SMOKING culture

david lin . emmanuel chong . pauline ng
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Timeline of tobacco smoking

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Timeline of tobacco smoking
5000BC 1492 Early 1500s 1500 - 1600 1500 - 1600 1600 1614 Americaʼs first cultivation of Tobacco plant Columbus discovers tobacco smoking & takes it to Europe First introduced to Egypt by Turks Tobacco introduced to China via Japan/Philippines Spaniards & Portuguese ships tobacco to East Africa Tobacco is first grown commercially in America 7000 tobacco shops open in Europe

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1650

Europeans grow tobacco in S Africa & used as form of currency

1700

African slaves used to work in Tobacco plantations

1761

First study (John Hill), warns that snuff users risk nasal cancer

1788

Tobacco arrived in Australia with the first fleet

1828

In Spain, cigarette smoking becomes popular

1833

Phosphorus stricken matches introduced in UK commercially

1840

First woman to smoke publicly in France is Chopinʼs mistress

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"All along the sea routes ... wherever they had trading posts, the Portuguese began the limited planting of tobacco. Before the end of the sixteenth century they had developed these small farms to a point where they could be assured of enough tobacco to meet their personal needs, for gifts, and for barter."
-- Jerome Edmund Brooks, "The Mighty Leaf; Tobacco through the Centuries." Boston, Little, Brown (1952)

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antique snuff box

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1847

Phillip Morris opens shop in England & sells hand rolled cigs

1858

Treaty of Tianjin allows duty free cigs imports into China

1862

First federal tobacco tax introduced to help finance war

1871

R.A. Patterson founded "Lucky Strike", named for the 1849 California Gold Rush

1875

R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company founded

1881

Invention of the cigarette machine

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Following the advice of his minister Cardinal Richelieu, Louis XIII of France levies a tax of 30 sols on every pound of tobacco. Two centuries later Napoleon III would observe: "This vice brings in one hundred million francs in taxes every year. I will certainly forbid it at once – as soon as you can name a virtue that brings in as much revenue." Government monopolies prove so lucrative they persist in several European countries late into the twentieth century.

-- BAT History of Tobacco
http://www.bat.com/oneweb/sites/uk__3mnfen.nsf/0/a2e50d5591dd653d80256bf400033194?OpenDocument

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Pipe Smoking
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1900

China almost entirely penetrated by foreign cigarettes

1901

UK Imperial Tobacco & British American Tobacco Founded

1908

N.Y passes Sullivan Act, forbidding women to smoke in public

1912

1st strong link made between lung cancer & smoking (Dr.Isaac Adler)

1913

Birth of modern cigarette: RJ Reynolds introduced the Camel brand in America

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1924

Philip Morris introduces Marlboro, a women's cigarette that is "Mild as May"

1924

73 billion cigarettes sold in US

1950

China state takes monopoly of industry & all foreign companies have to leave

1950

First major reports on smoking & health in America & UK

1964

US reports correlation between smoking and lung cancer

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Lady Bracknell : [Pencil and note-book in hand] I feel bound to tell you that you are not down on my list of eligible young men, although I have the same list as the dear Duchess of Bolton has. We work together, in fact. However, I am quite ready to enter your name, should your answers be what a really affectionate mother requires. Do you smoke? Jack: Well, yes, I must admit I smoke. Lady Bracknell: I am glad to hear it. A man should always have an occupation of some kind. There are far too many idle men in London as it is.
- The Importance of being Earnest, Act 1 Part 2 (Oscar Wilde)

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Winston Cigarettes Advertisement

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1981

Japan reports dangers of passive smoking

1990

Americaʼs cigarette sales by top 5 companies per annum = 275 billion, Malboro selling 134 billion

1994

Macdonaldsʼ ban smoking in all its 11,000 restaurants

1997

China is thelargest producer of cigarettes in the worldaproducing almost two and one half times the 720 billion pieces produced in the United States

2002

Africa is leader in drafting a WHO Convention on Tobacco Control

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2001

India Supreme Court bans smoking in all public places

2004

Smoking bans implemented in countries such as Ireland, Netherlands, Malta, and various cities in the US

2005

Countries such as Bulgaria, Italy, Cuba, Bangladesh, Sweden and more US cities join in smoking ban

2007

England, Brunei, Australia, Israel & Dubai are some countries that started implementing smoking bans

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* "Cigarettes are addictive;" * "Tobacco smoke can harm your children;" * "Cigarettes cause fatal lung disease;" * "Cigarettes cause cancer;" * "Cigarettes cause strokes and heart disease;" * "Smoking during pregnancy can harm your baby;" * "Smoking can kill you;" * "Tobacco smoke causes fatal lung disease in nonsmokers."

- Messages placed on Canadian produced cigarette boxes (1994)

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Some World Statistics

• Total men who smoke : 1 Billion • Total women who smoke : 250 Million • Total children exposed to passive smoking
at home : 40%

• Total cigarettes smoked a day : 15 Billion • Total cigarettes sales by Big 5 : $108.2
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Smoking Culture around the world
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16th century, a spanish doctor claimed tobacco alleviated hunger, acted as a relaxant & a painkiller, and was even a cancer cure

Tobacco believed to be a panacea in the past

Smoking in seen as sexy & cool in many European countries, such as France

Smoking in Europe

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FRANCE public places, including offices & schools extend to restaurants, dance clubs and some bars in 2008

UK next summer, smoking not allowed in enclosed workspaces in England Scotland, N. Ireland & Wales follow suit with new laws

ITALY smoking prohibited in workplaces including bars & restaurants enclosed & separatedly ventilated rooms are permitted

Stricter Legislation in Europe
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“Illegal inhaling in France is still so frequent on Metro platforms, in waiting areas & dining spots that asking someone to douse their cigarette is considered a bad form - & even an act of aggression

“Smoking was part of the culture of French cafes”

>40% of French smoked

Smoking Bans in public places but ignored by smokers (2003)

Smoking in France

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Full Smoking Ban for public places in effect from February 2007 Intense lobbying led to extension for cafes for 11 months

Many non-smoking Parisians opposed the ban, claiming it was killing the cafe culture

Smoking in Paris

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Smoking in China
Ads in China tout smoking as a cure-all for diseases & ailments --Government-run tobacco industry clearly promotes smoking as a way to improve health --In fact, smoking can make you smarter & happier
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Smoking in China
2/3 of all the young men smoke --few of the young women become smokers --20% of world’s population --consume 30% of world’s cigarettes --Chinese Government is the world’s largest producer of cigarettes
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Smoking in China
some past exciting news from the Chinese government --cigarettes, according to China’s tobacco authorities: - excellent way to prevent ulcers - reduce risk of Parkinson’s disease - relieve schizophrenia - boost brain cells
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Smoking Ban in Israel
Israelis fume over smoking ban on army bases

Mutiny is brewing in the Israeli army
anger directed towards the Knesset for a law making smoking illegal in all indoor areas on army bases

Soldiers vow to ignore Knesset’s widely ridiculed law

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Smoking in the US
researchers found that black girls in comparison to white girls far more likely to think that “not smoking” enhance their self image smoking was not equated with style Black youths were about being black & proud

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Smoking in Las Vegas, Nevada
“City of Sins”

“City that never sleeps”

Gambling & Vices smoker fits in perfectly

All morality thrown out of the window

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Smoking in California
“Sun City”

Beach Culture

Young & Beautiful is the way to go!!!

smoking not a wise social choice

Smoking is viewed upon as an epidemic

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Smoking in Singapore
college students + blue collar workers = majority of SG smokers
mostly start at adolescent age / NS period

government increased & still increasing taxes for tobacco
shift towards economy brands --contraband cigarettes account for 20% of consumption
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Smoking in Singapore
college students + blue collar workers = majority of SG smokers
mostly start at adolescent age / NS period

government increased & still increasing taxes for tobacco
shift towards economy brands --contraband cigarettes account for 20% of consumption
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Smoking in Singapore
college students + blue collar workers = majority of SG smokers
mostly start at adolescent age / NS period

government increased & still increasing taxes for tobacco
shift towards economy brands --contraband cigarettes account for 20% of consumption
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% of Singaporeans who smoke (by gender)
30

20

10

0

Males

Females

Total

1998

2004
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% of Singaporean Students & Smoking
30

20

10

0

Ever tried Smoking

At least 1/30 days Everyday, past 30days

2000

2006
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% of Singaporeans who smokes by ethnic group & gender (Males)
50.0

37.5

25.0

12.5

0

Chinese

Malay

Indian

1998

2004
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% of Singaporeans who smokes by ethnic group & gender (Females)
10.0

7.5

5.0

2.5

0

Chinese

Malay

Indian

1998

2004
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Smoking in the Movies
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Since era of silent films, smoking has been a major part in film symbolism Sensuality & Sexuality commonly represented by women smoking

Many famous characters are visualized in a thick mist of smoke in movies

Film Culture in the US
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Pop culture between WW1 & Vietnam war portrayed smoking positively

Cigarettes are ever present in movies in that era

Smoking in movies - 40s & 50s
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Mosaic of Smoking Actors in Movies (insert video)
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Smoking in Cartoons

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Disney bans smoking in its family films --mounting pressure on Hollywood to kick its smoking habit --films that glamorize smoking risk stricter ratings

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Smoking in Comics
Villains associated with a cloud of smoke

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Comics Code 1989
Defined substance abuse as "the use of illicit drugs and the self-destructive use of such products as tobacco . . . ." Further stated that smoking "tobacco will not be depicted in a glamorous way."…. "in each story, the abuser will be shown to pay the physical, mental and or social penalty for his or her abuse."

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The Thing

Nick Fury

Characters that habitually smoke

Constantine

Wolverine

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Women & Smoking

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In the Early 20th century, smoking began with those who were paid for staging their sexuality - Actress, Gypsies, Whores

violation of traditional roles Women who smoke in public risk social disapprobation

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During the 1920s, in the US, women in colleges commonly smoked as a statement of gender equality

Through the 1920s - 1930s, more women entered the workforce and are more financially independant

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The female smoker market: the slim % of superslim filters, innovative carbon filters, pastel coloured filter tubes & luxury hinge lid packaging... Female smoking are growing across developing regions & this is a growth area for tobacco manufacturers
Female smokers as % of female population

Region Latin America & Carribean Eastern Europe Western Europe World Australia Africa & Middle East North America Asia Pacific

% Change (2001 - 2006) 18.1 14 4.5 16.1 -1.5 20 -2.8 21.7

25.9 24.1 24 21.3 20.6 20.2 17.6 14.2

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Intercultural Communications Theories

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women & smoking
women are taking less of a feminine role in society, making themselves more masculine

Used the act of smoking cigarettes to break out of the mold of male domination

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women & smoking
attitudes towards women

increasingly important roles taken up by women

adoption rate is higher amongst women compared to men

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women & smoking
changing attitudes towards women

women are having a more powerful voice

women sexual rights movement have gained women more equal rights

diminishing sexual inequality

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Non Verbal Communication
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smoking in films

image portrayed by hero: bravery, courage, manliness, mysticism

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smoking in cartoons
baddies smoke. heroes cannot smoke

smoking in comics
Comic Magazine Association tightened its censorship of comics

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disgusting images on cigarette packets --explicit messages to instill fear in smokers

Verbal & Non Verbal Communication
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Contrasting Values
California vs Vegas
different lifestyles & perception towards life & health

Whites perceive smoking to be cool Blacks do not think its the black style

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stereotype of gentry ( upper social class in 18th Century Europe)

customary to smoke during tea break or after dinner (cigar/smoking room)

rude not to smoke

Stereotyping & Etiquette

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medical students smoke more than normal college students going against the stereotype

Camel used doctors in their ads to promote their cigarettes in the 1940s & 1950s

Occupational Stereotyping
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Kinesics

facial expression & eyes - used in movies to portray charactersʼ expressions & moods more effectively --for example the flintstones winston advertisement (family based cartoon) --posture - relaxed & classy

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difficult to factor smoking in general on either ends of continuum as it depends largely on context

Individualism vs Collectivism
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Adolescents pick up smoking due to - social norms & peer pressure (collectivistic) - rebellion against parents (individualistic) A person deciding to quit smoking due to - health reasons (individualistic) - concerns about family passive smoking (collectivistic

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Any Burning Questions ?
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