# Dimensionless form of equations

Motivation: sometimes equations are normalized in order to
• facilitate the scale-up of obtained results to real flow conditions
• avoid round-off due to manipulations with large/small numbers
• assess the relative importance of terms in the model equations
Dimensionless variables and numbers
t∗ =

t
,
t0

x∗ =

x
,
L0

v∗ =

v
,
v0

p∗ =

p
,
ρv02

T∗ =

T − T0
T1 − T0

Mach number

M=

|v|
c

inertia
gravity

Strouhal number

St =

L0
v0 t0

convection
diffusion

Prandtl number

Pr =

µ
ρκ

Reynolds number

Re =

ρv0 L0
µ

inertia
viscosity

Froude number

Fr =

√v0
L0 g

Peclet number

Pe =

v0 L0
κ

Model simplifications Objective: derive analytical solutions / reduce computational cost Compressible Navier-Stokes equations ρ = const µ=0 Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations Stokes flow boundary layer Compressible Euler equations inviscid Euler equations potential flow Derivation of a simplified model 1. determine the type of flow to be simulated 2. omit redundant terms/equations from the model 5. leave irrelevant features out of consideration 4. separate important and unimportant effects 3. prescribe suitable initial/boundary conditions .

Viscous incompressible flows Simplification: ρ = const. µ = const continuity equation ∂ρ ∂t inertial term ∂(ρv) ∂t stress tensor ∇ · τ = µ∇ · (∇v + ∇vT ) = µ(∇ · ∇v + ∇∇ · v) = µ∆v z + ∇ · (ρv) = 0 + ∇ · (ρv ⊗ v) = ρ Let z0 g ∇·v =0  ∂v ∂t  + v · ∇v = ρ dv dt ρg = −ρgk = −∇(ρgz) = ∇p0 p0 = ρg(z0 − z) p˜ = k −→ p−p0 ρ = ν = µ/ρ p ρ − g(z0 − z) hydrostatic pressure reduced pressure kinematic viscosity Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations ∂v + v · ∇v = −∇˜ p + ν∆v − βg(T − T0 ) | {z } ∂t momentum equations Boussinesq ∇·v =0 continuity equation .

∂t Linearization: ρ0 = ρ(T0 ).Natural convection problems Internal energy equation ρ ρ = ρ(T ). e = cv T κ ˜=  ρ(T ) = ρ(T0 ) +   ∂ρ 1 β ≈ − ρ0 ∂T ∂ρ ∂T  T =T∗ κ . ∂t Temperature equation (convection-diffusion-reaction) ∂T + v · ∇T = κ ˜ ∆T + q˜. ∇ · v = 0. ρcv T =T∗ q˜ = ν q + |∇v + ∇vT |2 cv 2cv (T − T0 ) Taylor series thermal expansion coefficient Boussinesq approximation for buoyancy-driven flows   ρ [1 − β(T − T )] in the term ρg 0 0 ρ(T ) =  ρ0 elsewhere . κ = const ∂e + ρv · ∇e = κ∆T + ρq + µ∇v : (∇v + ∇vT ).

v) ≈ 0 and u ≫ v 2 • ν ∂∂xu2 can be neglected • ∂ p˜ ∂y ≈ 0 ⇒ p˜ = p˜(x) Navier-Stokes equations ∂ p˜ ∂2u = − +ν 2 ∂x ∂y ∂ p˜ 0 = − ∂y ∂u ∂v + = 0 ∂x ∂y ∂u ∂u u +v ∂x ∂y . creeping flows) dv ∂v ≈ ≈0 dt ∂t ⇒ ∂v = −∇˜ p + ν∆v ∂t ∇·v =0 momentum equations continuity equation Boundary layer approximation (thin shear layer) y pipe flow v x • ∂v ∂t v = (u.Viscous incompressible flows Stokes problem (Re → 0.

Inviscid incompressible flows Incompressible Euler equations Euler equations potential ow y ν=0 ⇒ Irrotational / potential flow boundary layer x ∂v + v · ∇v = −∇˜ p ∂t ∇·v =0 = onst ' = onst ω =∇×v =0 (vanishing vorticity) • ∃ ϕ such that v = −∇ϕ and ∇ · v = −∆ϕ = 0 Laplace equation • in 2D there also exists a stream function ψ such that u = ∂ψ ∂y . Computation of the pressure 1 v · ∇v = −v × ∇ × v + ∇(v · v) = ∇ 2 ∂v =0 ∂t ⇒ |v|2 p˜ = − 2  |v|2 2  Bernoulli equation v = − ∂ψ ∂x .

ρE) F = (F 1 . A3 ) Jacobian matrices ∂F d A = . 3 h=E+ p ρ γ = cp /cv Equation of state  p = (γ − 1)ρ E − |v|2 /2 . F 2 . ∂U d ρv  d = 1. g=0 Divergence form Quasi-linear formulation ∂U +∇·F=0 ∂t ∂U + A · ∇U = 0 ∂t Conservative variables and fluxes  T U = (ρ. 2. ρv. F 3 ) d d F = A U.    F=  ρv ⊗ v + pI  ρhv A = (A1 .Compressible Euler equations Simplifications: µ = 0. κ = 0. A2 .

describe equilibrium phenomena (unsteady problems are never elliptic) . parabolic and elliptic ones • each class of PDEs models a different kind of physical processes • the number of initial/boundary conditions depends on the PDE type • different solution methods are required for PDEs of different type Hyperbolic equations Information propagates in certain directions at finite speeds. the solution can be constructed using a marching / time-stepping method Elliptic equations Information propagates in all directions at infinite speed.Classification of partial differential equations PDEs can be classified into hyperbolic. the solution is a superposition of multiple simple waves Parabolic equations Information travels downstream / forward in time.

j=1 elliptic hyperbolic parabolic aij = aji .Classification of partial differential equations ∂u ∂u a0 + a1 ∂x =0 + . . . . xD ) aij = aji := aij +aji 2 n+ number of positive eigenvalues n− number of negative eigenvalues n0 number of zero eigenvalues n+ ←→ n− . . . . + a D ∂x 1 D First-order PDEs X ∂u ∂2u bk + + cu + d = 0 aij − ∂x ∂x ∂x i j k i. n+ k=1 A = {aij } ∈ RD×D . coefficient matrix: PDE type D D X Second order PDEs symmetry: are always hyperbolic n− otherwise set n0 D 0 0 D−1 1 0 0 1 D−1 aij = aij (x1 .

Classification of second-order PDEs ∂2u ∂2u ∂2u − a22 2 + . . . = 0 −a11 2 − (a12 + a21 ) ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x2 2D example D = 2.  A= a11 a12 a21 a22  . det A = a11 a22 − a212 = λ1 λ2 2 elliptic type det A > 0 − ∂∂xu2 − ∂2u ∂y 2 =0 Laplace equation hyperbolic type det A < 0 ∂2u ∂t2 − ∂2u ∂x2 =0 wave equation parabolic type det A = 0 ∂u ∂t − ∂2u ∂x2 =0 diffusion equation mixed type det A = f (y) −y ∂∂xu2 − ∂2u ∂y 2 =0 Tricomi equation 2 .

t) = n · x where n = ∇s is the normal to the characteristic surface s(x.t) . . . k = 1. . t) = const B=0 →  D P d=1 Hyperbolic systems  ˆ = 0. . D ˆ (k) of the associated systems are linearly independent and the solutions U ˆ (k) Parabolic systems There are less than D real-valued solutions n(k) and U Elliptic systems No real-valued normals n(k) ⇒ no wave-like solutions . U m>1 s(x.Classification of first-order PDE systems ∂U ∂U + . . ˆ = const. nd A d U det  D P d=1  nd Ad = 0 −→ n(k) There are D real-valued normals n(k) . U =U U ∈ Rm . . + AD ∂x =B A1 ∂x 1 D Quasi-linear form Plane wave solution ˆ eis(x.

 v=  a 0 0 1 | {z } ∂ ∂x A1 ∂ϕ ∂y     u 2b c + v −1 0 | {z } | {z } U A2 ˆ ein·x = U ˆ ei(nx x+ny y) U =U ∂ ∂y   u =0 v | {z } U plane wave ˆ = 0 admits nontrivial solutions if [nx A1 + ny A2 ]U   anx + 2bny cny det[nx A1 + ny A2 ] = det = 0 ⇒ an2x + 2bnx ny + cn2y = 0 −ny nx The resulting problem a  nx ny 2 + 2b  nx ny  +c=0 ⇒ √ nx −b ± b2 − 4ac = ny 2a . u= ∂ϕ ∂x .Second-order PDE as a first-order system 2 Equivalent first-order system for   a ∂u + 2b ∂u + c ∂v = 0 ∂x ∂y ∂y  − ∂u + ∂v = 0 ∂y Matrix form 2 2 ∂ ϕ a ∂∂xϕ2 + 2b ∂x∂y + c ∂∂yϕ2 = 0 Quasi-linear PDE of 2nd order ∂x ∂U A1 ∂U ∂x + A2 ∂y = 0.

∂x ∂y det[A˜ − λI] = λ2 − A˜ = A−1 1 A2 =  2b a  c λ+ =0 a  1 a 0 0 1 ⇒  2b c −1 0 λ1.2 =  −b ± = √  2b a c a −1 0 b2 − 4ac 2a  .Second-order PDE as a first-order system Characteristic lines y ∂s ∂s dx + dy = nx dx + ny dy = 0 tangent ds = ∂x ∂y √ dy nx −b ± b2 − 4ac =− =− curve dx ny 2a y(x) x The PDE type depends on D = b2 − 4ac D>0 two real characteristics D=0 just one root D<0 no real characteristics dy dx = hyperbolic equation b 2a parabolic equation elliptic equation Transformation to an ‘unsteady’ system ∂U ∂U + A˜ = 0.

Geometric interpretation for a second-order PDE ¯ which may influence the solution at point P Domain of dependence: x ∈ Ω ¯ which are influenced by the solution at point P Zone of influence: x ∈ Ω Hyperbolic PDE A domain of dependence B C 1111111111 0000000000 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 P 0000000000000 1111111111111 1111111111111 0000000000000 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 0000000000000 1111111111111 zone of influence Parabolic PDE Elliptic PDE domain of dependence A A domain of dependence B P 11111111111111 00000000000000 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 zone of influence 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 C P B zone of influence steady supersonic flows steady boundary layer flows steady subsonic/inviscid unsteady inviscid flows unsteady heat conduction incompressible flows .

−∆u = f Poisson equation 2.Space discretization techniques Objective: to approximate the PDE by a set of algebraic equations   stationary (elliptic) PDE Lu = f in Ω      u=g on Γ0 Dirichlet boundary condition 0  n · ∇u = g1 on Γ1 Neumann boundary condition      n · ∇u + αu = g on Γ Robin boundary condition 2 Boundary value problem 2 BVP = PDE + boundary conditions 0 Getting started: 1D and 2D toy problems 1 2 1. ∇ · (uv) = ∇ · (d∇u) convection-diffusion .

e. O (periodic) or C (periodic with cusp) • limited to simple domains. (i.g.Computational meshes Degrees of freedom for the approximate solution are defined on a computational mesh which represents a subdivision of the domain into cells/elements structured block-structured unstructured Structured (regular) meshes • families of gridlines do not cross and only intersect with other families once • topologically equivalent to Cartesian grid so that each gridpoint (or CV) is uniquely defined by two indices in 2D or three indices in 3D. local mesh refinement affects other regions . j.. k) • can be of type H (nonperiodic).

tetrahedra or hexahedra in 3D • complex data structures. difficult to implement .Computational meshes Block-structured meshes • multilevel subdivision of the domain with structured grids within blocks • can be non-matching. special treatment is necessary at block interfaces • provide greater flexibility. irregular sparsity pattern. local refinement can be performed blockwise Unstructured meshes • suitable for arbitrary domains and amenable to adaptive mesh refinement • consist of triangles or quadrilaterals in 2D.

easy to derive • limited to (block-)structured meshes Finite volumes / integral form • approximation of integrals • conservative by construction • suitable for arbitrary meshes Finite elements / weak form • weighted residual formulation • remarkably flexible and general • suitable for arbitrary meshes .Discretization techniques Finite differences / differential form • approximation of nodal derivatives • simple and effective.

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