-tû-tu samas la-aS-Su jç . . 31 Were sitting i n thirst and hunger. . . . . . 18 The darkness [was dense]. of the flood 21 .ATRA-tfASÏS 94 ïn 11 [ .].]. 25 [Enki] was beside himself. .i a ||| na-ak^ma)-H 2 3 . . 40 Like that T i r u r u . ] . 32 The goddess saw i t as she wept.7 cf. . U rev.]. 2 0 . the great gods. . command total destruction? 39 Enlil has had enough of bringing about an evil command. .2 . ] • • like . 30 The Anunnaki. 20 .

the storm. [. 24 For seven days and seven nights 25 Came the déluge. . Twenty-five or twenty-six lines missing to end of 8 ki-ma a-mi-im i-mi-da a-na s[a-pa]n-[nt] 9 ki-ma a-mi-im i-na se-ri i-mi-da a-na 10 a-mu-ur-ma e-K-H-na ab-ki 11 û-qd-at-ti di-im-ma-ti i-na se-ri-H-in 12 ib-H-i-ma li-ib-ba-ia û-na-ap-pi-ii 13 û-na-ab-ba *nm-tu la-la-la is-ru-up 1 4 ki-ib-ri 15 i-hi it-ti-ia ib-ku-û a-na ma-tim 16 ii-bi td-is-sà-tam sa-mi-a-at H-ik-ri-iS 1 7 18 H-i a-sar ui-bu ki-ma im-me-ri 2 0 i-na bi-ki-H ui-bu-ma im-lu-nim ra-fa-am 10 21 sa-mi-a ia-ap-ta-Su-nu bu-ul-hi-ta 22 H-na bu-bu-ti i-ta-na-ar-ra-ar-ru 1 2 3 24 7 u -mi 7 mu-i[i-a-tim\ 25 04nk ra. . they filled the trough. .' 12 She wept and eased her feelings. 52 Whose divine sons obeyed his command? 53 He who did not consider but brought about a flood 54 A n d consigned the peoples to destruction?' One line missing to end of column * * * * • First three lines of column missing iv 6 First two lines of column missing iv 3 . . x i . 5 a-bu-ma-an ul^da g[al-la-ta ( ? ) ] ti-a-am-ta ki-ma ku-li-li itn-la-a-nim na-ra-am 1 7 4 N i n t u was wailing [.t26 2 4 .x1.. 9 Like a r a f t . . 4 û-na-ab-ba ^[tn-tu . 21 Their lips were feverishly athirst. they have put in to the bankl 1 0 I have seen and wept over them. 20 Like sheep.x 42 <a[i? «. 27 Was thrown down [.ATRA-rJASIS I I I iii 51-iv 42 51 e-Sa-a a-nu il-U-kam be-el fe^mi 52 i-lu ma-ru-Su ii-mu-û d-qi-ir-iu 53 ia la im-ta-al-ku-ma ii-ku-^nu a~*-[bu-ba] 54 m-K ^ik-tnisu a-na ka-[ra-H] One line missing to end of column * * • * • 1 c i Where has Anu the président gone. M 39 $ f . . . x a 7 * * * * • * * * * * -« ^ 818168 H . .du? me-ku-W [a-bu-bu] é r 26 a-iar is-r\i27 sa-ki-i\p . 18 Where she sat. 5 'What? Have they given birth to the [rolling (?)] sea? 6 They have filled the river like dragon Aies! 8 Like a raft they have put i n to the edge.Otfr.5 cf. . G * . 13 N i n t u wailed and spent her émotion. . J X X [. | | f 28 fa-x §pf. 26 Where i t . . y 40 » . 15 The gods wept w i t h her for the land. . they sat weeping. 22 They were suffering cramp from hunger. 16 She was surfeited w i t h grief and thirsted for beer. 11 I have ended my lamentation for them. [the flood]. . .

who d i d not consider but brought about a flood 43 A n d consigned the peoples to destruction? 44 You decided on total destruction.. - s&^és '55 3 4 . 48 (She said).xi.. 'His grief is mine! Now détermine my destiny! 50 Let h i m get me out of this distress and relieve (?) me. . 45 N o w their clean faces have become dark.. 11 *-[• • • 12-14 traces 28 29 30 31 32 33 x [. [i\t-ta-di [.3 cf. i-raJsi-[. . . ..51 3v 99 43 44 45 46 47 4 8 X [• ' • «H.]. .. . ]X X 33 . i-za-an-nu-un • • [. • * * * First twenty-nine lines of column missing v 3 0 T o the [four] winds [ ... . Gtfe. .. . ut-ta-az-za-am 36 [After] they had eaten the offering 37 N i n t u arose to complain against ail of them. a-na ia-a-f[i. 39 'Where has A n u the président gone? 41 Has E n l i l come to the incense ? 42 They.. . 39 e-ia-a a-nu il-li-ka-am be-el fe^-e-mi 41 en-lil if-fei-a a-na qu-ut-ri-ni 40 â 42 ia la im~ta-al*ku~ii-ma is-ku-nu a-bu-ba 43 ni-H ik-mi-su a-na ka-ra-H 44 ub-la pi-i-ku-nu ga-me-er-tam 45 el-lurtu[m] z[i]-mu-H-na V-a-ad-ru 46 ù H4 if-fe-e-ma a-na su-bé-e ra-bu-ti 47 ia a-nu i-(pu)-iu-ma ùpa-an-qd-l[u]fa[l] 4S ia-a-at-tum nU$-$à-$\û\ lu-û H-im-ti i-ba-[a] 50 li-ie-fa-an-ni-ma i-na ni-el-m[e-nï\ « pa-ni-ia li-ip-t[t] 49 ^5^.5 cf.. .. ftf-X [• « • •' X Five or six lines missing to end of column • * * * * First seven lines of column missing v 8 X [. 32 Providing food [ .• • i-n[a . 10 àî-[.' 46 Then she approached the big Aies 47 Which A n u had made (?) and was carrying. ... GUg. 31 He put [. . 9 X [..98 ATRA-rJASÏS III iv 4 . 139-61 4 2 . Gilg.. X I 46-7 cf. . 35 They gathered [like Aies] over the offering. 34 [i-si-nu i-l]u e-re-ïa 35 [ki-ma zu-ub-b]i e-lu ni-qi-i pa-ah-ru 36 [ù'tu-m]a i-ku-lu ni-ql-a-am 37 [ nin]-tu it-bé-e-ma na-ap^-ha-ar-Su-nu d 38 [ 34 [The gods sniffed] the smell. ..

] (Probably no line missing) In 2 Let [thèse] Aies be the lapis around my neck 4 That I may remember it [every (?)] day [and for ever (?)].]»[. .-dwW»-*^ 24 j w | . .„ About tel lines missing 41 l^en-Ulpy-a-su i-pu-ia-am-ma 42 [i*-sà}-qar a-na *m-H m-ig-Si-l *~4 <£ r j % . ) ] 20 2 1 X X X [X X ] | § J X X bi? 22 2 .]^nupu-ûh-ra [. X 164 L . gods [ . . ] the flood . . ] and relax Impose your penalty [on the aiminal] [And] whoever disregards your command .. .•] he/she/they put [ I have] eased my feelings. ] x-ku-un 3 É^.' 5 ma-qu-ra i-ta-ma-ar q[û-ra-du en-lil] é 6 H-ib-ba-ti ma-U sa ^P-gp-gï] 7 ra-bu-tum ^nun^-na rkd*-h-n[ï\ 8 ub~la pi-i-fd ii-ti-ni-ii ma-mi-tam 9 a-ia-a-nu û-si na\-pil-ii-tum 10 ki-itb-bi-ut a-wP-lum i-na ka -[r]a-H r r 1 5 [The warrior Enlil] saw the vessel. ] 20 21 22 24 25 26 27 38 39 40 . 9 16 [^en-kilpi-a-iu i-*pu -ia-am-[ma\ 17 [ff-sà-gor] a-na i-U ra-bu-ti { 18 [lu-û e]-pu-us i-na pa-ni^hP-uln] 19 [û-us-t]a-si-ra na-pi-i[s-tam [ ( .. . . . 9 Where did life escape? 10 How did man survive i n the destruction?* 11 A n u opened his mouth 12 A n d addressed the warrior Enlil. . 18 ' I d i d i t [indeed] i n front of you! 19 p am responsible] for saving life [ . ] I did not (?) reveal the command.] â ru-um-mi 25 [be-el ar-n\tm hi-ku-un ie-re-et-ka 26 [ i ] V-àt-if & i^fa-a [r] -xà-Ai< a-zca-at-ka 2Tj „ .v i 42 52&-*2zi£iaMALX vi i (Probably no Une missing) i-na ma. ..] 2 3 A 52 Verily vi 1 [. . ] . . ] . ..X [ . 6 And was filled with anger at the Igigi. . . . . ] • • • [ . 7 ' A i l we great Anunnaki 8 Decided together on an oath. gu-ub-bu-û a[n-nu-tum] hs-û uq-ni ki-sa-di-i[a-a-mà\ 4 lu-uh-su-ûs-m u -mi [. . 41 [Enlil] opened his mouth 42 A n d addressed Enki the prince.too ATRA-tfASÏS [Xjmu? X X X X [X X ] nïv 5 2 . a-H\fSrba | | .. . . . . . ] your heart .dP en-Ul r à 13 ma-an-nu an-m-tam ia la en-ki 15 [ x ( x ) ] ul? û-ia-ap-ta si-iq-r[d\ 1 4 r 1 d i-ip-pu-us 13 'Who but Enki could do this? 15 [. ] .' 16 [Enki] opened his mouth 17 [ A n d addressed] the great gods. . . • \£ . About ten lines missing . 11 a-nu pi-a-su i-pu-ia-am-ma 12 is-sà-qar a-na qû-ra. the assembly [.] [. ] her/it jjjÉ . .

. ] x *6 X [ ] x 17 . .t f [ / . .a-ti a^-la-da-^am pu-ur*siï 1 10 [ x ( x ) ] ni s[i?] x X X X X-tam 11 [ ] ù [na-pt]-i$-tam 12 . . the birth-goddess. 24 ma-x [. and igtfflu-women. 23 x [ . 8ummon Nintu. . aa x x [ . 27 X { . . 25 me-bu-x [. 21 r < W . . ] ra ma [ x X ] X na 13 . 28-35 nus8ing 11 [ ] and life (?) * * * * * H . ] x-mi-iu *5 .]-H-in 14 . . . 10 [. . . .. . -l]i-ti 50 ... . 26 ma-to [. 6 Establish Ugbabtu-vjomen. . 47 [at-ti sa-a]s-su-ru ba-ni-a-at si-ma-ti 48 . ] X [ .. Entu-womm. birth-goddess. l]i-ib-H 51 . . . . • ] a-li-it-ti 7 6 Su-uk-ni û-uk-ba-ak-ka-H 8 lu-û ik-ki-bu H-na-ma 9 r e-ne-H à e-gi-si..ATRA-tfASlS 102 43 [ga-na sa-a]s-sû-ra *nin-tu H-si-ma 44 [at-t]a ù H-i mi-it-li-ka i-na pu-uh-ri 45 [ en-ki pi]-a-hi i-pu-ia-am-ma 46 [is-sà-qar] a-na nin-tu sa-as-sû-ri d d I I I vi 43-vii 3 5 tes 43 44 45 46 '[Come]. . . . . j b i l i ? [. [You] and she.] X Probably one line missing to end of column * * * * * 1 [a]p-pu-na ia-lu-uS-tum li-i[b]-H i-na ni-H 2 i-na ni-H a-li-it-tum-ma la a-li-it-tum 3 li-ib-H-ma i-na ni-H pa-H-it-tu 4 K-is-ba-at ie-er-ra i-na bi-ir-ku 5 47 '[You]. 48 • • •] for the peoples 49 50 •••]•• . . 3 Let there be among the peoples the PàHttu-dtmon 4 T o snatch the baby from the lap of her who bore it. . . 18 i l 19 x X [. 8 A n d let them be taboo and so stop childbirth. ^. . 20 a-l[i. ] a-na ni-H 49 . . . 2 (Let there be) among the peoples women who bear and women who do not bear. creatress of destinies. ] let there be Probably one line missing to end of column * * * * * vii 1 I n addition let there be a third category among the peoples. .' [Enki] opened his mouth And [addressed] Nintu. the birth-goddess. . confer in the assembly. . . . . .]-tum [. . . ..

.*] X • * »\-da 7 [ '\nu a-bu-b\a •/[w z-na ka-ta-H 12 té-te% viii 9 That we brought about [the flood]. vm 3 4 S 6 [ . . . Let the young [lady] take [.. . .. it» 9-10 with 17-18 above: t 2 A late recension of the above damaged and untranslated sectior contained in K 4539 (R) : 3 r K*)J ] .. the counsellor of the [great] go 12 A t [your] decree I set battle m mou 14 For your praise let the Igigi hear 16 This song and extol your greatneas 1 18 I have sung of the flood to ail the p< Hear it bu-tt] »ab-H qd-a[b-la] na\ an-m-a-am za-ma-\rà\ gi~g[u] li-is-H-ru na-ar-bi-ka m 17 18 a-bu-ba a-na ku^uUla-at ni-H 19 û u-za-ant-me-er H-tnê-a 9 . The young lady [ . 11 You. cf. .. 10 But man survived [the destruction]. Régulations for the human race [ . 0 a-na ar-d[a-tt . „ 7 a-na ar-da-ti [. . » ïo ^IP-U-qi a[r~da-tum. The maie [. • • • • 4 !a -am-ni [*$ËM 5 û-pi-ta-at ni-H X [< é zi-ka-ru [.1 /fa * A late recension of the above damaged section is probably contained in K 4539 (R). • 37 b ~ * h f> 38 ma. T o the young lady [. .j x ra a i ba li a X 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Oil [ . .• 40 urflU"l* 4. . The young man to the young [lady .. 8 ar-da-tutn [.[• • « u I f I vii yiii I O j n «es 39 i-l . . • .ATRA-HASlS 104 36 X [.

15 Disease. sickness. ' 13 They commanded and there was plague. 6 'The noise of mankind has become too intense for me. 20 [And] Ea spoke with him. 26 [The disease] from the gods is consuming the lanû. |S Z i [ul il-li-ka 1200 Sanâtu) * ïmâtu ir-ta-pi[S ni-Su im-ti-da] me 1 2 [i-na] rif'^-me-H-na it-ta. Ea. 11 Let disease. 2 He got disturbed [with] their noise. the human race is groaning. 14 Namtar diminished their noise. plague and pestilence 12 Blow upon them like a tornado. 24 Your [disease] is consuming the land. the man Atra-hasïs.]-me-[H-n]a at-ta-a. . 10 Let Namtar diminish their noise. 9 [qi-b]a-ma hi-ru-pu-u lib-H io [li-S]ak-B-fi ri-gim-H-na nam-tar 11 [H-m]a me-he-e li-zi-qa-H-na-ti-ma 12 [mur]-$u di-u hi-ru-pu-u a-sa-ku 13 [iq-b]u-ma Su-ru-pu-u ib-H 14 [tf-riS*** f-ft ri-gim-H-na nam-tar 15 [ki-m]a me-ffe-e i-zi-qa-H-na-ti-ma 16 [mwr]-ftt di-u Su-ru-pu-u a-sa-ku 17 [bel t]a-Si-im-H a-tar-fiasts(ge$tu) amëlu 18 [a-na te#]-fe <V-a uzun-Su pi-ta-at m 19 [i-t]a-mu it-ti ili-Su 20 [àf]*4tf-a it-ti-Su i-ta-mu ZI [ ]a-tar-basïs(g&tu) pâ-Sû ipuSa' 22 [izzakar] a-na é-a bëli-Su m d 4 i-qab-bi 21 Atra-frasïs opened his mouth to speak 22 [And addressed] Ea his lord. 8 [With] their uproar sleep does not overcome me. 23 [ma] 6# ut-ta-za-ma ta-ni-Se-ti 24 [mur-f]i-ku-nu-ma e-kal matu tu 25 [^-Û te/ ut-ta-za-ma ta-ni-Se-ti 26 [ffwr~f«] & Uâni *ma e-kal mâtu tDtl tu . 18 Kept an open ear [to his lord]. X .( io6) ( 107) THE A S S Y R I A N R E C E N S I O N T H E A S S Y R I A N R E C E N S I O N K 3 3 9 9 + 3 9 3 4 ( )> Reverse iv s Reverse iv 1 [Twelve hundred years had not yet passed] When the land extended [and the peoples multiplied]. 9 Command that there be plague." dar 8 [i-na h]u~[bu]-ri-H-na la i-fa-ba-ta-ni H-tu g di ir 7 I have got disturbed [with] their noise. the human race is groaning. 25 Ea. . plague and pestilence 16 Blew upon them like a tornado. sickness. 4 Enlil convened his assembly 5 A n d addressed the gods his sons. . 17 The discerning one. 23 ' L o r d . . 3 [With] their uproar [sleep] did not overcome him.-[dar] 3 [i-na] fyu-bu-ri-H-na la i-§a-ba-su [H-tu] rn 4 [ e]n-lil il-ta-kan pu-hur-S[u] 5 [iz-z]a-ka-ra a-na ilâni * mâr^-Su d me 6 [ik]-tab-ta-tn[a r]i-gi-im a-me-lu-te 7 [i-na r]if' \. lord. 19 [He] spoke w i t h his god.

. 46 Let the fields diminish their yields.] in front of it 35 . 51 That the womb may be constricted and give birth to no child/ 52 They cut off food supplies from the peoples. 43 Let plant life be i n short supply in their stomachs. .10S ATRA-riASlS 27 [iS-t]u-ma te-eb-nu-na-H-ma 28 [ta-pa-ra]-sa mur-fa aH-a hi-ru-pu-u iâ a-sa-ku 29 [*é-a pâ-su ipusa i]-qab-bi a-na a-tar-hasïs(gést\x)-me izzakar(mu)-Su m 27 Since you created us 28 [ W i l l you] remove the disease. . . 39 The peoples are not diminished. but have become more numerous than before ! 40 I have got disturbed [with] their noise. . 40 [i-/w] rig-me-H-na at-ta-a-dar 41 [z-»a h]u-bu-ri-H-na la i-sa-ba-ta-ni H-tu 42 p[ur]-sa-ma a-na ni-ïe-e ti-ta 43 'ï-iw kar-H-H-na M-me-su Sam-mu 1 44 ^e^-liS adad zu-un-na-hi lu-Sd-qir 45 HP-sa-kir Sap-liS ia iS-Sd-a me-lu i-na na-aq-bi d 46 HP-Sur eqlu iS-pi-ke-e-Su 47 HP-né-' irta-Sâ nisaba d salmûti lip-su-û ugâru 48 séru paJ-ku-û lu-li-id id-ra-nu meé 49 HP-bal-kat ersetu re-em-Sd Sam-mu ia é-fa-a Su-û ia i-im-ru 50 l[U]-Sd-kln-ma a-na niSê"** a-sa-ku 51 râi!*i(arhuS) r ku-$ur-ma ia û-Se-Sèr Sèr-ra 52 ip-t[ar-s]u a-na nirSe-e ti-ta 53 i-na kar-H-Si-na e-me-su Sam-mu j BIBLIOTHEQUE BiBUQUE . ] . gift [ . d 8 iv 2-3 75 I00 30 [qi-ba-ma li-is-su-û nâg]iru rigma(KA) lu-Sd-bu-û i-na mâti mdk a 31 [e ta-ap-la-ha ilâni -ku-un] V tu-sa-pa-a istar(u. ] . . 42 Cut off food supplies from the peoples. . 45 Below.dar)-ku-un 32 . ] X X ka-i-la pàr-si-Su 33 . a-n]a qud-me-sà 35 . let (the river) be blocked up and let it not raise the flood from the Abyss. . ] . plague and pestilence ?' 29 [Ea opened his mouth to] speak And addressed Atra-hasïs. 47 Let Nisaba t u r n aside her breast. . . observe his rites 33 . . 49 Let the earth's womb rebel. Let the black fields become white. . speak a bénédiction 36 . 32 . sickness. . his hand. . ] x -m/ ka-at-r[e-e iU-t]a}-kdn ' qat-su ha an 31 " [ D o not révérence your gods]. . . mas-$\a-tu m^(siskur) 34 . . . . 53 Vegetables were i n short supply in their stomachs. . . Let no vegetables shoot up. 44 L e t Adad above make his rain scarce."' 37 [Enlil] convened his assembly A n d addressed the gods his sons. ] X kat-ra-ba-ma 36 . 37 il-ta-kdn pu-hur-su izzakar{va\i) a-na ilâni * mârê -su [ #ï-#/] d me me& 38 X -ra-me e ta-àS-ku-na-H-na-H 39 [ni-S]u la im-ta-a a-na là pa-na i-ta-at-ra 38 'Do not them. . ] . 30 '[Command that] heralds [proclaim] A n d make a loud noise i n the land. 48 Let the broad plain produce sait. 50 Let pestilence be laid on the peoples. no cereals grow.] the offering of sesame-meal 34 . 41 [With] their uproar sleep does not overcome me. . do not pray to your goddesses.

1 3 [When the third year] arrived 14 [ T h e peoples's features] were disterted [by hungerj. .iria-sd *nisaba y 56 T h e fields diminished their yields. . no cereals [grew]. 55 Below.n i ] 9 [ù-id-kin-ma a-na mië°** a-sa-ku] [rêmu ku-asr-ma 1 0 ul û-s\e-[ièr Ur-ra] — -J J ï t : : p — - - — È• 10 11 [ [ . 60 Pestilence was laid upon the peoples. 59 N o vegetables shot up. [sabnûti™* ip-su-u ugâru] 7 [séru pal-ku-û û]-ti-id id-[ra-na] [ib-bal-kat ersetu re-em-fd] 8 [sam-mu ul û-sa}-^ iu. n a ) i*a] ka-id-di H [**~iu i-na bu-bu-te zi-mu-H-na] 15 [4 iatîuimu) i-na ka-id-di] \pr-ku-tu ma-za-z^-su-nu ik-ru-ni 10 [rap-ia-tu bu-da-H-na] is-n-qa 1 2 [When the second year arrived] [ T h e y suffered] the itch. .iF 1 r [ul i ' . 61 S o that the womb was constricted and gave birth to no child. Earth's womb rebelled. frtak-ru . 6 Nisaba [turned aside her breast]. . . (the river) was blocked up [and did not raise the flood from the Abyss]. (the river) was blocked up and did not raise the flood from the Abyss. no cereals grew. . . 7 [ T h e broad plain] produced sait. 8 [No vegetables] shot up. ^ .irta-id\ msaèa 1 9 â 5 T h e fields diminished [their yields]. . 1 6 [ T h e i r broad shoulders] became narrow. T h e black fields became white. . [the bar of the sea]. 5 fii-sur eqî{u ii-pi-ke-su] 6 [i-mé. 2 [ E a ] guarded [together with his plants].* 3 n 11 [ ~ . 15 [When the fourth year arrived] T h e i r [long] legs became short. U I U 56 H-sur eqlu ii-fn-ke-su 57 i-né. 4 Below. t ] u ? X { ( X ) ] 12 [2 lorxtt(mu) i-mz ka-id-di] [û-na-ak-ki-ma] na-kâm*t\a] 13 Î3 * # M m i L a n .ATRA-tfASlS lie S rr 54-7 16 d e-Us adad xu-un-na-iu û-sd-qir 55 is-sa-kir sap-Us ul is-sd-a mi-bs ina na-aq-M 5 4 m 54 Adad above made his rain acarce. [Earth's womb rebelled]. 58 T h e broad plain produced sait. udmûti*** ip-su-u ugâru 58 sëru pal-ku-é û-U-id id-ra-na ib-bal-kat erseiu re-em-sd 59 sam-mu ul û-sa-a iu-û ul ï-ru 60 S-U-kin-ma a-na «we * a-sa-ku 61 rému m-sur-ma ul û-ie-Ur Ur-ra me •k * * Reverse v * * * * * Reverse v * * 1 si-g[a-ra na-ab-bal tam-tim} a h-ptr qa-du sam-me-iu] 3 e4S [adad zu-un-na-iu u-id-qir] 4 is-sa-kir iap-[Bs ul ii-id-a mi-lu i-na na-aq-bi] â 1 T h e boit. . 57 Nisaba turned aside her breast. 3 [Adad] above [made his rain scarce]. ( T h e black fields became white]. . | [So that the womb was constricted and gave] birth [to no child]. 9 [Pestilence was laid on the peoples].

25 Their [faces] were overlaid [like dead malt].7 [gardai* it-ta-na-la-ka ni-S]u i-na su-qi 18 [5 sattu(mu) i-na ka-id-di] [e-reb] ummi mârtu i-da-gal 19 [ummu a-na marte ul i-p]*-te bâb-M 20 [zi-ba-ni-it ummi màrt]u i-na-fal 21 [zi-ba-ni-it marte] W-na-tal ummu 22 [6 iattu(mu) i-na ka-id-di] [U-tàk-nu] a-na nap-ta-ni tnàrta 23 [a-na kurummate(SvK) bu-na] U-tàk-nu te 24 [im-la-ni ma. were filled ] One [house] consumed another. [When] the third year [arrived] The peoples' [features] were distorted by [hunger]. They walked hunched i n the street. 19 [But the mother would not] open her door [to the daughter! [The daughter] watched [the scales (at the sale) of the motherl 21 The mother watched [the scales (at the sale) of the daughter! 22 [When the sixth year arrived] [They served up] the daughter for dinner.ATRA-tfASlS S v 17-vi u . 2 0 27 [bel ta-H-im-t]i a-tar-hasïs{gestu) amêlu 28 [a-na bëli-U *é]-a uzun-hi pi-ta-at m 27 [The discerning one]. 24 [. 18 [When the fifth year arrived] Daughter watched the mother's [going in].DiM ) me-te pa-nu-i]i-na 26 [ni-hi i-na su-par-k]e-e napiiti bal-fa-at 4 kat-mu 17 [They walked hunched] in the street. When the fifth year arrived Daughter watched the mother's going i n . When the fourth year [arrived] Their [long] legs became short. 23 They served up [the son for food]. 29 [He spoke] w i t h his god.X J [bïtu i]l-ta-nu ianû* i-re-ha-ma 25 [ki-i i«tffi(se. the man Atra-hasïs. When the sixth year arrived They served up [the daughter] for dinner. I 885 113 .n[a) [irna ka-id-di û-na-ak-ki-ma na-kdm-ta] 3 &i#»(mu. . [The mother] w atched the scales (at the sale) of the daughter.an. 33 The stream was quiet • • Reverse v i 29 [i-ta-m]u it-ti ili-iu 30 [ù Su é]-a it-ti-M d i-ta-mu 31 [i-ie] bab ili-iu 32 [i-n]a pu-ut nâri il-ta-kdn 33 ty me-ed-ra-tu Su-hu-rat 1 ma-a-a-al-hi • • • Reverse v i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 to n r [2] fa«tt(mu]. .an. 30 [And] Ea spoke w i t h him. 26 [The peoples] were living [on the edge] of death. 28 Kept an open ear [to his lord]. But the mother would not open her door to the daughter. 32 He placed his bed facing the river. Ea. 31 [He sought] the gâte of his god. The daughter watched the scales (at the sale) of the mother. Their broad [shoulders] became narrow.na) [i-na ka-id-di] ni-hi i-na [bu-bu-te zi-m]u-H-na it-tak-ru 4 iattu(mu) i-na k[a-id-dt] [ar-ku-t]u ma-za-zi-Su-nu ik-ru-ni rap-id-tu [bu-da]-Si-na is-si-qa qa-da-nii i[t-ta-n]a-la-ka ni-iu i-na su-qi s iattu{m\x) i-na ka-id-[di] e-reb ummi mârtu i-da-gal ummu a-na marte ul i-pa-te bâb-S[d] zi-ba-ni-it ummi mârtu i-n[a-faf] zi-ba-ni-it marte i-na-fal [ummu] 6 iattu(mu) i-na ka-id-di U-tàk-nu ana nap-t[a-ni mârta] n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 [When the second] year [arrived they suffered the itch].

. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 The command which they received [ . ... [. n 24 25 26 27 [(x)î X [ . . * * • • * . . 23 u . [. 25 t n 26 After . . . .X [.. . . The message of Atra-[hasïs . . . .. . 22 [ ( x ) ] X ma [ . . on K 12000c (T)) 24 [. —" "5 12 a-na kurummate(Sv%) bu-na U-tàk-nu im-la-ni ma. te-er-ti ^a-tar^-hla-si-is ma bel mâtu^". .. . 27 Let me go down [to the Apsû . * * * • * 28 One/The first year [ .. . (Probable continuation. .. . [. the land [. . ... . ii-tu-ma x [ .[. . . . . . 14 Their faces [were ovcrlaid] like dead malt.. .. ia-e M bi-la x [.l f 4 ATRA-tfASlS tê S vi 12-23. . . . 13 bïtu il-ta-nu iamf i-[re-ha-ma] 14 M-i buqU($e.an. . 28 1 &ifttt(mu. .. [it]-ta ia-a [... on K 12000c) X kii-mai X [. .. 21 X ma X [. 16 17 18 19 20 .[. A sign .]. . lu-ri-ii a\p.. . T 12 They served up the son for food.na) [ .] were filled [. 'Lord. . 13 One house consumed another. . t .. (Probable continuation. . . . . [ . e-tar-bu-ma [. 15 The peoples [were living] on the edge of [deathl. .. They entered and [. .T>m ) me-te pa-nu-H-n[a kat-mu] 15 ni-iu i-na ht-par-ke-e [napiiH bal-fa-at] A HpruQun) U-qu-[û .

. 11 [u -m]i-tam-ma [. [. 17 5[i] X X X | . . . • # 9 # I t f ^ at-ra-fy[a-si-is . That Sin and Nergal guard [the middle earth]. . . 1 A n d addressed [.• . . 19 M a y [. . 10 H-a-ma [. [Let] this being [ . .gut) if-fu-ru er-§e-titn q[ab-li-titn] 10 H-ga-ru na-ah-ba-lu ta-am-[ti] BE 36669/24^1. -. 3 ^-ô[*-m]a [. 5 en-lil [. . When the river [(. .-. . .. 12 é at-ra-f}a~ri~i[s . W i t h their uproar I [am deprived of sleep]. 16 mu-hi i-zuruz-ma [. . . . 13 ^é^-nu-ma tn$-id-r[a-. g<**na\\x x K x ab f . a-na a/vf [ „ . He used to bring offerings . 7 H-ga-ru na-afy-[b]a-l[u . 6 H-ga-ru na-afyJbiï-l\u ta-am-H] 7 *é-a li-is-$ur qd-d[u iam-nd-hï] 8 iq-bi-ma is-su-ru *a. 21 li-mur é-a x [ . [Ea] heard [. . Sin and Nergal guarded the [middle] earth. 22 a-na-ku èia 'rrturH x [• • • 12 [maï-f]ak-ka i-za-ab. . . 20 Ui-id-km tu-pu-ul [. the bar [of the sea]. 4 ù adad [. 21 L e t Ea see . 23 il-tu-m\a .. T h e boit. [.. . 22 I n the night I .a HP-is^siP-ru [. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 ' [ T h e noise of mankind] has become [too intense for me]. . . 18 He spoke to [. 8 é-a i$-§û-ru [. . . 15 e-nu-ma mid-ra-tum ? X [. . 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 3 2 ||^v 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 |i 32 r *-na ^tt-tt* w [ 5 r t j .. . That the boit. . . i-na pu-ut {<. .. 18 iz-zak-kar a-na [.. . . . .* . .. . . Ea may guard together with [his plants]/ He commanded.[... * . 19 lil-qé-e-ma X [. 6 is-sû-ru [. . . 20 May i t be established under [ .. .. . ] take [. . T d d d r 1 d r d d d d A 17... . 14 mal-lak-ka^i-zab^-bi-X X [. . Come . 23 After [ . . A n d brought the [water monsters (?) * T h e man who . . T o the Apsû [. Facing [. d Facing the [river . and Anu and [Adad] guarded [the upper régions].. . . . . am£/w U n a x X [. . . . . . N o w Atra-hasïs. . . . [. . M E. ïk-t[ab-ta ri-gim a-me-lu-H] ina }?u-bu-[r]i-Hnî W-[za-am-ma Ht-tû] qi-bal-maî W-if-su-ru [ a-num u adad e-le-nu] <%m(3o) u nergal(u. [. . Photo Bab.« v an-nu-û [. Ea guarded together with [his] plants.(n6) ("7) BE 3 9 0 9 9 F R O M P H O T O Reverse i B A B Y L O N 1804 < BE 3 9 0 9 9 (x) Reverse i [ en-lil pa-a-tà i-pu-uè-ma i-qab-bi] d 1 2 3 4 5 iz-z[a-kar a-na .nunfl u [adad e-le-nu] 9 ^ ( 3 0 ) u nergal(u. 13 u^-nii-iam-ma ib-ta-a[k-ki.. . . . .. U-[m]é-e-ma [é-a f-bMkl[âJi~mi(?). . [whose god was Ea]. 11 é-a if-pir qd-da tam-m\Uh£] 2 ^ . . [ ..[.) was quiet]. Every day he wept [ . Command that [Anu and Adad] guard [the upper régions]. 1601 1 H-ga-ru na-ah-ba-lu [. the bar of the sea.guT) li~i§-[§u-ru er-se-tim qab-li-tim] 1 d â é [Enlil opened his mouth to speak]. . T h e night was still [ ..

. . . d 35 36 37 38 39 40 • [• • • L e t . . [.hi> ma-af-fa-ru tam-ti x 9 Tablet: if-fû-ru . . KjUe"** 1 Sdr nûnï" * 1 ter*** i d hu x 22 [ . . [. you commanded and <Anu and) Adad did guard the upper régions 17 [Sin and Nergal] did guard the middle earth. .. 5 [You should] guard together with your plants. ] . 44 a-na x x [. the bar of the sea. . 41 X X X A N X [ . 23 A n d they broke half of [the boit]. . . I commanded] that Anu and Adad should guard the upper régions. . 43 . 41 [••• 42 What in . . ] . . You .gur) i-n]a-as-sa-ru er$etim qab-^lP-tû 4 [H-ga-ru na-ah]-ba-lu tam-H 5 [at-ta ta-na-a]s-sa-ra qd-du sam-mi-ka 6 [tu-ma-dl-$è]r a-na ni$t * mi-Sêr-tû 7 .. . . . 20 When [. 39 ù-mé-ma [é-a . 11 [That the boit]. . . . the bar of the sea. 24 [After ( ?)] I had killed the guards of the sea 24 [ . [Ea] heard [. [. . .] ki-i û-sa-an-ni 21 [ . . [. ] 'M a myriad of fish. 13 [But you let] loose abundance for the peoples F 14 [Ea] opened his [mouth] to speak 15 A n d [addressed] the messenger. . . . . . 4 [That the boit]. 40 ù an-na-a x [. . . . [. . 18 [The boit].. . 42 mi-nom i-na x [. ) I commanded that] Anu and Adad should guard [the upper régions^ 3 [That Sin and Nergal] should guard the middle earth. .] X taq-bi-ma (^a-nu u) adad is-sur e-le-nu l [ ^ ( 3 ° ) « nerga]^VLgv]r) if-sur erçêtu* qab-li-tum 18 [H-ga-ru n]a-ah-ba-lu tam-tû 19 [a-na-ku af]-sur qd-du Sam-me-id 20 [. K ] u û-gap-pi-Sam-ma ïh-liq-Ma 23 [Sd H-ga-r]u il-bi-ru mi-Hl-Su d u Um me d d d d d meô d l d d 1 6 m c ï 2 ' [ ( . . 43 «/ X x x [. T o the Apsû . .. ' I got together and i t disappeared. . ] escaped from me 21 [. one myriad *' 22 [. Reverse i i Reverse ii 1 2 •] X AN X X X X [.d\d-du. .. ] the wide sea 8 Repeated [the message of] Enlil to Ea.. 6 [But you let loose] abundance for the peoples!' 7 . . [. 37 at-ta x X [ . 36 li-X [. . 19 [ I did] guard together with my plants. ] ta-ma-tû ra-pa-dl-tû 8 [ter-ti en]-lil a-na é-a ù-Sd-an-nu-ù 9 [ . A n d this being . .34 *'X pM 35 x [.giir)] ty-na-sa-ru er-se-tim qa-ab-li-tim 11 [H-ga-ru na]-ah-ba-lu ta-am-ta 12 [at-ta ta]-na-as-$a-ru qd-du Sam-mi-ka 13 [tu-tna-df\-Sèr ana « t S me-lèr-tù 14 \H-a pa-a]-Hi ïpuS-ma i-qab-bi 15 [iz-za-kar] ana màr Hp-ri 16 [. . 38 a-na apst x [. .. .. . aq-bi-m]a fy-nu u adad i\-na\-as l-sa l-ru e-le-nu 10 [ sin($o) u nergal(u. 12 [You should] guard together with your plants. . . .. ] d à [(• •) aq-bi-ma Y<iï-nu u adad i-na-as-sa-ru ^-[le-nu] 3 [ »»(3°) ^^^/(u. . 10 [That Sin and Nergal] should guard the middle earth. the bar of the sea. 16 ' [ .. . 9 l [ . [ • • • 44 T o j .

.] on them and punished them. .à} i-ku as-su-ra qd-du iam-mi-ia [. one myriad . . [ I ] did guard together with my plants. a myriad of fish. [The boit]. his sons swore with him. 'Come. .] KU 6 me5 1 1 41 [x x ] X d$-kun-$u-nu-ti-[m]a e-te-nin-Sû-nu-ti 42 [if\-tu-ma e-ni-nu-hi. . Enlil swore. .] ki-i û-sa-an-ni [. ii aj~ g 4 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 25 26 27 28 I laid [. [ .] . . •] took the message ~ " " — [ .] X taq-bi-ma a-nu u adad is-su-ru e-le-nu [^#(30) u n]ergal(n]. . . 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 [. ] the wide sea 30 [Went] and repeated 31 [The message of] Ea to Enlil. ] . . . ail of us.' [. ] . . the bar of the sea. on them and punished them.] ad-du-ka ma-as-sa-ru tam-ti d r d d d d T 29 [. ] . ] escaped from me [ . [After] I had punished them [ I repeated i t ] and imposed a penalty.a d}-na qu-ra-di en-lil [. .gar) is-su-ru er-se-tû qab-[l]i-tû [H-ga-ru n]a-ah-ba-lu ti-am-ti [a-nà]. . . I got together and i t disappeared A n d they broke half of [the boit].' Enlil opened his mouth to speak A n d addressed the assembly of ail the gods.(nu)-ti 43 [u]-tir-ram-ma Ur-ta e-mi-id 44 45 46 47 48 [ en]-lil pa-a-su i-pu-us-ma i-qab-bi [a]-na pu-hur ka-la ilf ** iz-za-kàr [a]l-ka-ni ka-la-ni a-na ma-mi-tû a-bu-bi a-nam i-na pa-ni Hcfi-mu-ni en-Ul it-ta-mi mârê^-sû it-ti-H ta-mu-ni d 0 ' [ . d d .Ï 2 C ATRA-fJASÎS [ X X X df\-kun-$u-nu-ti-ma [ii-tu-ma] e-ni-nu-su-nu-ti [û-tir-ram]-ma sèr-ta e-mi-id [ X X X ] il-qu-û ter-ta e-(te)-nin-iu-nu-ti 2 rev. and take an oath to bring a flood. .' A n u swore first. . After I had punished them [1] repeated it and imposed a penalty. . ] K U 1 ïdr nûnï" '* I ïdr"-*" id? p i x M§ E 6 û-gap-pi-iam-tna ih-liq-ma p i i H-ga]-ru U-bi-ru mi-Ul-bi [.] ta-ma-tû ra-pa-di-tû [il-li-k]u-ma û-sd-an-nu-û [ter-ti é]. . When [. . • . . [After (?)] I had killed the guards of the sea I laid [. . . . you commanded and Anu and Adad did guard theupper régions [Sin and] Nergal did guard the middle earth.

] . [I heard] your entry. 5 ' [ L o r d ] .] your . he stood 4 H e opened [his mouth] and said. 15 16 \ . .] l i l . [ • • ] 3 [He] entered and shut up the [boat]. .] I f * •] X ia § . . . tne . he prostrated himself.] 7 • * * * * 1 8 19 20 * • * * * Rev Reverse 1 traces 2 [Mit\-ta-di ri*x [ x (x)3 3 [i-ru-u]m-ma ip-fra-a ^eleppa] 4 [i]a-ru**< ^ -a-ma ib-bak me-h[u-û] û 2 [. . . . .] . O b v e r s e 1 [ éy a bele-re-ba-ka [di-me-ma] 2 [û-t]e-qi-ma Hkna ki-ma Hkin !ëp[ë ™*-ka] d f l îlj 98977 + 99^31 ( U ) . H]-ta-ma-ni |ɧ •] X biS x [. . . I heard your entry. . he] put . .(i*a) T H E A S S Y R I A N R E C E N S I O N T H E B ASSYRIAN M RECENSION B M 98977+99231 ( U ) . ] * [ E a ] opened his mouth to speak 13 [*i-ap]â-ht ïpuia i-qab-bi 14 [iz-za-ka]r a-na ki-ki-H 15 16 1 14 [And addressed) the reed-hut. . .] X -ma-ka û-se-mi kai-ha-[îd] m 11 .ba) ir-ta-kab 6 Su-û-tu il-ta-nu Sadtf a-mur-[ru] d pa-re-V^ht] 5 Adad rode on the four ttinds. .] tell me your (pl.) .limmu. and brought the 5 adadi-na làr ertem'(im. . 2 [ I ] noticed steps like [yourj footsteps. 8 [ I noticed] steps like your footsteps. 9 [.] . . ] X -ru-ku-nu qi-ba-a ia-a-S[i] ia . . [his] as 6 T h e south wind. . lord]. . like seven years 10 11 12 13 . has made the feeble thirsty . . 4 T h e wind ( « w b r e a k ) .] X X X [. . . ] X i ta [. lord. 3 [ a-tar-ltasù] ik-mis ut-kin i-ta-zi-iz 4 [pâ-Hi] ipulat'-ma izzakar(mu) m ar X [X (x)] 5 [ma bel] e-re-ba-ka di-me-ma 6 [û-te-q(]-ma Hkna ki-ma Hkin $ëpë -k[a] llmti 6 [I noticed] steps like your footsteps. 7 [ E a . .] ki-kii v ki-k[H] 4 . Obverse ggg 1 Ea. . I heard your entry.] Reed-hut! Reed-hut! . . the north winu. ] X**"* °*~**-ka 1 a-ta-marpa-ni-k[a] ) . . { . . ( n c w b r e f t k 7 [àé-a bê]l e-re-ba-ka dï-me-m[â] 8 [û-te-q]i-ma Hkna ki-ma Hkin lêpë -[ka] îlme& 9 [x X ] X ki-i 7 SanâH(mu) [^] 10 *. I have seen your face 12 .] pay attention to met .' 3 [Atra-basîs] bowed down.

. . .] ma li" [. reached . the winds arose. ] 13 [ I t ] sweeps forward. .] X [. the gale. ilàm\ mQl ul-ta-dar m<A . . spent her émotion 16 [ z]u i-na su-up-ri-hi $amê ^-[iar-rif] 17 [X X m]àta ki-ma karpati mi-lik-sd is-p[u-uh] à e 18 [x X X ] V-ta-sa-a a-bu-bu 19 [ki-ma qab-li eï\i ni-ie i-ba-a ka-su-hi 20 21 22 23 24 25 .] the land like a pot. it kills. . 19 Its might came [upon] the peoples [like a battle array].] . . .] X mârû -Sd ub-bu-ku a-na pi-ld . . . . .X [X 13 [i-r]a>-£ri-i$ i-da-ak i-da-di [ x X X ] 14 [U]-lak nin-urta mi-ih-ra [û-Sar-di] 15 èr-ra-kal û-na-sa-ha t[ar-kul-li] d d 12 [ • • ] • • the chariot of the gods . . . . . ] the flood set out. . 15 Errakal tore up [the mooring pôles].] the noise of the flood. break 12 [ x x]&E-ri fu-ku-ub ilàni * muS-Su. . . [. . he scattered its counsel 18 [. . . storm.] 14 Ninurta went on and [made] the dykes [overflow]. . . . . 7-aj 7 8 9 10 11 X] The The The The [. . . . it threshes [. .r *4 ATRA-tfASÏS 7 8 9 10 11 ri-qu-bi siq-si-qu me-hu-û râô/(aga[rj) im-hul-lu ad ma hu lu te-bu-û JtàriT^*] ur&^-qù-da tt-ba-a id-Sû su-tu [i]-zi-qu a-na idi-lù a-mur-ru [ x ] X [ X ] X i-ba.] . 20 21 22 23 . her sons were thrown down at her own command. ( ) . [ .] Anu ( ? ) [ . arose at his side. .] X la-hi-id i[s-ru-u]p .] . . .] . ]a }-nu rtgim(KA) a-bu-bi d . r 1 m e l . the tempest blew for him Evil Wind . . . 16 [Zû] with his talons [rent] the heavens. south wind ..k i Si X me U rev. 17 [He . . . . . . west wind blew at his side.] set the [gods] atremble..

>] x û-ma-am st-rim is-ptr la-me-e 2 | | | | . . Babylonian date of this fragment has been argued by G .] te-ep-pu-hi x • . ] j t . ail that there are 6 ..] X -â-m ma-fa i-ba-aS-hi-û lu kin ub-bu-ku lu pu-ut-tu hu-ru-hi 6 . ] **eleppa ra-bi-tam bi-ni-ma 7 . . . A . . .] X u kin? ta X 4 (trace) T h e Middle.W 3« ] X i-ba-as-su-û 5.(ia6) («27) CBS 13532 Obverse CBS 13532 (3) i . 37-46. . The Life Saver.gur)-ma hm-Ia lu na-si^rat na-pii-tim 9 . la-am a-bu-bi wa-se-e 5 . ] . . . ] heap up . . . ] fai-fo m-&" ù-te-nti i-sa-bat 4 . . ] . .] I will explain 3 . . . ] X . . ] . . Journal of Biblical Literature 75. not Old. . ] roof it over with a strong covering. .] qd-ne-e gdb-bi lu M-nu-us-sà 8 . . . .i l u ^m<2^^urruffr(mâ. wild créatures of the steppe. 10 [Into the boat which] you will make 11 [Send . . L Gordon. i-b]a-aS-bi-û Reverse 1 S . . . ] entirely of reeds.gur. ] let it be a maqurqurrum-bozt with the name. . . ] x « ? B x i ? [x X ] X-ka 2 . . . irton. . ] build a big boat* 7 Let its structure be [ . . JAOS 31. 1 2 . 9 . . ] x pi-lu-la dan-na sù-ul-lil 0 . .] a-pa-aS-ïar 3 | ^ • . ] ku-um-nd-ir{\ tablet -m) 3 * . 336. 8 . and E . . birds of the heavens 12 • . . . . . before the flood sets out 5 . a flood] will seize ail the peoples together 4 . .

your kin.g[a]) [i-zak\-kar ana é-a be-iï-[su] [ma-t]i-ma-a ^eleppa ul e-pu-us X [ x ] [ina qaq]~qa-ri e-sir û-\jur-tii] [û-sur]-tu lu-mur-ma **eleppa [lu-pu-uQ [«yj-V ma qaq-qa-ri e-[&r û-sur-tu] [ X X ( X ) b]e-U« taq-ba-W [. . ] . . . . .( 129) DT 42 (W) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 DT 42 (W) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 [ x x x ] x tu-u x [ . [Observe] the appointed time of which I will inform you. what you commanded [ . .[ka] f^eleppa] e-ru-um-ma bâb **eleppi tir~[ra] [su-liana]lib-M~sduttat(se. caulk the [boat]. [ X X X ] X ki-ma kip-pa-ti [.sim) me-er-['i-sun] g 10 [a-sapj-pa-rak-kum-ma i-na-as-sa-ru bâb-k[a] 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 [ at-r]a-ha-si$pa-a-hb ipu$(du)-ma £gaife*(dug . your property. [Send up into] i t your barley. 1 2 3 4 5 [6 ij 9 * * * * * 835 113 K . ' I have never built a boat. [. . ] . ail the wild créatures of the steppe that eat grass. and the skilled workers! [Créatures] of the steppe. Let [the pitch] be strong above and below. [ . . .. ' [ . . . your goods. . . your kith. let i t . [ • • • ] • li^e a circle [. .su)-kaumakkûr(nig. 0 [ I ] w i l l send to you and they will wait at your door/ Atra-hasïs opened his mouth to speak A n d addressed Ea. . . [ . [Your wife]. m 4 é [ . [his] lord.g3.bar)-ka bu$â(nig.] Draw the design on the ground That I may see [the design] and [build] the boat Ea drew [the design] on die ground. Enter [the boat] and close the boat's door. [ku-up-ru] ht da-an e-lis u i[ap-lif} [ X ( X ) ] X tpi-b* *[eleppa] [û-sur] a-dan-na Sa a-lap-pa-rak.)-[ka] [a$sat-k]a ki-mat-ka sa-lat-ka u mari*** um-m[a-ni] [bu-ul\ sêri û-ma-am sërima-la urqëtu(û. ] my lord.

. where the immortal flood hero explains to Gilgames how he escaped death. as happens in Gilgamel xi. J ^ ^ X S S C .H . I t was written on a single tablet. The first five lines contain no simiiar explanation for use of the first person here. not the création of man and Enlil's attempts Z diminish their numbera. The orthography and grammar of the tablet mark i t out as having been written i n the West. b y f T that was announced by Noueavrol in a des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. r X T ! ? Him in : v pèsent. . it covered only the flood itself. Atra-hasïs himself begins to speak in obverse 6. .( I3i ) T H E F L O O D S T O R Y FROM R A S 2 2 SHAMRA Ugaritica v. H 1 J.tory found outtide Mesopotamia so far. Comptes RendJ . Unlike Atr asl. 167 « RS . but what little of the text remains suggests a good Babylonian work of literature. and it sounds as though he is going to tell the story. 4 3 I THIS small fragment. and it dates from about the fourteenth century BC . of which the beginning and end only survive. not a Syrian composition.

. . . 15 [ x ] ki? ma i-[. . the gods life [. . . .. [. ] 5 . [. hear [. 9 i-de mil-kd i A ïa ilâni * me ra-ab-bu-ti n 10 i-de ma-me-et-Su-nu ù û-ul i-pa-at-tu-û 13 a-na ia-a-si 12 a-ma-te-Su-nu a-na ki-ik-ki-[H] 14 [i]-ga-ru-ma si-m[e. 4 ki-i ilâni™* ba-la-td lu-û [. .. my lord.)] 5 t. . . your wife . Life like the gods [you will] indeed [possess]/ Written by Mudammiq-Nergal Property ( ?) of 1 [ . 4 X X X X i-se[m]-me [(. i-sa-an-[ni] * * • Reverse • • Reverse 1 2 3 4 5 6 [ . . . .Su. though they did not reveal i t to me. 8 [J o I knew the counsel of the great gods. . . . . . 14 " W a l l . 3 [ X ] X-atuk-la-atù X [.na m s d x . .Sâ. .ku?.X X X [ ]-bit-ti é-a ina libbi-f[u] d 6 at-ra-am-ha-si-sum-me a-na-ku. ] . . . ] . . 4 . hears [. . . . . .[••••]•• i n his heart... . nè. . 2 [x X ( X ) ] X-tacûlsat-ka X [. 5 6 Su sig .iri . 12 He repeated their words to the wall.I 3 2 T H E FLOOD STORY FROM R A S S H A M R A ($) *33 Obverse i V-nu-mailânu * im-ta$-ku mil-kd i-na a-bu-ba is-ku-nu i-na ki-ib-ra-ti m< 2 3 Obverse mâtâti mtAti 1 When the gods took counsel i n the lands 3 And brought about a flood in the régions of the world.[ma] 7 i-na Ht é-a bëli-ia a$-ba. . 10 I knew of their oath. 7 I lived in the temple of Ea.gal X ( X ) an. help and . [ . ] X ilâni™?*] ba-l[a-fd . . .. .[ku] 8 û-X-X-ma i-X [x] m d 6 ' I am Atra-hasïs. ] . [.

He calls himself a contemporary of Alexander the Great. reports on the authority of the Chaldean writings as follows: After the death of Ardâtes his son Xisuthros ruled for eighteen sars and in his time a great flood occurred. which. especially i n his Chronicles.. incredibly few people read the book. Babyloniaka. but since he seems to dépend on Polyhistor and is quoted in turn by Eusebius (his work is no longer extant) the limits between which he must be put are fixed. also quotes the sentence about use of the pitch (not wood !) as amulets. Josephus. and Xisuthros. it throws doubt on the integrity of the whole tradition. can be read both in P. i n his Chronicles and i n his Praeparatio Evangelica. who quoted Berossus extensively. The flood came i n the second book of Berossus Babyloniaka after the ten kings and the related sages. i. Despite the considérable interest i n that kind of material i n the Hellenistic world. Fortunately there is no simiiar objection to any major part of the story of the flood. The Greek text of Berossus. w i t h its vast antiquity. This raises the question of whether Eusebius quotes Polyhistor i n full. Ziusudra. T h e relevant section is quoted by Eusebius twice. His date is uncertain. When the flood had occurred and as soon as it had subsided. Schnabel. 9 y B R SU. The last two of the kings are given as Otiartes (or Ardâtes). to the Greeks. According to the former the second group of birds returned to the ark i n a muddy condition. 6.e. came back to the vessel. especially if one allows that Josephus literary helpers may have touched up Berossus style. finding no food or place to rest. which survives i n an Armenian translation. and i t is now lost. to embark with his kinsfolk and close friends. with a German version of excerpts from the Armenian. a more serious problem is raised i n the account of création where Eusebius. Berossus und die babylonischhellenistische Literatur. Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker (FGH) 111 C. was dedicated to Antiochus I . Cory. a corruption of Ubâr-Tutu. but the latter asserts that wood served this purpose. Another writer who gives a briefer account of the flood ultimately derived from Berossus is Abydenus. T o the gods. Abydenus records that the first group of birds were let out three days after the rain stopped. 1.* He d i d not disobey. At whatever stage in the line of transmission this conflation took place. or is using a digest. professing to quote Polyhistor. 364 ff.c. T h e former states that pitch from the remains of the ark i n Armenia was used for amulets.( 134) BEROSSUS i 3 S BEROSSUS who. There are différences between Polyhistor and Abydenus. but got a boat built. However. and after building a boat. a Greek of the first century B. the one undoubtedly Berossus. and there is a considérable amount of verbal agreement between his and Eusebius' version. They are said to have reigned in Larak. settled on the island of Cos and opened a school. After a few days Xisuthros again let out the birds. the city of the Sun(-god). I f i t is accepted that Abydenus depended on Polyhistor (the évidence is plausible). The only English translation of at least the major fragments is that of I . When . No simiiar time period is given by Polyhistor as we know his version. He was to stow food and drink and put both birds and animais on board and then sail away when he had got everything ready. Détails will be given i n the first-named author's forthcoming Babylonian Création Myths. he was to reply. and they again returned to the ship. who reigned either as co-regent or as sole monarch from 292 to 261 B . to pray for blessings on men. the other a combination of Babylonian and Hebrew éléments. and in F. of which this account is on record: Kronos appeared to him i n the course of a dream and said that on the fifteenth day of the month Daisios mankind would be destroyed by a flood. With such a devious tradition one must ask how reliable it is. then obviously the excerpts from Polyhistor are to be preferred. but i t was i n t u r n quoted by Eusebius. going still further down from the ninth king Ardâtes as far as the tenth. AC R I G T P LHT R E OS S CO D N O OY I O S The same Alexander. Xisuthros let out some of the birds. Ancient Fragments (best édition. E OS S flated version made up of two separate accounts. For the flood (and most other things) we have to dépend on Alexander Polyhistor. and when everything was properly arranged he sent his wife and children and closest friends on board. pp. This work too is lost. Jacoby. 1832). middles. but since the latter died young Berossus outlived him and his work i n Greek. but the third group according to the latter. this time with their feet covered in mud. However. and ends of ail writings in Sippar. I f asked where he was sailing. five stades long and two stades wide. However. i i i . So he ordered him to dig a hole and to bury the beginnings. P. called by them Xisuthros. . the passage relating to the flood is quoted from Eusebius i n Greek by the Byzantine chronicler Syncellus. gives a con9 9 B R SU was a priest of Babylon. C The purpose of this book was to présent Babylonian history. Antiquities of the Jews. at some time i n his life.

the boat i n Armenia supplied the local inhabitants w i t h wooden amulets as charms. replacing the eariier Eridu. and. after founding many cities and setting up shrines. h e g l v e 8 a Particular month and day for the beginning of the flood. ' 401-2 Berossus départs from ail known cuneiform sources i n only two respects. and journeyed on foot to Babylon A part of the boat which came to rest i n the Gordyaean mountains of Armenia. significance. Jacoby. and Sisithros. • the second month of the year. N o t knowing where to alight. The ten kings are spread over three cities. O n the third day. though this is not used either m Atra-hasïs or GilgameS x i . they once more established Babylon. both completely unimportant places in the first mulemùum. and some people scrape pitch off the boat and use i t as charms. However. so a Sipparian version was employed. 48 obv. they returned to Sisithros. as compared with second millennium examples in favour of Babylon. calling him by nam Xisuthros himself d i d not appear to them any more but thare ZIvoie* out o f t h e air instructing them on the need to worship the Ids seeing that he was going to dwell w i t h the gods because of his S S and that his wife. pp. which is interesting because Berossus' list of the ten kings is plainly altered. Jacoby. pp. and they were l e t £ " ° a r e d . the first Babylon. Sisithros accomplished ail thèse things. the city of the Sun(-god). he let loose birds i n the attempt to ascertain i f they would see land not covered with water. after the rain abated. to whom Kronos revealed that there would be a déluge on the fifteenth day of Daisios. meaning simply 'air L * „ a a b y l o m a n a r f re e T h c a n a Babylonian text which prescribes'the saying 'the beginning of the inscription and the end o f T T h n e n t I o n o f S a r r l ^ ^ t t ^ ^ «*• % l W «" this connection surely implies a local tradition of Sippar. to "escue the writings from Sippar and dissémina* them to m a n k i n d Also L told them that they were i n the country of Armenia They heard this. every available writing. The apotheosis of the flood hero could have been contained i n the damaged ending of Atra-hasïs. as was destined for them. and ordered him to conceal i n Sippar. daughter. u After whom others ruled. and. and thereupon what the god had announced happened. those who S d s ^ y e d b t h e boat disembarked and looked for h i m . I n addition to Berossus and GilgameS x i . and pilot shared m the same honour. the second and third being Badtibîra and Larak. 378-82 BEROSSUS. perhaps cultic. . bemg confronted with a boundless sea. A C C O R D I N G TO ABYDENUS Daisios is a Macedonian month correspondis with the R K .BEROSSUS BEROSSUS i_* t f the third time they failed to return to the boat. 10). Z ï^"V* ginnings. And similarly with others. When he succeeded w i t h a t h i r d group—they returned with muddy feathers—the gods took h i m away from mankind. immediately sailed to Armenia. Evidently there was no version of the flood which set the scène in Babylon. 8eCH^TA ail writings i n Sippar is known from Berossu!. S e t l d them to return to Babylon. and his on some mountain n ^ aitar and sacrificed o r u d h a d a p p e h h a d r u n a g r o u n d a w i t h h i s s e t w i f e ) u p d > !lTk^ When Xisuthros and his party d i d not come back. Thereupon he prized open Xisuthros m f e r ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ portion of the sea ^ his daughter. where under the name Ut-napiistim the flood hero is described as living i n a remote corner of the universe [CT 22. like that in Genesis I f ! " " ^ ° * P " with some other. FHG 111 C.ppar. middles and ends'. FHG m C. I t is not clear if t h k V 7 % cise chronology of the flood. another attestation of this item occurs on the Babylonian Mappa Mundi. So when they came to Babylon they dug u p the writings from S. still remains. sacrificed to the gods.

I t must be stressed. The présent édition follows Kramer's line numbering. then a translation cannot be offered with much assurance. has hardly made any progress i n the last forty years. S . (1944). From the TableU of Sumer 176 C (1956). and served for différent genres of tablets. N . 14 and 17) could belong to the missing part of column i i i . Legends of Babylon and Egypt (Schweich Lectures 1916) 41 ff. 204. which are still valid. The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels 102 ff. see pp. a first destruction of the human race prior to the one recorded in Atra-faons} I n the présent state of knowledge i t would be incautious positively to affirm i t . [photos]). e. a tablet can be dated only by palaeographic. W . mainly from the Nippur school. followed PoebePs publication. 16 and 26) also could well belong to this story. Some of the more doubtful passages have been italicized in the translation. do not fit into the paradigms of standard Sumerian. Unless one can trace a Sumerian model (see. are much more obvious. and ANET 42 ff. and so best represent Sumerian literary thèmes. The original short form of the Sumerian King List may or may not have contained an opening référence to the flood.). Kramer. 1 2 1 L X V. the bottom third. 11. nothing more positive than a similarity of content recommends their attribution to this text. and From the Tablets of Sumer 178. (lise 40 of the longer form of the Sumerian King List) and its variants are in a hymn of Isme-Dagan (1953-1935 BC) and in a text which mentions . the text begins with allusions to the destruction of man. I t was published by Arno Poebel in 1914 (PBS v. C . 10 ff. 90 ff. reproduces foies 145-2*1 of the text. T . The thème of a flood which destroys mankind does not seem to belong to the main body of Sumerian traditions. STVC 87 B (see pp. that generally a literary tablet cannot be dated by a simple comparison of its sign forms w i t h those of tbe administrative texts. Différent calligraphie styles coexisted.. (1924). 68.the storm as a metaphor in the lamentations is also a case apart. i i i . however. So far no duplicates of CBS 10673 have turned up. Sumerian Mythology. 1. AS and by Laessoe. Sumerian Reading Book 130 ff. 64 f. ) C information available at présent. For example. apparently from Nippur. orthographie.g. * A . though i t does not take indented Unes into account. With what is preserved the translation given seems the only one possible.g. although he is at this point newly created. N . When a primeval cosmic storm seems to be referred to (see Van Dijk. and pis. most of which by now offer little except historical interest. YOR v/3 (1922). (194^. some of which were already pointed out by Poebel m PBS xvf 1.. of the complète tablet. Kramer. 1 Pœbel'g hand-copy is reproduced i n S . I n view of the large number of artificial grammatical forms and lexical peculiarities i n CBS 1 0 6 7 3 . Lines 38 and 39 are not quite complète.. The text aroused considérable interest and a certain number of studies. and other internai criteria. (1926). CIVIL THE Sumerian flood story is preserved i n CBS 10673. Was there. i n 202 ùr with ugu renders the phrase bau eU). then. I n any case CBS 10673 is not eariier than Late Old Babylonian. i t was very likely composed at a later date. However. and little could be added to PoebePs conclusions (PBS IV/I. Remarks on parts of the text are given by T . Most of the verbal forms.fig. I n the philological notes. but it certainly included no antediluvian kings.fig. Cuneiform palaeography. Allusions to it are lacking ia the texts which are presumed to go back to older originals.60. Poebel himself gave a complète study of the text i n PBS IV/I. no. linguistic. approximately. A few isolated fragments might belong to the same text: the bilingual G T 4 6 . N .. Duplicates : S . L . Gadd. N o r the storm associated with Inanna {Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta 572ff.). it would be unwise to start building conclusions on the précise wording of still others.X X I X X IL X V Since PoebePs initial publication knowledge of the standard Sumerian literary corpus. The only serious attempt to bring Poebel's work up to date can be found in S. . I n the absence of a colophon. 7-70. for example. 1 Enmesarra 2 . secondarily from that of Ur. Sumerian Literary Texts from Nippur 137. 69). Heidel. Kramer's translation i n ANET 42 ff.. which gives a good idea of the extent of the gaps.. J . Jacobsen.7 ff. Ur-Ninurta (1923-1896 B . références to Poebel and Kramer without further spécification are to PBS iv/1. H . Gressmann (éd. 16 and 26. N . BiOr 13.2. the note on 100) or an Akkadian construction (e. Acta Orientalia 28. respectively. VAS 10. it has quite différent implications and the destruction of the human race is not associated with i t . K i n g . However. the thème of the flood which wiped out ail but a handful of the human race became popular during the Isin dynasty. 37). A . Clay. . 5 (see pp. The oldest datable occurrences of the standard phrase egir a-ma-ru ba-ùr-ra-ta 'after the storm had swept.) or E n l i l (Hoe and Plate Contest 168ff. 58 f. Sumerian Mythology 97 ff. Kramer. i t is sad to say. has increased so much that the grammatical and lexical irregularities of this text. AltorientaUsche Texte zum alten Testament* 198 ff.(138) SUMERIAN FLOOD STORY 139 THE S U M E R I A N F L O O D S T O R Y by M. and the preceding lines are missing. and unpublished texts.* Judging from the .

. . . Animais multiplied everywhere. I want to stop the annihilation of] my créatures. . ] cities in [. . After the lofty crown and the throne of kingship had come down from heaven. [When the . Sippar. Founded [.m u d mi-ni-in-sum 9 4 2-kam-rna-Sè nu-gig-ra bad-tibira mi-ni-in-sum 0 5 3-kam-ma la-ra-ag pa-bfl^(^ur))-sag mi-ni-in-sum 96 4-kam-ma zimbir** §ul-%tu mi-ni-in-sum 97 5-kam-ma Suruppak %ùd -ra mi-ni-in-sum 98 uru-bi-e-ne mu-bi ba-an-sa -a KAB-dug -ga ba-hai-hal-la 99 a-gi la-ba-an-fei-àra i m ba-aHa a im-ma. (g»p) ] * m [• r [X x] x ri-g[t]ga-bt-iii--in-[.ba 49 nig-ge ki-ta ki-ta mu-Iu-Iu 50 mâ§-an§e nig-ûr-4 edin-na me-te-a-aS bWb-gâl 4 4 d 4 16 (ii) 84 I M 85 86 87 88 r 1 («) 3 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 I want to consider their pfainstaking efforts]. . . rest on holy places. EnhV(and) Ninhursag f+*M± Had created the black-headed people.lû-u XGiSGAL)-mu ha-lam-ma-bi a ga-ba-n[i. Let ail their cities be built. ditches. The land w i l l be irrigated. he gave to Sud.an -tu m 100 id-tur-tur-rc su-Iuh-bi gar hur-hur mi-ni-ib-gar-gar 7 r z d d ki 4 4 4 100 He established the cleaning of the small csnals and the irrigation (g*P) . ] . I perfected the divine rules and the lofty me.d i m . the quadrupeds. He d i d not stop the (yearly) flood. he gave to the 'nugig'. let him d [ig] a solid foundation. Let a i l . . The pure water which quenches the fire I will put conveniently there. I want their shade to be restful. ] of kingship had come down from heaven. .. he gave to the hero Utu. Badtibira. Eridu. [. ^ « ^ ^ p ^ ^ • nù-ni-ib-Su-du 01 [ X X X j-ga u [ r u . . ] . The fifth. were placed as a fitting ornament of the plains (gap) 4 0 un ki-ùr-bi-ta ga-ba-ni-ib-gur-ru-nc 41 uru^-me-a-bi hé-im-mi-in-dù gissu-bi n i ga-ba-ab-dûb-bu 42 uru ?-me-a sig -bi ki-kù-ga hé-im-mi-in-àub 43 ki?-e§-me-a ki-kù-ga hé-im-mi-ni-ib-ri 4 4 kù ?-a nig-izi-te-na si mi-ni-in-si-sâ 45 garza me-mah Su mi-ni-ib-Su-du? 46 ki a im-ma-*b-dug silim ga-mu-ni-in-gar 47 an ^en-lfl ^en-tri nin-^ur>sag-gâ-ke 48 sag-gi|-ga mu-un-dfm-eâ-a. [. apportioned the capitals. apportioned the capitals. . ] bricklayer of the country. The fourth. ] [du-I]um-bi ^ ga-ba-ni-ib-dug-dfug-x] X §idim-kalam-ma-ke us-gi Tia^-ba-ab-ba-[al] [ u ( X ) j X ^nam-lugal-la an-ta e -d[è]-a-ba 1 4 4 r u u 5 89 men^mah ^g[u-*]a-nam-lugal-la an-ta e -a-ba r 9° { • ' . he gave to Pabilsag. . I want there to be peace. . (but) dug the ground (and) brought the water. . Animais of ail sizes. I want the people to come back to their dwelling grounds. .SUMERIAN FLOOD STORY SUMERIAN FLOOD STORY (0 37 t ] ™-t*-g[* • • •] 38 nMn. He gave the names to thèse cities. Gave them their names. For Nintu.' After A n . . « 2jL . Larag. Suruppak. The first of thèse cities.b]a-an-da-éub 9 2 mu-bi ba-an-sa^ KAB^-dug^gfa ba-hai~fa]aHa 9 3 (ni)sag -uni4tt-e*ne eridu mâ§-sag n u .] the destruction of my human race. The second. ] 39 nin-tu-ra nfg-dim-di'm-ma-mu sl-[ ] ga-ba-ni-ib-gi -g f x d 4 (i) 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 ' I want to [. Let the bricks of aU cities be laid on holy places. The third. . ] perfected [ . he gave to the leader Nudimmud.

.g i j 143 an den-Ml «ten-ki nin-hur-sag-gâ-[keJ 144 dingir-an-ki-ke mu-an. her] creaftures? . . .. .] 4 4 5 4 x r 1 4 r n 159 inim-dug -ga an <*en-|lfl «toin-hur-sag-gâ-kej 160 nam-lugal-bi bal-bi x [ 1 161 e-ne -sè [ .[ m u hé-dab] na-de -ga-mu gizz[al hé-im-si-ak] DAG?-me-a a-ma-ru ugu-KAB-d [ug -ga .n a mu x r 1 r 1 [ . He stood at the left of the side-wall[. The final sentence. the gods. . T h e destruction of the descent of mankind [. 146 He made . the king Ziusudra. ] . [hold on] my word. . . . .bi i-su -ge-e§ a-ma-ru ugu-KAB-dug4-ga ba-an-da-ab-ùr-e m «4-7-àm gi -7-àm 201 202 203 AU the destructive winds (and) gales were présent. . . had [taken an oath by] the names of An and Enlil. . .] Holy Inanna we[pt] because of the people. . /. . . . numun-nam-lû-u ha-lam-e X [ ] di-tikla inim pu-ûh-ru. . . . After the storm had swept the country for seven oay nights 202 8 8 204 a-ma-ru kalam-ma ba-ùr-ra-ta . ] 148 u -§û-uâ-e sag-tis gub-ba [ ] 149 ma-mû nu-me-a è-dè inim-ba[l ] 150 mu-an-ki-bi-ta pà-pà-dè [ ] f 1 4 d d 4 4 4 d 4 d r n 4 4 4 r 1 140 141 142 143 Then N i n [ t u . Now [. . ] . the anointed [. ] Every day he stood constantly présent at [ . ] 146 an-sag-NiGiN mu-un-dim-dfm en [ ] 147 nam-du -na inim-si-si-ge nf-te-gâ [. . Enki (and) Ninhursag. . [Pay attenjtion to my instructions: O n ail dwellings (?). ] . ] 'Side-wall. . . the word of the assembly [ . ] . . .12 4 r SUMERIAN FLOOD STORY SUMERIAN FLOOD (m) STORY (iii) n 135 ki-tuS? an-na X [ 13 6 e ] H 3 'J 137 a-ma-ru [ J 138 (traces) 139 ^rg-gin^ bf-in-ak [ ] 140 u -bi-a nin-t[u X X ] D i M a [.[um % . . ] Conjured by heaven and underworld [ .X . ] Ziusudra hea[rd]. I t was not a dream. over the capitals the storm will [sweep]. . . . . Enki bethought himself (of the situation even though) A n . coming out and speajking . . . [ . 144 The gods of the universe. . a wall [ . . . I want to talk to you. . .i [ n . 145 A t that time. ] ba-ù[r . . ] (gap) (v) 9 4 | 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 r 1 (iv) 8 ki? -ùr-8è dingir-re-e-ne e-ga[r . ] 147 148 149 150 W i t h humility (and) well chosen words. . standing by its side.] (gap) 201 im-hul-im-hul im-si-si-ig dù-a-bi téS.[un-tuk] iz-zi-da â-gùb-bu mu-gub ba-[ ] iz-zi-da inim ga-ra-ab-dug i n i m .g i . . 162 x .[ p à ] 145 u -ba zi-u -sud-râ lugal-àm g u d u X [ . .en-lil m u . . in révérence [.n i . ] (iv) 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 I n the ki-ur (?). .inanna-ke un-K~5è a-nir mu-[un-gâ-gâ] 142 ^en-ki §à-ni-te-na-ke ad i . . ] zi-u -sud-ra da-bé gub-ba gi§ mu. . . ] 141 kù. T h e storm swept over the capitals. . . ] r 1 160 The overthrowing of the kingship [. . . . . ] T h e word spoken by A n and En [lil and Ninhursag]. . Enlil. .

. (end broken) L .utu-âè K ki-su-ub ba-gub A 211 lugal-e gud im-ma-ab-gaz-e udu im-ma-ab-sâr-re 212 [ X X ] X si-gal [. like a god 258 At that time.x .X "'-ba r 1 r 1 r ** i t r r 807 Ziusudra made an opening in the huge boat £? . be conjured by heaven and underworld. . . 252 A n (and) Enlil. ". 2 0 8 d t h e S n h i t s 214 [ ] 215 216 217 [ f. in the orient. . f ] bf-in-si Yx tab-ba 1 Ja^x (g P) a 1 (vi) 251 252 253 254 255 255a 256 257 258 259 260 261 zi-an-na zi-ki-a 1-pà-dè-en-zé-en za-zu-da hé-im-da-lâ an den-lil zi-an-na zi-ki-a i-pà-dè-zé-en za-da-ne-ne im-da-lâ nig-ge ki-^a e . ] X mu-un-na. .en-lfl-lâ-sè K ki-su-ub ba-gub A an den-lil zi-u -sud-râ S L x [. k ~ « ï4S 210 igi. ^ "¥» «tered the huge beat 209 The king Ziusudra 210 Prostrated himself before the Sun-god 211 The king slaughtered a large number of butta and sheep (gap) s c a . ... .144 SUMERIAN ga 4 4 FLOOD 4 STORY SUMERIAN PLOQD STOKY 4 205 206 207 208 209 mi-gur -gur a-gal-la im-hul tuk -tuk -a-ta utu i-im-ma-ra-è an-ki-a u gâ-gâ zi-u -sud-ra mâ-gur -gur ab -BrÎR mu-un-da-buru ù? utu gté-nu (SiR)-ni-da * mà-gur -gur -ôè ba-an-ku -re-en zi-u -sud-râ lugal-àm d 4 4 gl5 4 4 r 1 a d x l8 4 4 4 4 d 205 And the destructive w i n d had rocked th. .] (rest broken) 16 1 u 11 4 d 4 r 1 x x n 4 4 16 x 3 d r 1 (vi) 251 Be conjured by heaven and underworld. • 253 He/they made come up the animais which émerge from the earth.utu-è-§è mu-un-tU-eâ za-e x [ |i. the king Ziusudra 259 Who protected the seed of mankind at the time (?) of destruction. 257 Elevated him to eternal life..] Ae ti dingir-gin mu-un-na-sum-mu zi-da-ri dingir-gin mu-un-ab-e -dè u -ba zi-u -sud-râ lugal-àm mu-nig-ge -ma numun-nam-lû-u uri -ak kur-bal kur-ditmun-na ki. si]kil-la-da 213 [. in Dilmun. . 254 The king Ziusudra 255 Prostrated himself before An (and) Enlil 255a (see note) 256 (Who) gave him life.d è im-ma-ra-e -dè zi-u -sud-râ lugal-àm igi-an. let. 260 They settled in an overseas country.. like a god.

gi ) in a section dealing with the m i n o r gods of E n l i l ' s court. H e appears again i n the same context i n the Old Babylonian forerunner to AN = Aman (TCL 15. v i . Barton. below. v.nviàgî and kur. and this is taken over a n d elaborated i n AN = Anunt 1 as follows : 5 d 4 d MBI4. the traditional orthography.ra (SBH p. 4 0 8 . H e is n o doubt meant i n Surpu vm* 14: *en*m-gi gu. so i t i s fully conceivable that they might do the same without suffixes also. Compte rendu de Vonzième rencontre assyriologique internationale 102 ff.là act as the constabulary o f Ereâkigal i n the Sumerian Descent oflnnin.lâ. 27-8 = p. 10 C f . T h i s can occur w i t h a stative v e r b too. limit verbs. gods of ESumesa'. U n g n a d ' s Babylonisch-Assyrische Grammatik. T w i c e i n Atra-hasïs (1.9 ) . a n d w h o alone c o u l d change.nu. cf. T h e t e r m ' a d v e r b i a l accusative' has n used to describe other kinds of limiting a c h i e v e d b y u s e o f this case.KUD. since i t can be construed w i t h either kïma or . § 19. 2-5 that names htm among ilàm9* U é~[kur] i/5m m e 8 fd é-su-me-Sa^ ('gods of E k u r . I f one says imfias 'he struck'. 5 Récent literature on the A n u n n a k i a n d Igigi i s plentiful : v o n S o d e n . iii. the meaning is so gênerai as to be incompréhensible. one of the two doorkeepers of EieSkigal (CT 25.ra imin.5 .lil.tar. 9 N e i t h e r CAD n o r AHto attempts to define the meaning of guzalû precisely.7-9 and dug. unfortunately dropped from the 4th édition).nu. restored). ZA 32. i n the U r I I I offering list TCL 5. v o n S o d e n . 4 7 ' = AnSt x .nu. as s h o w n i n the example igpuï libba 'he became great as to h i s h e a r t ' (quoted i n a v e r y fine section of the z n d and 3rd éditions of A .là nin. i i i . W h i l e thèse two examples of this meaning of gallû seem to be the only ones. so as to identify t h e m . 37. A U the occurrences are descriptive phrases. A completely dînèrent god appears i n AN = Anum v . any more than the L o r d Chamberlain in twentieth -century Britain supervises the monarch's bedroom. d 4 d d 4 status quo. 14 = SEM 77.i f already i n the O l d Babylonian period.za. 57 rev.nam. and it is not clear to which of thèse two the title belongs. as i n Enûma Elis* v i . m .za. 8 1 mtA méè nisaba 87. I T h e gods of the destinies are those w h o fixed. Falkenstein and B . 6 6 ) . cf. 6 d§ §û. 7) àa-nun-na. 36.ba. ( T h e similarity of en. Indeed. 23. where kïma i s u s e d pleon asti cal ly like ina i n ina balûm i n the Code of Hammurabi.lâ. i i . K 5148: 'to Ennugi. T h e accusative sibittam i s unexpected b u t p e r h a p s explicable.ir = dub. see note).lâ dM.2a.7 . T h i s line under discussion. 2 2 3 . even though the text only alludes to t h e i r n u m b e r rather than their full title.10.ra imin. 127. contains the onîy example i n t h e O l d Babylonian copies oîAa-nun-na-ku. p. has collected the examples of s u c h phrases as damqam ïni. T h e opinion of K i e n a s t .i f as early as the O l d B a b ylonian period has been denied b y v o n Soden (ZA 4 1 . as in k -ma ïa-ar-ra-qi-tu ( n . I n KAR 142. T h e occurrence of comparative . b u t i t i s not clear w h y ewû was disregarded.uru = 11 -0 1 . Kienast i n AS 16. whether expressed or not. but is explained in a group w i t h two other ci vie officiais : 18 19 li. and 141 ff. gallâ here is certainly not 'démon'. an etymological god list.âê § B M A d en.ru. 12-15 den-nu-giA-gii is given as the last of the seven doorkeepers of Ereskigal. ilâni &mâtï sibitti-M-nu Enûma Elit vi.sî = ab. cf.ke CT 24. b u t they need cause n o difficulty as . iv.49 rev. gi4 .lil. [nu]. son of ErihT). u . pl. 324). 2 3 2 . b u t the context i s unhelpful. dim.na. i i .gi dumu. 2 3 2 . 34.u m a n d .(146) P H I L O L O G I C A L TABLET I a-wi-lum has the locative -«m with the meaning of the comparative -if. i i . 34 gu. the 219.ne Bnhl and Ninlil. b u t imfeas awïlam 'he struck the m a n ' so limits the action o f the v e r b b y the addition o f the accusative that meaning results. 3 explains d en-nu-gi as bel ersetsm**** bel la ta-[a~ri\. i i i . 127 ff. 116). A i l le.ma. F r o m line 49 below and the related J it may be suspected that as conceived b y the author of Atra-faasïs the guzalû supervised the forced labour. however.i f interchange freely before suffixes.lil. U ET v\j 2 . xxix.gî d d 8 d r 1 r 1 4 d 4 d . 137.bi. 5. that the two terms are m o s t l y synonymous. 135.ke en.le en.gî ilâni H-ma-a-ti si-bit-ti-Hû-nu SBH p.tar. T h e r e is certainly no proof that the officiai who no doubt originally carried his lord's chair still performed this menial duty i n the Old Babylonian period. since with the name one must understand '(the man) abounding i n wisdom*. which also means both 's démon' and ' a n officiai'.ne. and i n the myth Nergal and EreSkigal he appears i n charge of the seventh gâte leading to the shades ( «n-im-g[i -^»J t STT 28.lâ. A s i m i l a r l y ' m o d e m ' orthography i n the opening lines is the sign qa in 11 below. v i . Zimmem. . w h i c h are remarkable both for the ending on what would normally be in the construct state and for the regularity with which the ending seems to be an accusative.gi dam.) T h e S e v e n great A n u n n a k i are certainly those A referred to as gods of the destinies i n the following three passages : dingir. i s written. A . dup.mt. SBP 164. it m a y be noted that the démons called gal . since both can bear it. respectively . Perhaps here too we are to understand the accusatives as limiting a noun.6053 i i (1 udu en. it seems. 219.gi . 6-^7) the author has juxtaposed the two terms. 4 . 33. T h e accusative l i m i t s the group H i s connection w i t h E n l i l is further confirmed by the litany that names en. 140 ff. we accept for the O l d Babylonian period generally (though n o t n e a r l y so m u c h as he for the later periods).ne. ( E l s e w h e r e t h e O l d B a b y l o n i a n copies write this syllable w i t h the G sign. 2 8 . T h e r e is a mass of évidence showing that single and reduplicated roots freely interchange i n Sumerian. 19. Iraq 28.me. en.er.nu. Elsewhere (1. thus i f the gods h a d to toil i t w a s certainly this group that had so otdained. 111. however. seen also i n the name watram-fyasis.bi gu. V o n Soden in JNES ff. e n . 13 9 6 H 7 Erimbuï vr in 20 gaï-lu-u gu-za-lu-u si-i-ib a-li A semantic paraliel is offered b y maskim == râbisu. T h e function o f this case i n Akkadian i s always l i m i t i n g . 1 2 8 . b u t here sibittam limita t h e n o u n anunnakku.ne mci N O T E S I down to seven particular ones. and b y the exorcistic text ABRT 1. 92. 3 0 . Thèse are the first examples to be i noted of comparative -um. Ennugi is first mentioned.3 . W i t h o u t ttam it would mean ail the great gods generally. 2 0 .nam. so that by name alone one cannot distinguish between the ' Chamberlain of E n l i l ' and the keeper of the seventh gâte i n the u n d e r w o r l d . CT 25.

is : d 1* 4 PHILOLOGICAL NOTES I 10-66. cf. 9 3 . i t is curious that Surpu TV. and must therefore have had some at least of the same characteristics. S i ï49 ^eg . seems to be a hapax legomenon. 13 (i-sa\-qa\-ra\-am\ collated) and rev. i . 12. 145 obv. 63 I n O l d Babylonian literature generally the root is saqâru.na. . 60 T h e most obvious dérivation of i ni-ti-H-a. 4 2 . and the évidence from Atra-hasïs can be used in favour of the other alternative. Confirmation and explanation o f this fact b e c o m e s apparent when it is noted that **#iè»-$-fei has not yet been found i n a n y S u m e r i a n o r Akkadian text from the O l d Babylonian period. S i 7 C f . w h i c h i s quite in appropriate for an orficer i n a divine assembly.ke (CT 2 4 . 127.gim«jne a. w h i c h fits the context very well. ZA 41. T h i s does not of course prove that sqr is right for the reign of Ammi-çaduqa and S i p p a r . Gilg. 33) and with nu. w i t h one exception. a variant gives sipa en.kù. 44» 4 6 . AnBib x n / . vïL 3 9 a n d n i . a verb.riji and é. i-di-ig-lat nota in J RAS 1927. offers gti-gal-la-sû-nu. cf.rab. 29 ff. 4 2 ) b e l o w line 250. XI. a n d h e appears i n a simiiar context i n RA 41. d themselves o n kù i n nam. 11—12. *m$-H~ku i n tXAR 3 8 ( d u p . I t o n l y o c c u r s i n later sources a n d i n later Akkadian copies. ni. 32. 22). L 6. E n n u g i i s not one o f them. and i n view of this évidence.536. iii.nu. T h i s proves that t h e title of E s cornmoniy read 'hûn-igi-kù s h o u l d in fact be read ra«-ft-&i. 2 .k n o w n title o f E a . 1 d 6 4 . 113 (aod dup. 9 . T h i s is plausible since in Sumerian religious texts n u n i s a c o m m o n epithet of E n k i . ( C T 24.rab. but a better case cannot be made for xkr. 7) and purantum in the Mari letters (ARM xv. every possibility of a verb sasu meaning 'to disturb'. 12 i n a late syncretistic text. on the other h a n d . 17 W i t h Jfa-me-e-ïa cf.gi. a n d i n unilingual form only i n AN — Anum 1. Borger's correction o f KAR 360 to iâpu-ra-dt( ?)-** (Asarhaddon.gu. Jacobsen. though S i n is equated w i t h E n n u g i i n RA 1 6 .6 I n MSL n . M o s t likely i t i s a scribal e r r o r influenced b y the pieceding line. 1 9 ) . Landsberger translates both '(Eier) legen\ b u t i n the note ad l o c . 21. ZA 46. 42 i s taken for lisassik.AG the temple o f E n n u g i (é den-mi-gi: PSBA a a . 91) is unnecessary. 6 both explain i t as dé-a la ni-me-qt\ n o d o u b t basing XII. so one cannot tell i f the e n d i n g i s -&z(m) or -is~a(m)t b u t i t is certainly équivalent to ana. a n d i s another writing of niBïku. ZA 41. from nasâku. nilBku. where the contexts clearly c o m p e l a dérivation from Sasû. A n objection could be raised from the statement in S.gi. im-ta-qut ap-si-sa (MIO 5 4 .) i s quite inconclusive.). acc. 226-31.ra. 23. BiOr x x m . S i n c e the S u m e r i a n is buranun.7 . {àpu-ra-na-ti (KAR 360.1 0 ) . T h e proposai to connect it with ensi = iisakku (Zimmem. 4 8 . Rit.A y a probably worked. 16 and 2 8 . 24 T h e E u p h r a t e s is referred to as na-pis-ti ma-a-ti in JNES 15. BSGW 68/1. 256 obv. 18 instead o f gallû. 182. ntsBkji. E d z a r d . therefore. and the scribes who wrote derivatives of the root tobl w i t h the radicals bbl obviously did not know this rule. 19: 13. i f correctJy restored here. T h e view provisionally adopted here i s that the verb i s sasu. qa-ti-sa = qâtissa. A mere curiosity is that i n AN = Anum m . etc.tul gub] en. K 43744-8377. 15 T h e restoration i s from X rev. Gilg. 138-9) can be discounted on formai and semantic grounds. 5. where they are expressly called the seven sons of Enmesarra. . T h e placing of a kind of determinative as description after a name is not usual. T h e meaning and etymology of miliku are not définitely known. v i . 134. 173-81). p.' I n Akkadian there is hahû.ket (UET 1. 103 n a m e s den-nu-gi bel iki(é) u palgi (pas). also passages quoted by Sonnek.ès — nefakkum (see von Soden. 49. w h e r e the O l d Babylonian copy offers m J and m e L a t e A s s y r i a n ]-si-foi. to quo te two obvious exceptions. An Introduction to the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages. 22. 13).girn . 61 tùsi-a is taken for ti-si-ma a n d Hsi-i-ma t Juta. 7 4 : ' I n n o S e m i t i c language can two identical consonants . w h e r e K u . A possibility is that rtisHku îs another form of nasiku 'chieftain i n L a t e A s s y r i a n . d 4 d 4 is-sab-tu-ma qa-tu qa-tu-us-su-un.zu.( x )]. appear next to e a c h other i n first a n d second position. i . 25 C f .zu == nêmequ.AG. Perhaps that line or something simiiar elsewhere contributed to the corruption i n Gilg. with von Soden. 47. i v . where *ga-a-a~ii sipa en.D a n g i n .kù. from nas% 'let us carry'. 131).mar. 86. 240 below) ArOr 17/2. cites only na-du-u [id\ issûri (without Sumerian équivalent) . the same as appears i n Gilg. v . not xakâru. There is. C a m p b e l l Thompson's citation of the Syriac Samces* 'turbavir* (ad loc. and doubtful i f thèse two can be identified. ZA 55. H e is also named as one o f the ' E n h l s ' o n a brick inscription from U r : [é. w i t h von Soden. K 8863) rev. In Atra-hasïs i t occurs ( i n addition to II. I t i s certain therefore that the Chamberlain of E n l i l m u s t be distinguished from the other t w o E n n u g i s . li-ïa-si-ik (cf. n LiteraHy: 'they took h a n d i n its hand*.ke *im-nu-gi iâ-kin eq-îi $ 4 4 T h i s list occurs also i n RA 16. p .9 the same Sumerian word (restored as ku-u xu) is explained b y na-du-u^ and na-ka-a-btm. 1 4 5 obv.ga [ki. M o s c a t i . 2 8 . Thèse groups o f seven are ail somewhat demonic in character and are usuaily represented as divine malefactors. gives so poor a sensé that it can hardly be right. However.ke i s mentioned. b u t h can hardly be separated from the w e l l . 3 6 6 . b u t i s identified w i t h one. JNES 16. vffi* 17) written m-{is)~sî-i-kufki. who quotes ù-nt from O l d Babylonian letters. a n d i t i s rare for such consonants to be found as first a n d t h i r d radicals. 52. w h e r e rhe m y t h o l o g y i s also discussed in the note. 3 ff. 166 . I t is u n certain w h i c h E n n u g i i s m e a n t i n the temple list that calls both é. I n addition to passages cited b y v o n Soden. Thèse are the only tHD cases k n o w n to the writers.7. 4. o c c u r s i n O l d B a b y l o n i a n Akkadian literary texts.5 . 159 ff. T h i s occurs most cnfimwsily i n Agusaya (VAS 214 = Z i m m e r n .) and CT 25. BSGW 6 8 / 1 .could hardly be missed !) Y e t a third E n n u g i figure c a n be identified.rwjm. where sà-sâ-ku i s u s e d b y GilgameS to describe himself on awaking from a frightening d r e a m . T h e Cassite-period god lists CT 24. V * Z. a n d sà-sâ-ât to describe the dream. T h e third of seven gods listed i n T h u r e a u .nu. 168 note ùm*qa-ra~an (BWL i$6.sà. »*à-qàra-am-ma (AfO 13. p. 362. also found i n Biblical and later Hebrew and in the Aramaic Ahiqar 119 (see the lexica) as nâsîk. 139 rï. and i n some Akkadian texts E s is referred e 1 to as ea ïarru.. 4 8 . 4 ) . T h u s it appears that Amn^kù is a spurious Sumerianization o f a p r o b a b l y S e m i t i c fùffïhu invented s a the Cassite period. Thèse forma could be either from ïâhi or from $a$û. 11 and 14. RA 15. 5 8 . 16 naSfiku. and dadànuy a n o u n .

p. with the first person verb. and alto in the two other Old Babylonian tablets of Atra~liasfs in which the name Nusku occurs.kul Sn .] d d d 104 One might restore fa*[fam uï]-ki-nu 'they bowed down to him'. pâlu ïpuïamma . 'rnidnight'. 13 (restored) ù-ra-su di-ma-ta 'they made tears flow'. see BWL 310 note on 288. is just playing with wordt. K / U) 81. which use is^sà-qat-am. t 1 I 64-179 the Assyrian recension. 7 (and dupt. A further exemple is KAR 88 fragment 5 rev.kur. The real problem is the meaning of bùnu* In 4 1 178-9 The reconstruction of the text is in some doubt. since 'romain behind' (wben others have patted on) is something quite différent from 'remain behind' in the sente of following closely. 3. but his chariot wat held back'. a part of the person is expressed at the subject. xo8 The remains of L are consistent with a restoration ia ni*su*4~ti4a: *(Am I to make war) out of my own ktth and kin V 109 Note how.c. Also the unpubliahed Old Babylonian god list from Nippur ( D m vu ?) ofTers both ^PA+Ttto and DPA-r-xju with the glosa nu-th-ka (courtety T . the earliett exempte : ia i^ma-gar^ra-hi bit i-mit-titerribèlùM la im-mer» ku-ma nm-gar-ra-hi uh-tiMa (BBSt p. 24 and 26. 4 also shows knowledge of this writing. Sjôberg. 7 : . etc. The etymological god list CT 25. SGL u . 17.PHIL0L0GICAL N 0 T K 8 i$o and the pair na-du-u m/~Av/-l// (with équivalent.gol. apparently restored. The same occura in Ludlul m m : muutwtu am-ma-Hdab-bu-ut-tum ap~paHr (BWL 54). MtN éa-an-qn ni. but there seems not enough room forfa-[pa-al~$uuï\~kùm 'they bowed beneath him'. 51 rev.g. I f this is a I / i perfect. see the literature cited by A. 85-6 The grammar of 3$'' . 34. 6 produces a very plausible Une. 138. 85. v. ai. not M + T $ o ta most commonly. . • however. a-kil fè-e-mi (ugula umul). e.. why does it not une issaqram ? This question i t reinforced by those texts.ni is a sandhi-writing for bahis' atmâni. 3 with note. 113-15 Since siqru ia often an explanatory speech. 42a: bit qabli u ta-ma+tûIta^amtu. and in addition Ebeling. the évidence cited does not prove this meaning for nadû atiociated with nakâfu and in the context of Atra-lutsis we have nadû followed by ittakht.) 'whose chariot was not présent at the right hand of the king. though in C T 15. % 9 149. xt6 128. where erim it equated with tâmtim (Tiamat). where it must be either 0 preterite or perfect. bunu occurs alto with ma meaning 'son' (see the note ad loc). 100 Elsewhere abâku it an a/u class verb.e. the watch referred to must be the mafsartunt qablitum* 74 Kalkal ia the door-keeper of Ekur. A ia 1. and STC 11.du . ditcutsed by Goetse in AnOr xxi.gt ni. i. This. Jacobsen). to and 11 a preterite ibbuk occurs. since il expiai m DPA+TT)o: ft-'-li ( P A + L U ) . is-sà-aq-qd-ctr. now rends : d 98. including Old • ytonian ones. the liberty has been taken of translating i t reason'. 26 f. 173 This tam-ta is the tame at thtt in YBT 35. 1 2 T h e tentative restoration from mmerkû is based on the view that many of the 0 passages are as well suited with 'be présent' at with the usuel 'rematn behind*. U L : DM I A-S J O t 93. like the Hebrew rûs 'run'. 95 binû bùnûka has the ring of a proverbial taying.ra 0 H Another example is CT 46. Kol. Penn. 'whose chariot did not remain behind the right of the king'. 1.[<n* l-i?u| /1 é-kur Comoly Kalkal. 9a construct the form ts a IV/1 prêtent in an ingrestive tente. pA-f-LU is found elsewhere in Old Babylonian tablets: STVC 37 (see Van Dijk. 32. pl. mu-!â*pu-û [. though mis involves a play on words. it not possible without further explanation in the Pennsylvania and Yale stt of Gilg. alto the preterite ubi»ih in x rev. say. it is written P A + L U . 13*14. and since 176-7 do correspond with O B» 3-4. the common meaning of muli). v. 4 ( Late Assyrian).ami here a rendering 'your sons are sons hardly gives sente. No other known meaning of bûnu or bunnu is more certain for this passage. which. though . 24: kal-hal dan*dan-mi (iï-f. 185 fT. with the other duplicates given by Langdon in Babylonian Liturgies. BM 374*5* While the existence ni mulù May eggs' is not in question (tho Latin /tofto could be comparée!). « i-pu!a-am-ma . By the normal forme of verbt there i t no solution to this problem. which sharea the petuliarity of the doubled t found here and i n the tame form i n u.. . which must have roughly the same meaning. Thit it the 'whole and part' construction. .g. which write a doubled middle radical. which supplies the middle» of the Unes in our text. Kienast accordingly in ZA 54. really belongs to thit recension rather than to. but if the phrase is proverbial one need not be over concemed : proverbe often dépend on cttehing a sensé not full y expressed in the words but suggested by the context in which it it used. and K 5148 obv. 132. bis lord.u ta-nu-eli ^H tO ni-rib x [» where the etymology implied in dandannu need not be taken too seriously. I n this and tr cases in this epic one might easily explain issaqar as I / i perfect following . and the verb of which it b the object it presumably lost at the end of 115. 70-2 i. Further évidence cornes from the commentary on Enûma Mis* vu. . the preterite with ~wa as in normal Old Babylonian séquence of tenses. The obvious conclusion is thtt nakd9u means 'put . 1 (pa [ UL ]. Stiftungen a6. but in rhe Gilg* tablets quoted the tame form fo-jà-çar-am occurs without any preceding verb in the sentence (e. For râsti as a verb of motion. 162 Other examplea of a metaphorical use of dâku are quoted under CAD dâku 1 c. 28 (Late Babylonian) and the prêtent ibbak in U rev. S BP 154. is-tà-qat is not clear. a bilingual duplicité of Langdon. but this line is lacking from the Old Babyloniantest. CT 15. D and F. 1 69 e*«W*fle»sf •tfM . Here Enlil is probably being encouraged to trust thtt hit tons will not be altogether pitiless to their father. 83. it hst been assumed that 178 must be the same ts G & 5. Nanna-Suen 156. sub voci kalkalag. and 36 f. 1 iï~pu-uk. Thtt may suffi ce for the last and simiiar exemples. Cf. as one cannot formaUy prove that N . 3 78 In the tablets of Ku-Aya. that known from G* With $79 the restoration based on N and G ii. The translation of I le idel ( A S ' 77).. 3. ucxiv. x. gti) in CT is. For example. 12. 149) and UET vin. and binu it certainly ton lu view of mârù its the paraliel Une. 33 •» vi.) » ArOr ai. chief door-keeper of Ekur d H kn1. However. 49 rev. 16). iti. 8 v.

4 Restored after Enki andNinmah : nin. See further the first n a m e d author's forthœming Babylonian Création Myths. A t the e n d one m i g h t restore some- PHILOLOGÎCAL NOTES I 178-259.asu. cxxxvu. Gôtterlisten.e\ at least permits it. see v o n S o d e n . T h e strongest argument m favour of this first alternative is that one could expect the god named in 47 above. which occurs among Marduk names i n a late list w h i c h seems to concentra te on the rare and unusual ( C T 25. pi-te-em-mu.in. 2 2 . b u t t h e n o r m a l équivalent of gestu i s kasïsu. . the w r i t i n g of E .e as S u m e r i a n . V obv. S e e further p . 9 a n d V o b v .Ux. 223 O n e m a y read either d Pi-e i-la or d?i-e-i-la. JAOS 83. though there is a litde late évidence for lillû as well as d lullû (KAR 162 rev.rev. while it is too small to c o m m e n d a restoration [ Pi]. 4 : it-mu-û-su £ftor(mùs) w e r e g o i n g (it-mu-su = a-la-a-kui CT 18. 35 obv. ' S o . It is difficult to believe that ' w i t h h i s intelligence' is right. i t i s very doubtful indeed i f balfa ittasu cm be taken together. v i i .' reads peculiarly for an Akkadian text. does not appear to be quite certain» and the paraliel lines i n G i i . 120 fT. 6 obv. . some still cling to overtones s u c h as 'savage* o r ' p r i m i tive'. 1 8 . 215 S i n c e m e first vowel of etemmu i s always e o r s. s i n c e the adjecîive i s mate. S e e f u r t h e r p . i s impossible w i t h the clear initial &*-. What it passed on is the etemmu. 2 3 3 . 1 1 9 . 105. 2 2 . as i n the lexical texts (see K u p p e r . and here the gênerai drift of the narrative is that something spécial was passed on to man from the slain god. The -e w i l l m a r k vowel length a n d i n principle could be omitted. but also in 239 (cf.e îs inexplicable and geltu(g) is not usuaily written w i t h the Pi-sign alone. v i i i . that phonernically t h e stands f o r *e. therefore. I f 180 agreed with G i i . tukku here. whereas n o other object called uppu could b e so described. 1 8 .ni mu. A further objection is the meaning of tèmu i n this portion of the e p i c d r G ii. Akkadische Syllabar1). 9» cf.s o . etc.). F i n k e l s t e i n . 'Saliva'.a n d . V obv. tabsûtu. w i t h E . a n d w a s ' h e a r d ' . 2 2 9 Thèse are extraordmarûy i m p o r t a n t b u t v e r y p e r p i e x i n g l i n e s . d PI 2 1 6 .lu and means ' m a n ' . T h u s balfa c a n o n l y be i n apposition to t h e suffis . I n t h e immédiate context fnr and ih seem unhkeiy. the . P e r h a p s at t h e t i m e of the c o m position o f m i s epic the daily meals of the gods w e r e i n t r o d u c e d i n the sanctum to a bearing a f the d r u m . see H a s t i n g s . S i n c e the fundamental oontrast i n this section is that stated i n 2 1 2 . = PI. 2 w o u l d suggest hdlâ.1 9 ) . and while one might think of gestug. pl. was t h e n w r i t t e n o u t as àsa-al-i-la. 3. there is nothing i m p r o b a b l e i n i t s o c c u r r i n g for v o w e h other than a. T h e identification o f the verb's object ts n o t s o s i m p l e . there i s n o better alternative. S iii 4 153 219 T h e A n u n n a k i w h o détermine the désunies are the Seven mentioned in line 5 above. 1 A full discussion o f sassuru. together they w e n t d o w n / I t also o c c u r s i n the M a r i letters (see ARM xv. Studies Presented to A. See JSS 12. since i n the lists Q i n g u . 4). because i t was unknown to the scribes. Other examples occur i n incantations : mar^sa tuk-ka-ka i-a-at-ia-di e/[?-ta] ( K 7641. requîtes a new value. art. I t ts.thing either from natû 'be sui table' o r the homophone 'strike'. See the note to that Une. 427). A n etymological play on gestu and {ému is not impossible. 213 T h e adverbial d puhur occurs again i n CT à su-û pv-hu-ur ur-du-m-i-im ' I s t a r a n d h e d 214 Although the précise allusion to the d r u m uppu is o b s c u r e . AfO sab-sn-tum (Malku 1. i t is p r e s u m a b l y a W e s t Semitic name. ma famé* id-du-û tuk-ku ( B M 4 5 6 3 7 4 . T h e subject of the v e r b is naturally etemmu after 2 1 5 b a n d 2 2 8 b . I f one does read Pl-e-i4o. 2 4 6 . . A reading li-il-la-a i s e p i graphically improbable. i t i s a s s u m e d here that since the subject of the verb ts etemmu. J . w h o persuaded the others to take direct action against Enlil instead of approaching the vizier. but since 181 does not correspond w i t h G i i . . and it is probably mis that w a s foremost i n the author's m i n d . 1 d 52 5 a complète restoration has not been acbieved. RA 4 5 . 259 T h e ' b r i c k ' is the b r i c k structure on w h i c h a woman lay for her labour. 2 W h i l e it is n o w certain that hdiû îs a loan f r o m the Sumerian lù. A s preserved the epic says nothing about man's intelligence. to be the one here who was made to pay the penalty.4 T h e r e h a s been widespread belief i n a supernstnral power in spitue. 3 3 ) the god i s said to have been killed 'with his (ému1. A Semitic name W ê ( o r Pê ?) a n d indéclinable seems improbable. quite possible that an original d Pl-t-Za. § 9). suggested b y J . And i n 4 7 there is room for a two-sign name. 7 one might restore i t : i-ba-ai-st s[i-ip-ru a-n]a e-pe-si there is work to be doue*. while the noun i s fem. StylisticaUy the former it unlikely. 109-10 seem to have been modelled after this couplet or something simiiar. is also a n a m e o f M a r d u k . G ii . a n d note mu-ïâ-lit-\pï\ ~ d 15. also i n a m y t h : a-na nà tup-sar é-sag-il su-ktm tuk-ka ( A 7882. i s clearly 'lamentation*.ti ' N i n m a h laid h e r h a n d o n rhe clay above rhe Apsû' (TCL 16. For the second alternative one m a y quote the divine name dsa-al-i-îa. g o d a n d m a n . the object i s m a n . and the trace that remains. Léo Oppenk&m 167-80. 239). 4 = 36 obv. Q u i t e possibly the t e r m w a s suggested by a play of words on etemmu and fêmu.abzu. but Atra-hasïs offers no support to s u c h a v i e w . though the considération mat city needs to be moistened for a potter's use may also have been présent. which* however. though it could be argued. w i l l appear i n the hrst-named authors forthcoming Babylonian Création Myths.J v . 243 P a n d u .g and mis S L*Z .e imu4m. 9 ) . the god w h o . T h e sign P has exactiy I the same n u m b e r of wedges as s A. w h i c h i s a false generalization based on E n k i d u . and especially here since so far gods are the only beings in existence. and the first élément will be toe-e.ni. O n l y they h a d the power to authorize so great a change in the constitution of the universe. W h i l e there is no problem i n an adjectxve c o m i n g before i t s n o u n i n p o e t r y . a n d one m u s t therefore adopt the sensé of (ému when it parallels ràmànu (see the passages cited i n BWL 293 on 83).7 Enûma Elil v . namely 'self or 'personaliîy*. see RLA art. S t h i s m u s t r e m a i n doubtful. got corrupted to D A -. 13). since they are other aspects o f the efemrnu. 2.mah. A further considération against reading i-la as the common n o u n i s the difficulty o f finding an acceptable reading for Pi«e. the counterpart of Pt-e(-)f4a in Enûma Elis*. ex S i n c e this sign occurs passim for ica/tvi/tce/tcu i n O l d Babylonian texts generaJry.o n m e verb. 127. R e i n e r . O ) O '. d 193 F o r sabsûtu. V obv. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. T h e importance o f tèmu is shown not only by its mention here. a n d for à i n O l d B a b y l o n i a n literary texts (see von Soden. 5 a ) . 190 T h e reading K-gim-ma-a. T h e d r u m called uppu h a d a c u l t i c u s e . T h a t it occurs among Marduk names is no p r o b l e m . sassuru.2 1 . S i i i . and i n some scripts very little displacement of L wedges converts the one to the other.

47 and Gilg. We are not inclined t o attach too much importance to thèse glosses (cf. Finkelstein. that Ifttar during the marriage rites was called libers. The second time it follows a formula which normally introduce* direct speech to that it appears to be addressed to the elders by Atra-basls. nua . exalted. iv. while the trace cannot be restored to bit emûtim. AIlzv harâlu I ) may be originally a mittake derived from frurrû. Who convenes the great gods. mut confirming what tt prefumed here. vi.410. and BM 34208 rev.9 0 = 11. 44) whleh replaces zunnîsu. However. quite another question whether a 'hand* can be 'scarce*.fortabMûtam. 36-7 : i-na bi-ti-iq a-hn-iw-n(i-fi~$u H-ma-as-sûm. and 'suspend' is found in Akkadian (BWL 3x9 on 22) as well as in the cognate languages. There are other ways of reading the signa. who summont the divine judges. S iii. vi. and the divine name su. The I I stem of ïaqâlu occurs here (and in the paraliel line» 399. daughter of Anu. sv ~ -me-H-na. Outside the epic 'cover' is well attested. but now the context of 11.PHILOLOGICAL NOTES S lis 7-19. mère has been some doubt as to whether the meaning is 'scarce' or 'moderate' (MSL 1. May she convene the great gods. à û 1 1 1 ttu 1 m x 374-5 *• 3 8 9 . 0» Thus ïuqqulu must in some way indicate the lifting of Namtsrs's han<t The primary meaning of ïaqâlu is 'suspend' and so 'weigh'. In Hebrew m*té mû^dr 'rnen of number' are men who can be counted. tv-v. Other examples occur in the ikribs : 35 36 3 7 38 39 40 35 36 37 38 39 40 ni$aba elletft ïâ-ru-ulj-tû sir-tù mârat a-nim lâ-sa-at ilâmP** rahûti™* ïâ-sa-at ilânfi** daiânl™* mu?pttfr~bi-rat ilâni™ * rabûti™** mu^afcfyi-rat ilâttiP*** daiâni" ** i tu-pa*bi~ra-ma iuM* ** rabûti[ *] i tu-pa~bi-ra-ma U&nP ** daiâni[ *] ti-if-ba-nim-ma ina niqi (siskur ) i ta-pul d[i?-na?] Zimmem. with U in Babylonian occurs only rarely in literary texts (apart from late examples in letters under the influence of A ramai c) hitherto no attention has been devoted to what its precative would be. i 2 . cf. l 384 S iti. who convenes the divine judges. This is confirmed by the paraliel line in the Assyrian recension (S iv. The last time the preceding lines are too broken for the context to be clear. 13 Von Soden (ZA 41.dur. mfatbit emûtim the bed i t laid for Ilbara. iv. but it is not known i f i t also occurred i n thit form in the Old Babylonian text. Thus zvnnu iaqfu 'weighcd rain' and so 'scanty*. and in the latter instance it hat the tente 'be covered'. 2) and regard the -farn as the same ending seen in ûmifam etc. 381 While a fem. in Assyrian. It also suggests the restoration of 302.228. Thefirsttime itfitan instruction from Enki to Atra-rjasls. 370 The paraliel Une in S. labtûtan is tbstract. 7 ba-m-iq is corrected after Gilg. litaqqU with zunnahi liiàqxr. Elsewhere in the Old Babylonian copies kullulu occurs twice (H. with the cognâtes in Hebrew 'pats on' and Arabie 'succeed'. and the same for mate. kullulu in the context of thèse lines must be taken as having the meaning of ïuklulu. 293 S iii. S iii. 13'-14' This couplet it perpiexing. suggests that a part of banû must be restored. . *. however. but to far no other occurrence a nounfyalûpuis known. Penn. and probably either 'cover' or 'be covered in the former case. •. The background of thtt use of 'hand* is that when men are afflicted the gods' 'hand* is heavy on them. since entu rabû occurs in lists (see CAD sub voetbus). iv. Who fummons the great gods. vi. h it. 29) with qâtu as object. Interprétation of Dreams 282 *). ) 336 i-ta~as-sâ-la i t read because the I/3 of esèlu is well documented. BBR 89-90. Thit line and its paraliel in the main recension show that the i normally found with the first person plural i t also used for the third person fem. 10% and a dative sufhx on a verb can take the place of eli with sufhx. 29). noun epitu from epû 'balte' is not otherwise attested. toavoid the ugly succession of the full form. Sit (SamaS and Adad) in the offering. Oppenhesn. but the meaning can be gueased. x. with t-. L i t establishes the former. since the verb serves as a denominstive of both kallatu '(veiled) bride' and kiltlu/kulûlu 'crown'. The third person precative is normally liprus for both genders in Babylonian. The value San for ïàm needs better support. apparently teîîmg htm to advise the elders. but until the rest of the line can be completed it must rcmain a little uncertain. 37. and the fsrity of other words in this epic cautiont us against dismtssing the possibility of s hapax legomenon. No other examples of mitfrurrûhave been noted. but lû taprus for the fem. Since the fem. 11 : uJ. 2 [fy\a-lu-up seems the only possible restoration. 8 mxi'tc-ti is taken as queer orthography for tnûdâti. 377 For thit Subbû (or jfuppû) see BWL 285 on 71-2. ii. 19 A comparison with 293 below suggests that Jyurruïu here (see CAD ftarâïu A . iii Nisaba the pure. B* IL 1$. mU~k\p) it t conceivable phrase meaning 'dispense ad vice'. but the uncertstitry about the meaning of rimant (the reading seems sure) and the reading of tf?-fr}0? obscures the rest of the couplet.be pleasant to' (CAD alâku. I n this way the active 'weigh* developed a starive meaning 'be scanty' and 10 4 . iii. now joined to K 3654 + as rev. perhaps occasioned by the rarity of the latter. Perttl.kud.dugud ( C T 2 5 . . p. 321. and so few. 382 alâku eli . supplies s very suitable meaning. 1. apparently a unique phenomenon. lofty. 113 ) took the gloss seriouely and treated Hftalfan as a reduplicated form. I 282-384 f | | S iii.ni. and in iv i* i l Wtlb zumrn at object.da « ba-ti-iq a-lm-un-na-tû. balàpu 'to slip i n ' . but there seems to be no other example of the I I / i having a passive meaning. May she convene the divine judges. 6 ri 8l t 9 301-4 This brings to mind the passage in Gilg. 16 This line and 295 below reveal a previously untuspected item of grammar. Whtk the latter with ïaqâlu it well known in omens (see CAD sub voce zunnu). where. By a semantic development what is weighcd is limited and so scanty. may she answer the [case (?)]. S iii. 12 and in. r t The title o f the mother goddess bânût ilmti also occurs in m. Ludhd lîh 1 kab-ta-at qât-su (BWL 48). 27. tt tt a very plausible derivative. J . UÎ!U 285 As suggested by J .

. Biggs. K 4443. Die Weli des Orients 1. v . Biggs. sait instead of water* iBBSt p. a i . rather than 'lower* of two earths. 10 F o r the root nkm referring to a disette see BWL 54 f and the passages quoted i n the commente o n pp. Sa. cit. D . 26 = v i . so that i t ftta the context here very well. and individual w r i t i n g s o f rrâ-hi-vr-. w h i c h i s lacking f r o m b e t w e e n S i v . 323—5.zi.7 . 2 0 T h i s l i n e . a n d there i s n o n e e d to e m e n d b o t h passages to H'errir s o as to assign them to the root urruru ' d r y ' . like kissurii jkiitassuru i n t h e i n c a n t a t i o n s .I DM a-a i-nu-u[S kiru\ *) tik-ta-ap-p-r[a t]i-ik-ki a-a i[t-tuk] D . reopens the question o f ndhirtu Imisertu discussed b y Landsberger tfi JNES 8. S v. v . i . 384. 49. 71. Das Imckriften* toerk Assurbanipals 1. 4 7 9 ) the m e a n i n g i s 'destroy* o r ' p u t a n e n d to' w i t h no smoky associations. 14: gui-gui namiu.rja. 18 mazzâzu as a p a r t o f the body seems to occur only here and in the paraliel lines of S . 1-2 m € . o n w h i c h see Kôcher.me. restored from v i . Enlil lived on the e a r t h p r o p e r a n d w o u l d guard that. t o agrée w i t h eqht: 'like a thieving one'. 17. that one may suspect that rapSûtum i s an error. I have p u b l i c l y bewitched t h e m ' . 5 has rapïâtu. D . 15). T h e -u e n d i n g i s locative. 19 T h e first t w o w o r d s . i v . are c o u p l e d b y a s a n d M .PHILOLOGICAL NOTES I 384-II v 20 T5 7 so a I I stem 'make scarce'. 3 2 .lu tna isâti li-er-ri-ma 'let h i m p a r c h a h u m a n skull with fire'. i i . i i . liSazmn i s a h e n d i sdys. suggests that the door and not Namtara is meant. 'Dead' a n d ' d r i e d ' malt are clearly the same. op. in 56. 14—17 T h i s couplet. 113". 21-2 and Erra i l . miSe-er. s e e t h e note o n 1. handbu ' g r o w l u x u r i a n d y ' i n the I / 3 (cf. though ita restoration it not quite sure. h'erri i s t h e same as i n BAM 240. 37. i 11 stem meaning iv. iti. i s still uncertain. 14. Due to the u s e o f the EZEN-sign m a n y o f the examples are smbiguous. 6 2 . WZKM 396 T h e fem. apparently.a n d me-Se-er.er = tà-tan-nu-bu) h a s t h e sensé o f getting matted together a n d thick.ra s e t as the c o n s t a b u l a r y o f E n k i i n S u m e r i a n epic. 8 ) . as translated. no. 29 below. 11 See the note o n 1. the context suggests die meaning. i . O p p e n h e i m {Interprétation of Dreams 2 2 2 ) . 17. since rhe concept i n t h e m is clearly that of a même cornucopia. sa. b u t h e r e a n d i n o t h e r passages (see E. 26 are part i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t . A U thèse passages are written ambiguousiy. iv. 6 ' . 31 a n d v i . t t e . T h e y use tbe word of fishes. 'they tcattered the corpses like dried malt*. are so regularly fem. T h u s the ambiguous writings referred to m u s t b e taken as miSertu* and it may be noted that me-U-er^tun^K^R e4 lïteddil irtasa. b u t s i n c e i t i s a rumen Ion i n form.. ) T h e important question here concems the m a n y passages p u t b y v o n S o d e n i n AHzo under mehertu d). and the appearance of humant in t n advanced state o f starvation might well be compared to grain in that state. just as A n u was appointed to guard heaven. 2 2 2 .3 . since here it i s clearly some kind of cornucopia.zi. suffis here.ga 35. v . i v . kïma Sarrâqïtu i s a n adverbial phrase. Barra I I . 30 T h e fifty la. O n l y i n Atra-hasïs. 21 A verb qutturu connected w i t h smoke exista. 299-300. rv 2 ? 20. 1. îs neither proved n o r disproved b y this line a n d those r e l a t e d to i t i n x a n d y .vi. aod in x especially i t s m a r i n e connection i s transparent. .1 5 : Su-nu Sar-qiS e-pu-su-td a-na-ku su-pis [ê\-pu-us-su-nu-ti ' t h e y secretly bewitched m e . iv. though he i s n o t responsible for the o r n i o n s . an urrû ' d r y ' . 14 T h e r e seem to be no other examples of ntkukuièitququ.ga incantations: ia related to drought. T h e sirnile arises from the brewing process in which barley was first encouraged to s p r o u t b u t w a s then prevented from growing by spreading and drytng. T h e r e i s also. 17 P a r t s o f the b o d y . contrasting w i t h the m a s c . E b e l i n g . iv. 259 . 3 9 . 2 6 ' L o w e r earth* here presumably means lower' in relation to the régions n a m e d i n t h e previous line. T h u s liStarriq. and i n view of nie context. Biggs. 25 ~. and the two versions are explained f r o m : [k\i<4 se 4 er-rt e-Sa-af-fu-u Sà-lam. which he expounds i n an excursus to MSL r x . £L 17-19 T h e root îrq 'steal' s h o w s the same setnantic d e v e l o p m e n t a s i n t h e L a t i n fur—furtive 'thief—stealthily*. op. 2 9 = LKA 144 obv. i n thèse two passages. T h e meaning. 16 = v i . 5 T h e suggestion o f A . and a metaphorical development from Sakâku 'harrow* i t quite possible. 45-6. 2 8 6 : gu. or meaning» if there is more than one root. cit. it must m e a n 'leg*. that muISakku îs a k i n d o f incense f r o m the s m o k e o f w h i c h o m e n s w e r e d e r i v e d . but they cannot be separated from miSertu i n Atra-fiasïs. L . iv. E n k i wants the r a i n to fall w i t h o u t E n l i l ' s n o t i c i n g i t . D U U R R . has buqli me-te. and S turned it into Suparkê ' l a c k of ' ( v . However.8 ' M o s t probably the e p i c has borrowed a m a g i e f o r m u l a .ma engur. 1 4 . 13 T h e paraliel line i n S. 4 . since bàbu i s o f c o m m o n gender. én Hl-Uk Sâru M-nu-uS kim iis~tak-sir er-pe-tumt-ma ti-ku lit-tuk R . i t there a m t k e to suspend'. h i s d w e l l i n g . F o x example KAR 9 2 r e v . 11-13). . as i n the line u n d e r discussion. i n 3 8 1 . x rev. C l e a r l y lardu was coarse grass that would grow even in times of meî /W M [-W W ] TABLET II i .U3-. i .prove mat both words do exist L a n d s b e r g e r i s n o w o f a différent opinion.me. 4 T h i s l i n e confirma Lsndsberger's construction of S i r . c. încluding bûdu. ( H i s help i n this note is gratefully acknowkdged. cf.w r i t i n g . iarrâqu-\-ïu> a n d f e m .bar) la-ar-da ki-mu-û mé id-ra-na 'couch-grass ( ? ) instead of barley. AS 16. 58. b u t the use of zbi does perhaps favour some k i n d o f présent b e i n g b r o u g h t along for the god. 6 and 13.er. see Falkenstein's note o n line 184 o f Enki und die Weltordnung: ZA 5 6 . S e e the note o n x rev. 9 A boundary stone curte included : titfalf(se. tïku i s n o doubt derived from natâku.tu (Bauer. 12-13 én li-Hk Sâru SadS* l\t-nu-f\u Uh-ta-sir vr-pa-turn^-ma ti-ku lit-tuk [én Fjiï-uk Sâru erpêtu ( [ i M ] . the sea a n d the (cosmic) river. i .

l i . 3 4 O n e m a y s u s p e c t a w o r d . G u d e a . cf. obv.zu » qirba landau. b u t G e l b i s i n c o r r e c t to s p e a k o f t h e m a s ' b e l o n g i n g to the cireîe* o f S a m a s a n d A d a d ( p . A A gj G B L m e 4 LGB = AA viii.S jfA = [ i. w i t h d i s c u s s i o n o f s o m e o f the problems. b u t t h e r e i s n o c e r t a i n t y t h a t Gilg.àm dirLbi musenJun (JCS) uruki. XI. F o r passages i n context see ARM 1. xi. vi. T h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h 3amas' a n d A d a d is o n l y attested after the O l d B a b y l o n i a n p e r i o d . 12 F o r kullulu see the note o n I S i i i . a n d i s explained i n ffargud: x bu-un-du-ru = bil-ti là c i (v R 32 no. XIVe Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale 1 1 9 . 1 3 i . JCS 2 0 . 31 I t i s n o t c l e a r h o w the boat could be roofed over both 'above' and 'below*.6 a n d AbB 11.a. T h e S u m e r i a n a.bi ku«.1 4 . miïïum 'why?*. since the S u m e r i a n o f that text i s late a n d . one might compare the Arabie badara ' s c a t t e r ' a n d a s s u m e a qutûl form. 44 offers bu-zu-ur.9. cf. vii» 49 T h e occurrences o f S u l l a t a n d H a n i s . 4 . tënisu MSL n i . m a a.ra. T h e word with ' b i r d s ' .um Jjiî. *manfum~ma. T h e S u m e r i a n lagab commonly indicates ttoutnest o r s o l i d i t y .p ] i . 1 3 . i t i .um hi Lîibi rnu.6 w i t h a variant form i n UET m. 1 1 9 . but it is unexplained from other paiwage*. T h e sensé ' c o m p l a i n t ' i s s u g g e s t e d i n JCS 12. i i 21-2 = 37-8 also reflect i t . A d a d i s clearly a separate deity i n t h e flood s t o r y . the spacing on this . there is so far no exact paraliel for the meaning guessed h e r e f r o m the context. I f i t i s c o r r e c t l y r e n d e r e d as ' a load of reeds' one m a y doubt its relevance. CAD identifie* the word with budduru (qjt. 6 kl t vii.na (VET) u r i m . r-. a n d I V s t e m s o f t h e v e r b a r e w e l l attested i n the sensé 'annihilât!*/. a n d A d a d i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s w a s r o u g h l y équivalent w i t h S u l l a t a n d r j a n i s s o that h e w i t h Sama§ w a s t h e b e s t d u o the ancient scholars c o u l d find.9 8 . 1rs u s e here w i t h ' h a n d ' i s n o t easy. Assuming the e p i c w o r d t o be u n r e l a t e d t o t h i t other one. i t is true. 37 A r e a d i n g ba-a-as ' s a n d * i s also possible. F r o m the line u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n a n d t h e r e l a t e d Gilg. 117. T h e increase of U r is fish. noting that i n Ugaritic the proto-Semitic d r e m a i n s d. as does mtlertu ' r e g u l a r m e a s u r e ' fromy^r. xi. 25. i . since a I stem of the root i s u n k n o w n . x i . A f u r t h e r p r o b l e m of using the lexical item for Atra~basis is that in the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n i t c h a n g e d f r o m bud(d)uru (or perhaps butfj)uru) to buz(z)uruy w h i l e i n t h e l e x i c a l t r a d i t i o n the dental was preserved to the end. «Ju on rmlstht is for -sum — ana. 98. 100 further alludes to t h e m as guzalû. b u t u n t i l the w h o l e o f t h e l i n e i s k n o w n i t c a n n o t be properly considered.te.se. 37 w i t h lemuttu. 45 I t is n o t clear w h y the p e r s o n a l interrogative i s u s e d . w i t h the fem. frisbu. 4.k n o w n w o r d Gilg.sigg (UET) T h e increase of my city i t fish. 130 r e v . since that i s ' s m a l l n e t ' a n d to be d e r i v e d f r o m eïêht ' c a t c h i n a net'. i 3 4 u . t h o u g h i n A k k a d i a n i t n o r m a l l y becomes x. sufhx o n qiribïa here. but does not give so good a sensé. 24. eighth from bottom): la-gab bu-ut-tu~rum. but not the word with 'fishes*. T h e o m e n passages (CT 31. v.2 3 . 68. E v e n a single c o m m o n n o u n i s r a r e l y e q u a t e a b l e w i t h a n o t h e r i n a i l its shades a n d areas o f m e a n i n g . A c e r t a i n a b s u r d i t y r e s u l t s . B u t the I . i . . s a . 87 (CT 12. 41 s h o w s traces of g i r " o n K 85171 a^d while on S m 2 1 3 1 + t h e r e m a i r u n g s i g n c o u l d be i]gi (mpànu) or . are collected b y G e l b i n ArOr x v i i l / i — 2 . T h e root msr 'sweep along' seems u n l i k e l y . u n l e s s p e r h a p s E n k i is represented as pretending to take abûbu as a p e r s o n a l n a m e .libi mu. 18 5 PHILOLOGICAL NOTES I I V 20-111 i 48 i . 13 T h i s line seems to [ U = ni-i-su. I n the p h r a s e tnusTuru miïerta it m a y have been employed as a cognate accusative. 44. I I . 21 use sa. 6. 28 and iv.bi ku . is par aile led m an Ur-Nammu text. t u r — mëser/stum. d i r i . with Hallo. T h e eryrnology o f the w o r d is u n k n o w n . 2 3 . Samas' a n d A d a d n o r m a l l y o c c u r t o g e t h e r i n the giving of oracles. 192). 76 rev. i i i . W h i l e E n l i l does the former. b u t i f so this i s p r o b a b l y o n l y folk-etymology. F o r bu-du-ri here Ctfe» x i . T h e identity a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s divine d u o are still n o t really clear. . T h e p r o b l e m i s e x p l a i n e d b y t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f identification. so far as the sensé is c o n c e m e d . 35 T h i s l i n e . T h e S u m e r i a n équivalent i n i v R* 2 0 . 2 5 . W i t h d i v i n e d u o s t h e r e w e r e s o f e w a v a i l a b l e that congruence cannot be expected.râ. Both form and meaning ( e x c e p t i n a gênerai w a y ) o f the A k k a d i a n are i n doubt. T h e l i s t s s a y . b u t that t h e y are Samas' a n d A d a d . Cylinder A (TCL 8) t. 99 they seem gods of the s t o r m . 34 gamertu i n the sensé 'total d e s t r u c t i o n ' s e e m s to o c c u r o n l y h e r e a n d i n lit. I t i s a s s u m e d to be a n interrogative ' m e n * . 86 and W 5 . of which qirba idûizi variant. a n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d e g Gilg. 1 8 9 . n o t t h a t t h e y b e l o n g to the circle of. 6) s p e a k o f t h e m as accornpanying an a r m y to grant i t s v i c t o r y . 4 4 below.mà a. T h e c o u p l e t c o r r e s p o n d s roughly to Gilg.300. 26 See note on 1. a. 19 tèqitu i s apparently d e r i v e d f r o m eqû ' p a i n t ' a n d m e a n s ' s l a n d e r ' .zu of understanding me meaning of d r e a m s . i . i .bi ku . p l . 17 T BE III ALT \rn\a-ïu-um-yna s e e m s quite certain. b u t they are too damaged for certainty. suggests the restoration.ba.ra.râ. b i t also u n c e r t a i n i f it i s t h e s a m e w o r d i n A l/z. T h e o n l y additions are a few m o r e examples o f H a n i S i n A k k a d i a n p e r s o n a l n a m e s f r o m t h e U r I I I period (MAD n i sub voce).p l a y i n ufaznanakku: zanânu 'rain' and ' p r o v i s i o n ' . W e take a. 139. a n d Sama§ i s altogether inappropriate i n that context. A s a k t t l e . its surplus fowl. E n k i will do the latter. 14 zibbatu ' t s i l ' h a s figurative meanings and an O l d Babylonian form tibbatum (see CAD sub voce). 52 = MSL m. x i .2 0 r e p l a c e s the occurrence i n m . zanânu vi. 60. its surplus fowî. 21 (za. 10-12 and 77. 4 .àm (JCS) . 1-2.àm diri. i s clear i n every case. i .bi ku«. 48 C o l l a t i o n o f Gilg. L] attest a m a s c . a n d i t is possible that x rev.bi muien.râ h e r e i n t h e mathematical sensé of multiplication. h i .a. 38 a n d v . C l e a r l y w e are d e a l i n g w i t h a literary cliché. see La Divination en Mésopotamie ancienne. i n AN = Anum. w h i c h i s o n l y lexically attested. 12. T h i s i s h a r d l y t h e s a m e w o r d as g i i . t$h). 13 S e e BWL 291 o n 48 for àa. a n d t h i s .lam) i s irrelevant. J C S 20. occurs i n the apodosis o f o n e o f a g r o u p o f o m e n s c o n c e r n i n g fish. b u t it i s not a usual usage.ybundurul buffuru. i.râ c a n be e x p l a i n e d . te-ni-fu.mà a. 5 . XI.na/mu. "^APIN and other texts o f n o eariier date. 19-20 i . 13.é : uru. secondary. H o w e v e r . vi.

Another occurrence i n a médical text. p l . . E q u a l l y possible is a dérivation from ebëlu 'snare b i r d s ' . Das bob.KA « fap-tanïâ bul~he~e<rti U-qa-a B [ X ] X . O t h e r occurrences are lexical: I [ X X ]. T h e tool o f the r e e d . iii. 96. xi. Wasserfahrzeuge 1 3 4 . E . A l r e a d y i n 1885 Delitzsch had read He^Pha (AL3 iô#. Cuneiform Parallels2. t[u o r l[i. T h i s meaning is c o n f i r m e d i n that it c a n be established that bulhïtu is a phonetic variant of bufarïtu. i i . 49 A I / i perfect o r I / 2 preterite o f ïahânu—iïtakna—gives n o sensé h e r e . 17 i s also based o n this O l d B a b y l o n i a n couplet. p. 126. iii. P i n c h e s has copied i n the margin the latter half of a U md has written : ii. x i . i x .te. D . pana ïakânu iii. p. for the traces (on K 7 7 5 2 + ) are. 8 K X A [A . i i . 1. W . ]. R . ..i6o PHILOLOGICAL NOTES I n a n y case tablet requires a restoration a-ïak-ka-na ' détermine ' is no sui table sensé.S*à = KLM IN List of Diseases (CT 19. xii. T h e pâïu is also g i v e n as t h e b a s i c tool of the naggâru i n Erra t. w h i c h states h o w Atra-frasïs a c t e d as the flood b e g a n . 39 S i n c e the n o u n bibbulu/bubbulu m e a n s the d a y o f t h e m o o n ' s at the e n d o f the m o n t h . bulhïtu is restored here from iv. . 28 iï-t]e-en f r o m Gilg. 81 (LTBA I I . 4 6 . 11-12 Restored from [ï&-p]i-ia-a-ma. of a third weak verb (BA I. . ] X p[u-u][-p[i]. 29 F o r kullulu see the note o n S iii. xo8.. 13. T h e latter w a s h i s 'stone'.x . . o r u\\e^en ' i t grinds' 107 (collated): [ x ] gis mata kïma karp[ati .v i . a n d traces of the first two signs are still on the tablet. 19 S e e note o n v . U r e v . 6 Gilg. 169). e. Gilg. rija-jfipa-as-[ X ] . iv. ïaJhnûjïaïnû (ZA 41. C a m p b e l l T h o m p s o n ' s c o p y is badly proportioned.KA.165-0) X [x. a n d so they modified tt. 21): na Jak?-ka-ru-u = (vacat) = àbnu ïâ ^atkuppi A XX] iii. 18 R e s t o r e d from Gilg. this time i s p r o b a b l y m e a n t h e r e . 45. ii. ' J u d g i n g f r o m m o d e m p r a c t i c e s . Nimrodepos 139 ) read it X»qa-a and had c o r r e c t l y identified the f o r m as t h i r d person fem. T h u s the combiip^ tion o f the l[e. 34 T h e preterite of bâru 'catch b i r d s ' i s elsewhere ibâr. 40 rev. T h e w o r d also o c c u r s i n AMT 4 9 . 6 rev. vi. 36. 886 113 M . w h i c h i s t h e équivalent of Atra-hasïs m.5 . a n d a c o m p a r i s o n o f aU t h r e e forms suggests that the later editors c o u l d not s t o m a c h the m e t a p h o r ' s h a t t e r e d the noise of the land'. T h e change of m to n after g does not s e e m to o c c u r e l s e w h e r e i n A k k a d i a n . ]. A p p a r e n t l y 55 h a d a n e x t r a w o r d .fakummûis a b a n from the S u m e r i a n sà ' s t o m a c h ' a n d kûm 'hot' (for which see Landsberger. u o = CT 18.]== K [A . 12. E b e l i n g . on collation. JNES 8.gar. [(. XI. B u t a glance at any photograph of K 3375 s h o w s r o o m for o n l y x . t h u s rigtmïa cannot be restored. 58 (séru pal-ku-û). Sumerian Proverbs. I n the riineteenth c e n t u r y t h e tablet w a s better preserved.gar C M le-qa-a M I N 4 R . b u t t h e r e a r e parallels to a verb belonging to more than one class. 6 below. T h e incomplète sign i n the m i d d l e i s n o t f\â o r ï]a. sàbbajkatma ïapta-ïunu i( ?)-/t( })-qa-a pubrïti T h e o n l y r e a l e r r o r h e r e i s the i(}). i i . the atkuppu needs only two basic i m p l e m e n t s : a knife to c u t t h e r e e d s a n d s o m e t h i n g to flatten them'. as in the List of Diseases) bu-ul-bi*tum Su-ur-pi-tum ('burning') Kagal D Frag. i l . 233 (précédée! by laqlaqqu. 116). iii. iv. where the context proves t h a t i t m e a n s ' h e w i l l eat hot food". 23-4 =» MSL I . B u t no better alternative h a s o c c u r r e d to t h e présent w r i t e r s . 5 4 . f r o m bu^huru 'to heat'. but i n a b r o k e n c o n t e x t . Biggs writes on this point (privately).7 . R o g e r s . a n d . 5 : bu-uh-ri-ta JW**^. 50 T h a t ila is a conjunction (otherwise unattested) m e a n i n g ' a s s o o n a s ' i s m e r e conjecture. 1 4 . i) fà-kûm-mu-u « bu~ul-hi-tû Malku iv. R m n . i b i d . b u t that créâtes a n e e d l e s s i n t r u s i o n i n the context. As to m e a n i n g . n ) (se-ru pa-ar-ku) and S iv. Tod und Leben. 21 below: b o t h lines c o n c e r n lips. 21 : 1 2 1 ïab-ba/kàt-ma fap-ta-fû-nu le-qa-a bu-uf^re^e-ti T h e r e a d i n g leqâ n e e d s explanation (its connection with the line of Nabnitu does not). 26. p l . i s BE 31. 12.g. 21 11). 12: [b]u-ub-ri-ta [ (courtesy F . T h e restoration ify-p[u-u] w a s a l r e a d y suggested by H a u p t . 50-1: iii. b u t of the traces on K 2 2 5 2 + only the first horizontal i s r e a l l y s u r e . e. SLT 248.. Kôcher). as shown on the older photographs. 14-15) • . n)a-& a-b[alz[u(collated) Elsewhere the naggâru a n d atkuppu are associated as s h i p b u i l d e r s : S a l o n e n . ihnê-karâb/ihiî-karâb ( E . O n e c o u l d emend the text to i-lul 'the gods ( h e a r d e t c . a dérivation f r o m ïagâmu s e e m s i n e s c a p a b l e .g. t h o u g h C a m p b e l l T h o m p s o n d i d not copy them. 5 O n e might restore u^-ma i n the spirit of U rev. 155-6. 120).te. ] X = K Nabnitu (CT 19. ' h e a t ' i s i n d i c a t e d b y the évidence already quoted. T h e ciearest évidence on this point cornes from Gilg. . I . 133).1 0 C f . cf. 86. 9 . . t]i. t h o u g h after a sibilant i t is well attested: lismujlisnu (AHw). x i . . C a m p b e l l T h o m p s o n gave only X with a note that it was not sure that the trace b e l o n g e d to t h e w o r d ending -a. disappearance i i . G o r d o n . 4 ( O B . v. . 2 8 6 .a . see the note o n 1. a n d H a u p t i n 1891 (Das bob. b u t .w o r k e r i s g i v e n i n ffargud (LTBA 1. Nimrodepos 139 as ' n i c h t u n w a h r s c h e i n l i c h ' . x i . w i t h an eye o n 53 below. 36 A restoration bu-W-u[l la-d[k}-ha-an deserves m e n t i o n . 8.gi = bu-ul-fyi-tu . K 264 obv. 37.o f K 7 7 5 2 + w i t h the \f\e-qa-a on K 3375 gives the complète word. 26 R e s t o r e [ù] or [ta] ? . .)]-#. 2 4 8 . ) ' . K 8312.. T h e e x p l i c i t c o n n e c t i o n w i t h lips i n Nàbnïtu shows that this is the word> and its o c c u r r e n c e i n t h e List of Diseases indicates that it is something physiological. 20. I n P i n c h e s ' s c o p y o f H a u p t ' s Nimrodepos (now i n the possession of the first-named a u t h o r ) . 13-14 Restored from Gilg. and the first sign ends in two uprights a n d the m i d d l e o n e i s -qa-. 9 8 . n . AHw atkuppu.m]ud = bu-ul-fye-e-tum Erimbuï v i . since / a n d r c a n i n t e r c h a n g e .

a^ba/a-bu in Gilg. the second o f which ends ]. 40 below in O B ) was in part responsible. 22 . S e e also the note on v. 167-9 puts the blâme on Enlil alone. 49 For tiïfa cf. and so no more helpful . Probably this latter results from éditorial work on a corruption of aï-ru âï-bu ina nissati. 1 0 1 0 iii. 8 0 . 6 8 ) : dingir. surface of the water and then get pushed to the side by the current. 15. In lists Tiruru is a name of IStar: Hi-ru-ru = Hï-tar ïâ Bi-SuL-fr" (CT 24. and in three other lists of IStar names it occurs immediately before S/Siduri: CT 25. . However. 447. So Bëlet-ili sarcastically suggests that she might do the same. 25 This agrées better with the reading of K 7752-f in Gilg. and their triangular shape made them particularly suitable for necklaces. The two lines of this couplet express in différent and somewhat clashing figures that the waters were covered with floating bodies.mu kalam. Or N. when in fact the source of supplies had been cut off with the loss of the human race. a third is an infinitive in a list.3 ) . The idea that Gilg. iii. so probably one must take eriïta here as n o more than an error.riimjEal. Van Buren. As a whole. and uqa need not be discounted.2a. and curiously the Assyrian Recension (1. but in transitive in figurative uses. 242*). 28. but i t misses the point that the bodies werefloating.Bà. The figure of (dead) dragon-fliee floating on the surface of a river occurs also in Gilg. iv. xi. ZA 49. there is no need to exclude others. see the lexica. 89 and CAD aba. Perhaps Tiruru had a réputation like that of LamaStu. then presumably refers to lips. iii.da^ is correctly read and understood. see other examples apud F. Essentiaîly the épisode is aetiological. déclares that the human race has begotten it. since the List of Diseases has two Sumerian équivalents for bulfjttu. a fourth occurs in a phrase grammatically peculiar in both words (is-rip ka-bat-su : should be isrup kabtatiu) .rum. but this seems to be the first example in an Old Babylonian text. Edikt 169. who. n . S iii. 42 M pa-ag-ri-ia merely emphasizes ra-ma-nd-ia. K 3375 ofTers nanti** aï-ru dï-bi i-na bi-ki-ti 'the gods humbly sat weeping*. 125. and the Old Babylonien text i n this case (r. i f indeed their funcrional shape did not suggest the fly in the first place. where the gods gather 'like nies'. 33 One expects eriïtu(m). Yet he as président (bel timi—only occurring here and v.zalag mà. ffargud on Tablet xiv of ffarra also lists: mm. as well as part of a breast ornament (RA 43. D. 41.has: A S nu-ru-ub ni-is-sa-ti s[i ? 'in the moistness of grief. a i the latter is explicitly the cause. lalâïa isrup is another active example. W h a t is the complaint bulfyïtu/bul/rïtu? That ïakummû involves &k/libbu i l no dtrhcuhy. have matted together on the r v. KA F 48. m e i mei iii. 170 ff. Malku vin (STT 394) 114 : tu-u-ïâ = ki-i ïâ . explaining manufactured Aies in the jewellery of the goddess Bëlët^ifî and no doubt other deities. Or 25. minde. I n the modem Western world we would not describe a thirsty person as having hot lips. i. x. 9 5 . 30 rev. Granting that the author is explaining an item of cultic jewellery. for me the day is dark'. v. 169). than with that of K 3375 (ïa-a-ru a-bu-bu me-hu-û). 3. 25. the next question is how the Aies come into the story of the flood. being a stative. 128 (J&fl-fW ra-a-du mi-fpu-û a-b[u-bu]). Code of Hammurabi. S iii. xi refers to Aies in amber is clearly untenable. but this is ail that is known of her. 1 3 2 . 153. 10) 'a man whose body grief buroed'. 15 (na4.4 0 bïhi is used specifically of speech. the couplet seems to présume that Anu had gone up to heaven and was staying there as though he were in a state of prosperity. and the first is modified to: 'like young fish they fill the sea' (kî mari nûnï umallâ tâmtamtna) in line 123. 36. plqa. and su-èé-e ra-bu-ti here to n i m gal there. The first. Kraus. iv.168. bul-lu-fau (CT 19. ïabba in Gilg. not the accusative here. 84. 126. <l iii. piqat. and the équations in the lists with appûna.gln). 11. This is certainly easier wording. 24 In Gilg. JCS 11. iv. 12-13 = MSL ix. I n the line under discussion it is not clear i f N i n t u ' s lips are suffering due to gênerai agitation or from lack o f drink. Nintu. vi.za. XI. 8 rev.te = sur-ru-pu ('burn').1 9 0 This clumsy line is corrupted in Gilg. But among the bilingual passages there is one active example: if-lu ïâ np4$*sa~tû zu-mur~$û is-ru-pu (JTVI26. If ul.PHILOLOGICAL NOTES I I I iii 29~vi 6 163 A médical problem remains. but in iv. 17 m MSL viu/2. XI.S. 142-3)' iii. 34-5 The day becomes dark when one expériences calamity. xi. 47)» but the corresponding line of ffarra is not known. 18 . 78). 39-43 N. 16) has a n exactly simiiar case with criUa mami. k u 'My god. k u .2 ) . § 132: a-na mu-ti-ïa nâram i-ïa-aUli 'at her husband's discrétion she must undergo the river-ordeaP. 3 9 . 5-9 Cf. eeeing only bodies where the sea should be.337:1 nim guikin).315 and 170. 295) has a nominative (sassuru). Von Soden'* emendation of à$*ru to ina libbi (ZA 53. von Soden. Suppléments m. While potentiality is certainly one nuance of tûïa. 196 The picture is of sheep standing crowded together in a dry trough waiting for water. 232) cannot be sustained.ar ud m a . of the five examples cited for the latter. 6 The épisode of the Aies corresponds to Gâfc. and Finkelstein. this is a late copy. like insecte. cf. Flies of lapis appear in ffarra xyi: in the Aklafj forerunner. at the beginning of the line. See also the Sumerian 'Poem of the Righteous SufTerer' (Vêtus Testamentum.v i . xi. The gold fly also appears in tfarra xn. Her form is described in the Gôttertypentext (MIO1.^n — zu-um-bu (TCL 6. i . In Gilg* xi the ônîy other occur* rence of the word is in 161. 187-90. 127 collation of K 2252-f reveals that 7 is as possible as 6. only two lines above.e ud ba. Held. vi. and K 77524. XI. 'for her distasteful ideas and her abominable counsel' (a-na fé-mi-ïa là dam-qi-im ma-al-ki-ïa pd-ru-tm(sà-afj-i-im) was kicked by Anu from heaven to earth (BIN iv. iv.'(??). KA V 173. Wiseman no. and note te. but clearly the Babylonians did. 162-5. 74 I n CAD the occurrences of sarâpu l / i are so stranged that it appears that it is transitive i n the meaninga 'refine (metals)' and 'fire (bricks)'. rev. a second—if correctly restored—îs also stative and so indeciaive. 46-7 below. d Gilg. 1 8 . 4 6 . of which the bilingual version is: [na^. ana is taken as 'at the discrétion of'.na (blank) « nim [ (CT 14. We do not venture to guess what ina seri means in this context. However. 349: nim guSkin » zu-um-bu (MSL vn. one is indecisive. the day shines bright over the land. 43). Tukulti* Ninurta Epic iii. 15.when ce the honor o f the scène. JCS 15. gin. Fauna 108). and here lines 8-9 develop thie figure: the dead. xi means 'bum' (not 'dry'. Actual lapis beads in ôy-shape are known (E. R. as v o n S o d e n . 30 : ku-li-li <Sqy-qé-lep~pa-a ina nàri 'dragon-flies drift on the river'. The second of thèse two figures is suppressed al together in Gilg. iv. . A gold fly is specifically mentioned in s necklace in the Qatns inventories. this leaves one example only. iv.

40 111 vi 6 viii 17. 19 above. from Boghazkôy) and U-si-a (for Jtsta) from Atra-hasïs 1. 1-3 Moses. but a new duplicate. and the examples apud A. when they only speak of the hungry gods* first meal. The Semitic root is </o6.ra (K 10194 ( C T 18. and they equate each other in Malku 1. 72. Thus a deity who confesses to participating in the bringing of the flood at Enlil's command daims to have sung this 'song*. 2 . 427). The first could be 'ask' or 'plant* (erëfa). in 9. 4 4 : ki-ma xu-ub-bi. Apart from the line under discussion i/egisîtu only occurs lexically : MAOG XU1/2. Restoration conjectural. 8-9: e-gir-tû 37 abnt™ * fti-|tt **uqnî. and (ii) burra for bukra is without paraliel. kalâsu is 'contract and a metaphorical sensé must be assumed. I n view of the rules of her order she had to conceal his birth.has dropped out of the received text due to a scrihai omission.^ Dudi««ii»DU «s ba-qa-a-lu TCL 6.18. and the reading pu-ur-si has been suggested b y B . S iv iô. 19 is not complète we have left the various writings in their simplest form. The truncation of the story in Gilg. However» while the context demands a meaning 'diminish*. The second. vi. hpsikku. 35 (restored). 14 The question with sA-nt-ft-tf-[kd\ is whether it is a scribal error for ta-. *every day and for ever*. V A T 1 1 0 8 7 . and since elsewhere equates abâlu and arû (SL ao6. 173a encourages the view that Bl-ri-tT-him in Atra-basïs is an error. etc. su-bé-e. 9 . 3 For the pâtit tu démon see von Soden. XI. BiOr xvm. T viii. especially in Emesal. v.3 . 2 1 8 . 25 The reading of K t z $ % + m Gilg. J . X65. 1 are omitted in Gilg. But the sufhx on luhsussu in v i . I f the last sign is read rà* the line must be taken as : lû ikkibuHnâma alàdam burra 'let it be taboo for them to bear a son'. I t is also possible that ki-i su-bi-hî was used to replace i t i n quite another sensé. 52 quotes tah-lu-uq-ti (instead of ïafiluqti. 17 H-i$-s4-ru is from ptrru.7 : tablets unappis* ia restored after iv. 163 is a rerlection of ipangal(u). Some of the omet examples of a simiiar interchange are foreign words. Landsberger. « «. Thus the fîtes in the story are a mémorial of the drowned orïspring of Bêlet-iiî. no interprétation of thèse two forms will provide this.4 with Gilg. ki-tna su-ub-bi. K. and xubbu is therefore the primary form in Akkadian. 2-3 lies behind Gilg. 163-5 bas suggested the restoration a[n-nu-tum]. 8 . cf. x i .7 ukbakkâti has been identified by J. gig ** kibtu. This confirmation of the identity of the line under discussion with GUg. 3 0 . Finkelstein as a plural of ugbabtu. 12. which is équivalent to authorship. Furthermore. 66-7) one is at a loss to understand how CAD and AHw connect this baqâtu with buqht 'malt* and render i t 'to sprout' and 'm&ltzen respectively.dingir. 180 (be-el drm) K 3375 M supplies the restoration here. Thus the most satisfactory explanation is that U-Hak-h-si is correct in 10. 9 1 6 n m€& DD UU . is the same simile. The peculiarity of Uàni an-nu-ti in Gilg. it is quite possible that iii. I n lists entu and ugbabtu both equate nin. and the former could he taken from es*à: "which Anu in his confusion .g. This is most probably a Sumerian loan-word. I t is known that thèse women did not marry or bear children. would mean 'be little . but in view of the variants xakârulsaqaru and xibbatuIsibbattt. xi. though other difBcult uses of this case occur here. The difficulties here are (i) that the acc.m. 19) could be first or third person in isolation. Cf.1 9 ) . on his birth.134 (JAOS 83. x i .OV&EB! . The immediately following ipangal(u) can be explained from Erim(tu$ v. 1 1 BB I T E U i»| I LO H Q E B. but if correct it of Ku-Aya o f the sign with the same value. and a I I or I I I stem would be needed to give 'diminish'. Whether this was only the rights to the flies is not now clear. The Mother Goddess is a possible candidate. The close parallelism of vi. in 43 and 53 below where this verb certainly occurs. 14 The gloss in the second of thèse lines shows that copyist or editor wanted us to read [li-r\i§ fi-f* in the first. 41) i. Thus the phonetic explanaùon seems préférable.. tt is written nuf$u. has ]-nu-um-ma û-su »£<t-. xu-ub-bu-û. see p. alàdam cannot be explained. 14 165 is the only example as in Atra-basis vu. BAM 310. as a vocative. 4 precludes u^mi being its object* es in QUg. (This phrase involves a sensé not yet understood. His mother was an êntu (e-né-tutn).42). xi.9 The last s i g n can be either r ra 1 or 1 ri 1 . 9 The textes rteeptus of Gilg. which suggests that a -nu.6-7). or a phonetic variant of tanïttu.1 9 The damaged state of the épilogue is most unfortunate since apparently it contained an ascription of authorship. Since the context of iii. 4 7 ) f K 4328 ( C T 19. Since b and p may interchange one must certainly connect this verb with ipangal(u). 164. vii. tabsûtu. Note the first person pl. but i t must remain an open question if i$-H in Gilg. a reflexive II/a: 'make famoua to one another'. exploiting her grief as some women would. 35.um. xx. This helps to explain the b i r t h legend of Sargon of Akkad ( C T 13. ma This is marked off as a section. i i . The latter suggests no meaning at aU. M / ï O G xin/a. but there are purely Akkadian examples. but we prefer to think that Gilg. but this one means 'bring or 'carry*. ot •rejoîce* (râs*u). One might restore u^-mi-[$a-am-ma ù] si-[a-ti-iî]. see the note on iv* 5-9 above. tupSikktt and Ubsûtu.61 (see above and JNES 27. PI in the vii. Falkenstein. if from mêsu. not £$u. viii. . 3399+3934 ( )> Reverse iv s vi. 163 is in this case correct : M *a-nu-um t-pu-M* and that the one sign is omitted from Atra-^asis by a scribal error. who. Von Soden in BiOr xxm. and the répétition of ayamjfi at the ends of both 164 and 165 suggest that our restoration of Atra-hasïs vi. vii. and the idea may have been suggested to ita originator by a proverb or cliché about dragon-flies drifting down the river. Such a verb may exist.) Certainly v. 38. XI. also the forerunner to this entry apud CAD sub voce igisïtu. 173a is curious in the lack of gender concord between ayyumma and napiïti. but it appears that Bëlet-ilî. uses the occasion to get some spécial dispensation out of Anu. Literature on this subject is cited in footnote 1 on page 13. and to us their incompleteness obscures them. She was some kind of high-ranking lady in a religions order. rev. 1 9 5 . Das Sumerische. 38. 29. 6 . and the change from g to b is well known. xi. xi. 2 . and under thèse circumstances one cannot be sure if the sign is t*su«ma or t-KU*ma. h rather than that of S iv. 10. Line 47 is crowded. put him on the river like ir ~ ba-ba-lum Dutu. The orthography is bewildcring: xu-ub-bi. and while ulabïi and uxammer (12. viii. in the context only the first fits. But psychologically it is quite unsutisfying to have Bêlct-ilï seite upon some jewellery tlies as a reminder of the disaster. e. and that ail the other passages should be corrected from that to fit». 48-vi. and tn addition iii. p. and in 14 the text has been altered to fit a misconception about 10.PHILOLOGICAL NOTES vi. xi has removed the eariier passages about flies in Atra-hasïs.

). when the drought was broken through Enki's machinations he somehow got half of this bar broken so that water reached parched mankind. 27). Oppenheim. 34-7. Thèse gods occur again as a pair on a Middle Assyrian tablet of incantations: 3o u u. the second Enki's realm. but the idea it enshrines is well known in Babylonian and other mythologies. would be a likely paraliel to fcaIam-ma-bi. probably secondary. 46 rev. S also préserves the end of a statement that this arrangement was put into efïect. from which they shoot up. The phrase qd-du û/Iam-fm-Iu is ambiguoug. 33 Cf. ' "Siège Documents" from Nippur'. SBP 92*. 4-7. 25). Presumably Enki guarded the bottom level. it could have been handed down without change from an eariier period when ii. and the god of heaven and the storm god are appropriate as guardians of this area.8 9 . The reading ïammu can be justified on the ancient view that plants had their origin in the underworld. and ïaplïtum. i . L. not u . and Enki in descending order. 15).S. 9 One might restore ur-taq-qù-da 'danced'. ii. Atra-basïs gives no sign of subscribing to so complex a scheme. At the very beginning. xi. 40 ki-ùr means. or were they helping Enki to guard the latter? I f the second alternative is taken one must read û-mi-Su. 16. i .i66 PHILOLOGICAL NOTES S iv 45 . v. which alone has the word. 436). Of course. 3: im. and assume that ûmù can refer to the Seven Apkallus or some other group in Enki's court. Kraus. 199 . In 20-1 the picture is of wives and children being sold so that the father can buy food at famine-inflated priées. 174b : bu-û-nu = ma-a-ru (JAOS 83. S v. but still as an 'undeveloped plot* (for références.aau-ii. I f x rev.dugud su-up*ra-ka. However. qablïtum.3 ' . Flood Story 38-40 167 S iv. usuaily after a battle. a close paraliel to our line can be found in Letter 7 of collection B. iii. I f more were known of thèse two as a pair it might be possible to détermine the location of *the middle earth' more certainly. 128 in K 7752+. I t is referred back to in 11. But x has put Sin and Nergal in place of Enlil. By elênu one suspects that ail the cosmos above the earth is meant. There too sigaru nahbalu tVâmtim is used for Enki's realm. but there ia npfriculty mat x. i. S v. 15 I n Gilg. U rev. 192. As a flying créature Zû (for this reading see Or N. and the drug name su-pur sd-i (BAM 307. For agar see Diri iv. In 22-4 the horrors of cannibalism are reached. The primeval sea. restored from BM 98584+ After Anu had begotten the heavens And Ea had established plants in the underworld ù a tim Thus Enki was required to stop plants from growing at this time. The first of thèse is the abode of men. 101 K 2252+ reads èr-ra-kal û«n[a-.bi gi]-K-mu*û = ra-a-du (MSL m. 1-2 See the note on x rev. 286 rev. 20. the possibility of a compound verb a—[ x ] cannot be dismissed completely. The phrase 'the boit. 6 d d T H E S U M E R I A N F L O O D STORY (by M . Sum. Borger BiOr 14. 191. 36 130) is very suitable for rending the heavens. 37). 16-21 and 3 0 . 98. a three-decker universe is explained. was thrust down below at the time of création and a cosmic bar was laid upon it to keep it down there out of the way. the bar of the sea' has not yet been found outside this epic. 11—18..in ûmu was normal.1 9 the mother has driven the daughter out of the house to reduce the number of mouths. 7-13) With thèse signs of famine see generally A. as is [ z]u. Enlil. 8 For Hkin ïëpê 'placing of the feet' see S. 2. U . The latter is of course normally written AN. S v. see Van Dijk. despite an extraordinarily incon• ffc orthography. writes this word always û-lîam-.as would be expected d d é U obv. meanings such as cultic spaces in Nippur and Erel. and this interprétation is supported by the présence of the in&t -ni. Or. 'Middle earth' seems to occur elsewhere only in KAR 307 obv. 40 and v. and an incantation states Enki's connection with plants: én fu-uti'du a*num ir-lyu-u larruft é-a ina ersetim û*kin-nu Sam-mu AMT 42. and the 'lower' by Enlil himself. ii and iii. By mis one is forced to take ersetum qablïtum not as 'the middle earth' (of other earths). 6. 15 and x rev. BM 98977+99231 (U) BE 39099 (x) x rev. The Babylonian exercise tablet y probably préserves what the main recension had. 488 ff. Were thèse things being guarded along with Sigaru nafabalu tâmthn. Note also AfO 13. with si in the sensé of sapânu. but K 3375 has ]-gal i-na-as-saf}. U rev. 235). though in the end he failed to co-operate. xi. F. orthography apart. R.gur e-pi-ru-tu (AS 16. as in aprophecy: ummu eli màrti bâb-Sd id-dil (JCS 18. 16 û-[sar-rif] is restored by conjecture alone. 4 rev. C M ) 38 The a can be taken as a locative sumx to be joined to the preceding -bi. but due to the inconsistency of the grammar in the présent text. Certainly ûmu would bear this meaning. 23 and 39 have been correctly restored. N . in addition to other. In 1 8 . I n view of 11.na. but this remains an objection none the less. Iraq xvrr. Acta Orientalia 28. v. Note Explicit Malku r. 117 : a-gir ~ x IM x = [im. . Langdon. one level each for Anu. S 2 U rev.in the verbal chain. if the word were Ûmu. 1. 7 si-qu-ïû siq-si-qu — zïqûJfu ziqziqqu. râdu occurs in Gilg. 18-24 ( = vi. ii. but U has other unusual orthographies (see p. Malku 11. 6 9 . where there is a full séquence : ersetum elîtum. 40). 1-2. but as 'the earth which is central' (in the cosmos).41 : mid-ra-tum — na-a-ru (ZA 43. 45 Since nafû means 'raise* not 'rise' an ellipsis of nàru has been assumée!. according to which the upper level was guarded by Anu and Adad. 39 sl-[sl-ga-bi].min. line 24 (quoted . the land assigned to someone to live there. 15 hi-hu-rat is clearly an Assyrian form of ïahurrat. d U rev. 21. and the third the underworld proper. but not in K 3375. 4-7 This oft-repeated section may have occurred in some form at this point in the main recension since the context—the command to reinforce the drought—is lost between 11. and R.

UET vi. 44 One has the impression that Poebel thought that he was copying x -me-a at the beginning of the line. the choice between the two dépends once again on the missing links in the plot.' The fact that in late Sumerian the contrast between -ta. I want there to be peace (or: well-being)' . Ali's unpublished édition [Philadelphia. SGL 1. Poebel. The verb du in some instances may be tran&lated by 'rebuild*. thefirstclause must be considered relative: 'In the place which had been destroyed. In the meaning 'destruction' (Akk. 243. For ul 'foundation' see A. 33 f. it can be uni or é. 196 and xi. your shepherd tells the owner. 13.ki is found in context in: nfg-zi-gal nig-ki u -a zi-dùg-ga §i-im-da-pa-an-pa-an 'the living beings. and where there are no buildings (i. x. 4 4 -9 08 169 48 The line shows that sag-gi is a désignation of human beings in contrast with animais (see commentary to the following line). 56) is palaeographicsHy unlikely. Forerunner vui-rx. 4 x 4 86 There seems to be enough space at the beginning of the line for [du-lu]rn-bi * their painstaking efforts'. «78 « « i v . to move to the cities . 74 f. and -a is often lost. Flood Story 46 The usual meaning of a~dug is 'to irrigate' (see H .) 'as many of them as there are. The incorrect use of the sufhx -e-ne. the animais in heat. AfO 20. in a hemerological text (probably of Cassite origin) . s lack which seems to have run against the linguistic feelings of the authors of such late texts. Sollberger. see Deimel. and not an ethnie désignation. which follows Kramer. Cf. The translation given in the text is a perfectly acceptable alternative. ii. i. which they left after a destruction. : 4 4 2 d 8 49 The translation 'animais' for nig-oiLiM (the sign which appeared doubtful to Poebel is reasonably certain according to my own collation) is based on one hand on the assumption that stands for gilim ( £ ) for which the meaning 'animais' P5 is given in Ea 1. 89 The reading men -mab follows Kramer. The plural function of me-a is derived from me-a 'how many' in standard Sumerian. restored by unpublished duplicates). is perfectly admissible in itself (only the place of kù before a is abnormal). they breathe with pleasure' (EntU Hymn 150. the traces do not point to gidru (see preceding line).: GLM II x péâ kilim = nammaitu gilim. 45.dal-hamun edinfouian-ta «X» na-ba-gi -gi -dè udug(!)-hul-a-me-àm 1-gâl. -me-àm obviously takes here the place of -me§. An example of this use of -me-a is: [iM]. makes the interprétation of this line somewhat doubtful. cf. Nanna-Suen 1. but it it somewhat startling in this context. 48. 13. 350. 96. A typical passage for me-a 'how many' is Lafiar-Asnan 130 ff. GSG § 264 ff. 4 87 A single unidentifiable half-broken sign is preserved before bisf. Nanna. The nig-gilim-ma which appears as a descriptive élément in a certain number of expressions. . the tally sticks are planted in the ground.in the second clause authorizes the translation of thefirstone as relative. 1964]): the aender finds himself in a foreign city and concludes his pétition to the king by eaying: lugal-mu èn-mu hé-cn-tar-re ki-ùr-mu-Sè bé-im-mi-ib-gi -gi -in ' ( I wish) that my King could investigate my case. SL 211. it is not possible to reach a conclusion.' 42 Thefirstsign is not clear. 34). sibir (Jacobsen. 8. is a Semitism. and duplicates). cf. There is a possibility that some connection exista between nig-gilim/kilimx and ninkilim/gilimx (written nm-PÉss^"«-B* in Urukagina. nomadic life ?). but is rather an adverbial 'everywhere' (for ki-a ki-a). and W . 178. us bal seems to have something to do with modifying the location of the long side of a field. 402 with nammaitu and zërmandu. 73 f. how great have you made the number of your cowsl' (PBSx/4. 1 nig. R 28*.PHILOLOGICAL NOTES from Fadhil A.) against the destructive flood of the storm. line 259 and JCS 19. If the original sensé of -ta is to be retained. Falkenstein. Neither the verb ba-al nor its . Perhaps we must consider as one of the sub-themes of the taie a contrast between the orderly use of water (cf. It is préférable to take -me-a as a plural mark used in late texts to remedy the lack of plural morphèmes in standard Sumerian. no. as in the parallels mentioned by W . 4 4 1 Sum. Jf&rm xtv. 43 I am unable to ofTer any suggestion for translating ki(Di is also p08sible)-es. S Akkadian counterpart herû is used elsewhere for 'to dig a foundation'. because the juxtaposition of the first person possessive and the third person collective -bi (referring to un) is impossible. 197 ff. mostly designating manufactured objects (ffarra v. furthermore. Sauren Topographie der Provinu Umma I. how many ewes and how many little lambs. 1 6 a d d . 35. iii. My translation. the line implies that mankind will leave the grounds where they live now. 184. except that perhaps we must read ki-e$-<bar>. Or N . t. (and) that I could go back to my land. 4. 46 and ii. = „ gilili = natnmafâ • and on the other hand on the word nig-ki equated in tjarra xiv. which can be only an object suffix referring to un 'people'. 88 The words gidru 'sceptre' and aga 'crown' are possible restorations for the gap before nam-lugal-la.7. Leslau. AS 11. 65. vm. 43). 1 (modified reading) or e nanna àb-zu me-a mu-u -lu 'oh. 229 ff. if -ta is for -Se.) and 'toflood'and hence 'to destroy' (rv. The meaning of the line remains highly doubtful. ZA 54. r 1 gis The same me-a is found in a-na-me-a-bi (cf. cf. although he translitérâtes kù-a. Vycichl. it means that people will go back to their terri tories. If one takes the last meaning. 18. * Corresponds to the Akk. 3 ff. [si]g -bi 'their /its brickwork' is palaeographicauy more difficult. H 289) seems to mean some kind of lattice-work. this word does not mean sceptre. Cone C v. 0 41 In lines 41-4 the sufhx -me-a-(bi) is hardly the first person plural possessive (Kramer). and where cities will now be (re)built. Without the missing part preceding line 37. Falkenstein. Lexique Soqotri 193..17). how many goats and how many little kids (there are). aSamiûtu ina fëri la ulamfjar (KAR 177 rev. 1 1 u -5û-u§-e nig-kas(SiD)-zu i-ak-e giS-Sid-ma-zu ki 1-tag-tag-ge na-gada-su U|-me-a sila -tur-tur-me-a ùz-me-a méS-tur-tur-me-a lù-ù mu-un-na-ab-bé Every day an account of you is made. ki-ta Iti-ta does not mean 'from the earth'.e. and does not help in translating nfg-gilim in our context. -tè. 199ff. The meaning 'how many' is particularly clear when me-a goes with the verb lu 'to be numerous' as in: me-a lu ab me-a lu-lu Sjôberg. 99 f. also pé§-nig-guim-ma = aîtikissu (a small rodent). 6. even if the nominal izi n g -a is missing. tahluqtu) the word is normally written with a final -ma. 401a. the infix -ni. 208.

starting in line 154. Bergmann. or as m the text. The term KAB-dug appears -ga 4 in YBT 4. followed by Jacobsen. For the -en of the third person. according to the latter référence.]== [(edëlu) S]a A (Nabnitu G 11). The usual interprétation (Falkenstein. 6 5 80 r 1 d d The form n u . The meaning 'to stop the flow of water' of the verb Su is clearly needed in kù-gàl id-da âû-su-guix 'like an irrigation chief stopping the flow of the water* (UET vi/2. cf. 144. sug-g is the plural marû-form of gub 'to stand up. 20ff. and then the house of Sud burned down'.. Sumerian Mythology 97 . 4 99 The translation given is inspired by the fact that the following line has to do with irrigation waters. 121) reads su-iub-bi nfg-HAR-tfAR .. the suggestion there that the word cornes from gur-gur 'to impregnate with bitumen* cannot be taken seriously.a means 'it is not. 3 0 .. a légal record dating from the 4 4 t h year of Sulgi : someone had indulged in the illégal use of irrigation waters and ensi -ke é-gal-la di-da KB A in-na-an-dug 'the governor presided over the trial in the palace'. see E . The "a^-bûr window is otherwise unknown. x x 94 It is better to consider the sign following -ma as a superfluous -Sè (as read by Poebel). and replaces sùr-sùr (barru). 200ff.and Atra-faasïs ni. sig-sig. 19 f. The comparison with the text of PBS v.15. and pardy suggested by Poebel. no or KAH 1. 20.).. é. 146 a n . CAD I / i . and slg-si-ga) is translated by ïàru. eariier. 92a haràru C). 5 f. the sensé '(prayer with) well chosen words' is confirmed by the occurrences of the verb inim— si-(g) (Falkenstein. 63). iv. BiOr 17. and as a logogram in 3f rev. In any case. is correct. 92 111 2 4 4 4 'digging' (in the restricted sensé of dredging and widening the canal). d kl 153 O n e c a n cut â-gub-bu-mu (for -gâ) gub-ba (participle or imperative). Falkenstein. so that one can translate 'arose' or 'were présent (at the destructive task)'.5. slg-slg. 4 6 201 The reduplicated plural of im-l>ul is found also in CT 16. Sumerian Reading Book 133. C.'surface of the earth' Kramer. commentary to line 30. is it sag for zag sa tamîtui 8 t 147 C f . The passage. 20 and duplicates. E. 10. Driver 68. 109 (AO 6461 rev. Sud came out. 149 151 ki -ùr-Sè was already suggested by Poebel. 11 f. xi. 138. Salonen. R. is an obvious paraliel to the reed but épisode in GilgameS xi. 73. the passage. 127 . not of gin/du 'to come'. 8.is too badly broken to enable one to draw any useful conclusions.. Gadd in Studies G. Poebel. the word uni must I be restored somewhere in this line because of the -bi of line 92. not of 'opening a closed window*.agû B). the term refers in our context to the rights of the cities to the successive hegemony of the country. Wasserfahrzeuge 51 . 33). the only basis for it. 1 shows perfectly the problems the philoîogist faces in the interprétation of the Flood taie : ba-an-ak has been changed to gar. but H » A R barâru. 1. deseribing how the divine secrets about the incoming flood are transmitted to Ziusudra through a wall. 29 ff. 8 ' ) to which we must probably relate [. Curse of Agade 258 (cf. 12). superfluous from the Sumerian point of view. The im before si-si-ig is in ail probability a determinative. 58). without being' everywhere except in a very localized scribal peculiarity of the Larsa texts (TCL 10. v. 8 . perhaps due to a partial confusion with the name of rjiendursaga.R Ç 207 As seen already by C. J. 100 This line goes back to: [id-tu]r-tur-ra Su-lurj ba-an-ak sùr-sùr (var. Van Dijk.sùd-ka izi ba-ra-il 'he drank the beer of the "président" (or "presidency"). sùd um-ta-è. If 'presided'. but not 'came'. the words are directed by Enki first to the wall seems most likely in the présent state of préservation of the text. 10. than to read tùg (Kramer) which hopelessly complicates the line. The nu-gig must be here Inanna. which could belong to the Enlil-Ninlil-Sud taie discussed in JNES 26.18. Angim U. which would be bad = petû or the like. Legends of Babylon and Egypt 5 8ff. for a list of types of window see CAD 1/2 aptu. 19. is due to the underlying Akkadian model which had bâ*u (translated by ùr. 95 Since Pabilsag is well attested as the god of Larag: pa-bil-sag ù-mu-un la-raag (CT 42. 5. The term KAB-dug -ga has been the object of the most 4 diverse interprétations: 'Kultort' Deimel.m e . 38 f. but tëmequ elsewhere translates inim-§ag -Sag (ASKT14. an epithet of the 'deluge-demon' and the 'gods'. etc. a-gi is considered here as an irregular writing for a-gi (cf. sur-sur) mi-ni-ib-gar-gar The smalleat canals were cleaned by him. Acc. to be présent at work'.12. see J.). 204. . Although the correct technical term for 'to clean a canal' is èu-lufy—ak. there is no need to introduce a hypothetical deity £Iendurbilbursag..s a g Ni GIN r e m a i n s unexplained . JCS 19. and Ziusudra is not a vocative in line 152 (because of the verbal form gis" mu-[un-tuk] which is not an imperative) the vocative must be iz-zi-da and the conclusion that. 26). and is confirmed by the fragmentary lexical entry lû/Sà-lû = edêl[u Sa mi (?)] (Antagal 5 . however. For etymological parallels see A. ZA 57. and the insertion of the bur before sag has to be considered as a scribal mistake. Flood Story 91-207 Q The sign after -ga is u[ru] according to Poebel. 3. ZA 56. 'divine rulers* King. he put there irrigation ditches Bird-Fish Contest 8. I. inim-sl-sl-ga kiri. . a meaning which would suit perfectly the fact that the cities listed here are the dynastie cities of the ante-diluvian period according to the King List and the fragment C T 46.. Krecher. butin Sumerian the meaning 'ghost' seems restricted to lil (cf. for ùr with a-ma-ru) with eli as in G%. entitled to Bad-Tibira because of her relationship with Dumuzi. 'to open a window' is to be taken in the sensé of 'making the opening' (bùr = palâSu). 115. -nu-me stands for -na-me. cf. 1 f. . is a problematical entry (CAD vi. r 1 93 The reading sag or nisag of the first sign is correctly given by Van Dijk in JCS 19. The normal meaning 'it was not a dream' su its the context better. y 7 202 The ugu.) where. ZA 52. Gordon. 5 9 and Kramer. Su mar-r[a-ta] bar-zu bé-en-§ed -e-[dè]: ina te-me-eq u la-ban ap-pi [ka-bit-t]a l[i-pa-aS-H]-ib Bit. which seems the most Iogical translation. Restored from line 98. ZA 57.26. lao* ). Su-lurj—-gar is also attested (but not for a canal) in standard Sumerian: ki-uz-ga âu-luh-e gar-ra-zu. mehû and zaqîqu (most of the lexical références can be found in CAD xxi. ZA 56. ZA 4 9 . AS n . Since one expects a vocative before inim ga-ra-ab-dug . no. but must be considered doubtful. 38. 13 and SBH p. The word si-si-ig (with variants si-si-ga. and has the mconvenience of giving an unlikely nfg-^AR-ffAR for which one could suggest 205 The boat's name is written **mâ-gur-gur = *(ma)qurqurru in liarra iv. Gadd. The only other occurrence of KAB-dug known to the présent writer is CBS -ga 4 14233: kas KAB-dug -ga fb -nag. etc. Jacobsen. J. as pointed out b y Poebel (GSG § 265 f.).PHILOLOGICAL NOTES Sum. B HBA A. Orientalia 17 (1925) 35. 157 f. The only thing we know about this type of boat is its large size.

H o w e v e r . F . R o g e r s . RA 28.9 (B: text i n cuneiform type). v o n S o d e n reads thek 2 7 4 . 16 W . " E n m e d u r a n k i " i . H . V . ^155-8. 10. A Hebrew déluge story in Cuneiform (YOR v/3) 58-69. 1880 F . 107. 9 1 . . W . JSS 5. i n I 3 0 2 t h e v e r b c a n o n l y be a I / 2 présent. Keilinsckriftliches Textbuch zum Alten Testament1 84-5 (W).6 ( E ) . Harper. BiOr x u i . a n d e n d f r o m K 2 6 1 9 ) . S m i t h . Histoire di Israël. W i n c k l e r . 3 9 . ADDENDA I J 1 B .s u m mu-uS. 224-5 ( S . J e n s e n . J . so that one m u s t read i-ta-i-du w i t h this v a l u e . S W . 1901 W . Cuneiform parallels to the Old Testament}. made sheep numerous' (hendiadys). W ) . 113-21 ( W . 1898 V . rev. E . [sur-r]iS li/i-se f r o m t h e A s s y r i a n sé'u (OLZ 1964 35) is perhaps préférable. Assyrian discoveries 186 ( W ) . Vandenburgh. C l a y . B o i s s i e r . ( B . K 3 3 9 9 + 3934. 5 2 . I I i . Revue biblique 7. 1898 V . ZA 14. T .1 0 2 (excerpts and discussion). . Schrader. Chaldaische Genesis 127-30. iv.7 ( C ) . B y O B standards this i s better g r a m m a r t h a n ninàraïsu ' l e t u s k i l l h i m ' . T h i s implies a f o r m skr.9 2 ( E . 113-21 li-ih-ta-an-ni-ma (AHw hanànum). 1910 H . W . 38 I n view o f line 4 2 one suspects that the text m u s t have a p a r t o f tummû. Q ) . 2 4 . already Poebel's remarks o n this line as w e l l as [z]e-ru na-as-ru d la-Sam a-bu-bi. H o w e v e r . 45 . Zii-fra-zi-ir. 1907 E . JCS 20. P i n c h e s .12 7 208 ù r Sum. Keilinschriftliches Textbuch zum Alten Testament? 88 (W). S m i t h . literally slaughtered b u l l s . A n o t h e r o c c u r r e n c e o f JJaniS alone. Le Poème Sumérien du Paradis 34-9 (JE). L a n g d o n . L a n g d o n . 306-15 ( E ) . Transactions of the Society of Biblkal Archaeology m. d a m e n . a translation '[provided] Z i u s u d r a w i t h a w i f e ' i s also possible.A r n o l t . PBS x / i . i f not d o w n r i g h t i m p r o b a b l e . 265-6. i s f o u n d i n E r r a i v . 6 8 . A . L a m b e r t i n Cahiers de Byrsa v u . 'time'. K 3399+3934)1900 P . Les Origines de Vhistoire 604-5 (W). 14 T h e reading o f J e n s e n i n KB v i . 24 f. . Choix de textes religieux Assyro-baby Ioniens 128-39 ( K 3399+ 3934)1909 H . 113-23 ( U . H . H a u p t . 3. J e n s e n . as suggested b y W . they m a y be threatening to k i l l t h e task master. . apud E . 16. A s to sensé. T h e p r o p o s a i t o k i l l t h e task m a s t e r i s met w i t h the answer that E n l i l w o u l d s i m p l y appoint a n o t h e r . a n d o n e w h i c h confirms his character as a god of dévastation. 38). B a r t o n . The Chaldean account of Genesis1 153-6. I 242 T h e form ta-aS-ta-AH-fa has been taken as a I /3 s i n c e i n t h e context there is no reason for its being a I / i perfect o r I / 2 . 1910 H . 1879 J . etc. BE ser. 1883 P .9 1 a n d 539-48 ( K 3399+3934. 3). 1890 P . this h a r d l y serties t h e f o r m i n Atra-hasïs. but i f i nutammi as translated i s correct. T h i s i n v o l v e s a c c e p t i n g t h e value 't. G . 8). b u t the reconstruction o f the v e r b as a f o r m o f m i . Die Kosmologie der Babylonier 370-3 (W). M u s s . this i s something remarkable. 96. I I vii 4 9 Sullat and IJani§ further o c c u r i n a n O B seal i n s c r i p t i o n s o m e w h a t m i s r e a d by M . Flood Story 208-259. H o w e v e r . D . apud R . S c h e i l . A . JAOS 31. W . 1876 G . Assyrian and Babylonian literature 3 6 9 . apud E . W i n c k l e r . K 7816 with S iii). W i n c k l e r . W ) .7 1 (B). D h o r m e . L e n o r m a n t . RTvx.s a d u q a : Sa pa-qi-dam ù sa-tyi-ra-am la i-Su-û (cultic text.4 8 (3). gemé P A dLUGAL. E b e l i n g . I t reads : fiu-na-ba-tum. Tod und Leben 172-7 ( E . the first part o f the line r e m a i n s u n c e r t a i n . B . K 3 3 9 9 + 3 9 3 4 ) . 26.u n . 1876. H i l p r e c h t . b u t the traces c a n only be read ba b y emendation. 5 . L e d r a i n . 1903 H . 1880 G . R o g e r s . A . 540-2 (W). 259 W h i l e the second part o f t h e line i s reasonably clear (cf. Addenda 1 is doubtful. S m i t h . J .9 ( B ) . v o n S o d e n . 1900 H . 6 9 . Keilinschriftliches Textbuch zum Alten Testament? 94-5 (W). Poebel a n d K r a m e r prefer Sul.d u g * is open to doubt. PBS V iv. O r N . 61 ( W ) . S . 9 0 . 1892 H . K 3 3 9 9 + 3 9 3 4 ) . B . 5 5 . 3. AJSL 26. S m i t h . collated. G .n a . T . w h i c h i s not otherwise attested so early. W h a t r e m a i n s o f lines 5 . 81-2 VI/I) bibliothek von Nippur (3). s i n c e b a n d k interchange i n O B . Z i m m e r n . as i s w e l l k n o w n . Landsberger w o u l d like to r e a d ni-rba-ra1-a[$-ïu] ' l e t u s r e b e l against h i m ' . 256 T h e translation assumes that the v e r b a l f o r m stands for m u . d d d ( W . Cuneiform parallels 1931 1931 1956 1957 i960 a to the Old Testament 103-9. Der neue Fund zur Sintflutgeschichte aus der Tempel1910 1910 1911 1912 1915 1919 1922 364-9 (3: added comments by F . P r i n c e a n d F . rather t h a n ' s i n c e ' .103-9. KAR . R . 145 : ki-i afr-ra LUOAL i-ti-qu e-me qf-i-Sum-ma 'the reed beds became as after rjEaniS has p a s s e d b y (beginning of line from I B 212. the text as i t s t a n d s m u s t b e c o r r u p t . 18. Assyrisch-babylonische Mythen und Epen (Kdlinschrifûiche Btblio- 255 K r a m e r ' s suggestion to insert here the line from t h e left edge o f the tablet is i n ail probability correct.7 c a n be interpreted to agrée w i t h this latter sensé. W . L a e s s o e . Expository Times 21. 3 0 . I 63 A n unambiguous w r i t i n g o f t h e root sqr/zkr o c c u r s i n a n O B text probably from S i p p a r a n d the reign o f A m m i . A . S c h e i l . (ii) TRANSLATIONS WITHOUT TEXT (M0STLY PARTIAL) S rev. 281 ( S . D v / i (3). i f t h e rebels a r e threatening to kill E n l i l . T h e translation assumes that m u means here 'year'. première partie 426 (W). B . 1 BIBLIOGRAPHY (i) E D I T I O N S O F W H O L E OR P A R T x874 G . Hommel). V . 1875 G . 5 2 . I I v i i . S . L a m b e r t . 303-8 (3). H i l p r e c h t . E ) . 1926 R . JCS 21. Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament* 58. 2 7 7 . G . v o n S o d e n . 211 A stock phrase often found i n S u m e r i a n literature: ZA 5 0 .O p p e r t .

12.7 (qa-da-ni3fin S vi 6 haplography for qa-da-da-niï). a-[me-lu} V obv. The Old Testament in the light of the historical records and legends of Assyria and Babylonia * > 117 ( W ) .8 6 (B). [a-w\a-tam an-ni-[tam] III i 46. 33-5 (3). RA 61. 1914 M . 1963) A. K 3399+3934). S). cf. The Times Literary Supplément. and the various recensions and copies offer variant forms of the same épisodes. 1889 P. B). 3 . Ungnad.g. 1903 H.7 . iv. and often incomplète. B. Words only found in the late copies are indicated by the appropriate manuscript symbol. Borger. Ungnad. 1. 1923 C. x rev. 1949 (1963) A. C 2 W . Tyndale bulletin 18. attempt at meaning is given. or virtually certain if from exactly paraliel passages.4 8 m 5 7 0 . Smith. S iv 49 51. Trivial orthographie variants. Heidel. AfO 17. êsâ 'where?': e-la-a a-nu il-li-kam III iii i cohortative particle: t ni-im-fju-ur-ma 51 39 I 41 . Die Religion der Babylonier und Assyrer 122-7 ( W . ia ii-Sd-a S iv 45. i-nu-ma II i 17 20 III i 30. La Littérature des Babyloniens et Assyriens 2 4 . 1942. cf. 12. Oct. YOR v/3). 1955 E. Ungnad. Contenau. 5 3 6 . Langdon. but also to indicate the source of restorations. 3. 12 obv. 1918. Jensen. Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament 551-4- 1906 P. apud E.8 3 . 1946. where the Une-numbers of restored occurrences are put within square b rackets. 1906. Le Milieu biblique H. the glottal stop has been posited.5 8 ) and 6 7 . 1967 L . Since the purpose is nearer that of a concordance than a dictionary. The origin of Biblical traditions 1 7 3 . R. W .). PN lû S iv 17 v 27. OLZ 9. if any exista. cf. ay/ë négative: a-ii-il-li-ka II i 12. Ungnad. Altorientalischc Texte und Bilder zum Alten Testamente 57-8 (W. Ancient Near Eastern texts * 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 3 4 3 GLOSSARY THE glossary contains aU words found in Atra-hasïs arrangée! by consonants. 47b. Jean. T . P). Only in spécial cases are notes given on particular passages indicating the source of the restoration. Millard. 1926 E. "1 ia-a-st-im-ma-a (F ia-H-im-ma) it-teawilu 'nian(kind)': lu-up-s%ik itim a-winé-e[p-pu-ul] I 107 lum U-iS^B 1191 197. 1925 G. Mythologies of the ancient world 1 2 6 . 133 (note on I 2 9 9 . 1951 (1954. cf. especially of words in the context. Zimmern. Le Déluge babylonien? (îii) GENERAL DISCUSSIONS. Altorientalischc Texte zum Alten Testament 199-206 (3. Das Gilgamesch-Epos 6 9 . I 358 II i 7 S iv 6 (a-me-lu-te) x rev. 1023 D.3 0 4 ) . ArOr 35. ZA 58.4 (review of C T 4 6 ) . Jeremias. a~ma-te-$u-nu a-na ki-ik2] ki-[fi] i-sa-an-[ni\ $ obv. 1061 S . P. Das Alte Testament im Lichte des alten Orients 130. Jastrow. 1-18. Pinches. ZA 41. not to dispense with it. 1950. 1930 A. 99-100. Le Déluge dans la Bible et les inscriptions akkadiennes et sumériennes 34-5 (W. Speiser. Das Gilgamesch-Epos in der Weltliteratur 5 5 . W . alongside the line-numbers of surviving examples.1 6 (B. Aro. 4 . Assyrian discoveries 97 (finding of W). Semitic 270-6. The glossary is intended to aid study of the text. 12. 4 2 . apud Sources orientales. 1956 R.-F. OLZ 11. ri-gk*im — ayyu 'who. i 2 S ( W ) . 18-23 (S viii. 2 . qi-ba-a ia-a-S[i] U obv. Where the script writes an initial vowel. i [4] 5 8 9 12 40 ewû 'to become like': ki-ma zu-ub-bi ii 2 [3] 9 [10] <i6> [17] 32 [33] y 49 i-vm-û III iii 45 "1 yâ'û 'mine': ia-a-at-tum ni-is-sà-s[û] III v 48 âlu 'city/: i-na a-U ib-m-û bi-is-sû I 401 yâsi 'to me' : û-ul i-pa-at-tu-û a-na ia-a-H II ii 20 3$ obv. Matous.5 (3).7 0 ( W . Many répétitions occur in this epic. fu-up-h-ik-ka-ku-nu a-toi-[l]am e-mi-id I 241 II vii [31]. 8). 646 (review of Clay. an âlephsign is used to indicate the middle consonant. J. 1967 H. A. R. C . C . W . 1924 C. 1967 A. 2x2 328 II iii 31 III vi lavai 10 Gii[ia] I 26 2 (O <Mt»-/§ttwi]). ? ia-a S vi 20. Pritchard. £967 J. 275 276 288 300 301 364 367 II vi [12] la û-$a-a[s}~sà-ku a-wa-at-ka M vi 26. 104-6 (E. I [10] [18] awfttu 'speech': ii-[tné] a-wa-tam fu-a-ti 127 139 151 [164] 206 210 212 221 225 I 166. 191). i. 3 S iii 9 iv [20] v [30] 999 33 W 3 7 8 x rev. 1908 T .-F. 1925 S. Plessis). 10 rev. YOR v/3).6 . Hebrew and Babylonian traditions 3 4 0 . 1906 B.i [2] ([â-m#»4Mi}h a-me-lu-Hm 1 22 (P)a o(P) U-tum III vi 9 v 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1952 G. Hilion. 97-9 2 (B. H. Onzième série xix. Meissner. S iv 19 20 (i-ta-mu) v 29 30 9 u 'and': mu-H u ur-ri I 38. Journal Asiatique. 293 (identification of T ) . apud H. cf. Landsberger. which?': a-iu-û fo III vi 26. apud J. B. Garelli and M. Die Literatur der Babylonier und Assyrer 9 4 .7 (E). 4 7 D . S . B. Teologinen Aikakauskirja 72. Schrader. The Babylonian Genesis 5 4 . The Gilgamesh Epic * 1 0 6 . BA 1.6 . 1903. Hirsch. 1908 A.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1902. I 379 [393] [394] II ii 9 10 lu-u[l-la-a a-wi-lam] Q H [9] viii 33 S iv 31 38 awïlûtu 'mankind': ba-ni-a-at a-toi-lu-ti 99 I 194. 153-60 (critical review of Clay. N . are not noted. 49b. S ) . W). Smith. The glossary is intended not only to help thefindingof words and passages. F ossey. D. 1947 F. La Naissance du monde 129-30. A. 122. MacCulloch (éd. Ebeling. Haupt. 7 0 . e t[à\-ap-la-ba I i-lu a-wi-lum I In. apud H. NOTES. AJSL 39. 8 and S iv. 1959 P. 1921 A. Luckenbill. apud J. 1922 C. 115 (identification of D). 151 (W not part of GilgameS xi). 3 1 5 . [25]. S ) . I 242 II vii [32]. Finkelstein. Clay. otherwise the words are Old Babylonian. norarehalf-bracketsused. i 6 ( W ) . Mythology of ail races v. 1933 B. ? ia-e S vi 25 4 ayyânu 'where?': a-ia-a-nu u*& naf-pi!. 6 6 . 3 3 3 . 3 [4]. it-me-e-ma DN 42 46 v 46 vi 24 [26] 44 vii 7 n S [—] II iii [ 9 . 1931 S. 120 (3).8 (11. Gressmann. 1923 A. 6 3 . Gressmann. i 29. plausible if taken from simiiar passages. For ail other cases the glossary should be consulted. Heidel. Similarly with the so-called hollow roots. 44 46 58 60 62 214 II vii 38 999 J 1 2. Kraus. 1904.6 (argues that there must have been seven plagues !). and by root consonants for Semitic words. 1911 A. Leibovici. 549 (identification of K 7 8 1 6 ) . The letter 'n' is appended to the linenumbers of words discussed in the philological notes. [14] 22 vii 49 III i 31 43 ii 45 iii $1 i-x-ar a-tva-as-su I 168. 11.5 1 ) . ETC. 1922 R. 1907 O. RA 2 2 . PARTICULAR 1875 G. 1909 A. 1967 J.4 (S iv. Weber. Jean. G. ? tu-uk-t[a]-bi-it I 295 S iii i6n atmû 'to speak': i-ta-mu ifati I 366 [367] cf. B). 1-16 (review article on CT 46). 378. cf. e. 3 : thesis done under J.1 6 (translation of S iv. JCS 1. only a brief. Thus restorations may be purely conjectural. cf. II i 22.4 (B. Campbell Thompson. S. Kramer.

it-ti i-li-kxt-nu % è i-U û-[ul ma-gi-ir] III i 42 cf. 14 ta-an-nu *d *a] II vii a d i *so long as': a-di-tna-nti I 370 w-ba. [i]-ga-ru-maH-m[e] S obv. efûtu 'darkness': [Sa-pa-at é]-tû-tu III iii 18 393. . I 12 63 233 Iï vttt 112 (L) 34 III iii 30 52 iv 15 v 34../is it-ta-a*-da-ar I 355 II i 4 (Q ittar-du) S iv 2 (it-ta-*-[dar])\ at-ta-a. 9 «v. ul-ta-dar U rev. il-ku-nu a* cf. 5 6 I385 III i 38. te-rt-et II iv 'ht cf. i-ta-ali-zu-nim i-il-la-ku-nhn I 68 [146] [151] [159] 164 17s (MN) 232 236 tâîiazu 'battle': ta-ba-za i ni-ib-lu-la 247 (P) [339] 357 î l i o yi 16 18 21 qâ-ab-la-am I 62. x rev. 1. I 3 43 45 57 59 [106} [122] 134 I 11 . n ( M m 7 V c C ? [ 8 1 [ 9 ] [ l 9 l V i 8 a <as 9 0 0 1 1 as> ? v abu 11 [124] a-os-[fis] abu *bb abûl [46]. 10.17$ GLOSSARY GLOSSARY m 'm 'day. . i-de mil-kd H obv. 1 r [406] 416 II i .ekëlu 'to be dark'. r e v X V f ) 'ab . II vii 35. €-kal mâtu v 1 1 1 tu SISiss N . II iii 211 S iv t-/s ah-bi-Su I 48 175 (M) G ii 2 II 19 v 29 31 (dingir-iu).'gr a-bu-bu] igâru 'wall' : i-ga-ru fi-ta-am-mi-a-an-ni 'j III iii III i 20.— e|lu 'young man': et-lu a-na ar-d[a-tî] dingir jne Uni 'goddes R 9. I 106 du-ul-la I 1. [ub-lu] e-pi-tam I [ 0 ] 48 H ij [ . III iii 13. II vi 116 absânu 'yoke': ab-sa-nam li-bi-il I 196 tërru cf. III idû 'to know : t-fa û-ul i-di I 71 73 cf* II vu [45] .. fi-t-t> I 215 uznu 'ear': [uz-na] i-Sa-ak-ka-na II iii (E dingir) 228. ge§tu-i« pi-ta-at S iv 18 v 28 dingir I 191 197 G ii 12. 61-/0 e-pi-ta I 381 [39Ô] II ii 12. û-ub-ba-al qâ-tî a-na n[i-Si-ia-ma] II vi* 43. 11 rev. ali-ri-a-ti-iï**-mt I 214 l 7 J i A 4 2 2 (udjneS). S iv 48 58 v 7 »ds essu 'new' : bi-pl eS-Sû U obv. i-ku-lu ni-qi-a-am III v 36. cf. la-ap. become dark': »kl j. a^u 'brother': [û-ul] i-mu-ur a-ffu a-ha-fu s7-fa I 367 cf. t'-Ja . 9. ti-it e$-li I 274 'tm il-ta-am I e t e m m u 'ghost': e-te-em-mu li-ib-st I 215 *I la-du-ma ali 'where : 217 ( E Pi-te-em-mu I 2 i 5 n ) 228 230 I 291 i k u 'canal': i-ki ib-nu-û ra-bu-t[im] I 338 el 'over*: »* 'kb i k k i b u 'taboo': hi-û ik-ki-bu E-na-ma I I I eîi 'over': e vii 8 IÉ A 1 *kl akâlu *to eat': si-ifo-tum i-ku-ul-su II vi 16 18. 195 G ii 10 11 16 V obv. i[t-ti i-li-iu] I [366] . i-ku-la fa-a[r?^fa|] Il i 9 . 49. 10: li-qi 23 U id-ka I 171 ( M ) 46. cf. 365 y 10 (dingir-/i<). 9/7 « -mi ï 294 303 4 n UI vi4n. *br J N * 59 P] ibratu 'outdoor shrine' : I 275 ûrtu "order*. im-lu-û û-ga-ra I I vi 11 M i-Sa.mei afyâzu 'to seize' : [q]a-tam i-liu-zu qa-ti-ia I 209 p| obv. 7 *v abriâtis 'for ever*: ab-ri-a-ti-ii u -mi 10 IV 5 2 < I 214 227 1 45 î «1 *r II ii 23. ? os-fa S vi 2* O u S I fi7»] 'bl "n ebêlu see b'r i-ni mi-na-a a-mu-ur I 109 'bn ixiu *eyc' iv 53» abunnatu 'umbilical cord': a-bu-un-na-ti iv 43 I 260 (P). adâru 'to become afraid : mt-tn-tu ta-du-ur I 94 96. . i d u 'side': it-ba-a id-fii Su-tu U rev. IQ vi 21 viii o egisîtu 'a kind of priestess': e-gi-si-a-ti III vii 7n *gr ugâru 'field' : sa-al-mu-tum ip-sti-û û-g[aru] II iv 7 cf. cf.» ài^dar S iv 7 4" el-lu-tu[m\ z[i]-mu°» &-na i*-a-ad-ru III v 45 'dr ul 'not': û-ul i-di I 71 f I r. 8. — e-ep-pu-ul I 108. M-ul] û-te-ed-du-û 9 4 1É abâ *zz allu 'hoe': al-U ma-ar-ri I 337 ezêzu 'to be savage': la-ru uz-zu-zu III ii 54Î [i]-te-te-zi-zu DN à [DN] III i 43 flu 'god': i-lu û-ul i-di I 71. ana a-hi-Su I 168 169 (M). Iï iii 7 V obv. . I 173 (K) ezëbu 'to gird : [q]a-ab-lt-la i-te-zi-ih 355 II i 4. 1 4 S ii 205 G ii 2 1 r> ri fiiî x rev.gàr). i 7 ùmisarn 'dally': [u^mi-Sa-am-ma II in x rev. [i'lu]-ma II vi 15. I 208 (dîngir).m] III iii 34î Pa-"»'*'* III ii 48. dingir. a-na i-U ab~V& I 48. 21 »• ^ ] i L f > na'duru 'to be disturbed. . [w\u-ud-di-a I I I i 13. [a-**-/Jtt j»$k-ka-al *I 43î Iwur-fsiJ . I a. [41] III iii 2 4 . ba-m-iq a-bu-un-na-te S iii 7 âsu 'to l *bn abnu 'atone': at-ku-up-[pu na-H a-ba-ansti] III ii [ i 2 n ] a'âru "grow Bt-û ia i-im-ru b iv 49 cf. [1-*]*îj ( )-'-^ &mu-û III ii son zi-ib-H-na-ti I 412 II ii 34 u 3 . ^ ub-lu vii [41] J 4 (ab-ke-e-Su) cf. i~lu-umma ù a-wi-lum I 212 (E dingir-^û). 3. [8] [10].\hi «o-fa] m ii [ i ] .see k m m / T T UI iv «4 S mis and x rev. cf. 9 cf. M f &c . ma-li id-r[a-na] v " [45] H l i f ^ ^ / ^ S Ô II iv 8 cf. ur-[ta-am] 'bs* II v (is] 29 vi [24] cf. JT . . 4 . cf. weather': u -mu-um h-ni-d^inu [. * a-bu-bi [i]-zi-qù a-na idi-$u U rev. S iv 47 57 v [6] (a. pa-ar-sa-am 4 rfM tt a 6 ] /I-DI-IÏ. a6-/a-Ham I 195 196 li-bi-il — G i i i o n V obv 5 6. ub-la pi-i-ni . 'dr r . i 13 (-Sam-) Y ( " " ) ta-ba-al-ma I 171 ( K L ) . [k]u-up-ruba-bi-il III ii cj[fo-ba-b]i-il ar-hu III ii 39. | F [ta-b]a-zi I 129 141 vu 199 cf. J 4 (*-&). 'zn cf. ii [8] abâ ru 'to destroy*: sf-ou-uf bi-ta III i 22 'gbb ugbabtu 'a kind of priestess': û-uk-ba-akka-ti III vii 6n um 4 I X § a m ku-nu u[r-ta] II vii 36. i P ' ^^14051 idrânu 'sait': se-ru . dihgirjneS 3 ^ obv. viite-er-ta I 6 36. I 286 s-fam ta-at-bu-ba I 239 II vii [33].jf % ezëbu 'to leave': s-ss-so II ii 2' (Q). . III ii 29. II iii 19.

[18] 19 30 vii 50 III i 44 47 [48} ii 49 Su-ut-fi-ir at-ta UI i 19. 5 16 x a-ta-ku S iv 50 60 v [9]. 10 nu-û-[jK\ III. -d)u-uh an-nùa-am ! 162 (O).w)a-tm anni-[tam] III i 46.SAL I 32. . [il-li-k]u-ma x rev.. I [27] . II ii 16 30 a-ia-ar DN [il-li~ku-ma] II v [18]. issaqar a-na anâku T . i 22 ii [19] [35]. [3] cf. . i 25. tëliltu 'cleansing': te-U-il-tam û/lu-ia.lji. . a-am-ru II iii 17. 11 12. . 'md ei-ru arfyu il-li-ka-am-ma 1 281: cf. a-la-M II ii 3' (Q). — DN II vii 52. S iv [x] . W [4] ufUI 'presently': ul-li-ii III i 34 elû 'to ascend ' : [O-tu DN] i-lu-û ia-me-e-la'm I 17. 'mm li-il-H-ku II vii 50. nu a-tvi-[t]am e-mi-id I 241 II vii û*ul i[l-li-ka] mi-lu 11 iv [2] cf. for': a-na I 16 [18] 81 83 84 98 100 110 117 [134] [155] 170 200 242 249 (P) 257 (P) 258 (P) (301) 330 [370 381 386 [396] 408 II i 9 10 ii [12] 26 iii 21 28 30 v [20] 25 [2'] vi 2 29 vii [32] elêmi 'above': e-le-nu-um II xv i . al-ka-nm I 44 46 58 60. imittu 'right-hand': a-na i-mi-it-t[i] I 257 14» i-iUla-%u-nim I 68. . 10 li-il-U-du III iii 45 ummânu 'workman' : dumu. e-le. 8. 14. a*i(tillu 'yoke': ap-fû-ur ul-la I 243 cf. i-de« vii 5 . I 154. 'mbr û-ul il-li-ïk-ma 600. e-reb ama alâdu 'to beget.SAL — S v [20] vi 9 . 6 . I ^ 8 0 ] i-na na-aq-bi II i 13 iv 3 S i 8 iv 45 'eq 55 Ul cf. at' : i-na ka-la-ak-ki I 40. II i-mu-ur I I I i 30. i-na bi-ir-ku a-UÂt-ti III vii 5 inûma 'when': i-nu-ma i-lu . DN i-te-li — I 13. cf.umfimu 'wild animais': û-ma-am se-rim li-ku-ma II v 32 vi 27. I 408 (e-pi-tm) H « * I 247 'n entu 'a kind of priestess': e-ne-ti III vii 6 appuna 'moreover': [a^pu-na so-lu-uitum U~i[b}-8 Ul vii ï 'n 'ni ' . % obv. . in II ii 8 (Q). cf. 1 assùtu 'wifehood': (a-na) ai-i[u-u^ ù mu» 44 46 58 60 122 [132] 144 148 161 206 tu-ti I 301 209 210 213 215 218 221 224 225 228 tënisû/tëniàetu 'mankind': te-ni-fe-tu II [259] (P) 290 299 302 305 355 [359] 377 vi 130. ie. i 24 25 42 ii 47.meS um1k m[a-ni] W 8 alâku 'go': il-li-ik DN I [134] cf. um-mi re-e[m-Sa] II iv 4 . .x 8 7 GLOSSARY GLOSSARY mr immeru 'sheep' ki-ma im-me-ri III iv 19 'n ana 'to. PN a-na-ku-(ma\ vi 12 17 42 46 S iv 5 22 29 37 x rev.mà] i W [8] U { • ] 9 16 a U rev. ii 25 41 III ni 4 2 n 'ni aâsu 'so that' : ai-Su la mu-ui-H-i I 217 230 assatu 'wife': ai-la-tum 0 mu-ià 1276 300. li-il-li-ik.amurru 'wcst wind': a-mur-ru U rev.bar-toi W 7 46 Jb obv.a I [352] ibbaru 'mist' : ib-ba-ra ûjli-Ha-az-ni-in 416 II i 1.i 22. i 3 22 simânu 'moment': ti-ma-nu B-im-fi 1 305 'from': i-na ma-ia-li û-i$-et-[bi-iu] I 79. iu-up-ii-ik-ka-kuiii 51 v 39. i 37 u 22 45(?) vi 1 10 18 44 vit 1 2 3 viii [10] [5] [ 12] . û-ul-la-du I 238 (P). a-U-il-li-ka mi-lu II i 12. i*w mi-na-a a-mu-ur a-[n]o-hu I 48 86 92 106 112 119 [169] 199 205 I 109. ii 46. 11. W 13 cf. at-û-i-ma B-às-&û-ru 1194 UI Jjl obv. atti 'thou*: [at-t]a û K4 III vj 44. al-l[i-ik] I 156. a-na-ku-ma I [3020] û-ul-la-da [a-bu-ba] II vii 46. ip-ha-a gi [s. in to': i-mi-da a-na iv 11. x rev. li-mu-u[r] II iii 22 x rev. 'n âzm-ka $ rev. ii 30. e*>te-mn-$u~nu*t$ 'at the discrétion of': a-na ra-ma-ni-ia x rev. 6 i [1] 18 ii 45 G ii 2 U obv. i 26 38 44 ii 6 8 31 uttatu 'barley': [fo-/t]. ub-la tum III vii 2. lu-mur-ma W 15. ii 46. I 202.ar-qû-tum am-ru pa-n[u-H4ri\ I I iv 15. ul-da g[al-la-ta] ie-er-ri I 292 S iii 19 (ama) ti-a-am-ta UI iv 5. [fu-ti ana] àb-bi-fd W [7] i-na-fal ama S v 21 vi [10]. ub-lu uppu 'drum': up-pa i m-H-me 1 2i4n cf. 'upper régions': if-pf-ur ip-fû-ur III ii 55. qa-da-nil {[t-ta-n]a-la-ka S v [17] vi 6 emûqu 'strength': e-mu-qâ iu-ur-ii III i 33 'mr 'U amâru 'to see': i-mu-ur-ma I 334. 2 3 7 S ii 10 iii 6 15 iv [2] vi[47l [3] [7] [8] 30 [40] [41] 43 53 v [12] 'sk [13] [H] [15] 17 [18] [22] [26] 32 vi asakku 'pestiknce : il-fà-km-ma JJ*fg|t [1] [2] 3 4 7 11 15 U rev. af-tû-in ri-im-ka I 207 222 ni-hi û-ul am-ra-[(a)-ma] II iv 6 1 'mr eleppu 'boat': [e]-U-$p-pu ia ta-ba-an.600 mu. 5 S iii 17 'am W [14] 16 x rev. ïèr-ta e-mi-id x rev. gis. cf.SAL i-da-gal S v 18 vi 7. cf. Ul viii i«î an-na-a x rev. ii 26 42. II v 34 vi 53 54 «i [7] 14 3 * 36 43 47 5 ° * 9 » 18 27 III viii ix S ii 3 X rev. S iii 18 (-tu). a-U a-li-it-tum 'm û-ul-la-du-ma I 291 S iii 18 (û-laemu 'father-in-law' : bi-it [e-mi ra-bé]-e du-ma).meS I 209 a-mu-ur-ma III iv 10. <m-nuum . ii 13 . 1 x rev.ma ul e-pu-ul DN e-le-e-nu II v [16] 30 vi *5 x rev. I 301. ii 15 W 12 nu-ti x rev. % rev. qâ-ad-di-iS'mn MUla-ka II iv 16. ma-mi-tam III vi 8. a-ta-mar v 455 el-lu-ti III ii 32 pa-ni-k[a] TJ obv. [31]. I 203 289 II iii 24 v 17 31 236 357 369 373 388 II i 6 iii [18] vi 26 vii 45 46 111 i 34 iii 36 46 x v 23 vii 41 viii 37 III i 2 12 16 41 rev. ûjlu.mâ] e-ru-um-ma ka gtè. eUtt 'pure': el-lu-tu[m] z[i]-mu-H-na III ma-qû-ra i-ta-ma-ar III vi 5 . \i~U-H-$]h*4u ma-as-ba-tum I 409 II mu-ur-sa i-im-mi-du-ni-a-ti I 371 ii 27. i-na bi-ir-ku a-li-it-ti III pi-i-ni . i-ip-pu-uf III vi 13. 11 W 9 [i]l-la-ka di-ma-lu I 167.^-''^ ' axxmx 'yes' i-pu-lu a-an-na I 218 apâlu «to an»wer': i-pu-lu a-an-na I *l8 V annû 'this': an-nu-û-ma II iii 32 cf. cf. an-ni-a-am qd-ba-fa I 244. sëru . [giS. bi-ni e-le-ep-pa III cf.. 1 6 v . 28 ina II ii 3' (Q) obv. a-U-it-tum-tna la a-li-it. i-mu-ur-ma il-tum m III iii 32. 6 3 179 II r 37 42 43 viii 33 35 III i 39 ii 41 iii 27 V 48 54 iv 8 9 15 v 30 41 43 46 vi 48 viii unâtu 'taclde' : h-û du-un-nu-na û-ni-a18 R 7 9 S iii 20 iv [18] [34] 39 42 turn III i 32 50 52 60 v [9] [19] 22 [23] [28] vi 8 12 *nt U rev. [ul-Qu-û re-ïi-iu S v [19] vi 8 . pa-na-mi . — ama *ld dumu. ii 27 43. a-ia-ar at-ta ta-al. il-li-ik ra-du III iv 25.imfiullu 'evil wind' : im-bul-lu U rev. i-na né-el-m[e-n%\ III 'lot': is-qâ-am id-du-u I 12 isqu v 50. [iï\-lak DN U rev. I I emëdu 'to put on. 8 £u ma-as-fya-tum I 3820 397 II ii 13. 'nn — ana I 168 ( M ) 175 (LMN) J 4 S ii enênu 'to punish* : \ji]-tu-ma e-ni-nu*fa[8] x rev. . e-te-el-li-i-ma ummu 'mother': ama a-na dumu. a-la-da-'m am pu-ur-si III vii on. i [a. cf. I 1. li-te-el-li-lu dingir. [û-ul] i-mu-ur a-bu v * 9 [i \ vi 28 a-ba-iu III iii 13. tll i 50. cf. ut-ta-za-ma ta-np-lè-ti S iv 383 392 398 401 [404] 410 II i 4 8 ii 23 25 [14] 16 17 20 22 28 30 31 iii [3] [6] 8 10 'nt 16 24 27 iv 13 14 16 v 5 [21] [3'] vi 16 atta. i-na bit a-li-te S iii 15 lillidu 'offspring' : ki-ma zu-ub-bi i-wu-û m ma-me-et-lu-nu obv. [227] i 15 y 13 m inanna *now'. 2 W [8] ina 'in. U-il-li-ik 'mtjl la-ru II i 14.mâ tir-[rd\ W 6. al-ka-ma II iii (P) S iii 5 (zag) 33.mâ ra-bi-tam % rev. gu-Hk-burf a\n-nu*tum] III vi [a] annumma 'now': a-nu-um-ma ti*iûa tuqû-um-tam I 61 4 0 . e-le-ep-pa nu-ia III Iii 44.a-na ma-mi-tû a-bu-bi x rev. gts. 'ps v i 30. zi-ba-ni-it dumu. S iv 12 16 rev. e-ia-a DN il-li-kam jka-am III ki-ib-ri III iv 9 cf.SAL a-na ia-ma-i III iii 48. al-ka-ni *mq ka-la-ni x rev. bear': û-ul ul-da er-se-tum dumu. » i-na-an-na epïtu 'cake': et-fe e-pi-ta U**n II ii 12 cf. e-nu-ma S* obv.amu 'raft': ki-ma a-mi-im III iv Sn 9 tY-tsf id-ra-na S iv 48 58 v 7 M m âlittu 'bearing woman': a-li-it-tum I 291 mâmltu 'oath': ma-mi-tû II ii 12' (Q). 15. ana il ii 5' (Q) S iii 'nk 5 6 vi 11 W [7] x rev. elëlu 'be pure': û-ul-la-[a]l ka-la-ma i 21 (li-mur)\ i-ni mi-na-a a-mu-ur I 109. . 10 22 x rev.

il-ta-nu U rev. âi-bat S ii 6 V 1. 18 (i-ta-sa-a). ta-faa-za e-ep-pu-ui I 108. i\li-né. ? i-Su-ma I I I v 47n 'Sb asâbu 'to sit': a-iar us-bu i-na bi-ki-ti ui-bu-ma I I I iv 18-19. la-am a-bu-bi toa-se-e 3 rev. nd-ie-er-tam I I v [2on] [z ] vi 29. sf*aVfc I 367 S iv 20 v 30 (4sl) x rev. er-se-et DN I I I i 48 '«1 a r q u 'green' : ar-qû-tum am-ru pa-n[u-li-in] I I iv 15 urqëtu 'grass': mu-la û.gaba-4a S iv47 5 7 v [6] V erû 'to be d r y ' : ka-aq-qd-ra li-e-er-ri I I i i5n 'rb erëbu 'to enter': [i-ru-u]m-ma ip-ha-a gip. i-te-er-bu I 249. tam-nu-û supa-ta S iii 3 'sr aâar 'where' : a-ia*ar DN iUli-ku-ma I I v 18J32 vi [27] ([a-îfl]r). 1 V a s u 'to go out' : û-si na!-pi!-iS-tum I I I vi 9 : ia-am-mu û-ul û-si-a I I iv 5 S iv 49 59 [8] (û-sa-a). 1 5 7 arâdu 'to descend': [a-na à]p-si-i [i]-taar-du I 18 . i-ip-pu-ui I I I v i 14. . W {15]. ei-ru iti il-li-ka-am-ma I 281 cf. .ma ul e-pu-ui W 13. I I I iii 31. iu-a (li)-ii-ii I I ii 19 [33]» ii/U-iur a. pâ dù-ia S ii 8 iv 21 [29] U obv. li-ie-ri-du-[nim-m]a I 97. R 5 usurru 'design': [û*$w]-tu lu-tnur-ma W (x$]> see also under esêru v ' W% |p I 74. û-su-ra-te id w&F*** û-sa-ar DN S iii 14 cf. e-reb ama dumu. pâ te-pu-ia-am-ma I 198 235. e-ri-U-ta DN I I I iii 3311 . S iii 3. e-re-ba-ka âS-me-ma U obv. S iii [20] il-ta-nu ïanti* àittu 'sleep' : la i-sa-ba-su H-tu S iv [3] g 41 û-za-am-tna Si-it-ta I 35c \\ \ % rev. i-pu-ia qâ-ta-ia I 289. ig-mu-ru 8~pa~at~ s[a ] I 255 (P). a-H-ib I 254 ( P ) . lu-ri-id S vi 27. e-rii-ta DN S i i i 16. wa-ii-ib I 101. 3 ilsanu 'north wind* . ba-at-fa tt-taiu ûjU-ie-di-iu-ma I 216 229 'tkp . — te-eb-nu-na-fcma S iv 27 'St istën 'one': i-lu\\am il-te-m 1173 ( K L N ) 208 S ii 7 (dis). pâ i-pu-ui-ma x rev. rëmu . i-na ar-bi I 206 22x . ia DN i-(pu)-iu-ma I I I v 4711.Sim me-er-[*i-sun} W9 'IT apsû 'tfae Apsû*: [d]p-sa-a I 29. fa-ab-su-ta-am i-pu-ui I 285. uljia û-fe-8r ièr-ra S iv 51 ex v [9] 'sr e s r u 'tenth' : ei-ru Ira affala I 280 281 9 isâtu 'fire': i-ia-tamlta-am 's x I 64 65 ne-pi-H-lu-nu id- mïsertu 'abundance': û-ma-al4$-er . ii-û-ta la-at-tam I I iv 9 istènis 'together*: ub-la pi-i-ui I I v 15 29 vi 24 I I I vi 8. 280. tv-lfir û-sur-tà] W [16]. i-ir-ru-ub ù û-us-si I I I i i 4 5 . ct-Ztf a . ii-pu-ur DN û-ie-ri-[du-ni-i]i-iu I 99. 4 . ndim-ma i-i[u-û] I I I i i 30 3X. I I iii 28 S vi 27 (?) x rev. iaf-ri ap-si-i I 102. [it-ta~fa-a] a-bu-bu I I I fp [ii] U rev. dù-ma WII x rev. ka-la m4i ii-te-nii i-sa-bat % rev. . [10].n a ar-d[a-tï\ R 9 cf. er-se-tim qabli-tim x rev.dar-*M-t«).sa ii-pi-ke-e-iu S iv 46 56 v 5 cf. make*: la na-tû a-na e-pé-ii 1200 cf. iamai la-aS-iu I I I iii 18 à '** esëlu 'to be stifF: ? i-ta-as-sû-la esënu 'smeil': [i-si-nu [34] i-l\u I 33611 III v arâhu 'to consume': bitu i-re-ba-ma S v 24 v i 13 e-re-ia m& esêru 'to design': s-|*-*> çl-ma I 288.n a I I v 12 'rn a r n u 'crime': [be-el ar-n]im I I I v i [25] *rp esû 'to be confused': û-te-[ii] I 74. I I ii 24 ii-tar-fu-un I [406] 't ittt 'with': if-tï I [152] 165 201 [36^] I I vii 47 I I I 1 4 2 49 Sivi9V29î*t-ft-sama I 200. ttte il-ta-nu S v 24 vi 13. [34] 38. 7. li-ie-sa-an-ni-ma i-na nê-el-m\e-nï\ I I I v 50 v isû 'to have': ia i-iu-û te -e-ma I 223. 7. gis.SAL i-da-gal S v [18] v i 7 . 10.. cf. fjjfartnà I 115. I I I iii sn (?).). te-ep-pu-iu ï rev. ii 20 36. i-na er-pé-H I I I ii 49 53 'ts ersetu 'earth': er-se-tum I I iv 4 S iv 49 58 v [7] ( k i ) . ma-annu . mi-ièr-tû x rev» ii 6 13 {me-ih-tû) 'sa asâsu 'to be pained' . tu-ia tua-ai-ba-a-ku I I I iii 49. [lu-û e]-pu-ui I I I vi 18. . âl-bu-ma S ii 5 .ab). 4 13 . e-tar-du S i 1 . i-ta-Su-uS a-ia-ba-am I I v i 15 17 assâbu 'tenant': ki-i a-ia-bi i-na bi-U di-im-ma-ti I I I i i i 46 s u b t u 'dwelling' : i-na iu-ub-ti-iu I 44 46 58 6 0 . i [3] x . i 26 38 (zu. -r]i-du Si3 'rd a r d u 'slave': is-sà-qar a-na ar-di-iu I 373 I I I i 16 a r d a t u 'young w o m a n ' : ar-da-tum R 8 cf. er-ie-te mu-te-ti S iii 8 's luttu 'dream' : [fa iu-ut-ti w]u-ud-di-a qi-ri-ib-ïa I I I i [13]. [ta-at-t]a-ai-ba-ma I I vii 34.§à . it-ta-ai-buma I 332. arâru 'to suxTer cramp' : i-na i-ta-na-ar-ra-ar-ru I I I iv 23 'ré bu-bu-ti e r e s u 'smell': [i-si-nu i-l]u e-re-ia I I I v 34 m e r s u 'bed': na-de-e e-er-H 1299 ( E P gis. ia-a-E-im-ma-a it-te-né-e[p-pu-ui] I 107 nëpisu 'tool : i-ia-tam du-û-ma I 64 1 e q l u 'field': a.. . ai-bu I 172 ( K ) . i-ir-ru-ub à û-us-si I I I ii 4 5 . i-ta-fa-ul a-ia-ba-am I I vi 15 17 'st isti 'with': U-U-ka I 170 (K) istu 'after': is-tu-ma tb-lu-la pi-fa I 231. [k]i-ma ap-si-i I I I i 29. . i 23 ii [26] 42 -since': {tf^-tv-ma ap-ta-na-a\l-la-b DN] I I I i45 . 6 **tr istaru 'goddess': il-ta-ar-ku-un I 379 u 394 I I ii xo S iv 31 (*u. — ia-apli-tam I I v I 7 n 31 v i 26. [as-na} Ma-ah-kana i-na iu-na-a-û I I us 8 10 'sp siptu 'incantation': Si-ip-ta it-ta-na-an-aH I 253 (P) cf.nâ) 'rs e r s u 'wise' : e-rii-tu DN I 250 (P) . e-fir û-[sur-tu] W 14 (imptv. li-[ie-ri-b]u-ni a-na ma-ab-r[i-ia] I I v 2 5 . a-na-ku lu-pu-us I 203. it-ti-Sa I I I iv Ï5 ï it-ti-iu-nu I I I iii 38 *t ittu 'sign': ? gtj-to S vi 20. pâ i-pu-ia-am-ma is-sà-qar I 47 85 91 105 m 118 174 ( K ) 204 [368] 372 [387] I I v [22] v i i 40 viii 36 ( D i-pu-ia-ma) I I I i 1 11 15 40 vi x i 16 41 45 G ii [1] J 3. ai-ba-[ku] Jfy obv. tva-aëba-at I 189 [278] G i i 8. [ma-li-k]u-ut ap-se-e S i 2 'pr apâru 'to cover the head* : u*-pu-ut ka-aqqà-as-sà I 284 apparu 'hair*(?): ap-pa-ri S S i 7 *pr epëru 'to supply with food': [la t]e-ep-pira-nim I I vi 14 epësu 'to do. . cf. û-ul û-ui-ia-ab I I I i 4 7 . [u]l-la-ab ib-taak-ki I I iii 12 14. 2 6 8 a r h u 'month': [ib-ba-b]i-il ar-bu I I I ii 39. uteqqû 'to observe': é-te-eq-qi [û-t]e-qi-ma Hkna U obv. ii 48 (-Ai). a-sV isl^a I I I iv 18. I [17] 255 (P) H i " 25 I I I » 5» v 36 S iii 3 vi 26 x rev. I I I iv 26 'sr esertu 'shrine' : so-su-sl ti-[re\-H I 337 'sr esêru 'be straight'. 180 ( M ) . i [5] 9 i i xo rev. ii 3 (ki-rim) 17 (ki-fu) 33 (er-se-tû) . [gis-mâ] e-ru-um-ma W 6. e-tar-bu-ma S v i 17. i-pu-ui I I viii 35. cf. 3 . [i~ma]-an~nu ar-fn' I 279 'rk a r k u 'long': ar-ku-tum ma-az-za-zu-H-na [ik-ru-ni] I I iv 18 S v [15] v i [4] 'rk a r k u 'after': pu-ra-na-ta ar-ki-id S i 7 'rm armânu'pomegranate': ? a r . ii 14.m a .ma] U rev. I I i 18 'qn uqnû 'lapis lazuli': uq-ni ki-ia-aH-i[a-ama] I I I vi 3 'qr aqâru 'to be rare': DN zu-un-na-Su ûjlu-id-qir S iv 4 4 54 v [3] 'r i r t u 'breast': i-ir-ti-ia I 272. er-se-tam I 14. ki-im-ta-iu ui-te-ri-ib I I I ii 42 cf. û-ul û-ui-ia-ab I I I ii 4 6 . [w]a-ai-bu I 103 cf. [a-na a]p-si-i [i]-ta-ar-du I 18 cf. [er}-p]él-tum û-ka-la-la I I vi 12. H-ip-ra le-em-na . i [1] ii 44. li-te-ed-di-liir-ta-ia I I i i g n .i8o GLOSSARY tëqitu 'slander': te-qi-ta 'qi GLOSSARY I I vi ign erpetu 'cloud': er-pé-e-tum li-ifr-ta-anni-ba I I i 16. ki-i û-sa-an-ni x rev. e-rUH tam DN I 193 . . a-na — I 84 mûsabu 'dwelling': zu-uk-ki mu-Sa-[ab] l 329 ( ? ) 'akr i s k a r u 'task': [ii-k]a-ra-a-tu I 181 ( M ) 'in cf.

7. i 13. pa-H4t-tu i*ik-ka-lu ka-ar-si I 39 III v i i 3 . I 190. û-Sa-as-lii bi-i-S[a] III iii 41 I 62. a-ii-4b. mUg-ra-am bsr tu-qû-um-tam I [146] 160 b u s a u r u 'to report': il-lu DN û-ba-[as-sa. i 31 b i n u 'son' : bi-nu bu-nu-ka I 93n 95 gps b u n u 'son': a-na kurummate*' bu-naU-tàkgapâsu I I 'to collect*: ku«.. a-na-ku-mi ab-ni I 289. li-ib-Si-ma . id-du-uk* bïru 'between': [i-na b]i-ri-su-nu I 259 ni-a-ti 1 [149&] . mur-fa di-'a etc. II i i 4' (Q). i-lu it-ti-Sa ib-kuû III iv 1 s . i-na-as. 7 gzl dm g u z a l û 'chamberlain': gu^-^um^a-iu-Hsf^nu d a m u 'blood': i-na S-ti4u u da-mi-hi I 9n 126 [138] (-ku-nu). S v 26 vi [15] (bal-fa-at) \ na-pi-il-ta bu-ul-U-ip III i 24 sert W [9] balâtu 'life' : ba-la-td lu-û [ Js) rev 4 cf. bkr I [5] [7]. qi-ri-ib bi-ti I 375 390 II i i 14' ([qi-rib bitu]tn Q ) . %-ki — I 338.d' ar] I 365 di'u 'sickness' : [mur]-iu <#-'» tu*ru-pu-u bql a-sa-ku 3 iv 12 16. b" — i-li-fu II i i i 11. x rev..S iv 9 (lih-H). —. cf.za. kâ ili-Su S v 31. [bu-ul] II iv [14]. II vii 47. be-le-[et] (P -l]et) ka-la i-U lu-û balàju 'to live': W-t ib-lu-uf a-wi-lum fiu-u]m-ki I 247 III v i 10. ki-4 S iv 28 èe. m qâ-ne-e gâb-bi lu bi-nu-us-sàdu-ul-la I 2. 13 b i r k u 'knee' : i-na bi-ir-ku a-li-it-ti III d'm vii $n da'âmu 'to be dark': u^-mu-um U-id-daba' i-[im] III iii 34 basû 'to b e ' : e-te-em-mu [ib-H] I [228] d'r [230]. 6. bultjîtu 'feverishness': [bu-û]l-bi-ta û-kaVY 17.i8z atkuppu 'reedworker': GLOSSARY b's bâsu 'to be put to shame': 14 28 GLO8 at-ku-up-[pu na-H a-ba-an-lu] III ii I2n 'tl etellu 'noble': e-te-el-li I 170 'ta atmânu 'résidence': ba-bi-fa-at-ma-ni ilU-ba-al-tna i-na ka-at-re-e I 383 398 [410] II ii û-Sa-aq-bi bi-i-\sa] III iii 39n. é il-ta-nu S v [24] vi 13. û-pa-ab-bi-ir a-na ba.la • nPmI 210 aa$ bu-ur-ma I 4 1 . ad-du-ku ma-as-sa(P) S iii 6 (be-ru-) ru tam-ti x rev. 7 1 gerû 'to provoke war':fy§*ra-amt]u-qûbunu/bûnu? : bi-nu bu-nu-ka I 93n 95 um-tam I [130] [142]. û-la-ab-H qâ-a[bdagâlu 'to watch': e-reb ama dumu^AL la] III viii 13 i-da-gal S v 18 vi 7 busû 'goods': [Ht-H ana] lib-bi-M . ka-ab-tam du ul la ht nu 1240.Su*À<z W 7 dekû 'to muse': DN id-de-ki DN I 76 78 9 4 1 0 2 gll [il-t]u-ma te-eb-nu-na-li-gallatu 'rolling' : g[al-u>ta] ti-a-am-ta I ma S iv 27. 11 .DiM me-te S v [25] vi 14 d'k br' dâku 'to kill': su-up-&-4h-ku. G ii 9 (li-ib-ni-ma) (»ta-am)\ ub-la pi-i-ku-nu ga-me-er-tim V [2] 4 . cf. du-ul-lam û-la-az-ba-hs I 6 cf. cf. é Si-im-ti I 249 (P). é a-li-te S iii 15. ta-ha-za i ni-ib-lu-la qâ-ab-la-am II viii 37 III i 2 12j cf. G ii 7. la-wi bi-it-ka I 80 82 bâbu 'door': i-di-U ba-ab-lu I 89 cf. e-àt-il ba-ab-ka I 87. I I I iii 38 1 lu-ul-la-a I 195 cf. du-ul-la-ni-ma • I i$o 163 dll . b'1 ib-ta-a[k-ki] x rev. II ii 20. . is-sà-qar a-na be-U-ëu I [369] k r u ' s o n ' : a-la-da-am bu-ur-Wd* ? III bu bûdu t b'd bk' DN be-U-lHi] W 12. Sà-su-ta-H. ba-na-at gn H-im-tu 8 iii z 1 . ii 22 38 binûtu 'structure' : qâ-ne-e gâb-bi lu bi-nug*' us-sà 3 rev. 38. ^ .là la-bi-ru->tkn d m ' I 49 J 5 (gu.U rev. cf. 3 s .za. — ii-ma-ti I I I vi 47. a-na pf-te — I [120] S ii 9 (kà-ka). il-mu-û ba-bi-budûru 'profusion': bu-du-ri nu-ni III i H-ka I 1x4. III i i b b ' 52. H-a ba-ab-lu I 380 395 [407] II ii bubùtu 'hunger': i-na sû-mi ù bu-bu-ti u 25. i-na bu-bu-ti III iv 22 II iv kâ-& S v 19 vi 8. cf. S iv 49 (li-bal(or from ebëlu) kat) Vr bit bém 'to choose': li-ib-u-ru (D li-ib-te-e. il-tum i-ba-ak-k[i] I I I iii 32. II iii be-el te -mi III iii 51 v 40. brk i-da-ak i-da-dl U rev.. ba-ni-a-at a-wi-lu-ti III v 44 I 194. ib-nu-û bi-is-su I 402 b'b 11 ii 20.[e-mi ra-bé]-e I 302.balâlu 'to m i x ' : il-iu-ma ib-lu-la fi*fa rt«l) '"-ffti vu 48 I 231 . it-ti DN — H-ip-*u dâsu 'to thresh': i-da-ak i-da-âl U rev. û-ba-li-il Xt-it-fa I 226 cf. be-li I 80 93 155. i-na bit DN en-ia al-ba-[ku] la-la ia-ap-ta-la I I I i i i 29n. cf. 5 . i-lu-um-ma ù [139] (-ku-nu) a-wi-lum li-ib-ta-al-li-lu I 212 bn» banû 'to build': AY R 183 I ion 127 la-wi I 71. bi-ni gamertu 'total destruction': i-Zu iq-bu-â e-le-ep-pa III i 22. gu. at-ra-am I 37 qâ-di-iS-ti I 290. i-tu-ta a-na ba-bi-iajka I [81] 83 110. I I I v i i i 10 (ib-lu-f[û])\ ba'ûlâtu 'subject*': ba-û-la-tu-ul-fu I 14 i-na H-it-ku-ki na-p(-i[l-ti ba-al-ta] b&hl 'cattle': bu-û-[ut} III ii 3 6 . . — du-ul4a~ni 142 . bi-it [149] 162.la~e) dîmtu 'tear': [fljLla-ha di-ma-su 1167 gl ba-m-iq a-bu-uu-na-ted u l l u 'toil': du-ulrhi-uM ka-bs-à I 4. Su-ru-pu-u ib-H S iv 13. i-ba-al-su-û dbb 3 obv. sa-mi-a » obv. ib-ta-na-ak-ki bëlu 'lord': DN id-de-ki be-{el-Su] I 7 8 . [é\-le-ep-pu B-pa-as-s[a ] I 255 (P) la ta-ba-an-nu-û-[H] III i 25. 3 rev.. bu-da-Si-na II iv 17. gamâru 'to complets': il-tu-ma ig-mu-ru gb gabbu 'ail': % rev. — na-ak-ma-ti III iii 50. 19 (i-ba-a)\ i-ba.2a. g m I I iv [Si r ib-nu-û el-[re]-ti I 337. ub-lu . cf. dk' ni*g. U obv. I 215 217 360 III vi 50 dgl vii 1. ma-la—31 rev. bi-ni-ma ga-tne-er-t[am] I I viii 34n. bu-bu-ti-il ni-H sa-ru kà-k[a] W 10. é b ba-a-a' a-bu-bi III i 3711 rii-ti S iii 17. mu-sum d'ft i-ba-al-H I 70 72. û-bu-ut bi-ta III i 22. — di-im-ma-ti bâ'u 'to go along': ê-ba-a* ka-Su-Su III iii III iii 47. 12 (-tint) S v [14] v i [3] (-te). I 211 gallû 'sherirT': gal-lu-jfu-nu (li-ba-al-li-il. en S iv 23 25 vi 19. i-pé-eb-b* — III ii 51 .d a m 'âge': a-[na da-ri] I [371] H-H-na-H ri-iS-t[um] II i 20. . I 339 kâ giS. [en t]a-§i-im-ti S iv [17] III iv 18 v [27].bu-bu-ti-H-na II i 10. tap-iâ-tu [bu-da]. ul i-pa-te III iii 31 . û-ba-na-a gana 'come!': [ga-na sa~a]s-siï-ra DN S iii 9 10 Si-si-ma III vi [43].mi W 6 .e-li-H-naab-ki 111 iv 10. vii 9n btq batâqu 'sever': S iii 7n — bi-is-sû I 401. cf. [i]b-ba-i[u ?-dabâbu 'to complais': [i-ûa-bt^bu-ma «?] III viii 8 . 1 b'r baflu 'living': ba-al-fa it-ta-lu ûjli-h-dibâru 'to be firm' or 'to rebel': i-ba-a-ar Su-ma I 2 i 6 n 229 II v 10 Mfct b'r n a b a l k u t u 'to rebel': ib-bal-kat ersetu bâru 'to snare' i-bi-ir-[ma] I I I ii 34n re-em-Sâ S iv 58 v [7] cf. ba-bi-la-at-ma-ni I 6Qn atâru 'to be more': a-na làpa-na i-ta-at-ra S iv 39 atru 'excessive': Su-up-Si-ik-ku or-ru I bïtu 'house': é a Ir I 6gn DN bïsu 'shameful speech': b't (pûduï) 'shoulder' : ra-ap-lu-tum bakû 'to weep': ib-ki-i-ma I I I iv 12. li-ba-li-iï) . é DN H obv. ii 24 40 (ad-du-ka). b u q l u 'malt': ki-ma bu-uq-li II iv i 3 n . H-na S v [16] v i 5 [û\£-Ia-ab ib-ta-ak-ki II i i i 12 14. en-su blfc S iv [18] 22 v [28]. 12 U rev.me8 û-gap-pinu S v [23n] v i 12 iam-ma x rev. [ — ar-n]bn bikîtu 4 'weeping': f-fia bi-ki-ti ul-bu-ma III vi [25]. I 177 (N dul-ta-su-m) G ii 4. gu. 7 la-ap-ta-Hi-nu bu-ul-fai-ta I I I iv 21 bëltu 'mistress': be-el-tum ra-bi-tum III i i i Mt 28.d r b bi-iu I 386 J III i 39. 13 I 201 cf.

z a n â n u 'to provide food': i-za-an-nu-un is i-zi-iz I 123 I I I v 32 m a z z â z u 'leg' : ar-ku-tum ma-az-za-zu. ka-ak-ki-ka U-qi I 88 X i i . 9 . at ni-H I I I viii 18 âî-t 7 m u . û-za-am-medapâru 'to be sated' : DN id-pi-ra I I I iii 39 er I I I viii 19 drr z a m f i r u 'song': an-ni-a-am za-ma-[ra] n a d a r r u r u 'to move freely': id-da-ar-ruU-iS-mu-ma I I I viii 15 ma I 245 znn andurâru 'freedom' : an-du-ra. ki-i ib-hhuf [151] [159) 1*4 247 (P) x »** * 4SI [k]al-la Sa-di-i I 33ï fefe tU^nl4a III i ai. uS-ta-ka-an I I I iii 24 jjisiïfttu 'necessities' : ub-la] I I I U [14] ijêtja rjasfyasu 'feeble': û-fé-mi U obv. 7n z i q z i q q u 'gale': tig-si-qu U rev. ii 20 36.fneS-/iû [—] S ii 9 kks kikkisu 'reed wall': ki-Jd-Su /t^vt>#4£ 13. [m]tt-w/ia-dk-ki Uza-ab-bi-il I I xii 5 cf. 19 (suub-bi) v [35] . S iv 44 54 v [3] (zu-unx rev. ki-ma barû 'to sever' ( ? ) : um-mi Se-er-ri û-b[a. 5. m [ e s ] U obv. *-# ti-it-fi-Sâ kbt S iii 4. ak-ki a-li-iutu û-la-du-ma S iii 18 kïma 'like':fo'*f»w/ M i-Sa-àb-bu I [354] (jiçbu 'abundance': ffi-if-bi is-$û-ri I I I i j g II i 3 III fil 15.iv 9. ilam il-te-en H-if* bu-bu-ma I 208. ii 46 a-wi-lum I I I vi 10 kullatu 'the whole': ku-ul-fa-at ka4a k l 'Uke' : ki-i a-Sa-bi i-na bt-it di-im-ma-ti i-H-ma I 146 151 ?59 ï^4î o-na ku-ul-laI I I i i i 4 6 . 7x1 zâqu 'to blow' : *•« I I ii 16 30. i x6. 3 . i 6 10 i i [4] 11 18 z k r (see also sqr) i-na bi-it di-im-ma-ti z i k a r u 'maie': zi-ka-ru a-na [arda te] I I I iii 47. fo»-Ja * rev.fae-pi-i-mali-ib-ba-Su I I I ii 47 7 . li-ifrdu I 290 S i i i 17 I I I i 23 zbb bidûtu 'rejoicing': [U-iS-S]a-ki-in bi-duz u b b u 'fly': zu-ub-bu-û a[n-nu-tum] I I I tum I 303 zbb I 282TÏ z i b b a t u 'taxi': lu-ui-te-e si-ib-ba-as-sà Mq I I I i I4<n jjjalâqu 'to dxsappear': anafra~la-qiI I ii zbl 5' (Q)» û-gap-pi-iam-ma ib-liq-ma x rev. iz-za-az-zu-ma I I i v 21 .Ijanâbu 'to grow f u l l ' : er-pé-e-tum li-ibz b n (?) zibânitu 'acales' : [ki-m]a mt-fre-e i-zi-qaii-na-U-ma S iv x 5 . x rev. ki-i buqU klk me-te S v [as] vi 14 . ik-ta-ab-ta ri-gi-m I 213 . i-na pu-ûb-ri-Su-nu ka-la sfàq-ril-ia III i 21. i [3] d a n m i 'strong': pi-lu-la dan-na 3b rev. û-Sa-az-na-na-ak-ku I 12 bi-is-bi is-sû-ri bu-du-ri nu-ni I I I i 34n z'z z u n n u ' r a i n ' : zu-un-ni-Su DN li-Sa-aqi z z u z z u 'to stand': mu-Su i-zu-uz-ma qi-il I I i 11 . i 2 S iv 6 (fk-tab-ta>m[a]). a-ma-te-Su-nu a-na H-ik-ki\K[ i-la* tefjû 'to approach': if-bi-a a-na qû-ut-ri-ni an-ni $ obv. I I v [19] [i'J vi 28 ba-riS-ti S iii 15 17 a-li-te rev.meS S iii 9 dnn un' danânu 'be strong': lu-û da-a-an I I I i 33 z u m m û 'to lack': û-za-am-ma Si-it-ta W 3 (da-an). iS-tu-ma ib-lu-la ti-ta i-na ki-ib-ra-H Jt) obv. 17 [19] W 2 h*' kïma 'that' : ki-ma ni-ii-ku~[nu a-bu»b]a Ijerû 'to d i g ' : i-be-er~ru-nim I 21 23. [du]-ul-lam iz-H-lu I 38. el-lu-tu[m] n a f j b a l u ' b a r ' : [H-ga-ra n]a-ab-ba-lu ti-az[ï]-mu-Si-na I I I v 45 am-tim I 15 cf.[ra aS. [û-Sa-az-ni-i]n DN zu-unzâzu 'divide*: is-qa-am id-du-û i-lu iz-zuni-Su I I vi [10].cf. I I I viii 9 [i-ber]-ru-û S i 5 ki/akkl 'when': fer* barifttu 'woman i n confinement': hi-pi I I i 12 U k'1 ku-u]n l 94$. I 243 (P fè-mi-Su) t[a]-bt-it DN I 295 CE -t]ab-bi-it) S iii 'mind' : [i]S-ta-ni fe -e-em-Su I I I iii 25 16 (tùk-ta-bit) b e l t e r n i 'président': be-el fe -mi I I I i i i kabtu 'heavy': ka-ab-tam du-uUla-ni I 42 5 m v 40 (fei-e-nu) cf. 10. i W du-ul-lam û-Sa-az-ba-lu DN I 6 ta-an-ni-ba I I x i 6 n xjas tjasâsu 'to I I I vi 4 zk' zaJiû 'to be clean': zi-ba-ni-it ama dumu. . — —. see also zanânu it-ta-zi-iz ma-bar DN I 90. cf.z i q n u 'beard': zi-iq-nu I 273 zi-Su-nu) m z'm xiâtju 'to w a t c h ' : i-bi-if I 75 zimu 'lace': zi-mu-H-na [it-ta-ak-rû] fcbl I I iv 12 S v [14] v i 3 . I l iv 13 I I I i 29 iii (ro] [12] 16 ri-Sâ S iii I9n 19 40 44 iv 6 8 9 v [35] S iv n 15 U obv. au-Mu-um (ému 'personality': Sa i-Su-û fe^-e-ma ka-bi-it I 4 150 [163] 177 (K) G ii 4. 4 9 GLOSSARY xjadû 'to rejoice': [n]a-am-ru-ma ba-du-û z'r zêru 'to hate': ma-ak-ku-ra zé-e-er-ma pa-nu-Sa I 283 . 3* u-«/-*e-[â:]/ ka-la-ma I 202. zabâlu 'to bear': iz-bi-lu Su-up-H-[i]k-ka ii 22 38 I 2. ru-u'-tam id-du-û e-lu ti-if-ti 1234 a-wi-lu-ti I [358] II i 7 s rev.i-lu it-ta-a*da-ar I [355] I I i 4 ûjli-ba(-al). . 2 6 8 rev. 3 Sa-ti 1231 ( O [f]i-ta-a-S[a]) . i-zi-iz ma-ab-ri-ia I 88 .-14. if-be-e-ma a-na su-bé-e ra-bu-ti l k I I I v 46 kalû 'ail': ka-la i-ti-ma I [xaaj 134 [140] t*d tjarâdu 'to s e n d ' : [ifl-fa-ar-du-ni-in-ni I I I i 44 k k l ' h o w ? ' : ki-i aq-bi I I I i i i 37. r<&éa>l»f» Z>iV Wi*-f» I I v M 28 vi feî I I I vi kk kakku 'weapon': ka-ak-Jû-lu U-qi I 90 [153J. a-murru U rev. giS. lu-bar. ki-ma zu-ub-bi I I I iii 44 cf. i-na m-tb-ri II iii 27 is-f/ pi-it-ta I 211 226. [t]-27-0i> . . 12 I I I v 41 . v (zxj vi 10 zu-uk-ki mu-ia-[ab] remember': lu-ub-sû-ûs-sû I I I xii feepû 'to break': [r]i-gi-im-Sa %b-pi 10. si-qu-Sû U rev. û-ba-na-a nitâ. i-za-bi-lu S i 1 0 .tukul. cf. i 14 (*'<-200-01-x). lu-û du-un-nu-na I I I i 32 I 359 I I i 8 x rev. eqlu ki-ma h-ar*ra* hr> qi-tu Su-a {U-)il-H II ii ion [33]. ki-mi.im-me-ri im-lu-nim ra-ta-am III iv ro. it-fa-ab-bu I 224 15.SAL i-na-fal 8 v [20] vi 9 cf. 9 z m r dpr z a m & r u 'to sing': a-bu-ba . kiJùf U obv.meS % rev. t-aa fi-ip-fi kabâtu 'to be heavy'. su-bé-e ra-bu-ti I I I v 46n bip halûpu 'lapse (of t i m e ) ' : [b]a-lu-up pa-le-e 'to slaughter': i-lam ta-af-bu-ba I 239 I I v i i 33. i terttkI 239 I I vii 33 cf. .mes vi 2. i-ta-zi-iz zxxn U obv.z q n fi-na I I iv i8n S v [15] v i 4 (ma-za.z a n â n u 'to r a i n ' : ib-ba-ra û/li-Sa-az-ni-in dmm d i m m a t u 'moaning': ki-i û-sa-an~ni % rev. 240 é t kbs kabâsu 'to tread': lfM]t"ta i'kab-ba-ta-am \fai-ïi-ib-ta I 252 (P) kbr baS-ba-[Sâ] kabru 'fat': ha-ab-ru-H I I I ii 33 kbr kibru 'shore': i-mi-âa a-na ki4b-ri I I I \lbu ' d i p p i n g ' : li-te-el-li-lu i-na fi-i-bi I 209 tjabâfjiU dingir. 1 x rev. ar]-ru-û ra-ma-an-Sa I 293n.. 4 . ki-i dingir. cf. . y 12 fenb x rev.. li-ib-ta-al-H-lu . 34 y 1 7 S v [1] bbr tjubùru 'noise': i-na bu-bu-ri-Si-na û-zaam-ma Si-it-ta I [359] I I i 8 S iv 3 8 41 x rev. [&t-m]a me-fre-e li-zi-qaE-na-ti-ma S iv x x . I 223n . na-Su). 10 t*t fitjtju 'clay': ti-it-ta-am I 2 0 3 . [iz-za-ka]r a-na ki-ki-B V obv.kibrâtu 'world régions': a-bu-ba il-ht-nu sa-am I 252 ( P ) . [ti-i]t-ta i-kab-ba. . 5 XII xxrâ fjurûsu ( ?) : m lu pu-ut-tu bu-ru-Su % la-ap-nu kâlu 'to hold': ka-i-lapâr-ti-fa S iv 32 k'n kânu 'to be firm': h kin ub-bu-hu 1 rev. i-lam ta-at-bu-fra qd-du te^-mi-Su tuk-ku — I 179 (N) G ii 6. Sa-[ab]-sû-tum . i 3. R 6.i8 4 GLOSSARY tjlpu 'break ( i n tablet)': obv. al-ka-ni ka-la-ni x rev. û/li-ia-az-ni-in na-al-Sa z'z I I i i 18 32. û-qd-at-ti di-im-ma-ti I I I iv 11 S iii a o .

anai mami I l v 25. ma-ti I I ii 8 (Q) g iv 30 ftar^k fb-ku-é a-na ma-tim U I iv 15. cf. u-ks-h-fa mm^mëiSsî 13. cf. S i i i 6 15 (et**) **7 kfl k u U u l a "tecomplète : si-na-iàm " û-kala-la-n-na S m t a n 13. — ir-m-fM I {313J Hia S & ï ''kmy [nfriùHm I I I à 9. . «s> kalâsu 'to contract*: [H-ï\ak-ti-n rigim a-na nam-tar S iv to cf. it-taS ii-bit-ti I 2590 ( P ) cf. i-*a kur . ma-a-oé la m la mm l4[t5oJi03f7r(W ««W aa/t m i t a 'dead*: A ^ £ mw-a* S v {25] fi 14 M aagr magâro 'sa zmtmf: îi-ii iUkam i-U ts-[ul ma-fi-ir] I I I 1 [42) mdr midirtu ' c a a # : av^aWa*av is|a"<af S v 33s.0 Ifr***** 9 libbâtu 'aftger*: B-ib-ba-ù I U vie ma-ti I I v 13 a\r-da-tum\ R 10. cf. passim • m a (emphatic particle): it-ti-ia-ma la na-tu I 2 0 0 . nwf^if *-Aa/ sur * $ w 24 al-. é ai âa axai a-aa *m-*\jh A fè\4m I 100. t^aa me^aa» I 377 39» f # s j H i as.m*»al~ 1 i4 »W $a-*k*m*4 *rf'aata lfiI I I i 30 . U-ib-ba-ia û-na-ap-pi-ii I I I iv i a cf.u^. S i i 4 [9] I 171 ( L M ) . lû. z rev. Vah-mu x rev. W-çée-ma z rev.lu V obv. 22 *Pf> gbircie*: aa-eav kip-pa-H 'pxtctV: ku ap nt h-û W 2 aa-a-an ba-bi-iî ie-er-ru] I " ksd kisâdu 'neck': m vi 3 uq-m k%-ia-di-i\a-a-ma] ir G ii 9 0 . nm-Us I I I va 26. mi-à-hlu-Tû-ml I I I 1 2 6 m a i t n i 'ttoor*: a*â*S*a H [aw aji ri} W I I V Isoj. lu-pu-mi I 2 0 3 . lî-bt-it-taid-at 1288. i-«o ka-ra-h I I I iii 14 GLOSSARY libirtu 'bricar*: B^in^na-di U-bi^it-tum 1194 (P U-bil-tum). ki-nà-is i-zi-iz I 123 S ii kmr karaâra 'to beap up*: ib/-wi-«Nin J rev. 2 4 ktt kasûsu 'power*: e-/j i-ba-a' ka-fu-iu I I I iii 12 cf. vi 10 vîîî (10] krs k a r s u 'stomach': Ï S kar-H-h-na W e\li-mesn sam-mu S i v 43 53 ksd kasâdu 'to arrive*: (a) f~a» ka-id-di S v l i a ] 13 [15J m M v: [ 0 [2] W 7 « kfl I [354) H i 3. I 2 0 0 I I I n i 53 v 42 v i i 2 .i8e k a l a r k u 'excavation I 4 0 ( 1 4 8 ) 161 9 1 GLOSSARY i-a» ka-la-ak-ki kar&o 'slander': i-ik-ka-lu ka ar-si I 3 9 . im-k-m S v (24} ai t a . s M i |s>ai-af 1353 I I i 2 S iv [r].m i (particle appended to word of direct speech). v i 40 (l^â^èV). 5 . I I v i [14] S i v 3 8 39 42 : la-ai-im I I I i i i 18 S a l â 'apart f r o m ' : ma-an-nu an-ni-tam ia la DM i-ip-pu-ui I I I v i 14 IO (*-«(**]) laiû 'émotion': la-la-ia if ru up I I I iv 14 cf. a*-*** û-ui-sa-ab û-mI i-ka-amwâ-is I I I 1 1 4 6 . fJ~t*-2i-cz ma-har DtS 1 00. U-qn-û I I i f 19 li-qi I 88 121. *-aa st{a-a(H^a]a I ^ i .mei ' S obr. aMM-a-éi iMa-ès — — I I I i i i 27. ku-up-ra . I I I vii 25 Çaî-mja im-he-é iflimmGmtima i tv 11 15. 3 . a s 1 1 K I I 'dragon-tly': ki-ma XQ H ku-ii-h I I I iv 6 m mâ'u 'to vomit': i-ma-a* ma m fa a a m'd màdn 'to be asacfe'. U rev. ka-ak-ki-ka îl-qz I 90 153. 4 Iran l e m n u 'evil*: H-ip-ra ît-em-ita I I v i i i 35 n e l m ê n u 'distress': U-ie-sa-an-ni-ma i-na né-el-m[e-m] I I I v 50 lpn l a p n u 'poor*: la-ap-nu [ip-HJi-ta ub-la] I I I i i 14 lot lapâtu 'to touch*: ïl-pu-ui si-ik-ku-ra I 75 leqû 'to take': ka-ak-ki-ht il-qi-a U-er-tam I 385 i i 2 8 (u-qu-uj: h-ip-ru S v i 16. 3M&4* •rli-iû] fcr* k a u u 'gàV: i\U-ba-ai-\ 1383 398 410 I I ii 1er* karô 'to be short*. o-^-ia aas ak-ri4* I 254(P)ct a $ s | r ) m % r u 'dam*: 9nr-\di B vi mf matû *to become fear*: favQa kum-ta-a 9*39 mkr makkûnz 'goods*: ma-ak-ha-m m-e-erma I I I i 23. I I I i 38 cf. î 172 :(L^!) S a f5l. zirau "pièce : WH^é H ektmwiimyi I wgb (P) et 257-5* <PJ and S îfi 5 . f^or t rev. [5] . 19 ktm katâmu 'to cover : ki-ma hu-uq-U kaai-[mu pa-nu-st-iri} I I îv 13 cf. ^asHtz aw-a#n<s I 8$.m a (coptila appended to verbs m seqoence): U-id-at-nam-ma fr* . [/a tu-ia]ka-la-mm I I v i £13]. I I iii 19. I 248 ( P l a ) II i ai I I I i 31 33 v 52 v i 3 v i i 8. passim m m (particle mtroductng direct apeedi): ma bel S ïv [23] v i 19 U obv. idrifa^L] y r3 1 h% (asseveraîjve parti c leJ: ga-î* e]-pu-ui I I I v i £igj: ba-la-tâ biré [ & rev. U fev. J 5 l i g i m r n û orTspring': li-gim?-ma'r-a U-ibni-ma I 19011 Ifcm l a h m u 'water monster*: a-na la-ah-tm I I i i i 3 e n . [k]u-up-ru W fj] II n 3 {tî-ta-m M I 13 k a a a N ' b m d ' : r«a« (la) ku-sur-ma S iv 51 cf. U rev. a-di~ma-mi I 37e.za. see p . mîd+a-tmm? a tev. S v 25 vi [14] (kat-mu) r ïâ 'oot*: ai-Su la mu-ui-H-i I 217 2 3 0 . 115. mi-nom hir-n-hl-nu n\i-i]k-ka-al I 176 (KN) Gîij tes karâsu disaster": m-fi ik-mi-su a-na ka-rail I I I i i i 54 v 4 3 . Z W âaa i a . cf. 17 (dise) fa» r i r i e e r %a psach otT. 140. I I I v 49 l a (precative p article): I*M-aî À-iMS-ata-iie ai-flM-txtai I I I i 3 2 . aaa} A a 4 » a ^ i ^ ml' m a l u 'to nH * aa*oHS a aa fa O ia Hî tM-ht-mm ra-ta-cm I I I iv 20. cf.^ iaVai iaa-f»w I 22 24 $ t é (kasf. j o i n e d to verb aa m li-ia-si-ik 14a. aaveMh « a Mi-m^ai I I I iv 7. 6*tat lo-flft I 71 73 8 0 82 f U t u 'chedk*: aWl ef^/i" I 2 7 4 Ibb i i b b a 'heart': be-pi-i-ma H4k-ba-Su I I I ii 4 7 .fï^|. •** «É#iNai I I % a^M^MMhlBva^ ffî*ié. 23 (la-Iu-iâ) Un l a m a 'before': la-am a-bu-bi wa-$e-e % rev. orzu-h-ma tk-ru-ni I I r r k a r â t a *to bies**: i-ka-ar-ra-ab kat-ra-ba-ma S «V 35 r e-e i-az-za- \ 287.4 | a l obv. [su-U ana] tih-bî-ïé 9 m I i 3f i . 5 7 8 . 17 8 vi 19. [bu-u]l-h-ta û km la la ia-ap-ta-ia I I I in 29 sc ul Ibr labirûtu 'old t i m e ' : gu. i 19 îrd l a r d a ' c o u c h grass* ( f ) : i4m-la lâhafr?daî] I I i v 9 0 ltk m a l t a k t u V a t e r . I 128 [ï29Ï (130} { 1 4 0 ] (141] [142} 159 246 289 376 I I v 14 2 8 m' m â t u ' l a n d ' : ma-tum ki-ma U4 t~£a~ak~bm mehû 'storm': awfri» « I I I i i 5. passim r M V H d o x ' : ki-ma U~i i-éa-ab-bu l 354 II i j I I I i i i 15 r* l a w ô *to s i i r r o u n d ' : il-mu-û ba-hi-is-ha I 1 x 3 . cf. i>iV a i N M a a .c£ U «cv. tana» m&4m-é I I I iv 25. [ub-l\a~ma U-ih-ba-ku-nu U vii 36. 4 . . i 28 ( ? ) Il lullû ' m a n ' : hi-nï-ma iu-ul-la-a I 195. M-ib-ba-ka I I I v i 23 . iu W 1 3 S ïv 51 S rev. lit-i]p~ra .c l o c k ' : ip-ie ma-câ-iaak-ta su-a-ii û-ma-al-U I T I i 36 m .la la-bi-ru-tim I 4 9 cf. 172 km k i m t u 'family*: M-im-to-iu ui-u-ri-ib III11 42. fci mt-ka sa-lat-ka W 8 kms kamâso *to consign': m-S ik-mi-su a-na ka-ra-S I I I m 54 • 4 3 k n m r r a i 'to kneel': sk-mU m-km i-ta-zi-iz U cAVr. kraa I r i i f m m u l B *faoat> «-M â-tâk-nm $ v {23} vi 12 SKJ a*-«a I -* krp karpai» 'pot': [ki-ma ka-ar-pa-ti r}t~ei« a s * g~af IIIii. ma-tim 1 30. S i 14. û-ia-ak-h-ii I 23S k u l l u l u *to covcr*: [er?-p]é:-tum û-ka-Iala I I vi 12. a a . 4 7 aa|r ma^âru 'to taor*: gaaai&f m mfa*r-mt I 41.

im-taiku mU'hà Jfy obv.mal nafû 'to be suituble' : it*tMa-ma la na-fû x rev. i-d[î*^ nuppulu 'to give rest to': U^feiï&*$Q tam-ta] S ii 7.SAL S v 22 vi [ u ] . û-na-ap-pi-iS U l iv xa cf. nkm pu-ti4S na-ri I I iii 26. 31.meft-/d). 7 u -mi 7 mu-i[i-a-t4m] I I I iv 24 mlk muisakku 'oblation': [m]u-ui-Sa-ak-ki i-za-ab-bi-il 11 iii 511 cf. i 14 y xa (mai-iak-ka) mil m i i l u 'half: mi-H-il ma-a^-sa-ar-ti I 70 72. I I v [2'] vi 29 ([<u-m]a-a/4a-«r) x rev. fan* mi-na-a a-mu-ur I 109 (F mi-na). [fa H-ga]-ru ii-bi-ru mi-Sil-Su x rev. U rev. t-fa-ao-ot I 296 (E t*ta6-ot). I 276 (mu-us-sà) mutûtu 'husbandhood : {a-na) ai-S[u-ti] à mu-tu-ti I 301 (P -t]u-û-tim) mt' m a t i m a 'ever': [ma-t]i-ma-a.. [ut»ta-a*]-Ba-m I 300 I 40 maialu 'bed': i-na ma-ia-li û-ie-et-[bi-iu] nxji I 79. cf. il-ta-kdn ma-a-a-al-iu S v 32 nut)éu 'prosperity' : nu-fjit-ul ni-H nisaba n'n II vi 14 nûnu 'fish': bu-du-ri nu-ni U I i 35. 61v 21 vi 10 na-ra-am I I I iv 7. a-na mi-nim I I vii 42 m Insu 'why?': mi-in-iu ta-du-ur I 94 96 m i m m a 'whatever': mi-im-ma i-S[u-û] I I I ii 30 31 •man (appended particle): a-bu-ma-an I I I iv 511 ma' manu 'to count* . mel e-kal kur-/// 8 iv [26] cf. ii 4 8 .gur-/wj I rov. ma-ru ra-mani-ka I 94 96.SAL S v [19] vi 8 mrk' nemerkû to be prosont' : DN i-[me-re-$]kki I xoan mrs mursu illness': (l)i-zi-qa-Si-na-ti-ma [mur\-$u S iv 12 16. cf. . i 42. i-ta-ad ke-la I 297-8 ti-i(. . tl-lo>ox H-bèt*t\*l UI iv x6. ma-li-ih-ku-nu I 125 [137] S ii 13 milkix 'counsel': tii'-o qi-ri-ib hi-ti mil-ha I 375 390 I I ii 14' (Q). mi-nam x rev. [i-ber]-ru-û Id S i 5. Si4p-ta it-ta-na-an-di 1 253 (P).meX»/u 8 iv 5 37. ia iMia-a[<}-ia>Jtti nd' o-toa-at-ito III vi 26.mft. \at-t]a ù H-i mit-itli-ka I I I vi 44 mal ku /malik w 'counsellor': ma-li-ik i-li I 43 45 57 [50] I I I viii xi . n p i [i]t-td«du-ltl tam-ta I 173 (M). ut-ta-za-ma Itfllu 'to lie : 1/" oS-id\-tum » mu-sà la-ni-h-ti 8 iv 23 25. x rev.. [l\i-ktnapiltu '3ï|e'ï a-ia*a-nu û-$i aa/-ai/-*Wwai na-di li-bi-it*tum I 294 S iii 15 I I I vi 9. aî-[Sa]) II ii 18 cf. ul i-pu-ui W 13 xx" ne'û 'to turn': i-nsV irta-Sd 8 iv 37 v [6] cf. mil-ka t 375** [39o] I I ii [14'] (Q) a'd ( 9 9 4 1 GLOSSARY no'fldu 'to heed': i-ta-i-du ii-tar 1 302 ndn n'd nadAlX» 'to givs'ï [fi-ga-ra n]a-a^ba4u nâdu 'to praise': i-t[a-ad n\a-a$*iû-fa ti-a-am-Hm [it*ta-a]d-nu a-na DN 116. ii [6] 13 Q-Sèr) mt m 11tu 'husband': [aS-Sa]-tum ù mu-sà (B mu-ui-xd) I 300 cf. kuê. mu*H ù ur-ri I 3 8 . I I iv 3 S iv 45 55 v UI mlk malâku 'to take counsal : ia /a iw-ta-alku-mu I I I iii 13 v 42 (-ku-û-ma) . I 254 (P) 1 1 ï 4 ûW macjùru 'boat': ma-qd-ra i-ta-ma-ar I I I vi s raqrqr maqurqurru 'boat*: /« gifi.gur. i-ia-tam nsa ne-pi'H-Su-nu id-du-û-ma I 64. [i-ma]-an-nu ar-fri I 279. it-ta*ah-iu I65 mâru ' son'* mu-ru a-na a-bi-Su I 336] dumii JfffM!' x lav. ma-ru-iu ub-bu-ku I I I iii 26 cf. x. ma-an-nu iu-ti I I vii 4$n. i 24. aa (dumu.mel I 1er kus.mel . ba-a-a a-bu-bi 7 mu-Si-Su I I I i 3 7 0 . a/-/i ma-ar-ri I 337. tm-la-a-nim i-na-fal 8 v 20 vi 9 cf. ma-ru-h I I I iii du&ïw» W§ &2 it-H-Sû 1 w . mi-Uk-id is-p[u-ub] U rev. mu-iu i-zu-uz-ma x rev. nui-la urqfht f*#*tf»['i*tfm] W 9 mllu 'flood': a-n-il~h~ka mi-lu i-na naaq-bi U i 13. ru-u*nissatu 'mouroixig*: il-bi np-issà-um tam id-du-û I 2 3 4 . ti-aa-ao-60 DN nammaliû 'wild animait': na-[ma-aiI I I iv 4 13. ma-ar-ri-iu-nu i-ia-ta-am . i-na mu-ii-im-tna li-Sa-azni-in na-al-ia I I ii 17 cf. af [k]u«. [qd-sa to-at]*la>oV S iii 4 . im-tui-ku mil-kd obv. [mur-su] id dingir. . 17 snWkfitu 'rulership' : ? \ma-li-h\u-ut ap-se-e S i a ma monnu 'who?': mo-oti-nu-uaf-att I 128 129 13° 14° 4 142. [ta»pa-ra]-sa mur-fa 8 iv 28 mrr marta 'gall*: i-ma-a' ma-ar-ta-am III ii 47 mi m a l û 'to forget': ai-Su la mu-uS-Si-i I 217 230 ms' m û i u 'night': mU-Sum i-ba-aS-Si I 70 72. 8 iv 47 (U-n4^)\ ni-a . [Sanûtim im]-w-û ia iu-up-ii-ik-ki I 34 36. a-na dumu.t$8 GLOSSARY x rev.SAL i-da-gal li-na* fal S v 18 [20] vi 7 9 . 15a ngr (ttata-ia-^a) nftgiru 'herald': (li-)is-SH+tt na-gi-ru I 376 nak 391 [403] I I ii 15' 21 S iv 30 lussuku 'to do away with*: du-ut-la-ku-nu ([ni]glr) û-ia-as-H-ik I 240. dingir. nafàlu 'to look': zi-ba-ni-it ama dumuM* [idS}glat na-ra-am I 25n. [u*u§-t]a-tp*a ao-^-il'-'aai] (Af-aa-dt') I I I vî X9j îîï" |tijî na-^M-ia 1 mala '«a much as'. [i-n]a pu-ut id nakkamtu 'treaaurs': bi-it na-ak-ma-ti 8 v 32. 24 ([wur-s]i-ku-nu-ma) . « »3 39 mlr m u l l u r u 'to let loose': û-[m]a-aS-i[e-er a-na ni-H mi-Se-er-tam] Il v aon cf. i 16. |//</]/// ma-re-e-Sû I I i 6 (Q). U rev. [x-t]a-ab-bi-x I 306 Se-4(î) I H a [ 3 7 ] ngr nsb naggâru 'carpentar': na-ga-[ru na-H punaaa%u 'to pull out': ta-ar-kwd-li DN as-su] I I I ii xxn [&ftfl-Ji«to'] I I vii [51] cf. il-tàk-nu a-na nap-ta-ni dumu. ma+aa-nu I I I vi 13 maftluxn 'what? : [m]a-iu-um-ma lu-uiu4 I I I i 1711 mïnu/minû 'what?': mt-^nam kar-si-Sû-nu I 176 ( K ) O ii 3 . ii a i aa 37 38 1 200 n'r ntl nâru 'river': [/i~/>|/-// na-ru I I iii 19. i-na mu-S\i] I I iii 24 x rev. 5. iMd»r"* na-H S iii 2 cf. i 2 2 . a-na ma-[ri-ka] I 117 mïïrtu 'daughter': dumu. \w]a-li-ikSu-nu l H. 32 [l]t-ib-bu-[ti} I 304 (P)î H-tar [li-it-tanmi a]b-bu-ii DN I 304. s(<4k d-ni 142n I l iii 13.-(a-am li-id-di-nam-ma I 203 nzm tanlttu 'praise': fa-ni*it-ti-ii-[ka] I I I viii Hn nazâmu 'to shout': na-ap-ba-ar-lu-nu n»l ut-la-az-za-am III v 38. . ia-a-at-tum m^tà-t[û] I 259 (P) S iii 6 (i-ta-di)\ U I v 3x1 U I v 48 U rev. \ . du-ut-ta-ni JMa* nadû 'to put': li«H<4t'>ta id-di 1 288. is-qd-am id-du-û l i a . na-ri I I iii 18 III iii 50 n'r nkm namAru 'to shine': [n]a-am-ru-ma banakâmu 'to itch' (?): û-na»ak*ki-tnal du-ti pa-nu-ia I 283 na-àk»ka-am-t[a] II iv ion S v [12] n'r vl [i] (na-kâm-l[a]) nâru 'to kill* : i m-na-ra-a[i-§u] J 1 nakkamtu 'itch' ( ?): sec nakâmu n'r nkr nlru 'yoke' : i ni-iS-bi-ir ni-ra J 2 nakâru 'to become itrange': ui>iftti4frnan'r {jt-ta-ak-ru) I I iv [12] S v 14 vi 3 nâru 'to roar': [ki-ma p]a-ri*i na-ê-ri (iMak-ru) I I I iii x6 nki n'a nakâsu 'to put': lu-np-li-ik-ki-lu-nu 'gina n ê i u 'Ufe': ? I 4x3-15 (Q ne-ê-H) it-ta-ak-iu 1670 nb' ni! nabû 'to call' : Iu-ti tf-tat-ft t«ôa>-[a] I I I nallu 'dew': li-ia-ax-m-m na-al-là (B nav 4 9 . 8 mr marru 'shover*. mu-ur-sa i-im-mi-du-nia-ti I 371 . U l vi 4*. mil-kd ia dingir.mei $ obv* 9. .* ma-la i-ba-ai-iuu S rev. ii 15. #~tu*ma taw-nu-û ibid.mel um-m[a-ni] W 8. ifa«de-# §-er<di I 299.SAL 6 V [21] vi 10. 2. [tum]-nu Si-ip-ta S iii 3. dumu. x rev. zi-ba-tii-it dumu. 1 .mel dumu.

e ta-ap-la-tyx i-li-ku-un I 378 [393] I I ii 9 Siv [31]. û-ub-ba-al qâ-ti a-na n[i-H-ia-ma] I I vii (43] ai' nasû £ g cartf^ uljia U-Sd-a me-hi i-na na-aq-bi S iv 45n 55 v [ 4 ] . iS-mu-û si-qi-ir-Su I 630 400 I I I iii 52. a-na tâpa-na S iv 39 P' 9 peau (K mi-) al' sullû 'to pray': û-ul û-se-el-lu-û ii-tar-Suun I 406 I I ii 2 4 . li-sa-kir iap-US S iv 4 5 a sikkûru 'boit': ïl-pu-ut si-ik-ku-ra I 75 p' pû 'mouth': ûb-bu-ku a-na pi-id U rev. J [3]. DN ft-iokanjkan pu-pur-fu S iv 4 37. ii 5 12 (-sa-ru). [pa]b'Ta-ma er-ie-te mu-te-ti S iii 8 . i 4 5. ir-ta-kab pa-re-e^m} M «w. nassïku. 3 . is-sà-q[ar] I 169 1357] I I i 6 iii 18 S iii 1 . nu-hu-ui ni-H I I vi 14. a-ta-mar pa-ni-k[a] U obv. e tu-sa-al-li-a ii. eqlu . pa-a-iu — I 85 n i ( F cf. P I I vii 3 9 . ta-ap-pUtr ut-la I I v [ i l vi 28.dar-ku-un SW3X spn sapannu 'edge': i-mi-da a-na s[a-pa]n[ni] I I I iv [8] sqr/zkr (see note on I 63) aaqâru 'to speak': PN pi-a-ïu i-pu-iaam-ma is-sà-qar a-na PN (or. i-na ni-H I I I vii 1 2 3 . ap-fû-ur — 1243 P . is-sur S v a x rev. a-na PN is-sà-qar): I 48 86 92 106 112 119 168 M 175 ( M N ]-aq-qar) 199 205 236 369 373 388 I I v [23] vii 41 viii 37 III i 2 [12] 16 41 vi 12 [17] 42 [46] G ii 2. im-ti-da I 353 II i 2 S iv [x]. i 8 ii 32. ra-bu-tum DN si-bi-it-tam I 5 n . Jfu-a (li-)ii-H I I ii 19 33» lu-û na-H I 333. . a-na ni-H I I i 9 v [20] [2'] vi 29 viii 3 s I I I vi 48 S iv 42 52 (ni-ie-e) S iv 50 60 v [9} x rev. 8. ub-la pi-i-ni I 152 165 I I v 15 29 vi 24 I I I vi 8 . L ) 118 ( F L ) 174 ( K N ) G ii 1. ka-iw S ii 8 iv 21 [29]. v pahâru 'to release' : ip-fû^-ur ul-l[a] H v 19. i [1] 18 ii [15] (iz-zak-kar) x rev. 5 prk' ' . pu-bur-M I I i 5 (Q). a-na DN m-iS-H-ki I I I vi 42 cf. e-le-ep-pa — I I I ii 55. 7 ud. a-na pu-bur ka-la dingir. pi-a-ia te-pu-ia-am-ma I 198 235 pûtu 'front side' : pu-ut nâri S v 32 x rev. e-lu m-qi-i pa-ah-ru I I I v 35 nqb naqbu 'tbe deep': [i-na n]a-aq-bi I 27 I I i 13 (Q . 14 ([iz-za-k]ar) W 12 (\iz-zàk\-kar) x rev. . 22. cf. ku-up-ra [it-ta-H le-er-ru] I I I ii [13]. . ii 45. [12] nsk nissïku. bu-bu-ti-ii ni4S I 339. ninsïku 'prince': ni-ilS[i-ku] I 250 ( Pnini-n-kù) cf. U obv. as-sû-ur er-se-tam Sa-ap-litam I I v 17 31 vi 26.mes S i i i 15 sebûtu 'the seventh day of the month': i. I [134] I l j 16 18 I I I iii 36. 8.mes-ma S iii 14. ka-la ni-H 3 rev. [û-ui-t]a-si-ra na-pi-i[i-tam] I I I vi 19. na-ap-ba-ar-iu-nu utta-az-za-am I I I v 38 . e~U ni-H I I I iii 12 U rev. i 24 25 . i-ku-lu ni-qi-a-am I I I v 36.ta-ar-ku-un I 379 [394] I I ii 10 al' salâtu 'kin': ki-mat-ka sa-lai-ka W 8 siîïtu 'womb' : si-li-tam ip-te I 282 sxaa (?) s i m a n û : Si-bu-ti si-ma-ni-^i I 374n 389 I I i i 13' ([si-ma]-né-e Q) ani a i a n i i t u 'female': û-ba-na-a SAL. I i6n (na-aS-H-ki) nsq nasâqu 'to kiss': û-na-ai-H-qû ie-pi-ia I 245 nir nasâru 'to cut off': (H-)ii-iu-ur eqlu iS-piki-su I I i 18 S iv 46 (li-iur) 56 v 5 (il-èur) ntk nataku 'ta drip' : ti-ku a-ii-it-tu-uk I I i 1711 tîku 'drop': see nataku s'q sâqu 'to be narrow': ra-ap-lu-tum bu-daH-na [is-si-qâ] I I iv [17] cf. S[à-à]s-su-ra-a-tum pu-ûb-bu-ra~ma I 2 5 1 (P) cf. mi-it-li-ka i-na puub-ri I I I vi 44. i-na pu-uh-ri-tu-nu I 224 pu|uir 'together': H-ib-ta-al-H-lu pu-bu-ur I 2130 naptaru 'totality'. ni-lu. ii 24 40 massartu Svatch': mi-H-il ma-as-sa-ar-ti I 7on 72 aq' naqû *to pour out': ? iq-qû-û J 8 niqû 'offering': ma-as-fra-tum ni-qû-û I 382 397 4<>9 I I ii [13] 27 S iv 33 (aitkur). S v 16 vi 5 (is-si-qa) sûqu 'street': qâ-ad-di-ii i-il-la-ka i-[na sû-qi] I I iv [16] S v 17 (su-qi) vi 6 (su-qf) ah* sibû.. S i 8 iv 45 55 v [4] ni nistx 'people': ni-Ht û-ul am-ra. i^a pu-ity-ri I 122 2X8. qa-da-nii ï[t~ta-n] a-la-ka m-su S v 17 vi 6. Jî'-ott-lt' û-pa-ab-^ir I 386 I I I i 3 9 .na ar-bi se-bu-ti ù la-pa-at-ti I 206 221 spb aapârtu 'to scatter': mi-lik-id U rev. ni-H ik-nù-su a-na ka-ra-H I I I iii 54 v 4 3 . cf. ni-Si-iu iq-ri I I I ii 40. i-na Si-it-ku-ki na-pi-i[s-ti\ I I iv 14 cf. p a r a 'to eut': sp-ru-u ma-ar-ka-sa Ul 1 iâ 55 p a r u 'wild asa': l/Û-ma p]a-nH na-e-n I I I iii 1 6 . self : a-na ra-ma-ni-ia à pa-ag-ri-i[a] I I I iii 4 2 a pelxû 'caulk': ip-ba*a i-pé-efr-fti ba-ab-iu gis. tp-fu-u S iv 57 v [6]. û-sû-ra-at ni-H R 5 . [û-ptr] a-dan-na W [ 5 ] . K-ip-ra . fum-sa ht na-si-rat na-pis-tim M rev. ni-iu . ii 613 (ukù. .[(«) . i 7 (U-is-sur) y 2 (U-is-sû-ru). na-ga-[ru na-Hpa-as-su] I I I i i [11] cf. cf. i-na-as-sa-ru e-le-nu x rev. x rev. [n]a-pi-H-ti ma-tim I 2211 24 S i 6 ([n]a-pûl~ti) nsr nasâru 'to guard': is-su-ur DN e-le-nu II v 16 30 vi 25 cf. x rev. [H-ga-ru n]a-ab-ba-lu tam-ti [at-ta ta] -na-as-sa-ra x rev. aaparkA 'to be lacking': su-par-he-e naptitî S v [26] vi 13 ara pahâru 'to assemble' : e-lu ni-qi-i pa-afy-ru I I I v 3 5 . Jja-du-û pa-nu-ia 1 283. xo.^ . cf. pu-ti-iS na-ri I I iii 26 p** pâsu 'axe': na-ga-[ru na-H pa-as-su] I I I ii [ u n ] Pgr pagru 'body. I I I ii 51. 7 ki-ir-si I 257-8 (P) cf. pi-fn' palû 'period' : \j%\a-lu-up pa-le-e 1282 m palâhu 'to révérence': aval ip-la-bu v-H* Su-un 1 405 II ii 23.* M iv 3 cf.GLOSSARY napistu 'life' (cont. i 11 ii 16 17. I 122 (F pubu-w) S ii 10 (ukkin). [if\-tu-ma ap-ta-na-a&la-bu DN] Illt4$ plk* palkû 'extenaive': fê*ru pa-ar-ku II iv 8.6 . cf. S v 26 vi [15] (zi). . x rev. 2 [1] ii 14 44 ka-fw U obv. ub-la pi-i-ku-nu I I I v 4 4 . cf. i-na-an-na i 246. 19 (ni-ie). [m-i]u la im-ta-a S iv 3 9 .ma] I I iv 6. Sum-sa lu na-si-rat na-pis-tim 9 rev. 3 ro (i-na-sa-ru). J «*' sariû 'to rebel' : û-ia-as-bi bi-i-i[a] : I I I iii 41 skp aakâpu 'to overthrow': sa-ki-i [p] I I I iv 27 skr s e k ë r a 'to block': is-sa-kir lap-US S iv 55 v 4 . 17 d GLOSSARY 19X is-p[u-ub] sp* suppû 'to pray': e tu-sa-pa-a u. 277 .meS S iii 1 0 aar see aer 'to become white : sa-at-nm-tum ip-su-û û-g[a-n^ IX iv 7 cf. 3 . i-na-as-sa-ru bâb-k[a] VY xo. [iz-z]a-ka-ra S iv 5 . ii 19 Q-sur) 35 (as-su-rm). pa-nu-H-na S v [25] vi 14. pi-a-iu i-pu-ia-am-ma I 47 91 105 111 118 204 368 372 387 I I v 22 vii 40 viii 36 I I I i 1 11 15 40 vi ix x6 41 45. Î-BA ku-u[n] I I I vi 18 pana 'formerly': pa-na-mi. iu-up-ii-ik Him a-wi-lum H-ii-H I 191 197 G ii [12] V obv. pa-u-lû W I I X rev. su-us-si-ri ka-la si-iq-riî-ia I I I i 21 massâru 'guard' : ma-of-sa-ru tam-ti x rev. ar-qû-tum am-ru pa*n[uH-m] I I iv 15. û-su-ra-te id ukù. si bit ru 'seven': [7] à 7 sà-su-ra-ti S iii 9 cf. S iii [1]. 4 (mu-dr) J 4 . [3] . ka-aU [mupa^nu-H-in] I I iv [13] cf. [zi~m]u-H-na it-tak-ru S v [14] vi 3 . . S iii 5 . 11 .xneS) . is-sà-qar-iu-nu-H I I v 27 siqru 'speech': si-iq-ra ia DN I 11311. [4] 13.fmâ] W 4 gi[s\ma] U rev. bal-ta^at S v £26] vi 15. pa-mia &«p-t[e] III v 51 xnanini 'infront':x rev. ii 45 (iz-za-kdr) S ii 8 iv [22] 3 7 (mu) S iv 29 (mu-&) U obv. ii 47.. Up-su-û S iv 47 pqd paqâdu 'to adiriinister': pa-qi-du h-ma-U I 220 pqi paqâlu 'to carry': la BNictpUF&MRf* aa-ga^lM/efj] I I I v 470 pr* t • ^ . is-su-ru DN e-le-nu x rev. û-ia-ap-ta si-iq-ra I I I vi 15. iu-ussi-ri ka-la si-iq-ril-ia I I I i 21 puttru 'assembly': \p]u-u}pru I Ifi%%'(Q) pu-ûb-ra II viii 32 III vi 27. li-is-su-ru [DN e-le-nu] x rev. cf. a-na ku-ul-la-at ni-H I I I viii x8 .mei x rev. Su-us-si-ir at-ta I I I i 19.) bu-id-li-ip I I I i 24. ii 2 9! cf. i 9 ii 33 y 6 8 (tr-f&va). edin pal-ku-û S iv 48 58 v [7] tnV pâaô 'face': u^-mu ii-nu-û pa-nu-û-su III ii 48.

xx. àa-Af>>aM ù-su-ru z rev. agafrj U rev. sti-til-li-il-si I I I 1 29 sulûJu 'roof: see sullulu aim s al m u 'black': sa-al-mu-tum ip-sii-û û-g[am] I I iv 7 S iv 4 7 5 7 v [6] (gig-mes) sm' s a m û 'to be thirsty': sa-mi-a-at h'-ik-ri-il I I I iv 17. [19] qablu 'middle': [q\d-ab-H^ta i-te-zi-ih I 286 qablû 'middle' : er-se-tim [qab-tirtim] x rev. m-sa-ap-ta sé-iq-r[a] I I I v i 15 P** naptânu HneaT: U-tàk-nu a-na nap-ta-ni dumu-SAL S v aa vi xx sxbtsi 'laughter': si-ih-tum 16 18 s-hu-ut-su s a m â d u Ho yoke': [î]s-sa-am-du I I I ui 6 «ar issûru "bird*: [is-sû-wr] sa-ma-ii I I I ii [35]: if-sur sa-me-e 3 rev. a-aa xs-ieW fo-Aa-ft I I I v 46 q e r û 'to invite': ni-H-iu iq-ri I I I i i 40 narbô 'greatness': a%«Ml-ffa as-ar-At-As q e r ê t a 'banquet': a-na qé-re-ti I I I ix 41 III vii qrb rk' cjtrfra 'inside': qi-ri-ib At-ft I 375 {300] erbû 'tour*: imJimmu. ta-forn-aa i ni-ib-lu-la qà-ab-la-am I 6 2 . taq-bi-ma DN if-psr z rev. . 5 I I i i [ 1 4 ! . [Ai su-ut-ti rgm zé]u-ud-di-a qi-ri-ib-sa I I I i 130. i 4 cf. x rev. ip-tlar-sju c-a* ni-se-e tt-fa sullulu 'to cover over* : fÏMt" e-li-is dan-na à $ii-ap~li~if i III rev. ina qaq-qa-ri e-sir M-lfUT-tu] W 14 16 & 1 7 d I 4 S vii 35 i t ^ ^ 22 2 92x12x69 siaxss I I I vi 12 x rev. [Mi-tyaï-kân**** qat. 6. except once I 377 faoal404 H a 8 a a Siv30 Axai: I 2 6 9 ) : qû-rm-du I 8 [125] [137] (x%). Ax^^HifSia I I I ^ 47î I I v 2 7 vi 3 2 I I I vi [si S ii [13]: ri-^a^o-«»^AHil3|$ 0 * 7 SivA qû-ra-dam I 43 4 5 57 59*» qû-ra-di I 69 qanû 'reed': qâ-ne-e gâb-bi lu bi-nu-ns-sà J rev. 13 x rev. . é-ma-am edin W 9 sera 'over : m nim ma 1 0 iii aT i*ai « e la*aVsaa m-ri-H-in I I I iv xx aasrru Ha casai': h-ù-sî-m ma-ar-bi-ka VU via 1711 9 SB HS 43. be-d-tum ra-bt-tum I I I iii 28. ma-me-<t-éu-xu û-ul i-pa ai aa af H obv. . i-îa-as-su-la qâ-îi I 336 ( ? ) . [aq4n-mjm DN i-naasrfm-ru x rev. û-ia-ab-H od-efA-Az] I I I viii 13. m-c&ia-**^* n^-m qrd qurâdu 'hero' (always Enhl. £é-& [Ao-âA-àa] I tao cf. qi-ba-m^-mt) I 376 [391] I I i i [15I x rev. qa-da-nii t[t-fa-a]ala-ka S v [17] vi 6 qdm tff q a d m u 'front': bi-la e-pi-ta a-na qû-udrasa 'to mova*: qà-ab-lum i-ru-sa a-na mi-su I 381 408 I I ii [12J 2 6 . ha-hi-ka\îa I 8in 83 110 qû-ud-mi-ia I 39011 cf. 5 . ra-Aa-rfm] I 338. sa-ms-a ia-ap-ta-iu nu I I I iv a i . a-ày+rigma 'noise*: tHgma i-st-em-mm-â 171 mu-ur iamai q&-ri-ib~£a I I I i 30 cf. i a .i-sa-bat 3 nor. As t-#o-ea-ss S xv 3 cf. DN pâ-su Où-té i-qab-bi S i i 8 iv 21 2 9 U obv. é-td ul-àa er-se-tum re-e\m* Sa] II iv 4.u-p-pa-a[r-ia issé-ur] Ai — i At I I I ii J S fi* HÉ pesa (?): àsz-Rî-if a-bu-un-na-te tep-te^si ni Smj P*t tt-t* . i ( i j xt 14 4 4 W 11 (du&. 16 (su-up-ri-Su) as 5 u s û 'marsh': su-si-a ra-bi-a I 35 $rp sarâpu Ho consume': la-la-ia is-ru-up I I I iv 140 U rev. m-pa-aS-fmr 3 rev. km-i-Ja pàr-si-fu S iv mupparsu 'winged \. f # 4 8 $§ v £7} (eàhs}. èû-û-<r o-oaôf . sû-lu-la "p[AJMSMI m S iv 5». i 8 cf. auttWuy': par-sa-mm ta-baml MM I 171 ( K ) . «xaaasxai pi-ta-at S xv 18 v 2 8 .mu. m a a-na dumujsAL W t > • le kd-ia S v 19 vi 8 . zi-se-ms [!Lïi-.ka-[$a] U obv. GLOSSARY ssi-ul-lu-la-at 31 . [qé-sa ta-at\-taS e-U ti-it-îi-sa S m [ 4 0 ] . as (la-lu-id) 9 qabû 'speech': an-ni-a-am qd-ba-ia (P gaba-ia) I 244 qbl qabhi 'battle ' : qd-ab-lum i-ru-sa a-na [b]a-bi-kalia I S i 83 110. sa* aaliihi 'to seize*: AavA* aâ-Jï . . ih^li-hal-kai erutu re-em-U S iv 58 [7] 9 I I vi sera country': m-rm pa-ar-ku I I xv 8 cf. 8 41 y f a èar to-aâ). II i 9 S jv pu-ur-si m-lm mm mm vii 9 parsu 'rite. i 11 qdd qaddis. 2 PC petû Ho opes': n-h-tam ip-te I 2 8 2 . X79 (»A>. a n si se-rim 3 rev. U rev. ki-ma a-mi-im i-na se-ri Ul xv 9x1. ip-r* • t af ts? fià-to I I I x 3 6 . lu pu at-ta ku-ru-m J rev. û-qâ-at-ti di-im-ma-ti III tt 11 qtr qutturu 'destroy': lu-û qû-ut-tu-ur II j zm qutrînu 'intense offering': it-fc-a a-na qû-ut-ri-ni I I I v 41 r" ru'tu 'spittle': ru-u'-um id-du-û e-lu ti-it-ti I 23411 r" mérita 'iodder*: ma-la urqètu me-ef-ffr sim] W r*d râdo 'downpour': Û-H4k ra-du III iv 2$. S iv 9 [ 3 0 ] . 7 qqd (qdqd) qaqqadu 'head*: u'-pu-ur ka-aq-qd-as-sà I284 qqr (qrqr) qaqqaru 'ground': ka-aq-qd-ra U-e-er-ri I I i 15. U rev. iq-bu-û I I v 2 viii 3 4 . . . 61 v [9]. S iv 3 (qud4 af me-ia).su S iv 3 6 . i 7 ii 5 12 19 3 5 . qi-ba-a ia-a-ilil U obv. 3 .ba U rev. .. H T a 3 7 . gilmâ ra hi tant I rev. qû-ud-mi-is I I iv 20 23 rèsxx 'head': [wl4]^-û re-ss-su 132 qds r*s qadistu 'prostitute' : X-SMI Aî-tt qâ-dî-is-ti rista 'rejoicing': a-û-ibS-6-na-â ri-OI 290 t[uax] H i 20 qm' ra' qêmu 'meal': i-si-ir qé-ma I 288 rabâ 'tobe great*: bt-vp-B-ik ra-bi-\m]ft «i 4 V 9 I3 rabtx 'great': sûrqi-a ra-bi-a I 35. dingir . . Ai taq-ba-a W 1 7 . * « •rM A-f£-f[e] I H v 51 . S ii 9 . çf~fi~»Mx* I 3 1 . [Ai-axe qd-ab-tji £-li ni-H I I I iii [12] cf. y 3 . pa-H-it-tm A H S > ie-tr-ra I I I vii 4 ffct m a s h a t u sesame-meal \* (H-jd-h-ik-iu ma- qâtu *hand': [q]a-tam i-hu-zu qa-îi-sa I u n . s'-no qa-ti-su I I vi 19 Ob' q e b â Ho speak. ai Aa asj bi as-t-(As| I I I iii 3 9 qadxx 'with* : i-lam . qd-da x rev. û-ub-ba-al qâ-ii I I vii 4 3 . 9. [&-i]p-ra ta-aq-bi-a-ni-im-ma I 237. M HV MVM 42 (tfarl A I axa). û(H-ia-aq-qi-il qà-as-sujsu I 384 399 411 I I ii 15 2 9 . i [5] [ 9 ] . — Sa-mpmwêmmm 1 1 / 7 (M) passera Ho explain': ip-su-ur I 135. qd-du te^-mi-fu I 239 cf. — qab-li-tu jqa-ab-li-tïm iqabli-tum x rev. ap-su- «fr] 1157. iq-bu-sma I 403 I I ii 21 S iv 13.mes ra-aè-ht-ti % obv. mi-ba-iu-nm-ti S xt S i .GLOSSARY aarâsu Ho cut oÊT: [ta-pa-ra]-sa mur-sa $ iv a8. x i . iq-bi-su I U i 3 7 . {aaa* ra-bé\-e I 302. AsW oo-{it] I I I i i i 3 7 . [oTK-invXaJfli t^ax'-«-â[ai} I I I i 5 0 . ». i-pu-ia qa-ta-ia I 289 ( P ed-to-o-a). 10 s ûmu Hhirst* : i-ma pi-mi ù bu-bu-ti I I I iii 3* smd pâsirru (a decnon): (i-ib-H-ma pa-H-ii-iu I I I vii j n i-na ni-H sapsâqu 'distress': ma m mi §a-ap-sa-qmm I 4 ca> [is°J G a [4]. i-ià. ra-bi-tam I 157. c o m m a n d ' : [a-m}a-tam an-m-[tam iq-bi] Ul i [ 4 6 ] . i 9.ga). ii 3t-(fis-) B . i a a-qâ-ab-bu-ku I I I i 18. lm}a-Su-usm-Ma lu-m-te-i tmqm-mb-èi I I I t 17. [qd-du sam-me-su] S v [2] cf. Aa ta-qd-ab-b [asà-in-m} H vii 4 4 . hi-is-bi is-sû-ri I I I x 35 spr s u p r a 'ciaw': [ M B * sjû-up-ri-iu [û-ia-arri-it] ia-ma-i I I I iii 7 cf. i-A'/dingirjneâ ni-ôa-toa I 106 199 205 232 (-a) 236 357 I I i 6 ffîvîx7 (-a*) vai [xi] S xi 10 (màjasa). xx. i i [2] [ 9 ] . [qà^-ab-Um I 128 140. i i 3 xo 17 33 qt» qatû 'to come to an end': iq-te II iti 16. qaddânis 'hunched': qâ-ad-aH-is i4l-la-ka I I xv 16. ra-bu-tum BN15 103 219 233 II v 14 28 vi [23} I I I iii 30 vi 7. 243 P (-d]u-um) I I vii 33. qâ-ab-lam I [131] 143. i i 16 3 2 . 70 r*t râta 'trough': ki-ma sm-me-ri sm-h-mm ra-ta-am I I I iv 20 r*xa rëxnu 'womb': arhui lu ku-pa-ma S iv 51 cf.



GLOSSARY âûtu 'south w i n d ' : it-ba-a id-iû iu-tu U rev. 9 ; iu-û-tu U rev. 6 fib' sebû 'to be sated': ii-bi ni-is-sà-tam I I I iv 16 fib' sabû 'to be loud': ma-tum . . . i-ia-ab-bu I 354 I I i 3 ; [a-bu-b]u . . . — I I I iii 15; na-gi-ru . . . ri-ig-ma ûjH-ie-eb-bu-Û I 377n 392 4<>4 H ii t l 22 S iv 30 (lu-id-bu-û) fibr sebêru 'to break': [id ii-ga-r]u ii-bi-ru mi-Hl-iu x rev. ii 23 3 9 ; i ni-ii-bi-ir ni-ra J 2


r i g m u 'noise' (cont.) i 12 y 9 ; [i]u S iv 20 v [30] ; a-tva-tam cf. U rev. 20 ( K A ) ; U-mu-û ri-gi-im-Su Su-a-ti I 166; iu-a-ti sti-ul-li-il-H I I I I I I i i 50; [r]i-gi-im-ia ty-pi I I I i i i 10; i 2 9 ; iu-a-ti û-ma-al-li I I I i 36; ki-ma ii-te-me ri-gi-im-H-in I 356 I I i 5; ti-ru-ru iu-a-t[ï] I I I i i i 4 0 ; ti-ta ia-ti ri-gi-im-H-na ei-me I I I iii 4 3 ; ri-gimI 231 ; iu-nu-ti I I v i 3 5 (verbal suffix ?) B-na I 413-15 ( Q ) cf. 360ff.( V ) ; s i (3rd person pronoun): [at-t]a ù H-i [li-i]ak-li-si ri-gim-H-na S iv 10 cf. 14; I I I v i 4 4 ; cf. I 253 (P) I I v i i 35 ( ? ) [ w w ] rig^^-me-H-na at-ta-a-dar S iv 2 37 I I I iv 18 v 46 3 rev. 8 ; ii-a-ti 7 cf. 40 I I I v i 38 rd' redû 'to flow': îi-tr-[di mi-ilj-ra] I I vii 53; s u ' u 'grain': Hs-û ia i-im-ru S iv 49 59 v 8 ; mi-ib-ra [û-iar-di] TJ rev. [14]; û-ia-areqlu . . , iu-a (li-)ii-ii I I i i 19 33 di a-no iu-ub-ti-iu I 84



rat>âsu 'to overwhelm': [i-r]a-bi-is i-da-ak rev, 13 rkb rakâbu 'to ride : ir-ta-kab pa-re-e-[iu] U rev. s rukûbu 'chariot': ru-ku-ub dingir.mes U rev. 12 rks m a r k a s u 'hawser' : ip-ru-u* ma-ar-ka-sa I I I ii 5S rm' rummû 'to let loose': ru-um~mi I I I v i 24 rmk r i m k u 'washing': te-li-il-tam . . . ri-im-ka I 207 222 r m n (?) ramânu 'self' : û-b[a-ar]-ru-û ra-ma-an-ïa (P -id) I 293 cf. S iii 19; ma-ru ra-mani-ka I 94 9 6 ; a-na ra-ma-ni-ia ù paag-ri-ia I I I iii 42 rpé rapâsu 'to be wide' : ma-tum ir-ta-pl-ii I [3533 H i 2 S iv 1 (ir-ta-pi[i]) r a p s u 'wide': ta-ma-tu ra-pa-di-tû x rev. ii 7 2 9 ; ra-ap*fa-tum bu-da-H-na I I iv i7n S v [16] vi 5 (rap-fd-tu) rso ( ? ) : tr-»-x[ G ii 5 cf. I 178 ( N ) rqd raqftdu 'to dance': ur-[taq]-qa-da U rev. gn ri' rafiû 'to have': e-mu-qâ iu-ur-H I I I i 33 S s a (genitrve particle): i-na pu-û%-ri ia i4i I I v i 16 18 I I I iii 36; cf. I 34 3 ° 77io8n(?) I I ii 20 v [13] v i a i I I I i [13] vi 6 S obv. 9; id: S ii 10 i i i 14 iv 26 39 * - " C*3l [39] i a (relative particle): DN ia i-iu-û fei-e-ma l 223; cf. I H 3 I I i"' 31 v i i 44 I I I i 18 25 iii 53 v 42 47 v i 26; id: S v i 25 W 5 17 x rev, i 29 ( F o r ia là see là,)





se'û 'to seek': [t-/e] bâb ili-iu S v [31]; i-fi-ti ba-ab-iu I 407 I I i i 2 5 ; ii-a ba-ab-iu I 380 [395] I I i i 11 ; lu-ui-te-e si-ib-ba-as-sà I I I i 14; [m]a-tu-um-ma lu-ui-te-i I I I i 17 fi'b fiibu 'elder': [H-b]u-tum ii-mu-û I 400 cf. I I I i i 10; H-bu-ti si-ma-ni-i I 374 389 I I ii [13']; — u-pa-ab-bt-ir I 386 I I I i 3 9 ; is-sà-qar a-na H-bu-ti I 388 I I I i 41 §'t i â f o 'to drag' : ta-aS-ta-i-ta ri-ig-ma I 242 I I v i i 32, see p. 172


r e v

é »

iû (3rd person pronoun): lu-û~ma I 202; cf. I 333 364 367 I I v i i 45 48 x rev.

fiâlu 'to a s k ' : il-ta-am is-sû-û i-Sa-lu I 192; ia-la I I i i i 34 ( ? ) s'm fiimtu 'fate' : bit H-im-ti I 249 (P) ; si-ma-nu H-im-ti I 305 280 (H-ma-H); lu-û H-im-ti i-ba-[a] I I I v 4 9 ; pa-qi-du ii-ma-ti I 2 2 0 ; ba-ni-a-at ii-ma-ti I I I v i 47 cf. S i i i 1 i n (H-im-tu) tasïmtu 'understanding': [bel t]a-ii-im-ti S i v 17 v [27] s*p fiêpu 'foot': ie-ep-iu ii-ku-un I I iii 3; û-ul a-[ia-ak-ka-an ie-pi-ia] I I I i [48n]; ki-ma Hkin gïr"- -fc[û] U obv. a n 6 8 ; û-na-ai-H-qû ie-pi-ia I 245 ( P ) fi'r s i r a 'flesh' : i-na H-ri-iu à da-mi-iu I 210 225; i-na ii-i-ir i-li I 215 228 fi'r fiêru 'morning': i-na Se-re-ti I I i i 16 30 iii 6 fi'r fiftru ' w i n d ' : h-il-li-ik ia-ru I I i 14; I I I iii 17 U rev. 4 ; i-na im.limmu.ba ir-ta-kab U rev. 5 ; ia-ru uz-zu-zu I I I ii 54; te-bu-û fdrû [ ] U rev. 8 ; a-na la-a-r[i] I I I v 3 0 fi'r fiêrtu 'penalty': ièr-ta e-mi-id x rev. i i 27 4 3 ; iu-ku-un ie-re-et-ka I I I v i 25 fi't
mei m ei

fiikna 'placing': gar ki-ma gar lêpë^ k[a] U obv. 2n 6 8 fikr sikru 'beer': sa-mi»a*a$ H4k-ri-H III iv 17 si' figm fialû 'street' : [t6]-ra-n' à iu-U41275 sagâmu 'to roar': i-ia-ag-gu-um i-na fils er-pé-H I I I i i 53; ii-ta-ag-na DN i-na salustu 'third*: Sa-lu-uS-tum la-at-tum er-pé-ti I I I i i 4 0 a I I iv n ; ia-lu-ui-tumH4[b]-H III vii 1 figr im fiigaru 'boit': [H-ga-ra n]a-ah-ba-lu ti-as u m u 'name': Sum-Sa lu na-si-rat na-pifam-tim I [15] cf. S v 1 x rev. i 6n 10 Hm 3 rev. 8; be-l$-[et] ka-la i4i lu-û ii W [11] [18] [34] Y 1 7 (xy H-ga-ru); i[u-um]-ki (P ium-kii I 248 [id H-ga]-ru ii-bi-ru mi-Hl-iu x rev. i i i m ' 23 39 fiamû 'heavens': [4-ia-ar^ri4(l la-ma-i id' I I I iii 8 U rev. 16 (sn*«); I 19; a-nu fiadû 'mountain': [k]a}-la ia-di-i I 33 sar-ri [ia]-me-e I t o i ; [fa-su-ur] ia-ma-U fiadû 'east w i n d ' : k u r - a U rev. 6 I I I i i 35; is-tur ia-me-e 1 rev. u\a-na fiijrr ia-ma-i ( M -m]a-mi) 1170 I I I iii 48; s u r j a r r u r u 'to be quiet': ia-bu-ur-ru rii-U-H su-me-e-la 1130 17 ig-mi I I I i i i 4 7 ; ia-bu-ur-ra-at I I iii 15; i m ' me-ed-ra-tu iu-bu-rat S v 33n se mû 'to hear': 0-\mjs] a-wa-tam iu-a-ti fik'n I 166; il-vuhe-tna I I ut 29; iS^né-ma sukênu 'to b o w down': ik-mis ui-kin x rev* i 39; ii-[m]é*ë-ma x rev. i 27; U obv. 3 ri-gi-im-s%-na ei-me I I I iii 43 ; e-re-ba-ka ikk di-me-tna U obv. [1] 5 7; i-la it-mu-û sakâku 'to harrow': i-na H-it-ku-ki narirgi-int-iu I I I ii 50; ii-mu-ma an-m-a-am pi-i[i-ti] I I i v 14a qd-ba-la I 244; il-mu-û si-qi-ir-iu I 63 ski 400 I I I iii 52; [up-pa ii-mu]-é I [227}; s u k k a l l u 'vizier': a-na sukkal DN I 86 e ta-ai-nâ-a a-na . . . I I viii 33; up-pa [119] IIV23 t ni-il-rne I 214; t^HM**** É obv. 4; fikn ri-ig-ma i-ie-em-mu-û ffa,. . .] 1 77; [tèMHr}ftt»flt# rùîg-ma I 19 (M); 7 sakâmi 'to p u t ' : an-du-ra-ra ii-ku-un I I v [ 1 9 ] ; ie-ep-iu — I I iii 3 ; I I v 2 1 ; ii- te-meri-gi-im-li-4nI [356] I I i 5; 7 ki-ir-si . . . ii-k[un] I 258 ( P ) ; ii-ku-nu an-ni-a-om xa-tna-[rd[ U-iirtnu^ma I I I a-bu-ba I I I i i i 53 v 4 2 ; an-du-ra-ra viii 16; a-bu-ba . • ^ û-za-am-me-er ta-ai-ku-un I I v [ i ' J v i 2 8 ; I I v [3'] H-me-a I I I viii 19; i-ga-ru H-ta-am-mivi [ 3 0 ] ; 7 ki-ir-si . . . tai-ku-un S i i i 5 6 ; a-an-ni I I I i 20 cf. U obv. 16 ([£]an-du-ra-[ra ai-ku-u]n I 243; di-kunta-ma-ni) W obv. 14 (&*i[*]); aWa* fu-nu-H-[m]a x rev. i i 25 4 1 ; ii-ku-nu e f a i M I 227 ( 0 ) I I I v i 3 9 ; dingir.meS a-bu-ba ii-ku-nu fim'l 813163

s/tabsûtu 'midwife': ia-[ab]-iu-tum (E tab-sû-tum) . . . li-ib-du I 290 cf. S iii 17 (iab-su-tu-um-ma) ; tab-su-ut dingir.mes' I i 9 3 n ; ta-ab-su-ut i-U I I I iii 33 sabsûtu 'midwifery' : la-ab-su-ta-am (E RU-ab-su-tal-am) i-pu-ui I 285a

9 obv. 2; x-ra-me $ la-âï-ku-na-li-na-ti S iv 38; ki-ma ni-if-ku~[nu a-bu-b]a I I I viii 9; ni-U-ku-u[n] I 147 [161]; i-ia-ka-an J 7; [uz-na] i-h-ak-ka-na i-na iu-na-a-H II iii 8 10; J 6; a-[la-akka-an ie-pi-ia] I I I i 48; il-ta-kan\hàn pu-bur-iu S iv 4 37; U-ta-kôn ma-a-u-alsu S v 32; [ill-QaUkà* qatsu 8 iv 36; [il-t]a-âk*mt I 28; S i 9 U-tàk-nu a-na nap-ta-ni dumu.SAL S f [22] vi 11; a-na kurummate** bu-na U-tàk-nu S v 23 vi 12; fa-ku-un U-re-etka I I I vi 25; iu-uk-ni d-uk-ba-ak-ka-li I I I vii 6; tê-H'dUtaM ûjlu-ia-ai-ki4n ri-im-ka 1207 222; ii\l[ii]-ïâ-kin-ma... a-sa-ku S iv 50 60 v [9]; [U^f]a-ki4a bi-du-tum I 303; x rev. i 20




GLOSSARY sâru 'myriad': 1 Sar ku .me§ 1 gâr*» ™ x rev. ii 21 37
6 4

sumêlu 'left (hand)': 7 ki-ir-si a-na Su-mesu-ra-a-tum pu-ûb-1)u-ra-ma I 251 (P); li iS-k[im] I 258 (P) cf. S iii 6 (gùb) [Sà-as-s]û-ra-tum — I 277; [7] ù 7 smm Sà-su-ra-ti S iii 9 sa m mu 'plant': li-wi-sû Sa-am-mu I I i 10 *p cf. S iv 43 53 (Sam-mu) ; ia-am-mu û-ul saptu 'Iip': [bu-u]l-bi-ta û-ka-la-la Sa-apû-si-a I I iv 5 cf. S iv 49 59 v [8] (Samta-Sa I I I iii 29; fa-mi-a Sa-ap-ta-Su-nu mu); DN (H-)is-sur qd-du Sam-mi-Su I I I iv 21 x rev. i [7n] 11 cf. ii 5 12 (Sam-nù-ka) «p' 19 (Sam-me-id) 35 (Sam-mi-ùf) cf. S v [2] sapû 'to be thick': [Sa-pa-at e]-fu-tu I I I smn iii [18] samnu *oil': Sa-am-ni R 4 Spk sms ispikû 'crop': U-iS-Su-ur eqlu iS-pi-ki-Su samsu 'sun': i-na aS-qû-la-lu Sa-am-Si I I i 18 cf. S iv 46 (iS-pi-ke-e-Su) 56 I I v [ai] [3'] i 30; see also Samas" (is-pi-ke-Sû) v [5] v Spl an saplû 'lower': er-se-tam Sa-ap-li-tam I I sattu 'year': Sa-lu-uS-tum Sa-at-tum I I iv v [ i 7 n ] 31 vi 26 11; iS-ti-ta Sa-at-tam I I iv 9; Sa-ni-ta suplu 'under part': Su-pu-ul [ x rev. i 20 Sa-at-tam I I iv 10; 2, 4, 5, 6 mu t-ua saplis 'below': ia-ap-li-iS a-ii-4l-li-ka I I ka-Sd-di S v [12] [15] [18] [22] vi 4 i 12 iv 2; is\li-sa-kir Sap-HS S iv 45 55 7 11; 3» > 3 mu.an.na S v [13] v 4 ; e-li-iS ù Sa-ap-H-iS I I I i 31 ; cf. W 3 vi 1 2; 1 mu.an.na S vi 28; 600.600 mu-feLa I 352 416 (Q Sd-na-a-tim) sapâru 'to send': iS-pu-ur I 9 9 ; iS-pu-raI I i 1 (Q —) S iv [1]; 40 mu.rji.a an-ni I 124 [136] S ii 12; [ta-aS-puat-ra-am I 37; [mu.lji.a im]-nu-û I [34] rà]-an-ni I 155; Sa a-Sap-pa-rak-[ka] [36]; ki-i 7 mu.m[e§] U obv. 9 W 5 ; [a-Sap]-pa-rak-hùm-ma W 10; In' Su-pu-ur I 97 s anu I 'to change': u -mu iS-nu-û pa-nusipru 'task' : it-ti DN-ma i-ba-aS-H H-ip-ru û-Su I I I ii 48; [i]S-ta-ni fe^-e-em-Su I I I I 201; [H-i]p-ra ta-aq-bi- a-ni-im-ma iii 25 I I 'to repeat': a-ma-te-Su-nu . . . I 237; H-ip-ra le-em-na I I viii 3 5 ; i-Sa-an-[ni] Jfy obv. 13; [ter-ti] DN . . . Si-ip-ra Sa a-qâ-ab-bu-ku I I I i 18; û-Sâ-an-nu-û x rev» ii 8 cf. 30 Si-pi-ir DN I 196; H-ip-ru il-qû-û I I iv sanû 'second, other': bitu il-ta-nu z-û 19 cf. S vi 16 (kin); Si-pi-ir-Su I I vii 4 7 ; i-re-ba-ma S v 24 vi 13; [Sd]-né-e i-SaSip-ra-H-na I I ii 6' (Q) ka-an J 7; Sa-ni-ta Sa-at-tam I I iv 10 sinasam 'in pairs': Si-na-Sàm*d-na ù-ka- m â r sipri 'messenger': [iz-za-kar] ana dumu Hp-ri x rev. ii 15 la-la{-Si-na) S iii 12 13 SpSk sV s/tupsikku 'toil': Su-up-H-ik-[ku] at-ru sasû 'to call': is-si I 232; il-ta-am zs-sû-û I 149 [162]; iz-bi-lu Su-up-Si-[i]k-ka I 192; is-sû-û eS-ra arfuj I 280; — na-giI 2 cf. S i 10-13 (i-za-bi-lu tup-H-ka); ru I 403 I I ii 2 1 ; pa-na-mi DN Sa Su-up-Si-ik-ki I 34 36; Su-up-Si-ik i-li ni-Sa-si-ki I 246 (P); [a]l-ta-n I I ii 8' I 3 ; — ilim a-wi-lum H-iS-H I 191 197 (Q)î li-is-su-û na-gi-ru I 376 391 U ii G ii 12 ([Su-up-H]-ku) V obv. 3 (tu-up[15'] S iv [30]; [sa-a]s-su-ra DN H-ik-ku) ; Su-up-H-ik-ka-ku-nu a-ivi-[£]am Si-st-ma I I I vi 4 3 ; i-lu iS-te-en Si-si-ma e-mi-id I 241.&. I I vii 31; 'carrying I 173 ( K L N ) cf. S ii 7; ti-si-a tu*qûbasket': Su-up-H-ik-ki-Su-nu *girra it-taum-tam I 6in ak-Su I 66 fer s/sassuru 'birth-goddess': wa-aS-ba-at ipt D[N Sà-as-s]û-ru I 189 V obv. i n sapattu 'fifteenth day': i-na ar-fri se-bu-ti (sa-as-fr \G ii [8] S ii [6); [f]à-asu Sa-pa-at-ti I 206 221 su-ru H-gimï-mal-a li-ib-ni-ma I 190 spl cf. V obv. 2 (sa-as-su-ru) ; at-ti-i-ma ëûqqulu 'to withhold': [û-S]a-aq-qi-il Sà-as-su-ru I 194 cf. I I I vi 47; ' tuqd-as-su I 411 I I ii 29; li-Sa-aq-qi-il — uk~t[a]-bi-it DN sa-as-sû-ru I 295 I 384** 399 I I ii 15; zu-un-ni-Su DN (P -su-)\ [S]à-su-ru ba-na-at H-im-tu — I I i 11 8 iti 11; i-t[a-ad s]a-as-sû-ra I 297; Sqll [sa-a]s-sû-ra DN H-n-ma I I I vi 4 3 ; asqulâlu ( ? ) : i-na aS-qû-la-lu Sa-am-H a-na DN sa-as-sû-ri I I I vi 4 6 ; S[à-a]sI I v [21] [3'] vi 30
v 2 t


sarâfu 'to tear': [u-Sa-ar-ri-if\ Sa-ma-i I I I iii [8] cf. U rev. [ i 6 n ] Srp suruppu 'plague': [Su-r]u-up-pu-û li-ib-Si I 360 (V [S]u-ru-up-pu-u) cf. S iv 9 13 (Su-ru-pu-u) ; [— i-te-z]i-ib-H-na-H I [412]; [mur]-su di-'u Su-ru-pu-u a-sa-ku S iv 12 16 28 Srq Sarâqu 'to act stealthily': (U-)iS-ta-ar-riiq . . . lil[û]-Sa-az-ni-in na-al-Sa I I ii i 7 n 31 sarrâqû 'furtive': ki-ma Sa-ar-ra-qi-tu Su-a (U-)iS-H I I ii I9n 33 Srr sarru 'king': DN a-bu-Su-nu S[ar-r]u I 7; Sar-ri [Sa]-me-e I 101; Sar-ri ap-si-i I 102; SAR-n. I 413-415 Q let serru 'child': ku-up-ra [it-ta-H Se-er-ru] I I I ii [13]; li-is-ba-at Se-er-ra I I I vii 4 ; ullia û-Se-Sèr Sèr-ra S iv 51 61 v [9]; I 351; um-mi Se-er-ri I 292 cf. S iii 19 (Sèr-ri) SS' ? SaSû 'to disturb': i ni-iS-H-a i-na Su-ubti-Su I 44x1 46 58 60 St' satû 'to drink': [Sa]-tu-ti i-Sa-at-ti I I I ii 44 t" te'ùtu 'food': [p]u-ur-sa . . . te-i-ta I I i 9 (B te-i-tam Q ti-wi-tu) cf. S iv 42 52 (ti-ta); ti-i-ti-4S [i-U\ I 339 t'm tâmtu 'sea': ta-ma-tu ra-pa-dS-tu x rev. ii 7 2 9 ; ul-da g[al-la-ta] ti-a-am-ta I I I iv 6; [Si-ga-ra n]a-ab-ba-lu ti-a-am-tim 115 cf. S v [1] x rev. i [6] 10 (ta-am-ti) ii 4 (tam-ti) 11 (ta-am-ta) 18 (tam-td)

34 (ti-flm-fi ) ; ma-at-sa-ru tam-ti s rev. ii 24 40; ti-a-am-tim II vi 1 t'm(?) tâmtu 'destruction': [l]ùid-du-Sû tam-ta I 17jn (M); ï-^'-ii/tom-ta]S ii [7] t'r tara 'to turn'ï it-tu-ru I 413 îî ii 35; u -mu-um .. . li-tu-ur lùU-[iï\ III iii 35; Jf-p] U-tu-ur a-na up-[ II vif 37; [ti"J-fcrram-ma Ser-ta e-mi-id x rev. ii 27 43; kâ giâ.ma tfV-[ra] W 6 tb' tebû 'to rise': DN it-bi-ma I 104; DN it-bé-e-ma I I I v 37; it-ba-a id-Sû h-tu U rev. 9; te-bu-û XM.meS U rev. 8; i-na te-bi-Su I I I ii 54; i-na ma-ia-li u*feet-[bi-Su] I 79 tkk tukku 'lament': tu-uk-kum ha-b[i*H] G a 6 cf. I [i79n] (N) tkl tukultu 'help': tuk-la-at % rev. 3 tm' ta mû 'to swear': DN it-UM/d z rev. ii 48; . . . i-U ta-mi-ma I I iii 7 9; i-na pa-ni ta-mu-ni x rev. ii 47; dumujneS>ai it-ti-Sti ta-mu-ni x rev. ii 48; a-na mi-nim tu-ta-am-ma-n[i] I I vii 42; i nlu-tja* am-mu-ni I I vit 38 tpsk see spsk tqm tuqumtu 'war* : ti-si-a tu-qû-um-tam I 61 ; ma-aH-nu-u[m-mi ig-ra-am t]u-q&uintam I 130 142; ni-ig-ra-am — I [146] 160 (tu-qû-um-ta-am, G tu-qum-tam) trkl tarkullu 'mooring pôle': ta-ar-kurui-tt' DN lU-na-sUb] I I vii 51 cf. U rev. 15 (t[ar-kul-lt]) trr(?) tiruru (a démon): ki-ma H-ru-ru ht-a-tfj\ III iii 40n ts rusa 'as if': tu-Sa «a-aS-ba-a-ku III iii 49a


Adad: I I i n ii n 20 [25] v [16] 30 vi 10 25 I I I ii 49 53 S iv 44 54 v [3] x r e v . i M [8] i i 2 9 1632 y 4 Urev.5 A n u : I 7 13 17 97 9 9 * 4 136 168-9 ( M ) 174 I I v 16 30 vi 25 III iii 51 v 39 47 vi 11 x rev. i [4] 8 ii 2 9 (16)3247 S ii 8 12 U rev. 20 ( ? ) Anunnaki: I 511 103 172 219 232 I I v 14 28 vi [23] I I I iii 30 vi 7 S ii [5] Atra-kasïs: I [364] 368 385 387 I I viii 36 I I I i i [11] 38 40 ii 18 S i v 17 21 29 v 27 vi 18 x rev. i 12 y 9 U obv. [3] $ obv. 6 W I I (see I s n )
0 1 1 1 1 I 2

G i r r a : I 66 H a n i s : I I vii [ 4 9 " , and p. 172] Igigi: I 6 n 20 113 233 6 viii 16 Isfrara: I 304a Istar: I 302 304 I I v [13] III i

K a l k a l : I 74x1 76 K e s (home town of mother goddess) : I 298 M a m i / M a n i a : I 193 235 246 250 (P) 296 I I I iii 33 S iii 14 16 N a m t a r : I 380 [395] 401 4 0 7 S iv 10 14 N e r g a l (see Sin) N i n t u : I 198 211 226 278 295 I I I iii 28 iv 4 13 v 37 vi 43 46 N i n u r t a : I 9 126 138 I I vii [52] U rev. 14 N i s a b a : I I i 19 vi 14 S iv 47 57 v 6 N u s k u : I [76] 7 8 n 86 87 89 91 115 [ " 9 ] 120 [134] 153 I I v 23 S ii 9 S i n and N e r g a l : x rev. i s n 9 ii [3] [10] [17] 33 S a m a s : I I I i 30 iii 18 S u l l a t : I I vii 4 9 ^ and p. 172 T i g r i s : I 25n T i r u r u : I I I iii 4 0 n W ê ( - i l a ) : I 223n Z û : I I I iii [7]

Bëlet-ilî: G ii 8 V obv. 1 (247) S ii 6 iii 16

I [189]



E k u r : I 73 E n k i / E a : I 16 [18] 98 100 102 201 204 250 (P) 254 (P) 365 372 I I iii 9 29 v 18 vi [17] 22 vii 39 4 0 I I I i [15] 43 [45] iii [25] vi 14 [16] 42 [45] G ii 1 S i 4 iii 1 iv 18 20 22 25 [29] v [2] 28 30 x rev. i 7 11 21 [27] [39] ii 8 [14] 31 y 2 8 10 U obv. 1 [7] [13] W 12 16 î& obv. 5 7 M u t : I 8 [45] 59 69 73 82 84 85 90 92 95 104 105 112 118 125 133 137 145 [152] 165 167 168 169 ( K ) 196 335 [356] II i 5 v 22 [27] vi 22 32 vii [47] viii 35 I I I i [43] 48 iii 39 v 41 vi [5] 12 [41] vii 21 J 6 Sii[i3]iv4[37] rev. i [ i ] i i 8 31 4 4 4 8 y 5 E n n u g i : I i o n 127 139 E r r a k a l : I I vii 51 TJ rev. 15 Euphrates: S i 7n




rev. [ i 6 n ]


N i 2SS2 + 2560+2564 Obv. Iii 2564 ^ S W n N . 2 $ J 2 . 2 5 6 0 * 2564 < ^ i ^ ^ F ^ j ° '" b v ^w^wii5 2560 /-JET Mm>r>R^ff 25 2560 (3) .

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i 10 45 ^ T H ^ f ^ 20 50 2552 .m 20 Rev. viïi 35 2564 (remainder umnscribed) (6) (7) .Ni 2 5 5 2 ^ 2 5 6 0 * 2 5 6 4 M AH 16064 Obv.

iÉt 39099 20 «rMfe&^K ff (9) (8) .

{ | 6 0 ^fourorfjv» "net mfsstnt vit 8 4 ^ ^ ( t a m sup.Collations :number«d texts from No.f g to*»t-hané edet) '« 39ar 16 iii 17 X Iii 21 Wider gapf IH 3îjg|- Hl 3 9 i-tf iii 4 4 J j J ^ . ? ) 108 pu-^pius!) »ï 3 5 .p a . (cont.si ng V e o r s l x No.b i iii end: f .) P v m (io) v end p robabiy no line missing (») 1 S tJiDUv 1 ni .u b . ࣠t CTAL ~ 20./' îv 41 fc$T iv 4 2 iv v end:f! «mes mi s. 3: | 4 jr^<^~ 6 -hi- 52 fifth from bottom 58 a l . r o b a b ^ one line missing iv a 3-na"^^^^ iv 2 7 te. ""•«•-un 4 7 ïïofr N o . 15: v 33 SE 39099 Rev.l . r a s .

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