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Experiment 20 (Practical No.

33)

Title: Ecological study oI a terrestrial area. (group work)

Purpose:
1. earning the basic principles oI ecology through students` own eIIort
1.1. Elements oI ecosystem: biosis and abiosis
1.2.Dynamic relationship oI elements and Ilow oI energy through ecosystem
2. Using the simple apparatus and instruments in ecological studies
3. earning the methods oI collecting and analysing ecological data
4. Writing an ecological study report
5. Inculcating nature loving attitude
6. Inculcating good moral values cooperation, independence and selI-conIidence

Procedure
$tudents are divided into groups oI 4 or 5. Each group is lead by a teacher who plans study
proposals they have chosen. Determine the area to be studied. Determine the objectives, rough
working plan, and the techniques to be carried out. Each group will have a discussion with their
teacher aIter completing the project.
Keep the record oI each project, the product oI the project, and the students` attendance.
$end in a report containing the objectives oI product and the conclusions.

Assessment
(1)ssessment oI the Iolio Ior the Iield work emphasises the way oI writing oI project proposal
and project report.
(2)Project leader will be given 2 additional marks higher than the rest oI the group
members.(Total mark is 20)
(3)Project leaders must hand in a conIidential report on the participation oI project members.
(4)Members oI the same group may not necessarily obtain the same mark.
(5)Project report must be printed.

$ ANA$$

Wong ee Ting
1. -ective: Determination oI the texture oI soil

Apparatus: 500 cm
3
measuring cylinder
100 cm
3
soil sample
300 cm
3
water

Procedure: (a) dd the soil sample to the measuring cylinder and cover with water.
(b) $hake the contents vigorously.
(c) llow the mixture to settle out, according to density and surIace area oI
particles, Ior 48 hours.
(d) Measure the volume oI the various Iractions oI soil sample.
Results: Calculate the percentage oI stone, sand and clay components oI the soil
sample.
Formula: Percentage sand component =
WcIght oI sand
WcIght oI soII sampIc
%
an ung Hao
2. -ectives: Determination oI water content oI soil

Apparatus: luminium Ioil pie dish
Balance
Oven
Desiccators
Tongs
Thermometer

Material: 80 gm soil

Procedure: (a) Weigh an aluminium Ioil pie dish while still empty. Record the mass (a).
(b) dd the broken-up soil sample to the pie dish and weigh. Record the
mass (b).
(c) Place the pie dish containing the soil sample in the oven at 110
o
C Ior 24
hours.
(d) Remove the sample Irom the oven and cool in the desiccators.
(e) Weigh the sample when cool and record the mass.
(I) Return the sample to the oven at 110
o
C Ior a Iurther 24 hours.
(g) Repeat stages (d) and (e) until consistent weighings are recorded
(constant mass). Record the mass (c).
(h) Calculate the percentage water content as Iollows:

-c
-a

(i) Retain the soil sample in the desiccators Ior experiment 4.
Results: Calculate the percentage water content oI the soil sample.
Formula: Percentage water content oI soil
WcIght oI watcr
WcIght oI soII
%



an ung Hao
3. -ective: Determination oI organic matter content

Apparatus: Desiccators and lid
Tripod
Bunsen burner
sbestos mat
Fireclay triangle tongs

Material: Dried soil sample

Procedure: (a) Heat the crucible and lid strongly in the Bunsen Ilame to remove all
traces oI moisture. Place in the desiccators to cool. Weigh and record the
mass (a).
(b) dd the dried soil sample (kept Irom the previous experiment) Irom the
desiccators and weigh. Record the mass (b).
(c) Heat the soil in the crucible, covered with the lid, to red-heat Ior 1 hour
to burn oII all the organic matter. llow to cool Ior 10 min and remove
to the desiccators.
(d) Weigh the crucible and sample when cool.
(e) Repeat (c) and (d) until constant mass is recorded.
(I) Calculate the percentage oI organic content as Iollow:

-c
-a

(g) Repeat the experiment on soil samples taken Irom diIIerent areas to
demonstrate variation oI organic content.
Results: Calculate the percentage oI organic matter oI the soil sample.
Formula: Percentage oI organic component
WcIght oI organIc mattcr
WcIght oI soII sampIc
%

Pang Wei Na
4. -ective: Determination oI air content oI soil

Apparatus: Tin can oI volume about 200 cm
3

500 cm
3
beaker
metal seeker
nail
hammer

Material: Water

Procedure: (a) Place the empty can open end uppermost into the 500 cm
3
beaker and Iill
the beaker with water above the level oI the can. Mark the water level in
the beaker.
(b) CareIully remove the can containing the water and measure this volume
oI water in a measuring cylinder. Record the volume (a). The water level
in the beaker will Iall by an amount corresponding to the volume oI
water in the can.
(c) PerIorate the base oI the can using a nail and a hammer, making about
eight small holes.
(d) Push the open end oI the can into soil Irom which surIace vegetation has
been removed until soil begins to come through the perIorations. Gently
dig out the can, turn it over and remove soil Irom the surIace until it is
level with the top oI can.
(I) The water level in the beaker Irom will be lower than the original level
because water will be used to replace the air which was present in the
soil.
(g) dd water to the beaker Irom a Iull 100 cm
3
measuring cylinder until the
original level is restored. Record volume oI water added (b).
(h) The percentage air content oI the soil sample can be determined as
Iollows:


(i) Repeat the experiment on soil sample Irom diIIerent areas.
Results: Calculate the percentage volume oI air in the soil sample.
Formula: Percentage volume oI air in soil sample
=
VoIumc oI soII sampIc - voIumc oI soII partIcIcs ( aIr - Ircc soII )
VoIumc oI soII sampIc
%
=
VoIumc oI aIr In soII
VoIumc oI soII sampIc
%
Wong ee Ting
5. -ective: Determination oI the soil pH

Apparatus: ong test-tube
Test-tube rack
$patula
10 cm
3
pipette

Material: Universal indicator

Procedure: (a) dd about 1 cm
3
oI soil to the test-tube and 1 cm
3
oI barium sulphate,
which ensures Ilocculation oI colloidal clay.
(b) dd 10 cm
3
oI distilled water and 5 cm
3
oI BDH universal indicator
solution. $eal the test-tube with the bung. $hake vigorously and allow
contents to settle Ior 5 min.
(c) Compare the colour oI liquid in the test-tube with the colours on the
BDH reIerence colour chart and read oII the corresponding pH.
(d) Repeat the experiment on soil samples Irom diIIerent areas.

Results: $tate the pH value oI the soil.

. -ective: Determination oI the type oI soil organisms

Apparatus: Tullgren Iunnel
Retort stand
Beakers
MagniIying glass
Microscope
Glass slide
Bearmann Iunnel

Material: 4 Iormalin solution

Results: 1. ist down the types oI animal such as Nematoda, nnelida, Myriapoda,
Insecta, Mollusca and moeba.
2. $tate the name oI the above animals and draw the appearance oI the
animals.

ETERMNATN F THE EN$T F PANT $PECE$ N A HABTAT

The density oI plant species in a habitat can be determined by using quadrats and transects.

1. "uadrat sampling technique

Apparatus: Quadrats measuring 1 m
2

Procedure: Random sampling procedure using random number table











Results: $tudents must write their reports as Iollows:
$tudent`s name: Kan Yung Hao, Pang Wei Na, Wong Yee Ting
Date: 09/11/2010 15/11/2010
Habitat: Forest
ocation/Place: Next to the school Iield
Type oI plant:
Quadrat size: 1m x 1m


Ta-le of data for the measurement of each species cover in quadrat sampling

No.
$pecies cover (-ase/air) in quadrat
Total species
cover for 10
quadrats
Percentage of
relatives species
cover ()
1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10
1 28 38 28 73 23 27 36 27 20 13 313 51.31
2 21 3 19 8 27 27 22 29 45 0 201 32.95
3 0 1 3 2 8 5 5 24 0 10 58 9.51
4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 6 0.98
5 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 6 12 1.97
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0.33
7 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0.16
8 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 9 1.48
9 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0.33
10 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 0 6 0.98

Total cover of all species: 610

Ta-le of data for the measurement of each species density in quadrat sampling

No.
$pecies density (-ase/air) in quadrat Total species
density for 10
quadrats
Percentage of
relatives species
density ()
1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10
1 30 36 23 42 36 36 8 29 21 13 274 48.24
2 19 4 23 9 21 22 22 35 50 0 205 36.09
3 0 1 3 2 5 2 3 26 0 18 60 10.56
4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 7 1.23
5 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 9 13 2.29
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0.35
7 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0.18
8 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 0.53
9 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0.18
10 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 0.35

Total density of all species: 568



2. $ampling technique using line transect

Apparatus: Rope (15.30 meters)

Procedure:
(i) Determine a base line along the border oI the area under investigation.
(ii) Choose a series oI points along this base line either randomly or systematically. These
points are used as the starting points Ior the transects to run across the area being
investigated.
(iii)Record only the plants which touch the line as seen vertically above or below the
transect line.
(iv)10 12 lines are placed randomly in the area to provide enough samples to investigate
the community.

Result: $tudents must write their reports as Iollow:
$tudent`s name: Kan Yung Hao, Pang Wei Na, Wong Yee Ting
Date: 15/11/2010 16/11/2010
Habitat: Forest
ocation/Place: Next to the school Iield
Type oI plant:
Distance oI each interval: 1m
Total number oI intervals: 10
Total length oI line transect:





Ta-le of data for the measurement of num-er of interval in line transect

No. Name of species
Num-er of interval No. of intervals
where species
are recorded
1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10
1
Crotalaria laburmitolia
3 0 0 43 45 60 42 66 0 31 7
2
Hypolytrum nemorum
16 54 42 27 19 45 41 44 49 20 10
3
Chitoria rubiginosa
0 0 0 9 9 0 7 4 0 14 5
4
Phanera audae
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5
Phanera integrtIolia
0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 0 0 3

Cassia hirsute
0 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 0 4 3
7
Tremma cannabina
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 1
8
Ficus grossulariodes
0 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 2
9
Ipomea involucrate
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
10
Melothria aIIinis
0 0

1 2 2 0 0 0 0 3






Ta-le of data for the measurement of num-er of interval of plants in line transect

No. Name of species
Num-er of interval
No. of intervals
where species
are recorded
1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10
1
Crotalaria laburmitolia
3 0 0 43 45 60 42 66 0 31 7
2
Hypolytrum nemorum
16 54 42 27 19 45 41 44 49 20 10
3
Chitoria rubiginosa
0 0 0 9 9 0 7 4 0 14 5
4
Phanera audae
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5
Phanera integrtIolia
0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 0 0 3

Cassia hirsute
0 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 0 4 3
7
Tremma cannabina
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 1
8
Ficus grossulariodes
0 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 2
9
Ipomea involucrate
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
10
Melothria aIIinis
0 0 0 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 3





Ta-le of data for the measurement of cross sectional length of plants in line transect

No. Name of species
Cross sectional length (m) Total Cross
sectional
length of a
species (m)
1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10
1 Crotalaria laburmitolia 0.3 0.0 0.0 9.2 4.8 7.3 4.1 10.6 0.0 6.6 42.9
2 Hypolytrum nemorum 6.0 12.1 7.7 4.6 2.4 6.2 6.4 3.4 11.1 3.3 63.2
3 Chitoria rubiginosa 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 0.6 0.0 0.5 0.6 0.0 1.7 4.8
4 Phanera audae 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
5 Phanera integrtIolia 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.6
Cassia hirsute 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 1.1 1.9
7 Tremma cannabina 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.9
8 Ficus grossulariodes 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.9
9 Ipomea involucrate 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2
10 Melothria aIIinis 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.3 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.9

Total cross sectional length Ior all species:
117.3




(a) Calculate the Irequency oI a species using the Iollowing Iormula.

Frequency =
TotaI numcr oI IntcrvaIs whcrc thc spccIcs arc Iound
TotaI numcr oI IntcrvaIs oI transcct
%



(b)Calculate the percentage surIace cover oI each species.
Percentage species cover =
TotaI cross scctIonaI Icngth oI a spccIcs
TotaI Icngth oI transcct
%

(c) Calculate the relative species cover.

Relative species cover =
TotaI cross scctIonaI Icngth oI a spccIcs
TotaI cross scctIonaI Icngth oI aII spccIcs
%





$ummary of the measurements o-tained -y the line transect technique

No. Name of species
Num-er of intervals where
species are recorded
Percentage
cover
Relative
cover
Frequency
1 Crotalaria laburmitolia 7 28.04 36.59 70
2 Hypolytrum nemorum 10 41.31 53.88 10
3 Chitoria rubiginosa 5 3.14 4.09 50
4 Phanera audae 0 0.00 0.00 0
5 Phanera integrtIolia 3 0.39 0.51 30
Cassia hirsuta 3 1.24 1.62 30
7 Tremma Cannabina 1 0.59 0.77 10
8 Ficus grossulariodes 2 0.59 0.77 20
9 Ipomea involucrate 1 0.13 0.17 10
10 Melothria aIIinis 3 1.24 1.62 30