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**Vector Addition Tree Automata
**

&

Multiplicative Exponential Linear Logic

Philippe de Groote, Bruno Guillaume, Sylvain Salvati

LORIA & INRIA Lorraine

September 24, 2004

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Overview

• Introduction

• An example

• The automata side

• The linear logic side

• Bridging the two sides

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Introduction

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Introduction

• There is an encoding of a fragment (!-Horn) of MELL in Petri Nets or Vector

Addition System with States (Kanovich).

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Introduction

• There is an encoding of a fragment (!-Horn) of MELL in Petri Nets or Vector

Addition System with States (Kanovich).

• Our goal is to extend this encoding to full [I]MELL.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Introduction

• There is an encoding of a fragment (!-Horn) of MELL in Petri Nets or Vector

Addition System with States (Kanovich).

• Our goal is to extend this encoding to full [I]MELL.

• This yields a reformulation of the (open) problem of the decidability of

[I]MELL in an equivalent problem in automata theory.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Introduction

• There is an encoding of a fragment (!-Horn) of MELL in Petri Nets or Vector

Addition System with States (Kanovich).

• Our goal is to extend this encoding to full [I]MELL.

• This yields a reformulation of the (open) problem of the decidability of

[I]MELL in an equivalent problem in automata theory.

!-Horn fragment

Vector Addition

System with States

· Petri Nets

Finite State Automata

IMELL

Vector Addition

Tree Automata

Tree Automata

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

Find a proof in IMELL of

!((A B S) S), !(S S S), !(A S), !(B S) ¬ S

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

Find a proof in IMELL of

!((A B S) S), !(S S S), !(A S), !(B S) ¬ S

is equivalent to ﬁnd a closed linear λ-term of type S on the signature:

f : (A B S) S g : S S S a : A S b : B S

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

Find a proof in IMELL of

!((A B S) S), !(S S S), !(A S), !(B S) ¬ S

is equivalent to ﬁnd a closed linear λ-term of type S on the signature:

f : (A B S) S g : S S S a : A S b : B S

Let’s go. . .

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

Find a proof in IMELL of

!((A B S) S), !(S S S), !(A S), !(B S) ¬ S

is equivalent to ﬁnd a closed linear λ-term of type S on the signature:

f : (A B S) S g : S S S a : A S b : B S

Let’s go. . .

T

S

::= f (λxy.T

S

[x : A, y : B])

[ g T

S

T

S

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

Find a proof in IMELL of

!((A B S) S), !(S S S), !(A S), !(B S) ¬ S

is equivalent to ﬁnd a closed linear λ-term of type S on the signature:

f : (A B S) S g : S S S a : A S b : B S

Let’s go. . .

T

S

::= f (λxy.T

S

[x : A, y : B])

[ g T

S

T

S

T

S

[x : A, y : B] ::= f (λx

y

.T

S

[x : A, y : B, x

: A, y

: B])

[ g T

S

T

S

[x : A, y : B]

[ g T

S

[x : A] T

S

[y : B]

[ g T

S

[y : B] T

S

[x : A]

[ g T

S

[x : A, y : B] T

S

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

Find a proof in IMELL of

!((A B S) S), !(S S S), !(A S), !(B S) ¬ S

is equivalent to ﬁnd a closed linear λ-term of type S on the signature:

f : (A B S) S g : S S S a : A S b : B S

Let’s go. . .

T

S

::= f (λxy.T

S

[x : A, y : B])

[ g T

S

T

S

T

S

[x : A, y : B] ::= f (λx

y

.T

S

[x : A, y : B, x

: A, y

: B])

[ g T

S

T

S

[x : A, y : B]

[ g T

S

[x : A] T

S

[y : B]

[ g T

S

[y : B] T

S

[x : A]

[ g T

S

[x : A, y : B] T

S

T

S

[x : A] ::= a x

[ . . .

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

The signature:

f : (A B S) S g : S S S a : A S b : B S

In fact, only the number of free variables matters.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

The signature:

f : (A B S) S g : S S S a : A S b : B S

In fact, only the number of free variables matters.

Let x = (n

1

, n

2

) ∈ N

2

, T

S

[x] stands for the set of terms of type S with n

1

free variables of type A and n

2

free

variables of type B.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

The signature:

f : (A B S) S g : S S S a : A S b : B S

In fact, only the number of free variables matters.

Let x = (n

1

, n

2

) ∈ N

2

, T

S

[x] stands for the set of terms of type S with n

1

free variables of type A and n

2

free

variables of type B.

T

S

[x] ::= f (λ : A λ : B T

S

[x + (1, 1)])

[ g T

S

[x

1

] T

S

[x

2

] x = x

1

+x

2

[ a if x = (1, 0)

[ b if x = (0, 1)

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

The signature:

f : (A B S) S g : S S S a : A S b : B S

In fact, only the number of free variables matters.

Let x = (n

1

, n

2

) ∈ N

2

, T

S

[x] stands for the set of terms of type S with n

1

free variables of type A and n

2

free

variables of type B.

T

S

[x] ::= f (λ : A λ : B T

S

[x + (1, 1)])

[ g T

S

[x

1

] T

S

[x

2

] x = x

1

+x

2

[ a if x = (1, 0)

[ b if x = (0, 1)

Putting it as a (tree automata like) rewriting system:

a → q[(1, 0)]

b → q[(0, 1)]

f(q[x]) → q[x −(1, 1)]

g(q[x

1

], q[x

2

]) → q[x

1

+x

2

]

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

Γ = (A B S) S, S S S, A S, B S

f

g

d

d

d

d

f

a

g

d

d

d

d

g a

d

d

d

d

b b

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

Γ = (A B S) S, S S S, A S, B S

f

g

d

d

d

d

f

a

g

d

d

d

d

g a

d

d

d

d

b b q(0,1)

(b)

!Γ, B ¬ S

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

Γ = (A B S) S, S S S, A S, B S

f

g

d

d

d

d

f

a

g

d

d

d

d

g a

d

d

d

d

b b q(0,1) q(0,1)

(b)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(b)

!Γ, B ¬ S

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

Γ = (A B S) S, S S S, A S, B S

f

g

d

d

d

d

f

a

g

d

d

d

d

g a q(0,2)

(b)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(b)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(g)

!Γ, B, B ¬ S

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

Γ = (A B S) S, S S S, A S, B S

f

g

d

d

d

d

f

a

g

d

d

d

d

g a q(0,2) q(1,0)

(b)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(b)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(g)

!Γ, B, B ¬ S

(a)

!Γ, A ¬ S

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

Γ = (A B S) S, S S S, A S, B S

f

g

d

d

d

d

f

a

g q(1,2)

(b)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(b)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(g)

!Γ, B, B ¬ S

(a)

!Γ, A ¬ S

(g)

!Γ, A, B, B ¬ S

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

Γ = (A B S) S, S S S, A S, B S

f

g

d

d

d

d

f

a

q(0,1)

(b)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(b)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(g)

!Γ, B, B ¬ S

(a)

!Γ, A ¬ S

(g)

!Γ, A, B, B ¬ S

(f)

!Γ, B ¬ S

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

Γ = (A B S) S, S S S, A S, B S

f

g

d

d

d

d

f

a

q(0,1) q(1,0)

(b)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(b)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(g)

!Γ, B, B ¬ S

(a)

!Γ, A ¬ S

(g)

!Γ, A, B, B ¬ S

(f)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(a)

!Γ, A ¬ S

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

Γ = (A B S) S, S S S, A S, B S

f

g q(1,1)

(b)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(b)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(g)

!Γ, B, B ¬ S

(a)

!Γ, A ¬ S

(g)

!Γ, A, B, B ¬ S

(f)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(a)

!Γ, A ¬ S

(g)

!Γ, A, B ¬ S

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

An example

Γ = (A B S) S, S S S, A S, B S

f q(0,0)

(b)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(b)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(g)

!Γ, B, B ¬ S

(a)

!Γ, A ¬ S

(g)

!Γ, A, B, B ¬ S

(f)

!Γ, B ¬ S

(a)

!Γ, A ¬ S

(g)

!Γ, A, B ¬ S

(f)

!Γ ¬ S

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Vector Addition Tree Automata

A k-VATA is a quadruple ¸T, Q, C

f

, ∆) where:

• T is a ranked alphabet;

• Q is a ﬁnite set of states;

• C

f

is a ﬁnite set of accepting conﬁgurations (i.e. elements of QN

k

);

• ∆ is a ﬁnite set of transition rules of the form:

f(q

0

[x

0

], . . . , q

n−1

[x

n−1

]) → q

i∈n

(x

i

−c

i

) +c

**VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004
**

Vector Addition Tree Automata

A k-VATA is a quadruple ¸T, Q, C

f

, ∆) where:

• T is a ranked alphabet;

• Q is a ﬁnite set of states;

• C

f

is a ﬁnite set of accepting conﬁgurations (i.e. elements of QN

k

);

• ∆ is a ﬁnite set of transition rules of the form:

f(q

0

[x

0

], . . . , q

n−1

[x

n−1

]) → q

i∈n

(x

i

−c

i

) +c

where:

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Vector Addition Tree Automata

A k-VATA is a quadruple ¸T, Q, C

f

, ∆) where:

• T is a ranked alphabet;

• Q is a ﬁnite set of states;

• C

f

is a ﬁnite set of accepting conﬁgurations (i.e. elements of QN

k

);

• ∆ is a ﬁnite set of transition rules of the form:

f(q

0

[x

0

], . . . , q

n−1

[x

n−1

]) → q

i∈n

(x

i

−c

i

) +c

where:

f ∈ T is a functional symbol of arity n;

q

0

. . . q

n−1

∈ Q;

c, c

0

, . . . c

n−1

∈ N

k

are given vectors, proper to the transition rule;

x

0

, . . . x

n−1

are variables in N

k

.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Vector Addition Tree Automata

A k-VATA is a quadruple ¸T, Q, C

f

, ∆) where:

• T is a ranked alphabet;

• Q is a ﬁnite set of states;

• C

f

is a ﬁnite set of accepting conﬁgurations (i.e. elements of QN

k

);

• ∆ is a ﬁnite set of transition rules of the form:

f(q

0

[x

0

], . . . , q

n−1

[x

n−1

]) → q

i∈n

(x

i

−c

i

) +c

where:

f ∈ T is a functional symbol of arity n;

q

0

. . . q

n−1

∈ Q;

c, c

0

, . . . c

n−1

∈ N

k

are given vectors, proper to the transition rule;

x

0

, . . . x

n−1

are variables in N

k

.

The rewriting relation is induced by the transition rules with the constraint that x

i

−c

i

∈ N

k

(this corresponds

to the positivity condition in VASS).

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Vector Addition Tree Automata under Normal Form

A k-VATA is a normal form if

• it is deterministic;

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Vector Addition Tree Automata under Normal Form

A k-VATA is a normal form if

• it is deterministic;

• C

f

= (q

f

, 0);

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Vector Addition Tree Automata under Normal Form

A k-VATA is a normal form if

• it is deterministic;

• C

f

= (q

f

, 0);

• each transition rule is in one of the three forms:

f → q[e

i

] for some i ∈ k

f(q

0

[x

0

]) → q[x

0

−e

i

] for some i ∈ k

f(q

0

[x

0

], q

1

[x

1

]) → q[x

0

+x

1

]

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Vector Addition Tree Automata under Normal Form

A k-VATA is a normal form if

• it is deterministic;

• C

f

= (q

f

, 0);

• each transition rule is in one of the three forms:

f → q[e

i

] for some i ∈ k

f(q

0

[x

0

]) → q[x

0

−e

i

] for some i ∈ k

f(q

0

[x

0

], q

1

[x

1

]) → q[x

0

+x

1

]

Proposition 1 For any k-VATA / there exists a k-VATA /

**in normal form such that /
**

A

= ∅ iﬀ /

A

= ∅.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Linear Logic

IMELL

T ::= 1 [ / [ T ⊗T [ T T [ !T

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Linear Logic

IMELL

T ::= 1 [ / [ T ⊗T [ T T [ !T

IMELL

0

T

0

::= / [ !/

/ ::= 1 [ / [ /⊗/ [ //

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Linear Logic

IMELL

T ::= 1 [ / [ T ⊗T [ T T [ !T

IMELL

0

T

0

::= / [ !/

/ ::= 1 [ / [ /⊗/ [ //

IMELL

0

T

0

::= / [ !/

/ ::= / [ //

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Linear Logic

IMELL

T ::= 1 [ / [ T ⊗T [ T T [ !T

IMELL

0

T

0

::= / [ !/

/ ::= 1 [ / [ /⊗/ [ //

IMELL

0

T

0

::= / [ !/

/ ::= / [ //

s-IMELL

0

s-T

0

::= / [ !(/ /) [ !(/ / /) [ !((/ /) /)

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

From IMELL to IMELL

0

Proposition 2 IMELL is decidable iﬀ IMELL

0

is decidable.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

From IMELL to IMELL

0

Proposition 2 IMELL is decidable iﬀ IMELL

0

is decidable.

Proof

Let Γ ¬ A an IMELL sequent.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

From IMELL to IMELL

0

Proposition 2 IMELL is decidable iﬀ IMELL

0

is decidable.

Proof

Let Γ ¬ A an IMELL sequent.

Deﬁne Γ

∗

¬ A

∗

to be the sequent obtained by replacing each exponential subformula !F by a fresh

atomic proposition p

F

.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

From IMELL to IMELL

0

Proposition 2 IMELL is decidable iﬀ IMELL

0

is decidable.

Proof

Let Γ ¬ A an IMELL sequent.

Deﬁne Γ

∗

¬ A

∗

to be the sequent obtained by replacing each exponential subformula !F by a fresh

atomic proposition p

F

.

Add Σ, the following set of formulas to the antecedent of the sequent:

!(p

F

F

∗

),

!(p

F

p

F

⊗p

F

),

!(p

F

1),

!(p

F

1

p

F

n

p

F

) whenever p

F

1

p

F

n

F

∗

is provable.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

From IMELL to IMELL

0

Proposition 2 IMELL is decidable iﬀ IMELL

0

is decidable.

Proof

Let Γ ¬ A an IMELL sequent.

Deﬁne Γ

∗

¬ A

∗

to be the sequent obtained by replacing each exponential subformula !F by a fresh

atomic proposition p

F

.

Add Σ, the following set of formulas to the antecedent of the sequent:

!(p

F

F

∗

),

!(p

F

p

F

⊗p

F

),

!(p

F

1),

!(p

F

1

p

F

n

p

F

) whenever p

F

1

p

F

n

F

∗

is provable.

• If IMELL

0

is decidable then the construction is eﬀective.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

From IMELL to IMELL

0

Proposition 2 IMELL is decidable iﬀ IMELL

0

is decidable.

Proof

Let Γ ¬ A an IMELL sequent.

Deﬁne Γ

∗

¬ A

∗

to be the sequent obtained by replacing each exponential subformula !F by a fresh

atomic proposition p

F

.

Add Σ, the following set of formulas to the antecedent of the sequent:

!(p

F

F

∗

),

!(p

F

p

F

⊗p

F

),

!(p

F

1),

!(p

F

1

p

F

n

p

F

) whenever p

F

1

p

F

n

F

∗

is provable.

• If IMELL

0

is decidable then the construction is eﬀective.

• Γ ¬ A is provable if and only if Σ, Γ

∗

¬ A

∗

is provable.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

From IMELL

0

to IMELL

0

Proposition 3 IMELL

0

is decidable iﬀ IMELL

0

is decidable.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

From IMELL

0

to IMELL

0

Proposition 3 IMELL

0

is decidable iﬀ IMELL

0

is decidable.

Proof Let b a fresh atomic proposition, we deﬁne two translation on multiplicative formulas:

A

+

= A

−

b, for any formula A

1

−

= b

a

−

= a b

(A ⊗B)

−

= A

+

(B

+

b)

(A B)

−

= (A

+

B

+

) b

and extend it to IMELL

0

with (!A)

+

= !(A

+

).

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

From IMELL

0

to IMELL

0

Proposition 3 IMELL

0

is decidable iﬀ IMELL

0

is decidable.

Proof Let b a fresh atomic proposition, we deﬁne two translation on multiplicative formulas:

A

+

= A

−

b, for any formula A

1

−

= b

a

−

= a b

(A ⊗B)

−

= A

+

(B

+

b)

(A B)

−

= (A

+

B

+

) b

and extend it to IMELL

0

with (!A)

+

= !(A

+

).

• Γ ¬ A an IMELL

0

sequent is provable iﬀ Γ

+

¬ A

+

is provable.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

From IMELL

0

to s-IMELL

0

Proposition 4 IMELL

0

is decidable iﬀ s-IMELL

0

is decidable.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

From IMELL

0

to s-IMELL

0

Proposition 4 IMELL

0

is decidable iﬀ s-IMELL

0

is decidable.

Proof

Lemma 1 Let Γ ¬ A an IMELL sequent.

. . . F . . . F . . .

Γ

¬ . . . F . . .

A

⇐⇒ !(p F), !(F p), . . . p . . . p . . .

Γ

¬ . . . p . . .

A

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

From IMELL

0

to s-IMELL

0

Proposition 4 IMELL

0

is decidable iﬀ s-IMELL

0

is decidable.

Proof

Lemma 1 Let Γ ¬ A an IMELL sequent.

. . . F . . . F . . .

Γ

¬ . . . F . . .

A

⇐⇒ !(p F), !(F p), . . . p . . . p . . .

Γ

¬ . . . p . . .

A

!Σ, Γ ¬ A is a provable IMELL

0

sequent

¸

!Σ

, Γ

atomic

¬ a is a provable IMELL

0

sequent

¸

! Σ

≤2‘‘

, Γ

atomic

¬ a is a provable IMELL

0

sequent

**VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004
**

From VATA to IMELL

Let / = ¸T, Q, ¦(q

f

, 0)¦, ∆) a k-VATA in normal form.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

From VATA to IMELL

Let / = ¸T, Q, ¦(q

f

, 0)¦, ∆) a k-VATA in normal form.

We deﬁne the set of atomic types A = Q∪ ¦a

0

, . . . , a

k−1

¦ and Σ by:

∆ Σ

f → q[e

i

] a

i

q

f(q

0

[x

0

]) → q[x

0

−e

i

] (a

i

q

0

) q

f(q

0

[x

0

], q

1

[x

1

]) → q[x

0

+x

1

] q

0

q

1

q

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

From VATA to IMELL

Let / = ¸T, Q, ¦(q

f

, 0)¦, ∆) a k-VATA in normal form.

We deﬁne the set of atomic types A = Q∪ ¦a

0

, . . . , a

k−1

¦ and Σ by:

∆ Σ

f → q[e

i

] a

i

q

f(q

0

[x

0

]) → q[x

0

−e

i

] (a

i

q

0

) q

f(q

0

[x

0

], q

1

[x

1

]) → q[x

0

+x

1

] q

0

q

1

q

Proposition 5 /(/) ,= ∅ iﬀ !Σ ¬ q

f

.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

From IMELL to VATA

Let !Σ, Γ ¬ a

0

an s-IMELL

0

sequent and ¦a

0

, . . . , a

k−1

¦ an enumeration of the atomic formulas of the sequent.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

From IMELL to VATA

Let !Σ, Γ ¬ a

0

an s-IMELL

0

sequent and ¦a

0

, . . . , a

k−1

¦ an enumeration of the atomic formulas of the sequent.

We deﬁne the set of state Q = ¦q

0

, . . . , q

k−1

¦, the only ﬁnal conﬁguration (q

0

, [Γ[) and the set of transitions:

Σ ∆

c

i

→ q

i

[e

i

]

a

j

a

l

f(q

j

[x]) → q

l

[x]

(a

j

a

l

) a

m

g(q

l

[x]) → q

m

[x −e

j

]

a

j

a

l

a

m

h(q

j

[x

0

], q

l

[x

1

]) → q

m

[x

0

+x

1

]

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

From IMELL to VATA

Let !Σ, Γ ¬ a

0

an s-IMELL

0

sequent and ¦a

0

, . . . , a

k−1

¦ an enumeration of the atomic formulas of the sequent.

We deﬁne the set of state Q = ¦q

0

, . . . , q

k−1

¦, the only ﬁnal conﬁguration (q

0

, [Γ[) and the set of transitions:

Σ ∆

c

i

→ q

i

[e

i

]

a

j

a

l

f(q

j

[x]) → q

l

[x]

(a

j

a

l

) a

m

g(q

l

[x]) → q

m

[x −e

j

]

a

j

a

l

a

m

h(q

j

[x

0

], q

l

[x

1

]) → q

m

[x

0

+x

1

]

Proposition 6 !Σ, Γ ¬ a

0

is provable in s-IMELL

0

iﬀ /(/) ,= ∅.

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Conclusion and future work

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Conclusion and future work

• We have so far:

Decidability of MELL is equivalent to decidability of reachability in VATA

VATA & MELL GDR-ALP – September 24, 2004

Conclusion and future work

• We have so far:

Decidability of MELL is equivalent to decidability of reachability in VATA

• Future work:

Prove the decidability of MELL

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