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A Seminar Report on Wibree Ultra Low Power Radio Technology for Small Devices

Prepared by : Rajput Kansingh Roll No. Class Semester Year Guided by : 47 : B.E.IV (Electronics & Communication Engineering.) : 8th Semester : 2007-2008 : Mr. Sarosh Dastoor

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology Dr R.K. Desai Road, Athwalines, Surat - 395001, India.

Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology


Dr R.K. Desai Road, Athwalines, Surat - 395001, India.

Department of Electronics& Communication Engineering.

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Seminar report entitled
Wibree Ultra Low Power Radio Technology for Small Devices

is prepared & presented by Mr. Rajput Kansingh Class Roll No. 47 of final year (B.E.IV) Electronics & Communication Engineering during year 2007-2008. His work is satisfactory.
Signature of Guide Head of Department Electronics Engineering

Signature of Jury Members

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to thank with a great deal of pleasure to my seminar guide Mr. sarosh dastor who help me to accomplish my seminar work. They are the one who generously gave some useful suggestion, and also gave us useful information on the subject. They always spared their precious time for us whenever we required them. They always insisted on the correct approach during the seminar work. They also help us in formulating the right approach for solving various problems as and when they arouse during the process. At the same time I also like to thank the other members of Electronics Engineering Department and all other staff members of the department who were always ready to help us in the best way they can.

INDEX Chapter 1. Introduction page no. 1

1.1 Feature of wibree ..1 1.2 Feature of wibree... ...1 1.3 Wibree technology feature .. ... ....1 1. 4 Wibree /general characteristics.3 1.5 History of wibree....4 2. Component Of Wibree..5 2.1 Network topologies....5 2.2 Architecture........6 2.2.1 Wibree protocol stack.....7 2.2.2 Bluetooth-Wibree Dual Mode Implementation....7 2.2.2.1 Bluetooth - Profiles ...7 2.2.2.2 Logical Link Control and Adaptation Layer Protocol (L2CAP)....8 2.2.2.3 Host Controller Interface (HCI)...10 2.2.2.4 Link Manager Protocol (LMP).....12 2.2.2.5 Link Controller....13 2.2.2.6 RF....13 2.2.3 Wibree Stand Alone Implementation...14 2.2.3.1.Wibree Profile......14 2.2.3.2 PAL(Protocol Adaptation Layer) ....14 2.2.3.3 Link layer(Mac).....22 2.2.3.4 Physical Layer..22

3. Applications And Partnerships....23


3.1 apllications..........23 3.2 partnerships ........25

4. Comparisions And Disadvantages.......26


4.1 comparisons.....26 4.1.1 Comparisons Between Wibree And Bluetooth....26 4.1.2 Comparisons Between Wibree Vs Zigbee.......26 4.2 Disadvantages Of Wibree ...27 4.3 Available ........27

Conclusion..28 Bibliography........29

1. Introduction
Wibree is a digital radio technology designed for ultra low power consumption within a short range based around low-cost transceiver microchips in each device . It is a new low power, low cost, Interoperable radio technology for small devices. Wibree complements other local connectivity technologies, consuming only a fraction of the power, enabling small, inexpensive implementations as well as easy integration with Bluetooth solutions. 1.1 Need of wibree: Theres a big demand for wireless products that can transmit data to a central monitoring service, such as medical sensors. The problem is that they need to be very low power. The other problem is that if they are to use a mobile phone as a gateway to the network, then the same radio needs to exist within the phone. But phone vendors dont want to add yet another radio. Thats where the clever bit about reusing parts of the Bluetooth chip comes in. It means Wibree will be almost free to put in a phone, and low power Wibree chips that just do the basic Wibree link will be cheaper than Bluetooth chips for the watches, sensors and other devices that need them. 1.2 Feature of wibree: Wibree is optimized for power consumption, specifically for low duty cycle applications (3.75ms to 4s poll intervals) Wibree offers cost efficient integration with Bluetooth enabling a small price delta for a dual mode Wibree + Bluetooth chip Stand alone Wibree chip can communicate with other stand alone Wibree chips and/or dual mode chips A dual mode chip can communicate with other stand alone or dual mode Wibree chips in addition to other Bluetooth chips Complementing Bluetooth and other short-range wireless standards 1.3 Wibree technology feature: Physical layer Up to 10m range (0dBm output power) 1 Mbit/s air data rate Link layer Frequency hopping technique Simple star network topologies Ultra low power consumption for low duty cycle communication Host Global secure multi vendor interoperability Sensor, HID and watch profiles

1. 4 Wibree /general characteristics:

Characteristics
Physical layer Data rates Channel access Technique

Values
@ 2.4 G Hz Bandwidth & 868/915 MHz Frequency 1 mbps Connection setup channel CSMA Data delivery FDMA Jamming avoidance FDMA Multi-month to years Star, peer-to-peer, mesh 10 m typical(10-20m based on environment)

Battery Life Topologies Range

Bit rate excluding PHY and MAC Uni-directional with ARQ, max 890 kbps overheads Bi-directional with ARQ, max 2 x 471 kbps Duplex TDD(time division duplex)

1.5 History of wibree In 2001 Research Center started the development of a wireless technology which would provide lower power usage and price while still introducing as small changes to Bluetooth as possible In 2004 The results were published using the name Bluetooth Low End Extension In October 2006 technology was released to public with brand name Wibree In June 2007 Bluetooth SIG announced that Wibree will be a part of the Bluetooth specification as an ultra-low-power Bluetooth technology

2. Component Of Wibree
2.1 Network topologies Depending on the application requirements, it may operate in either of two topologies: the star topology or the peer-to-peer topology. Both are shown in Figure 2.1.

fig 2.1 Star Topology In the star topology the communication is established between devices and a single central controller, called the PAN coordinator. A device typically has some associated application and is either the initiation point or the termination point for network communications. A PAN coordinator may also have a specific application, but it can be used to initiate, terminate, or route communication around the network. The PAN coordinator is the primary controller of the PAN. All devices operating on a network of either topology shall have unique 64 bit extended addresses. This address can be used for direct communication within the PAN, or it can be exchanged for a short address allocated by the PAN coordinator when the device associates. The PAN coordinator may be mains powered, while the devices will most likely be battery powered. Applications that benefit from a star topology include home automation, personal computer (PC) peripherals, toys and games, and personal health care.

Peer-to-Peer Topology The peer-to-peer topology also has a PAN coordinator; however, it differs from the star topology in that any device can communicate with any other device as long as they are in range of one another. Peer-to-peer topology allows more complex network formations to be implemented, such as mesh networking topology. Applications such as industrial control and monitoring, wireless sensor networks, asset and inventory tracking, intelligent agriculture, and security would benefit from such a network topology. A peerto-peer network can be ad hoc, self-organizing and self-healing. It may also allow multiple hops to route messages from any device to any other device on the network. Such functions can be added at the network layer, but are not part of this standard.

2.2 Architecture
The modulation scheme chosen is Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) - a slightly different scheme to that deployed in Bluetooth that will achieve the stated one tenth power drain of Bluetooth in stand-alone applications. There will be 2 types of implementations Wibree stand-alone Bluetooth-Wibree dual-mode

Wibree stand-alone is designed for use with applications which require extremely low power, small size and low cost Bluetooth-Wibree dual-mode is designed for use in Bluetooth devices. In this type of implementation, Wibree functionality is integrated with Bluetooth for a minor incremental cost by utilizing key Bluetooth components and the existing Bluetooth RF.

2.2.1 Wibree protocol stack

Fig from www.wibree.com

2.2.2 Bluetooth-Wibree Dual Mode Implementation. 2.2.2.1 Bluetooth - Profiles In order to use Bluetooth wireless technology, a device must be able to interpret certain Bluetooth profiles. The profiles define the possible applications. Bluetooth profiles are general behaviors through which Bluetooth enabled devices communicate with other devices. Bluetooth technology defines a wide range of profiles that describe many different types of use cases. By following a guidance provided in Bluetooth specifications, developers can create applications to work with other devices also conforming to the Bluetooth specification. At a minimum, each profile specification contains information on the following topics:

Dependencies on other profiles. Suggested user interface formats. Specific parts of the Bluetooth protocol stack used by the profile. To perform its task, each profile uses particular options and parameters at each layer of the stack. This may include an outline of the required service record, if appropriate.

2.2.2.2 Logical Link Control and Adaptation Layer Protocol (L2CAP) The Logical Link Control and Adaptation Layer Protocol (L2CAP) is layered over the Baseband Protocol and resides in the data link layer. L2CAP provides connectionoriented and connectionless data services to upper layer protocols with protocol multiplexing capability, segmentation and reassembly operation, and group abstractions. L2CAP permits higher level protocols and applications to transmit and receive L2CAP data packets up to 64 kilobytes in length. Two link types are supported for the Baseband layer : Synchronous Connection-Oriented (SCO) links and Asynchronous Connection-Less (ACL) links. SCO links support realtime voice traffic using reserved bandwidth. ACL links support best effort traffic. The L2CAP Specification is defined for only ACL links and no support for SCO links is planned. protocol requirements: Protocol Multiplexing L2CAP must support protocol multiplexing because the Baseband Protocol does not support any type field identifying the higher layer protocol being multiplexed above it. L2CAP must be able to distinguish between upper layer protocols such as the Service Discovery Protocol , RFCOMM , and Telephony Control . Segmentation & Reassembly Compared to other wired physical media, the data packets defined by the Baseband Protocol are limited in size. Exporting a maximum transmission unit (MTU) associated with the largest Baseband payload (341 bytes for DH5 packets) limits the efficient use of bandwidth for higher layer protocols that are designed to use larger

packets. Large L2CAP packets must be segmented into multiple smaller Baseband packets prior to their transmission over the air. Similarly, multiple received Baseband packets may be reassembled into a single larger L2CAP packet following a simple integrity check. The Segmentation and Reassembly (SAR) functionality is absolutely necessary to support protocols using packets larger than those supported by the Baseband.

Quality of Service The L2CAP connection establishment process allows the exchange of information regarding the quality of service (QoS) expected between two Bluetooth units. Each L2CAP implementation must monitor the resources used by the protocol and ensure that QoS contracts are honoured. Groups Many protocols include the concept of a group of addresses. The Baseband Protocol supports the concept of a piconet, a group of devices synchronously hopping together using the same clock. The L2CAP group abstraction permits implementations to efficiently map protocol groups on to piconets. Without a group abstraction, higher level protocols would need to be exposed to the Baseband Protocol and Link Manager functionality in order to manage groups efficiently.

L2CAP General Operation The L2CAP layer is based around the concept of channels. Each one of the endpoints of an L2CAP channel is referred to by a channel identifier. Channel Identifiers Channel identifiers (CIDs) are local names representing a logical channel end-point on the device. Implementations are free to manage the CIDs in a manner best suited for that particular implementation, with the provision that the same CID is not reused as a local L2CAP channel endpoint for multiple simultaneous L2CAP channels between a local device and some remote device. CID assignment is relative to a particular device and a device can assign CIDs independently from other devices (with the exception of certain reserved CIDs , such as the signalling channel). Thus, even if the same CID value has been assigned to (remote) channel endpoints by several remote devices connected to a single local device, the local device can still uniquely associate each remote CID with a different device.

Operation between Devices The connection-oriented data channels represent a connection between two devices, where a CID identifies each endpoint of the channel. The connectionless channels restrict data flow to a single direction. These channels are used to support a channel group where the CID on the source represents one or more remote devices. There are also a number of CIDs reserved for special purposes. The signalling channel is one example of a reserved channel. This channel is used to create and establish connection-oriented data channels and to negotiate changes in the characteristics of these channels. Support for a signalling channel within an L2CAP entity is mandatory. Another CID is reserved for all incoming connectionless data traffic.

Operation between Layers L2CAP implementations follow the general architecture described here: L2CAP implementations must transfer data between higher layer protocols and the lower layer protocol. Each implementation must also support a set of signalling commands for use between L2CAP implementations. L2CAP implementations should also be prepared to accept certain types of events from lower layers and generate events to upper layers. How these events are passed between layers is an implementation-dependent process. 2.2.2.3 Host Controller Interface (HCI) The HCI provides a command interface to the baseband controller and link manager, and access to hardware status and control registers. Essentially this interface provides a uniform method of accessing the Bluetooth baseband capabilities.The HCI exists across 3 sections, the Host - Transport Layer - Host Controller. Each of the sections has a different role to play in the HCI system. The HCI is functionally broken up into 3 separate parts: HCI Firmware (location: Host Controller)

HCI Firmware , is located on the Host Controller , (e.g. the actual Bluetooth hardware device). The HCI firmware implements the HCI Commands for the Bluetooth hardware by accessing baseband commands, link manager commands, hardware status registers, control registers, and event registers. The term Host Controller means the HCIenabled Bluetooth device

HCI Driver

(location: Host)

HCI Driver , which is located on the Host (e.g. software entity). The Host will receive asynchronous notifications of HCI events, HCI events are used for notifying the Host when something occurs. When the Host discovers that an event has occurred it will then parse the received event packet to determine which event occurred. The term Host means the HCI-enabled Software Unit. Host Controller Transport Layer (location: Intermediate Layers) The HCI Driver and Firmware communicate via the Host Controller Transport Layer , i.e. a definition of the several layers that may exist between the HCI driver on the host system and the HCI firmware in the Bluetooth hardware. These intermediate layers, the Host Controller Transport Layer, should provide the ability to transfer data without intimate knowledge of the data being transferred. Several different Host Controller Layers can be used, of which 3 have been defined initially for Bluetooth : USB , UART and RS232. The Host should receive asynchronous notifications of HCI events independent of which Host Controller Transport Layer is used.

HCI Commands The HCI provides a uniform command method of accessing the Bluetooth hardware capabilities. The HCI Link commands provide the Host with the ability to control the link layer connections to other Bluetooth devices. These commands typically involve the Link Manager (LM) to exchange LMP commands with remote Bluetooth devices. The HCI Policy commands are used to affect the behaviour of the local and remote LM. These Policy commands provide the Host with methods of influencing how the LM manages the piconet. The Host Controller and Baseband commands, Informational commands , and Status commands provide the Host access to various registers in the Host Controller.

HCI-Specific Information Exchange The Host Controller Transport Layer provides transparent exchange of HCI-specific information. These transporting mechanisms provide the ability for the Host to send HCI commands, ACL data, and SCO data to the Host Controller. These transport mechanisms also provide the ability for the Host to receive HCI events, ACL data, and SCO data from the Host Controller. Since the Host Controller Transport Layer provides transparent exchange of HCI-specific information, the HCI specification specifies the format of the commands, events, and data exchange between the Host and the Host Controller.

Link Control Commands


The Link Control commands allow the Host Controller to control connections to other Bluetooth devices. When the Link Control commands are used, the Link Manager (LM)

controls how the Bluetooth piconets and scatternets are established and maintained. These commands instruct the LM to create and modify link layer connections with Bluetooth remote devices, perform Inquiries of other Bluetooth devices in range, and other LMP commands.

Link Policy Commands


The Link Policy Commands provide methods for the Host to affect how the Link Manager manages the piconet. When Link Policy Commands are used, the LM still controls how Bluetooth piconets and scatternets are established and maintained, depending on adjustable policy parameters. These policy commands modify the Link Manager behaviour that can result in changes to the link layer connections with Bluetooth remote devices.

Host Controller & Baseband Commands


The Host Controller & Baseband Commands provide access and control to various capabilities of the Bluetooth hardware. These parameters provide control of Bluetooth devices and of the capabilities of the Host Controller, Link Manager, and Baseband. The host device can use these commands to modify the behaviour of the local device.

2.2.2.4 Link Manager Protocol (LMP)

General Description
The Link Manager Protocol (LMP) is used to control and negotiate all aspects of the operation of the Bluetooth connection between two devices. This includes the set-up and control of logical transports and logical links, and for control of physical links. The Link Manager Protocol is used to communicate between the Link Managers (LM) on the two devices which are connected by the ACL logical transport.

General Rules
LMP messages are exchanged over the ACL-C logical link that is carried on the default ACL logical transport (see Bluetooth Specification, Baseband Section 4.4 for details). The ACL-C logical link is distinguished from the ACL-U (which carries L2CAP and user data) by the Logical Link Identifier (LLID) field carried in the payload header of variable-length packets. The ACL-C has a higher priority than other traffic. . LMP messages are carried on the ACL-C logical link, which does not guarantee a time to deliver or acknowledge packets. LMP procedures take account of this when synchronizing state changes in the two devices. For example, criteria are defined that specify when a logical transport address (LT_ADDR) may be re-used after it becomes

available due to a device leaving the piconet or entering the park state. Other LMP procedures, such as hold or role switch include the Bluetooth clock as a parameter in order to define a fixed synchronization point. The transitions into and out of sniff mode are protected with a transition mode. . The LMP operates in terms of transactions. A transaction is a connected set of message exchanges which achieve a particular purpose.

Device Features
All features added after the 1.1 specification have associated LMP feature bits. Support of these features may be made mandatory by the qualification process but the LM still considers them to be optional since it must interoperate with older devices which do not support them. The features are represented as a bit mask when they are transferred in LMP messages. Link managers of any version will interpreted using the lowest common subset of functionality by reading the LMP features mask.

2.2.2.5 Link Controller The link controller is responsible for the encoding and decoding of Bluetooth packets from the data payload and parameters related to the physical channel, logical transport and logical link. The link controller carries out the link control protocol signaling (in close conjunction with the scheduling function of the resource manager), which is used to communicate flow control and acknowledgement and retransmission request signals. The interpretation of these signals is a characteristic of the logical transport associated with the baseband packet. Interpretation and control of the link control signaling is normally associated with the resource managers scheduler. 2.2.2.6 RF The RF block is responsible for transmitting and receiving packets of information on the physical channel. A control path between the baseband and the RF block allows the baseband block to control the timing and frequency carrier of the RF block. The RF block transforms a stream of data to and from the physical channel and the baseband into required formats

2.2.3 Wibree Stand Alone Implementation 2.2.3.1.Wibree Profile The first interoperability specification of Wibree will include three profiles to optimize its functionality for a specific group of products: Watch profile Human Interface Device (HID) profile Sensor profile 2.2.3.2 PAL(Protocol Adaptation Layer) A glue layer on top of a lower level

Hides low-level details of underlying layer Mimics high-level behavior of target protocol For example, IP1394 is a PAL that permits Internet protocol to be carried by IEEE 1394 What use is a PAL Leverages applications already developed. Applications developed for IEEE 1394 expect: Read, write and lock transactions Infrastructure CSRs and configuration ROM Asynchronous and isochronous streams

Wireless products enabled

Firmware developed for (wired) IEEE 1394 products can migrate to wireless domain Minimize reengineering between wired and wireless domains

PAL features Virtual bus management IEEE 1394 packet encapsulation Isochronous streams Control and status registers Configuration ROM Virtual 1394 bus within a piconet

Wireless 1394 coordinator co-located with PNC Assigns 6-bit virtual IDs to wireless 1394 DEVs Distributes synchronized cycle time

IEEE 1394 packet encapsulation Protocol ID identifies format that follows

Used only with 802.15.3 stream index zero 1394 SDU analogous to IEEE 1394 packet Multiple 1394 SDUs permitted in a single 802.15.3 MSDU (isochronous data)

Protocol ID for IEEE 1394 PAL

The 3-octet LLC header indicates that a SNAP header follows The 5-octet SNAP header consists of an OUI (company_ID) and a Protocol ID 00 A02D16 is 1394 Trade Association OUI 20116 specifies IEEE 1394 over IEEE 802.15.3

PAL header for 1394 SDU

Transaction code (tcode) determines format 0, 1, 4, 5, 9 Request 2, 6, 7, B16 Response A16 Stream (asynchronous or isochronous) E16 PAL control

PAL header for requests

Data payload never present for read requests For write and lock requests, data payload present only if data_length is nonzero

PAL header for responses

Data payload never present for write responses For read and lock responses, data payload present only if data_length is nonzero

PAL header for stream data

Nonzero isochronous bit specifies isochronous stream Data indicated to application at cycle_time Permits multiple isochronous packets in a single 802.15.3 MSDU Data payload present only if data_length is nonzero

PAL control header

Used for control messages exchanged by PALs Virtual bus management Isochronous connection management Data payload present only if data_length is nonzero

Isochronous aggregation by transmitting PAL

AV application informs PAL of optimal averaging window size for isochronous stream PAL accumulates at least this much data before encapsulating multiple 1394 SDUs in a single MSDU

Isochronous replay by receiving PAL

Aggregated isochronous payload (2444 octets) requires approximately 200 s to transmit Assume 100 mbps UWB PHY Earliest possible MSDU receipt for cycle 11 No allowance for retries End-to-end latency of 1.25 ms for this example

Control and status registers Most CSRs are not applicable to wireless. Wireless 1394 devices implement these CSRs RESET_START MESSAGE_REQUEST and MESSAGE_RESPONSE CYCLE_TIME and BUS_TIME New CSRs specified by IEEE P1394.1 and wireless PAL QUARANTINE and NET_UPDATE_START Bridge portals implement additional CSRs specified by IEEE P1394.1 Configuration ROM Supports all features specified by IEEE 1212 and IEEE 1394 Wireless 1394 differentiated by special entries in configuration ROM ASCII bus identifier in bus information block Bus-dependent information directory

Bus information block

ASCII bus identifier is 0000

Bus information block capabilities

Isochronous resource manager, bus manager and power manager have no analogs in wireless 1394 irmc, bmc and pmc bits are zero IEEE P1394.1 cycle master adjustment methods dont work for wireless adjustable bit is zero Cycle master capability is optional cmc bit may be zero

Bus-dependent information directory

Specifier_ID, Version and Revision entries identify the 1394 TA document that specifies the wireless PAL . Wireless_Plugs describes the input and output wireless plugs implemented by the device

2.2.3.3 Link layer(Mac) The MAC sub-layer provides two services : interfacing to the MAC sub-layer management entity (MLME) service access point (SAP) (known as MLME-SAP). MAC data service . MAC management service. The MAC data service enables the transmission and reception of MAC protocol data units (MPDUs) across the PHY data service. The features of the MAC sub-layer are beacon management, channel access, GTS management, frame validation, acknowledged frame delivery, association, and disassociation. In addition, the MAC sub-layer provides hooks for implementing application appropriate security mechanisms

2.2.3.4 Physical Layer The PHY provides two services: the PHY data service and the PHY management service interfacing to the physical layer management entity (PLME). The PHY data service enables the transmission and reception of PHY protocol data units (PPDUs) across the physical radio channel. The features of the PHY are activation and deactivation of the radio transceiver, ED, LQI, channel selection, clear channel assessment (CCA), and transmitting as well as receiving packets across the physical medium.

3. Applications and partnerships


3.1 apllications

Sensors in sport equipments (heart rate belt) - Sport monitoring devices (pedometer) - Embedded sport sensors (altimeter in watch)

Healthcare devices (blood pressure monitor) - Illness treatment (glucose meter) - Monitoring devices (medication dispenser)

Remote Control (for e.g. music device) - Gaming sensors (sensors in wrists and knees) - Home sensors and switches (remote lock)

PC accessories (wireless mouse) - Mobile phone accessories (mobile keyboard) - Identification systems (PC ID in key chain)

Monitoring (tire pressure monitor) - Alarms (parking assistant) - Keyless entry (key in wrist watch

3.2 Partnerships
Several companies have contributed to the interoperability specification, profiles and use case definition in their respective areas of expertise and will continue this work in the Bluetooth SIG working groups

4. Comparisions And Disadvantages

4.1.1 Comparisons Between Wibree And Bluetooth:


Ratio frequency Transfer data rate range wibree 2.4 GHZ 1 Mbps 10 m bluetooth 2.4 GHZ 3 Mbps 100 m

4.1.2 Comparisons Between Wibree Vs Zigbee


Ratio frequency Transfer data rate range Wibree 2.4 GHZ 1 Mbps 10m zigbee 2.4 GHZ 0.25 Mbps 30

4.2 Disadvantages Of Wibree


Having very low data rate. Limiter transition range. Comparatively having lower speed. Most suitable only for text, graphics & controlling data transfer.

4.3 Available :
The work of integrating the low power technology within the existing Bluetooth specification has begun and the first version of the specification is anticipated during the first half of 2008

Conclusion:
Taking all of these factors together, Wibree has the potential to transform consumer devices. It will solve the technology and monitoring issues that are currently hindering the adoption of wireless healthcare services and enable a whole new generation of lifestyle,monitoring and safety products. By making the mobile handset the gateway, it brings the network operators into the equation. And they have the resources to aggregate and enable service provision.

Bibliography:
http://www.wibree.com/ http://palowire.com http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/5403564.stm http://www.bluetooth.com/Bluetooth/Learn/Technology/lowpower http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/2001/Jul01/