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A research paper submitted to the Humanities Division University of the Philippines Cebu College Lahug, Cebu City
In partial fulfillment of the requirements in Communications II
Researchers: Jedidiah K. Singco Loren Kaye R. Colina
Adviser: Ma’am Crina Escabarte-Tanongon
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT To those who helped make this study possible: We thank the Almighty Father for the strength, guidance, love and courage that He has given us. This research paper is also dedicated to Him, especially because He has provided us with all the intellectual faculties we needed to complete this paper. Secondly, we would also like to show our great appreciation to our teacher in Comm 2, Ms. Crina Tanongon. From the start of the semester, she has guided every step in the process of making this research paper, carefully giving advice and constructive criticism, never ceasing to edit our works again and again until they were presentable. There is no doubt that without her patience and persistence, this study would not have been completed. We would also like to thank our friends: Fritzie, Mishka, Hannah, Mikhaila and many others. We can’t thank you enough for your time, effort, help and support. Thank you for being there for us when we needed you, for sharing notes, for the laughter and frustrations that we went through in the making of this study. We are also grateful for both of our parents for all their support most especially when it came to our financial needs. Thank you for your never-ending love, care and moral support. Lastly, we would like to thank the people who helped us in this study, for our respondents who gave us their time in answering our questionnaires and “kuya” in the internet café who reminded us of our margins and format every time we needed to print our papers.
RESEARCHERS’ PROFILE Loren Kaye R. Colina is the eldest daughter among the four children of Eric and Lucia Colina of CCF Compound Canduman, Mandaue City. She was born on the 13 th day of February in the year 1994. She spent her preschool in Tisa II Elementary School when she and her family were still living in Capaculan Tisa, Cebu City. Her elementary years were spent in Tisa II Elementary School, CFI Coop Learning Center (now known as Lyceum of Cebu) in Kalunasan, Cebu City, and Canduman Elementary School in Mandaue City. In her grade 6 year, she became a part of the school’s representative for the district and division Press Conference as a feature writer. It was also in this year that she joined the soccer team, and began to discover her talent for this sport. She spent the first year of her high school in San Isidro Parish School in Talamban, Cebu City and was the secretary of the Performing Arts Club. Her remaining years in high school were spent in Cebu Mary Immaculate College, also in Talamban. She passed the UPCAT and pursued BA Psychology in the University of the Philippines, Cebu. In the near future, she wants to pursue Culinary Arts. She also wants to travel all around the world and work with famous people in the culinary business.
Clare’s Learning Center in Tayud. Her elementary and high school years were spent in Cebu Mary Immaculate College as a scholar. iv . She is also a member of the organization “Youth for Christ” (YFC). and sometimes plays the piano or guitar with the music ministry during YFC camps or gatherings.Jedidiah K. she currently pursues a BA Psychology course in the University of the Philippines Cebu College. Having passed the UPCAT. Consolacion. Cebu. where she was class valedictorian both in elementary and high school. She dreams of pursuing a music degree in the Conservatory of Music in UP Diliman. Singco was born in the year 1993 on the 12th day of October. She spent her preschool years in St. but her primary interests are playing the piano and listening to classical or instrumental music. and of being able to perform someday in Carnegie Hall. She is the eldest and only daughter of Joselito Singco and Vivian Singco. Her hobbies include reading fiction and writing stories.
This was followed by parental influence and the belief that BA Psychology was a good preparatory course. Lastly. The study also revealed that those who had a higher academic performance had a higher level of satisfaction for their course compared to those who had a lower academic performance. The decision to shift to another course could possibly be attributed to other surrounding influences such as the school environment or the student’s peers. which served as the theoretical framework. It also studied how the students’ grades affected their course satisfaction. The findings also showed that students who had a higher academic performance were more likely to choose their course based on self-determined factors. Deci and Richard M. Those who had a lower academic performance were more likely to choose their course based on factors which were not self-determined. and observed if academic performance was correlated with some students’ decision to shift to another course. Ryan. v . because too many personal factors could be involved in this kind of decision. coupled with qualitative data to allow for a flexible approach. no correlation was seen between academic performance and the desire to shift to another course. The study was guided by the Self-Determination Theory of Motivation by Edward L. The study’s findings revealed that the most common factor affecting the students’ course preference was personal interest in the course.ABSTRACT This study examined the factors affecting the course preferences of first year BA Psychology students and the effects of these factors on their academic performance. such as personal interest in their course. The descriptive type of research was used.
This in turn leads to a higher level of satisfaction for one’s course. vi .The researchers have concluded that it is necessary for the student to choose his/her course based on self-determined factors such as personal interest in the course. Thus. in order to have a higher academic performance. the student’s college learning experience becomes a positive and optimistic environment which is conducive to proper improvement and development.
. . . . . . . . . . . LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTERS Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Conceptual Framework. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Respondents. . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Analysis of Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Presentation. . . . . .iv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Rationale of the Study. . . . . . . 4 Study Framework . . . . . . . .27 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Research Instruments. . . . . . v. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-vi. . . . . . . . . ix LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Operational Framework. . 31 vii . . . 27 Research Design. . . . .28 Data Processing and Analysis. . . . . . . . . . 3 Significance of the Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Statement of the Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Methodology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Review of Related Literature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interpretation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RESEARCHERS’ PROFILE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 20 Theoretical Framework. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Findings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Recommendations.56 Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Findings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusions And Recommendations. . . . . . 63 viii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . . . . . . . . . . 60 APPENDIX. . .
. 45 Figure 2. . . High School Counselors. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Theoretical Framework. .4.12. . . .. . . . . . . . .16. .22 Figure 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . Influential factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Figure 2. . . . . . . .5. . . . Only Course Passed in UPCAT Ranking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 ix . High School Teachers and Counselors Ranking. . . . . . Influential Factors. . . . 32 Figure 2. . . . . Influential Factors. . . . . . .6. . . .7. . . . . . Financial Situation. . . . Belief that Course Easy Ranking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GWA of the Respondents. . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Figure 2. . . 41 Figure 2. . . . . . . .38 Figure 2. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influential Factors. . . . 46 Figure 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parental Influence Ranking. . . . . .15. . . . . . . 35 Figure 2. Respondents’ satisfaction of BA Psychology as their course. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . Parental Influence. . . . . . . . Influential Factors. . . BA Psychology as Good Preparatory Course Ranking. . . . . . .13. . . . . . .8. . .39 Figure 2. . . . . . . .42 Figure 2. . . . . . . . . . . Influential Factors. . . . . . . . .2 Conceptual Framework. . .26 Figure 2. . . . . . Personal Interest.14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Figure 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Figure 2. . . . . Peer Influence. . . . . . . . . . ‘Others’ Category. . . . 47 Figure 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Figure 2. . Influential Factors. . . . . . . . . . . Personal Interest Ranking. . .24 Figure 1. . . . .3 Operational Framework. . . . . . . .2. . . Belief that Course is Easy. High School Teachers.9. . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . 37 Figure 2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. . . . . . . . . . .50 Table 3. . . Whether the respondents want to shift their course (Group A) . . . . . . . . Whether the respondents want to shift their course (Group B) . . . . Respondents’ expectation and satisfaction level of their GWA’s (Group B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Respondents’ expectation and satisfaction level of their GWA’s (Group A) . . . 52 Table 4. . . . . . .48 Table 2. . . . . . . . 53 x . . . . . .
2000).CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Rationale of the Study Jesse Barber. a college student enrolled at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. presented by Jonathan Whitbourne (2002) in his online article “The Dropout Dilemma”. initially took up Sports Communication as his course during his freshman year. and the allure of a certain course although the student does not even possess the skills or aptitude for it. This incident. peer pressure. family expectations. As it turned out. although it took him a couple of years and more than one college transfer. The other factors examined in the study include financial limitations. A huge number of college freshman are confused on what course they should be taking up for college (Gardner & Jewler. xi . illustrates one of the biggest issues involved in going to college: choosing a college course. he was able to find a course that suited him well. This course was finally labeled by Barber as “something that I truly liked and excelled in”. and his grades gave a clear indication of that. Eventually. he had no interest in what he was studying. such as the introduction of more advanced lessons compared to high school lectures. one that he finally graduated in: Computer Science. In fact. Gardner and Jewler also present a variety of factors that can be attributed to this indecision. the influence of guidance counselors. taking up this course ended up as a bad idea and Barber had to drop out after his first year and transfer to a different college. According to him. and personal interest of the student himself/herself in taking up the course. many have shifted from one course to another before they finally graduated.
Deese & E. However. Based on previous personal experience. Basically. college students who allow their parents to choose their course for them end up dissatisfied and unhappy at some instant in their lives. In fact. with numerous courses available. capabilities and skills. Of course. and the easiest way of guaranteeing that is by securing their future through a good career. Deese. a guaranteed way to gain a career is to study in college. xii . people need to ensure that they can survive. money and energy spent on the previous course has merely gone to waste. the researchers chose this topic because of the question it poses in the arena of college education. because of a variety of reasons which will eventually be expounded in the study. and having a secure job means that one has a steady income. A good career means more chances of employment. Some are propelled to take a certain course because they believe that it will bring them financial stability in the future. the researchers have encountered college students who claim that they were forced into a course that they were not really interested in. but on the parents themselves. the time. Some are forced to take a course because it is what their parents want. Thus. This issue on parental influence is particularly addressed because of the complications it presents: not just on the student. firstly because there is a need to explore the attitude of Filipinos towards selecting the proper course for the student. taking into consideration his/her personal interest. many college students fail to choose the right course for themselves.In this age where the world has become very competitive. to the point that some of these students eventually go back to college and pursue their own ambitions this time (J. This study is also conducted on a local scale. 1957).
Statement of the Problem This study aims to examine the factors affecting the course preferences of first year BA Psychology students and the effects of these factors on their academic performance.) To determine if academic performance is correlated with why some students end up shifting into another course Significance of the Study The researchers aim to provide answers to these objectives. The importance of choosing a college course properly can then be weighed based on the results. the effects of these reasons towards the students’ academic performance should be examined. develop employability skills and choose a college course for the right reasons. It seeks to address the following main objectives: 1.) To examine how these factors affect their academic performance based on their first semester General Weighted Average Two secondary objectives will also be investigated: 3. so that a correlation can be made between the two variables. It will be most beneficial to students entering the tertiary xiii . This study will be a significant endeavor in promoting proper planning and choice of career in college students. and in doing so help students improve academic competence.) To find out in what way the students’ grades for the first semester reflect their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with BA Psychology as their course 4.Secondly.) To identify the most common factors affecting the students’ course preference 2.
instead of imposing a course that the son/daughter has to follow regardless of their personal interest in the course. xiv . Moreover.level of education. to ensure that they will have a good academic performance. the study will be especially helpful to the University of the Philippines Cebu students. seeing that they are the respondents of the study. as a whole. It would greatly contribute to their career aspirations and help them make more guided decisions on what to plan for their future. as it will provide them with an idea of what they should consider best before taking up a course. can develop a learning environment that encourages students to study something which will suit each of them and bring out the best of their potential. UP Cebu then. By understanding the students’ career considerations. parents will also learn to consult with their children on the course to be taken up.
The subject matters of these reference materials were associated with the research study’s issues: course choice in college. the factors influencing this choice and the factors influencing academic performance. we first have to look at things taken into consideration when planning to go to college: understanding one’s motive for going to college. Calvert Jr. one of the biggest issues always comes up: choosing a course. and Steele (1963). and then choosing what university to enroll in. college training develops a person both academically and personally. Yet in the process of planning a college education. These sources were collected from both the university library and reputable websites on the internet. usually appoint college graduates as their leaders or their representatives). To understand this issue. organizations and agencies for example. xv .CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter contains varied sources which relate to the research study. many high school graduates attempt to get into different universities and colleges in the country to advance to the tertiary level of education so they can prepare for a proper career in the future. After these is where choosing a course comes in. Through this. assert this by stating that a college education is important economically (because it is one thing employers look for in their employees in order to make sure their companies flourish) and socially (school boards. and at the same time provide a background for the research topic. Every year. which is not easy to do. and these factors need to be analyzed. because a lot of factors—family pressure and guidance counseling included—influence this decision.
decision-making should come in three levels: decision as intuition. Thagard explains that to attempt making the right choices. and as coherence. students are aware of the benefits of a college education. and these motives are classified as either intrinsic or extrinsic. there are three certain guidelines one needs to follow in the process of deciding where to go for college. With the vast array of choices presented in the world of college. Thagard (2001) stresses the significance of decision making by explaining that one cannot make the right decision by purely relying on either “gut instinct” or on “systematic models on decision-making” presented by psychologists and the like. Hettich (1998) says that when one decides to go to college. one should avoid finalizing a college choice without investigating other universities first. it is best for the student to let himself/herself be xvi . According to the American Educational Guidance Center (2000). decision-making becomes very important.Going back to the start of the college application process. The first of these important decisions that the student will have to make is selecting which university to enroll in. or it can be centered on other factors such as the people and environment around him. one’s motive for going to college might be centered on one’s self. applying for a particular college just because one’s friends are planning to go there must also be avoided at all costs. Secondly. and these learners have a wide variety of reasons for trying to get one. To put Hettich’s thought into other words. as calculation. Firstly. This includes colleges that the student is already familiar with and those which he/she doesn’t know much about. Once the student has decided that he/she does want to go to college. he or she always has certain motives for doing so. he/she then starts making decisions about how to go about his/her college life. Thirdly.
such as family. when exploring the different universities. The wider the choice of jobs. 1995). a career can be defined as “an occupation or profession which one trains for or pursues as a life work” (p. After choosing a university. Sadly. the AEGC also avers that discussing his observations and options with his/her family and/or a counselor is also useful to maximize the information gathered so far. the more important career planning becomes (p. however. But first. the word ‘career’ must be defined clearly. (as cited by Drummond & Ryan. must be properly harnessed to be of value. College graduates frequently flounder. Choosing the right course is important because it determines ones future career. changing jobs and direction. Career planning is useful in a person because it shapes much of his life. Fredrickson (1982) supports Calvert by saying that planning a career is crucial both for a person and his community. another essential thing to consider in planning for college is choosing one’s course. with consequent personal and financial dislocation. because the community thrives on its members who use their abilities to foster growth within. 7). Fredrickson phrases it this way: Would you buy a used car after just walking around it and kicking the xvii . A college degree does not of itself provide the necessary vocational direction. 214). Based from Guralnik. As the opportunities increase. according to him. Lastly. Calvert Jr. a lot of career planning is done without thorough knowledge. and Steele (1963). so he/she can readily consult other opinions rather than only his/her own.accompanied by trusted people. He says that it also benefits the community. and to answer to the community’s needs. so do the chances of making a wrong choice. stress the importance of sensible career planning: College training.
life goals and work values” (p. These include the individual’s “interests. skills. But “kicking the tires” is what many people do in making the most crucial decision in their lives: that of choosing an occupation (p.17). 2000). Information about ourselves affects occupation choice by helping us recognize what we want. Decades ago. personality. Calvert and Steele (1963).” Calvert and Steele also advise that students who plan on maximizing their professional education should already be aware of their career goals during their early college days. You would want to know something about the history of the car and its mechanical condition. The occupation that we choose is the one that we believe will best meet the needs that most concern us. 2. clothing and shelter. also emphasize the importance of choosing a career for the choice will eventually affect the individual’s life largely. aptitudes. Usually. 197). people strove to fulfill only the most basic needs: food. and professional status (p.1). this process of choosing a college course is subjected to many factors. on the topic of vocational objective. Robert Hoppock (1977) presented a few guidelines that served as the framework of his theory on “occupational choice”: 1. related to the person involved and his or her interests (Gardner & Jewler. But now.tires once or twice? Certainly not. xviii . humans also need “satisfaction from a sense of service. and by helping us to anticipate whether or not we will be successful in the contemplated occupation.
This is mainly because the person can also gather only a little “supportive information” from his community. which assumes that the student selects a college which will “maximize his gain and minimize his losses” (p. which involves an individual matching his characteristics with a career choice which requires the traits he possesses. such as the need to maintain contact with others. Every individual has many needs. There are also other theories on the various bases for one’s career or course decisions. Edwin Herr (1968) explains that there are “several models of decision-making that add insight to the process of college-choice” (p. or a concept of his interests or personality. The third model or the “social structure” model concentrates on the limits presented by a person’s social class (especially those who are not in the upper classes of society).64). Some of them are essentially physical such as. The second model is founded on an economic principle. concentrated on the lack of knowledge on educational opportunities available to the individual. the need for food. 65). makes an impulsive choice without truly weighing the factors properly and thinking them through. and to feel a sense of success or accomplishment (p. These gains and losses do not necessarily have to be financial—rather. The xix .3.5). The fourth model is the “information processing” model. Herr’s last model is the “need reduction” model. and as a result. rest and shelter. they are subject to the individual’s personal views. where the person is overwhelmed with a wide array of choices and information. Occupations are chosen to meet needs. The first is the “trait and factor” model. Other needs can be more properly described as psychological in nature. which assumes that a person already possesses an image of himself.
such as the students being presented with vast and more advanced ‘fields of study compared to high school’. They also wanted to determine if ability. and were afterwards divided into focus groups to probe for more details that could not be answered by the questionnaires alone.Martinez and Odinah Navasquez Sagun (2002). although it wasn’t really what they wanted to take. However. a lot of students have tried shifting to another course before they finally graduated. understanding. The respondents were first asked to answer a 4-part questionnaire.individual then applies this image of himself when choosing a college career to make sure that it compliments his interests. although one lacks the interest. A related study on choice of college course was conducted by Carla Camille Faustino Basa. a lot of new students are confused when deciding what course they should take up in college (Gardner and Jewler. In fact. Basa-Martinez and Sagun employed the Correlational Survey design. interest. Their results showed that majority of the students decided to take up Mass Communication primarily because it was where their skills and abilities lay. family or peer pressure. fallback and economic factors affected the decision to take up Mass Comm. coupled with random sampling. social. and the allure of a certain course because of the benefits it offers. and/or propensity for it. Gardner and Jewler also explain that many factors cause this uncertainty. entitled “Factors Affecting the Choice of Mass Communication as a Course Preference Among Mass Comm Students in Cebu City”. xx . 2000). Their study aimed to find out the various reasons why Mass Communication students from different schools in Cebu took this particular course. They were aware of their capability in this field.
without mentioning how the factors affect the students taking up the course. Part 1 asked for personal information and Part 2 dealt with the factors influencing career choice. Basa-Martinez and Sagun’s study is related to our own inquiry because it seeks to find out the possible factors that affect students’ decisions in selecting their college course. they were again asked to rank the factors according to the degree of influence. they would have a xxi . This is where it differs from our study. The students were asked in Part 2 of the questionnaire to check the factors that influenced them in their choice to take up nursing. The results of her study showed that the students’ choice of career was based on “job-related” factors. their study is limited to exposing these factors.14). Afterwards. However. Taghoy used a questionnaire in a checklist form as her main research instrument for gathering data.The study also revealed that the students did not have sufficient knowledge about the course as “most of them just want to be seen on television and apparently believe that taking Mass Communication will lead them to that dream” (p. Her study aimed to determine the different factors affecting the course choice of freshmen and sophomore nursing students. They were aware that if they took this course. She also provided a space for the “Others” category for answers not found in the checklist. The questionnaire was made up of two parts. Another related study was also conducted by Chona Taghoy (1994) entitled “Factors Affecting The Choice of Nursing as a Career Among Freshmen and Sophomore Students at the University of San Carlos Cebu”. because our study also wants to learn how these factors affect the students’ academic performance.
Deese.36). Deese and E. there is one other pressing factor: family pressure. although they usually aren’t aware of the academic and social pressures their child is also facing at school itself. take a course for practicality’s sake. They look for a course which can guarantee them a future. students. xxii . today. Deese (1957) also state that as a result. which is viewed as a particularly lucrative career especially in the Filipino culture. This study is comparable to our own because it also deals with the factors that influence course choice of college students. J. The factor that also ranked as the number one factor that determined the course of the student was “rendering service to fellowmen”. The variables considered in our study are different. Deese and E. to match the setting of the UP environment and the theoretical framework. The variables considered in her study were also appropriate for the nursing profession. Taghoy’s study is different because it did not classify its factors according to what kind of motivation they were. and this can result to problems especially if the child’s grades in college have considerably lowered compared to the ones he/she usually received in high school. a profession that helps uplift their personality and leads them to a future with opportunities” (p. The study also stated that “Instead of being influenced by parents and peers. the parents might demand the student to do better. If the results of the aforementioned studies revealed that students chose their course based on their skills and the need for a secure future. 1957).secured future. However. Parents sometimes expect too much of their children (J. particularly parental pressure.
Deese seek to point out here: The engineer who can’t understand why his son is taking courses in art and music. When asked to rate their views on their influence. the artist who is horrified by his daughter’s enthusiasm for economics and accounting. Yet in the light of recent studies. Taylor. not all parents impose this kind of attitude on their children. 1957). North Carolina by J. to the point that some of these students eventually go back to college and pursue their own ambitions this time (J. A journal article shared a study conducted in Chapel Hill. Harris and S. as J. the physician who insists that his son follow a premedical curriculum. deemed they should have little or minimal influence instead. Deese and E. 8). 45. College students who allow their parents to choose their course for them end up dissatisfied and unhappy at some instant in their lives. the mother who is shocked because her daughter wants to be an electrical engineer are all cases in one point (p. the lawyer who is upset because her daughter has no professional aspirations.Taylor (2004). Deese and E. parents are aware of the extent of their influence over their children on the process of choosing what college course to take.5% said that they do not possess that much authority on their children’s career decisions. Deese and E.4%. Sometimes. Deese (1957) point out further that another predicament is between students and their parents happens when the parents decide a college course for their child that mirrors their aspirations. 38. these parents do not understand why their child wants to do something that doesn’t follow their footsteps. The remaining 8.J.1% were the only ones who emphasized that they should have a huge part on their xxiii . Deese. A larger number of parents.
(as cited in Gardner and Jewler. Jones further expounds that guidance plays an important role in the development of this ability to make choices. a 52-item checklist. Tallo used the descriptive survey method with a 3-part questionnaire. Females. prefer academic advisors who take the time to truly examine them and listen to their concerns on a personal basis. On the subject of guidance counseling. Actualizations and Expectations Among Administrators. The results showed that males wanted an advisor who was knowledgeable about the facts or someone who could give them outright suggestions they are then “free to accept or reject”. In his “Principles of Guidance. It avoids making decisions for people.” Jones (1963) defines guidance as “the assistance given to individuals in making intelligent choices and adjustments” (p. yet his capability to choose is not as inherent as this freedom—it must also be cultivated properly. Counselors and Teachers in Relation to the Guidance Programs of Secondary Schools in Cebu City” (1974) by Veronica Tallo proved to be insightful. Other factors which influence students’ career decisions are also guidance counselors. 2000) asked students from Harvard University what characteristics they sought in academic advisors. It is stated that every person has the freedom to choose his path.children’s career choice. Light. 7). on the other hand. a graduation dissertation entitled “Role Perceptions. but instead trains them to learn how to make good choices independently without needing help from others. The respondents were administrators. A study conducted by Richard J. xxiv . and a few open-ended questions. These outcomes tell us that most parents look at career decision-making as something which they haven’t got much control over.
the number shows us that a lot of students who start college do not complete their education. respectively. many surveys in the USA based on “college mortality rates” show that about fifty percent of college students suspend their studies without receiving a bachelor’s degree. Her study’s findings revealed that school counselors expected to be “engaged in the performance of the service role and share in the discharge of coordinating functions and supportive roles” (p. the percentage is different in each institution and the fifty percent average may not be exactly accurate because students who quit from a certain college may end up continuing their studies in other colleges.counselors and teachers selected on the basis of the existence of a structured guidance program in their respective schools. who believe they should deal with administrative roles and supportive tasks. Although financial problems might be the cause of abandoning college. it might be helpful to keep in mind that a college education offers much more job opportunities xxv . especially because guidance counseling has its own role to play in career guidance for high school students soon to take up college. These findings are helpful because they give a concrete idea of what school guidance counselors expect of themselves and their job. and that is continuity of his college education. For example. Of course. which extremely differs from the principals’ and teachers’. Tallo then suggested that school counselors should “present a clear-out definition of roles” they carry out in their job. “How huge then is the impact of guidance counseling on course preference?” There is still another issue concerning the college life of the student. however. However. Nevertheless.6). it still raises questions such as. according to Borow and Lindsey (1959).
the Self-Determination Theory of Motivation by Deci and Ryan (1985). In attempting to earn money. which is the comparison of two different societies. But if there are many factors which influence course choice. and self-determination is the hallmark of maturity (Santrock. Autonomous Motivation and Academic Performance in Cross-Cultural Perspective”. The study was based on two theories. like the way it was used in Wondimu Ahmed and Marjon Bruinsma’s thesis entitled “A Structural Model of Selfconcept. they compared Asian and European culture. Hubner and Stanton (as cited in Ahmed and Bruinsma. But what made their thesis different was that they employed a cross-culture setting. 2007). Deci and Richard M. This theory can be utilized in an academic context. xxvi . and which ones should be set aside? Aristotle argued that the most significant aspect of adolescence is the ability to choose. which aimed to discover the factors that determine students’ academic performance. This selfdetermination was expounded by Edward L. such as the ones discussed in the previous paragraphs.and useful contacts compared to “a high school diploma”. which was also used in our study. Ryan (1985) in their Self-Determination Theory of Motivation. 2006). states Whitbourne (2002). and the SelfConcept Theory by Shavelson. There are certainly many factors which are able to shape the student’s decision to take up a particular course for college. In the case of Ahmed and Bruinsma’s study. which of these factors should the student prioritize. Whitbourne advises that it is best to choose a job that doesn’t drive you away from your schoolwork—preferably a part-time stint just within the school grounds.
Netherlands. The Self-Determination Theory of Motivation (Deci and Ryan. who were picked from two different faculties. p. They found out that the more the students felt good and positive with their life.. there should be a connection between self-concept and self-motivation. The students’ self-reported averages were used to determine the academic performance of the students. such xxvii . the higher their academic performance was. 59. “. and (4) academic motivation and academic achievement. which is said to be formed through environmental experiences and significant others. With this classification. 1985) initially states that behavior is largely affected by motivation. and motivation in turn can be organized according to how self-determined it is. The researchers assumed that these relationships would be consistent in both Asian and European culture. and amotivation. however. or how helpless. (3) academic self-concept and autonomous motivation. regardless of culture.Self-concept is defined as “a person’s perception of himself” (Hubner and Stanley. ability.411 as cited by Ahmed and Bruinsma).7% of the participants were women and the remaining were men. (2) academic self-concept and academic performance. this theory proposes that there are three kinds of motivation: intrinsic motivation. 1976. extrinsic motivation. achievements and academic settings. the faculty of law and faculty of economics. There were a few differences. The following hypotheses were formulated: that there was significant structural relation between (1) self-esteem and academic self-concept. Ahmed and Bruinsma’s participants were 94 Asian and 87 European graduate students from the University of Groningen.Ahmed and Bruinsma (2006) explained that when it comes to students’ academic performance. The result of the thesis confirmed Ahmed and Bruinsma’s initial hypotheses.
The study showed that Asians tend to possess more ‘external motivation’ compared to Europeans. academic locus of control. and its hypothesis that there is a correlation between academic motivation and academic achievement. the xxviii . Our study also aims to determine what motivates the students to take up their course. adjustment to college and social support. parental attachment. environmental stressors. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect personal information from the respondents. and if there could possibly be a relationship between satisfaction and academic performance.as the cultural variations in the importance of autonomous motivation. What makes this thesis most related to our study is its framework. our study also aims to find out the level of satisfaction that the students have for their course. personality factors. Stoever (2001) admitted in his findings that although all relationships were in expected directions and the variables accounted for significant amounts of variance. His study examined academic factors. goal instability. family factors and environmental factors which could possibly predict the level of college adjustment and academic performance of the students. Another study also found autonomy to be an influencing factor in academic achievement of students. This study was conducted by Shawn Stoever (2001) in his dissertation. Other scales and/or questionnaires were used to measure other variables such as the students’ academic self-concept. But other than this. and how this affects their academic performance. which also utilizes Ryan and Deci’s Self-Determination Theory of Motivation. “Multiple Predictors of College Adjustment and Academic Performance for Undergraduates in their First Semester”. There were a total of 243 male and female participants who were all currently taking an undergraduate course in a private southwestern university in Texas.
emotional. There are still more factors which can be considered in the process of planning and getting a college education. we aim to take them a step further by also studying how they can possibly affect the academic performance of the college student as a whole. academic factors were not really examined in our study because we held the assumption that passing the UPCAT is enough assurance of the students’ academic ability. Although these factors have been touched by the studies mentioned in this review. selecting what colleges to apply for and choosing one’s course are not easy tasks. These factors might be personal. Students who perceived that their parents fostered autonomy experienced less psychological stress. and they might motivate the students in many different ways. was encouraged autonomy. and if one has to do them. Making the decision to go to college. However. Nevertheless. and the adjustment to the institution’s educational demands. economical or cultural. The findings also revealed that academic adjustment itself was predicted by multiple factors. one factor which contributed to academic adjustment and therefore to academic performance. and how this in turn affects course satisfaction. perhaps because some important factors were not considered or were not successfully hypothesized. some might affect other aspects of the student’s college life. sociological. the variables which were found to contribute to college academic performance were high school class rank. Some of these factors could affect academic performance. social and academic factors. and therefore were able to achieve better academic adjustment. one must consider all the various variables and factors which make up college choice. namely individual. xxix . In relation to our study.overall fit of the model was poor.
is determined by external rewards or constraints. Deci (1985) initially states that behavior is largely affected by motivation. is when the person has deeply internalized previously external influences within himself/herself that he/she no longer needs their immediate presence to instigate behavior. With this classification. external motivation is based on behavior which is influenced externally and done for the sake of instrumental purposes. Intrinsic motivation basically happens when someone does something purely for the pleasure and satisfaction he/she gets from the task. this kind of motivation is still not considered as authentic selfxxx . However. Ryan and Edward L. The first type. An intrinsically-motivated person will most likely do something without thinking of receiving any external reward or benefit. An example would be a college graduate who pursues a Master’s degree in order to prove to himself that he can attain a higher level of education. External motivation can be classified into three different types: external regulation. The second type. and amotivation. introjected regulation or introjection. Conversely. because he/she is forced by her parents to do so. but can still be selfregulated.CHAPTER 3 STUDY FRAMEWORK Theoretical Framework The Self-Determination Theory of Motivation by Richard M. this theory proposes that there are three kinds of motivation: intrinsic motivation. external regulation. or how helpless. extrinsic motivation. and motivation in turn can be organized according to how self-determined it is. This concept can be explained through the example of a daughter who takes care of her younger siblings even though she has other things to do. introjected regulation and identification.
while external regulation. As a result. The last type of external motivation is identification. Figure 1 on the next page illustrates the Self-Determination Theory of Motivation in a diagram. In other words.autonomous motivation.autonomous motivation. Amotivated people feel a lack of control over outcomes which generally motivate human behavior. amotivated people feel incompetent and believe they cannot control their outcome. the theory further categorizes these as autonomous or non.autonomous motivation. The last type of motivation is termed by Deci and Ryan as ‘amotivation’. which occurs when a person learns to value a behavioral goal or regulation. A student who pursues college because she feels that it can help her prepare for her future career has successfully undergone identification. this is the most ‘helpless’ kind of motivation.determination. xxxi . it is still internally regulated and selfdetermined. and is merely restricted to internalizing outside incidents. Intrinsic motivation and ‘identification’ from extrinsic motivation are autonomous forms of motivation. and eventually accepts it as something personally valuable. The theory then states that behavior which is determined by autonomous motivation produces better performance compared to behavior which is determined by non. In other words. and is the least self-determined. because behavior is being done to avoid anxiety or guilt. introjection and amotivation are labeled as non. Having identified the three kinds of motivation. though the task is done for extrinsic reasons.
Theoretical Framework xxxii .BEHAVIOR Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation Identification Introjection External Regulation Amotivation Autonomous Motivation Non-autonomous Motivation BETTER PERFORMANCE E LOWER PERFORMANCE Figure 1.1.
and how these factors shape academic performance positively or negatively based on autonomy. depending on their nature. Intrinsic motivation. The first variable in the theory is ‘behavior’. This course preference is then shaped by many influencing factors which are taken into consideration by the students as they choose the course they want to take in college.autonomous factors lead to lower academic performance. extrinsic motivation and amotivation have been represented by the primary reasons and various factors that influenced the students to take up their course. which is represented by ‘course preference’ in the context of the study.autonomous. These factors are classified as either autonomous or non. autonomous factors contribute to better academic performance while non. Based on the theory. because the behavior in question is the act of choosing a college course.Conceptual Framework The researchers have integrated the different variables of the study into the SelfDetermination Theory of Motivation. xxxiii . Figure 2 shown on the next page illustrates how course preference is affected by the different motivational factors.
COURSE PREFERENCE Influencing or Motivating Factors for Choice of Course Autonomous Factors Non-autonomous Factors Better Academic Performance Lower Academic Performance Figure 1. Conceptual Framework xxxiv .2.
The factor representing amotivation is ‘BA Psychology as the only course passed in the UPCAT’. especially its role in deciding the course of the student. these two factors constitute the autonomous forms of motivation. peer influence and belief that the course is easy. which lead to a higher academic performance measure through the General Weighted Average (GWA) of the students for the first semester. extrinsically motivated or amotivated. Taking into account that the setting of the study is UP and the respondents are its students. extrinsic factors include parental influence. while the factor that represents identified regulation is the belief that BA Psychology is a good preparatory course. wherein intrinsic factors and identified regulation are autonomous factors. Together. influence of high school teachers or counselors. the intrinsic factor is personal interest in BA Psychology (because the respondents are Psychology students). the UPCAT needs to be considered. The diagram showing the operational framework (Figure 3) is shown on the next page: xxxv .Operational Framework The different factors or primary reasons for course preference are classified as intrinsically motivated. financial situation. and introjection and external regulation are non-autonomous factors. These extrinsic factors and amotivated factor constitute the non-autonomous forms of motivation. Specifically. On the other hand. which then result to a lower GWA.
Belief that the course is easy to pass Autonomous Motivation Non.Financial Situation . Operational Framework xxxvi .Influence of High School Teachers or Counselors .3.COURSE PREFERENCE Intrinsic .Peer Influence .Parental Influence .BA Psychology as the only course passed in UPCAT Belief that BA Psychology is a good preparatory course .Personal Interest Extrinsic Amotivated .autonomous Motivation Higher GWA Lower GWA Figure 1.
Thus. The factors affecting the students’ course preferences were examined. the descriptive research method was used so as to understand the significance of the course preference and the factors affecting this course preference in the students’ academic performance. xxxvii . 2010-2011. The course satisfaction of the students was also studied. is a descriptive method of investigation that gathers information about the present existing condition. The descriptive type of research. Through the descriptive method. as defined by Creswell (1994). An emphasis is placed on describing data rather than on judging or interpreting.Y. when important new issues and questions arise during the duration of the study. this method allows for a flexible approach. both intrinsic (centered on the student) and extrinsic (based on the student’s environment). Research Design In the study.Chapter IV METHODOLOGY Overview This study was conducted to determine the factors affecting course preferences and their effects on the academic performance of the University of the Philippines Cebu College’s BA Psychology first year students for A. Moreover. as well as their satisfaction of their academic performance (measured through their General Weighted Average) and their course. and then correlate these factors to the student’s academic performance. further investigation may be conducted. the researchers were able to compare and rank the factors which affect course preference.
all UP. The process was repeated until the desired sample size was reached. Respondents The researchers aimed for a total of 17 participants for the sample size.Cebu first year BA Psychology students for AY 2010-2010 (except the researchers. For this procedure. It also allows for more descriptions and explanations. Each member of the master list was assigned a number. primarily because the research setting does not have to be manipulated with this method. and uses inductive reasoning to explain and comprehend the research findings. who are also from the same program). the qualitative approach utilizes content or holistic analysis. In order to conduct this sampling technique. and each number was written on slips of paper which were drawn from a pouch. the researchers first defined the population and listed down the names of all its 33 members—in this case. Research Instruments The participants were asked to answer a survey questionnaire as the main datagathering instrument for this study. Simple random sampling was done for the sample selection. the fishbowl technique was utilized. The questionnaire is mostly in general format and xxxviii . This sampling method is conducted where each member of a population has an equal opportunity to become part of the sample. 1995). The qualitative approach produces verbal information rather than numerical values (Polgar & Thomas. Instead of using statistical analysis. about 51% of the entire population.Qualitative data was also employed because of its advantages in this kind of study.
Part 1 deals with choice of course while Part 2 is divided into 2 sections. wherein factors include personal preference. respectively. Part 1 asks the respondents to rank which factors affected their course choice the most. who were first divided into 2 groups based on their GWA’s: students with a relatively high GWA. They were ranked according to which kind of xxxix . their satisfaction with their GWA. “General Weighted Average” and “Level of Course Satisfaction”. Data Processing and Analysis All the completed data was gathered from the respondents. and asks them to rate their overall satisfaction with their current course. They are also asked about whether they plan to pursue further studies. These groups served as the basis for the students’ level of academic performance. The rest of the results were tabulated separately for each group.contains two items which employ ranking and a single item which employs rating. This part of the questionnaire also asks the respondents whether they would like to shift to another course. family pressure and financial capability. to determine which responses were common to those with a higher academic performance. The students’ responses to the open-ended questions were categorized into which contained the most similar thought. and so on. Part 2 explores the respondents’ General Weighted Average (GWA). The questionnaire is divided into two parts. and students with a lower GWA. those with a lower academic performance. as this could also be a factor why they are taking up their current course. and what course do they really prefer.
Within this allocated time the researchers were able to contact and ask their respondents to supply the needed information for the study. The items which were selected the most by the respondents were then considered as those which apply most to the study’s objective. The researchers allocated one (1) week to conduct the survey. Answers to close-ended questions were ranked according to how many times a particular choice was selected. xl .response was most prominent.
CHAPTER 5 PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION, AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
Respondents The respondents of the study were UP-Cebu’s 1st Year Psychology students for A.Y. 2010- 2011. The 17 students were picked through random sampling in the fishbowl technique. Each member of the master list was assigned a number, and the numbers were written on slips of paper which were then drawn from a pouch. The process was repeated until the desired sample size was reached. The students were made to answer a questionnaire that examined the factors which led them to take up BA Psychology, and the researchers tried to determine if these factors are related to their academic performance. Results and Analysis Because the study seeks to find out how the academic performance of the students is affected by the different variables, the researchers first classified the respondents according to their first semester’s General Weighted Average (GWA). The respondents were divided into two groups, according to the GWA they received. The first group all had a GWA ranging from 1.2 – 1.9. The second group had a 2.0 – 2.6 GWA. The researchers initially prepared for a third group, with respondents who had less than a 2.6 GWA. However, none of the respondents belonged to this group because all had a GWA higher than 2.6. To avoid confusion, the researchers have decided to name the first and second groups as Group A, and Group B, respectively.
Based from the data gathered from the questionnaire, 10 of the respondents (58% of the entire sample population) garnered a GWA from 1.2- 1.9, which made up the first group. The remaining seven respondents belonged to the second group, which is 42% of the entire sample. Below is a graph illustrating the General Weighted Average of the respondents:
General Weighted Average (GWA)
12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1.2-1.9 2.0-2.6 2.7-3.0 General Weighted Average (GWA)
Figure 2.1. Graph showing the respondents’ GWA
As the number of students from Group A are more than the number of students in Group B, it is then understood that majority of the respondents had a very good academic performance during the first semester. Because the researchers had now classified the respondents according to their academic performance, the rest of the items in the questionnaire were tabulated separately for both groups.
The first item in the questionnaire asked the respondents to rank a list of statements (or factors) according to what was the primary reason why they chose BA Psychology as their course. This is different from the factors that influenced them to take up this course, which will receive its own ranking. The ranking was done on a scale of 1-7, with 1 as the most primary reason and 7 as the least applicable reason. The rest of the rankings were also done in the same way. The researchers have hypothesized that a higher academic performance results when the student chooses a course largely based on autonomous motivation. Based on the study framework, the first kind of autonomous motivation is intrinsic motivation, which is specified in the operational framework as ‘personal interest’ in the course. Below is Fig. 2, a graph showing how both Group A and B ranked the first factor mentioned in the list: personal interest in BA Psychology for a long time.
Figure 2.2. Graph showing how ‘personal interest’ as a factor was ranked
Out of the 10 respondents in Group A, five ranked it as number one, which is 50% of the respondents in the said group. Only three students from Group B ranked it as number one, however, which is 43% of the respondents in Group B. All in all, eight
one respondent from Group B ranked it as sixth and another from the same group ranked it as seventh. and part of their job description is to help people with xliv . In general. while two students ranked it third. Guidance counselors were also considered because of their role in advising graduating high school students on what to plan for college. only one respondent ranked ‘personal interest’ as the least applicable reason. some of the most influential characters on his/her education are his/her teachers. On the other hand. Three students ranked this factor as second. This means that 82% of the respondents listed ‘personal interest’ as one of the top 3 primary reasons why they chose BA Psych. The next factor in the list was “High School Teachers and/or Counselors’ Advice”.students ranked it as the top primary reason why they chose BA Psychology as their course. which could also explain why none of them had a very low GWA. On the other hand. These findings also support the study’s hypothesis and study framework which state that personal interest in the course contributes positively to higher academic performance. which is 47% of the entire sample population. more than half of the sample population. this factor was ranked as the primary reason by the respondents. This also shows that a large number of the sample. sixth or seventh. and it is possible that these teachers could have played a part in the student’s choice of course. All respondents in Group A also ranked this factor as one of their top four primary reasons. These guidance counselors are also called career counselors. The researchers included this factor because while the student is still in high school. These results tell us that Group A’s respondents were more inclined to choose their course based on personal interest. is genuinely interested in BA Psychology as their course. with none of them ranking it either fifth. in relation to the theory.
this factor is not really a principal basis for the respondents’ choice of BA Psychology as their course.3. Graph showing how ‘High School Teachers’/ Counselors’ Advice’ was ranked As portrayed on the data provided by the table above. None of the respondents ranked it as their most primary reason.their career decisions (All Star Directories. One of the conflicts between parents and their children in college deals with the parents’ expectations and sometimes. This means that none of the respondents chose their course primarily because of the influence of their high school teachers or guidance counselors. The following figure is a graph illustrating how this factor was ranked by both groups. Many schools employ counselors to advise their students on what course to take for college. 2002). these expectations are too much for the xlv . Figure 2. while another five students ranked it 4 th. Three students from Group A and two from Group B ranked it 3 rd (29% of the entire sample). The third factor mentioned in the questionnaire is parental influence or expectations.
This means that none of the respondents in the sample population chose their course primarily because of parental influence. Based on the study’s operational framework.student to handle (J. which is the highest rating it has been given. Nobody ranked it first. Three respondents from Group A and two from Group B (29% of the entire sample population) ranked it 3 rd. this factor represents ‘identified regulation’. Graph showing how ‘Parental Influence’ was ranked Parental influence was not given a high ranking. Deese and E. The researchers included this factor because BA Psychology is a versatile course that presents a wide variety of fields to proceed to. Figure 4 below portrays how the respondents ranked this feature as a reason for choosing their course: Figure 2. however. The next factor listed is ‘BA Psychology as a good preparatory course’.4. Deese. Its graph is shown on the following page: xlvi . which is classified as autonomous motivation. 1957). It is possible that the students decided to take this course because they believed it was a good preparatory course for the career they wanted to pursue next.
while only one student from Group B (14% of the group) ranked it as such. taking into account that the setting of the study was UP. The researchers had to include this factor. This factor.5. xlvii . based on the study framework. This factor also represents ‘amotivation’. The next three graphs will show the factors which were ranked fifth. labeled as a form of autonomous motivation. The first of these factors are: ‘BA Psychology as the only course passed in the UPCAT’. Generally.Figure 2. This 3:1 ratio conforms to the study’s hypothesis that students give a higher academic performance when they choose their course based on autonomous motivation. was ranked first by more students from Group A than Group B. The graph is shown on the next page. this factor is also the second primary reason why the respondents took up their course. sixth and seventh. which means that they had to consider the UPCAT and its role in the students’ course choice. Graph showing how ‘BA Psych as a good preparatory course’ was ranked Three students from Group A (30% of the group) ranked this factor as their primary reason. followed by High School Teachers/ Counselors and Parental Influence.
Therefore. Only one respondent from Group B each ranked this factor as her primary reason. which means it is one of the least applicable reasons why the students chose to take up BA Psychology. it means that it was not really a driving force in the course choice of the students. Figure 7 on the next page shows how this factor was ranked by the respondents. The next factor. The researchers included this factor because it is possible that some of the students chose to take up BA Psychology. Because this factor was given a low rank.6. which is a mere 6% of the entire sample population. which was ranked sixth in general. most of the students had a choice in their career decision.Figure 2. Graph showing how “Only Course Passed in UPCAT” was ranked Five respondents from Group A and one from Group B ranked this factor as the fifth. was ‘Belief that the course is easy’. xlviii . thinking that it would be easy to pass and get through.
for the respondents to fill in for themselves. in case there was something important involved in their course choice which the researchers were unable to include. In fact. only one ranked it as number one. Graph showing how “Belief that course is easy” was ranked As seen on the graph above. On the next page is the graph tabulating the respondents’ ranking for “Other factors”.Figure 2. so it is most likely probable that this student does find the course easy. Because it is impossible for the researchers to list down all possible reasons for the respondents. they had to include a factor which was left blank. xlix . someone from Group A. The researchers however believe that this is understandable because the said respondent is also recorded with the second highest GWA among the whole sample population. majority of the students (four from Group A and three from Group B) ranked this factor as number six.7.
ranked this as seventh. The few respondents who wrote something in the blank however had varied answers. the researchers now asked them to rank the factors which greatly influenced their l . BA Psychology was the only course she preferred. a transferee from another school. One respondent. of which only the most notable will be mentioned in the following statements. Having tabulated the respondents’ primary reasons for taking up BA Psychology. believed that the subjects she had taken up in her previous school would be credited by the UP system.Figure 2. and majority of them. Graph showing how “Other Factors” was ranked Not all of the respondents wrote something in the blank provided under this category. Another respondent stated that among all other course choices in UP – Cebu. This kind of ranking means that most of the respondents’ primary reasons for choosing their course were already listed in the questionnaire. 59% in fact (5 students from Group A and Group B each).8.
four out of seven students from Group B ranked this factor as third. Below is the graph displaying the results: Figure 2. The first factor listed was ‘Parental Influence’. compared to Group A (40%).choice of course. Once again. because the researchers considered the possibility that some of the respondents could have chosen li . from 1-7 with 1 as the highest and 7 as the lowest. The ranking was still done in the same scale. On the other hand.9. the next factor listed was ‘Peer Influence’. Graph showing how “Parental Influence” was ranked as an influencing factor Group A ranked this factor second. None of the respondents ranked this factor as the most influential factor which led them to take up their course. the results were calculated separately for Group A and Group B. with four out of ten students in the group. After ‘Parental Influence’. a greater percentage from Group B (57%) ranked ‘parental influence’ as one of the top factors which influenced them to take their course. All in all.
On the next page is its graph: lii . ranked it as her number one influencing factor. The graph is shown on the next page: Figure 2. Therefore. which is not a huge percentage of the sample population. The next item mentioned in the list was ‘Personal Interest’. ‘Peer Influence’ was ranked equally second and fifth with two respondents from Group A and another 2 from Group B ranking it as such. Graph showing how ‘Peer Influence’ was ranked as an influencing factor As shown on the graph.BA Psychology because their friends also took the same course. only 24% ranked it as second and another 24% ranked it as fifth. All in all.10. however. which ranked first again. Only one respondent from Group A. similar to its previous rank as one of the students’ primary reason for taking up their course. This particular factor was mostly ranked third. ‘peer influence’ was not really a major influencing factor of the students in choosing their course.
Figure 2. Personal interest in something is a form of autonomous motivation and this kind of motivation results to a better performance (Ryan and Deci. 1985). Graph showing how ‘Personal Interest’ was ranked as an influencing factor As seen on the graph above. no interest at all in their course.11. this liii . These results actually support the study’s hypothesis that students who have a personal interest in their course have a higher academic performance than those who have only a partial—or in some cases. eight students from Group A (80%) and four students from Group B (57%) ranked ‘Personal Interest’ as the factor which most influenced their choice of course. These findings imply that whenever students want to have good academic performance in college. However. they should pick a course that they have a personal interest in.
although the number of courses are very limited. in general. In fact. financial demands for each course still varies. The next factor in the list was “Financial Situation”. The researchers included this factor because financial situation can be a hindrance to career choice. equipment and such. This implies that most of the respondents actually have a personal interest in BA Psychology. Some courses require additional payment for lab fees. Graph showing how ‘Financial Situation’ was ranked as an influencing factor liv .factor’s total percentage among the entire sample population is 70%. wherein all youth respondents stated that lack of financial resources was the biggest barrier towards pursuing a college degree. which is a majority of the entire sample. In the UP Cebu context. a journal article featured a study done by Natalie M. Below is the graph showing how the respondents for this study ranked the given factor: Figure 2. Ferry.12.
The researchers believe that this is reasonable because it is also a fact that UP tries to avoid placing financial burdens on the students as much as possible. Only one student from Group B ranked it as number one. and avoid too much financial burden. These results correlate to the previous ranking of this factor as a primary reason for course preference. Only one respondent from Group A ranked it as such. The next influencing factor considered by the researchers was ‘Belief that the course is easy’. On the whole. Therefore. with six students from Group A and four from Group B ranking it as such. This was ranked seventh by the students.As portrayed on the graph. with 3 respondents from Group A and one from Group B ranking it as such. which is 59% of the entire sample population. Below is the graph showing how it was ranked: lv . the students can always apply for any of these anytime if they wished to do so. by giving scholarships such as the Socialized Tuition Fee Assistance Program (STFAP) and financial help such as the Student Loan. the researchers concluded that ‘Financial Situation’ is not really a very influencing factor in the course preference of the students. This shows that the belief that the course is easy to pass was not really a major factor when the students decided to take up BA Psychology. this factor was mostly ranked third.
only a very small number of the respondents ranked this factor as first. Below is its graph: lvi . The next factor considered was the influence of High School counselor/s. and so on until sixth. Graph showing how ‘Belief that Course is Easy’ was ranked as an influencing factor As seen on the previous page.Figure 2.13. second.
Graph showing how ‘’High School Counselor’ was ranked as an influencing factor This factor was not given a top rank. None of the students ranked this factor as first. The researchers therefore dismissed it as an important factor which influenced the students to take up BA Psychology.14. The graph is shown on the next page: Figure 2. The last factor listed was the influence of High School Teachers. although one from Group A ranked it as second. or it could mean that some of the students did not even encounter career counseling. by three students from Group A and two students from Group B. Graph showing how ‘’High School Counselor’ was ranked as an influencing factor This particular factor was basically ranked fourth by four students from Group A and two students from Group B.Figure 2. lvii .15. although two people from Group B did rank it as second. This implies that the students did not let the career advice of their high school counselors influence their course preference largely. seeing as it was given an overall rank of sixth place. Nobody ranked it first.
and that course satisfaction contributes to continued motivation. This totals to 7 students. The questionnaire also asked the students whether they were satisfied or dissatisfied with their GWA. In Group A.Having tabulated the results on the students’ primary reasons for their course preference and the factors influencing this choice. majority of the students in Group A had a personal interest in BA Psychology. and why. five students ranked ‘personal interest’ as the primary reason why they took BA Psychology. the researchers addressed the second part of the questionnaire. while eight students ranked it first place as the factor which influenced their course choice. three students in Group B ranked it as the primary reason why they chose BA Psychology. the researchers tabulated the answers of the respondents as to whether they expected that kind of GWA. which was about the students’ GWA and their level of course satisfaction. Therefore. This makes up 13 students. Part of the researchers’ objectives was to also measure how satisfied the students were with their GWA and their course. Motivation. or 65% of double the population of Group A. 2010). The researchers believe that there is a relationship between academic performance and satisfaction of one’s course. satisfaction and performance are directly related to each other because being motivated can lead to satisfaction and eventually to higher performance (Dixon. After tabulating these data. On the other hand. and four students ranked it first place as the factor which most influenced the choice of course. or 50% of double of Group B’s population. Below is the table displaying the results of Group A: lviii . Having already shown the graph of the General Weighted Average in the earlier pages. the results showed that the primary factor which made the students decide to take up BA Psychology was their personal interest in the course.
four were convinced that that was more or less the best GWA they could have received. As for Group A’s satisfaction level. which was why she considered her GWA the best one she could possibly get. but could do better Very dissatisfied Dissatisfied. When the questionnaire asked them to state the reasons for their answer. one respondent among these four wrote that she was expecting to have a lower grade. Another four students from Group A put in that they were satisfied with their grades. The other three stated that they simply knew that they would receive that kind of GWA based on their performance. although some admitted that they concentrated on other things rather than their studies. Another two students from the same group stated that they were very dissatisfied with their GWA. more or less the best GWA Satisfied. but they believed they could have done better.GWA Whether Respondents Expected their GWA Yes No Missing TOTAL Respondents’ Satisfaction with their GWA Satisfied. convinced course is not for him/her TOTAL Results 1 9 10 4 4 2 10 Table1. Table showing respondents’ expectation and satisfaction lever of their GWA’s (Group A) As seen above. All the rest were not expecting to receive the General Weighted Average that they obtained. This implies lix . All of these six students wrote that they felt they could have done better. receive a higher GWA. only one respondent expected to receive the GWA she got. All of their answers revealed that they believed that it was possible to get a higher GWA than the ones they got—they simply did not do their best. and in doing so.
The researchers similarly tabulated Group B’s answers. but could do better Very dissatisfied Dissatisfied.that although the students were capable of attaining higher grades. and one respondent did not answer the question. which affected their academic performance. Five students were satisfied. lx . with 1 missing 5 2 7 Table 2. more or less the best GWA Satisfied. shown in the table on the next page: GWA Whether Respondents Expected their GWA Yes No Missing TOTAL Respondents’ Satisfaction with their GWA Satisfied. None of them also believed that that was more or less the best GWA they could get. Table showing respondents’ expectation and satisfaction lever of their GWA’s (Group B) As shown above. Two did not. Two of the students also admitted that they were very dissatisfied with their GWA’s. convinced course is not for him/her TOTAL Results 4 2 1 6. but believed they could do better. they were not able to do so because of lack of concentration on their studies. four of the students from Group B actually expected the GWA they received.
Therefore. 1986). The next question on the questionnaire asked the students to rate their overall satisfaction of BA Psychology as their course. literature has debated on whether increased satisfaction leads to improved performance or improved performance leads to increased satisfaction (Bean and Bradley. to see if such a relationship exists in the respondents. the researchers have decided that an important factor to consider in the students’ academic performance is their attitude towards studying. They were given a scale of 1-5. The following table shows the respondents’ answers: lxi . Based on these findings and the respondents’ answers to the open-ended question. those in Group B also admitted that they could have done much better. the researchers also included ‘level of course satisfaction’ in their objectives. although one stated that it took some time to adjust to the UP environment. they are not able to do so because they are not giving sufficient attention to their studies. In this study. some might be concentrating on other things while some simply might have been too lazy to study. where 1 meant ‘extremely satisfied’ and 5 meant ‘absolutely dissatisfied’. it is highly possible that although the students are capable of giving a higher academic performance.Like most of the students in Group A. For many years.
Figure 2. other sources also state that academic performance can affect satisfaction.16 on the previous page. However. a study by Bean and Bradley (1986) revealed that the influence of satisfaction on GWA was greater than the influence of GWA on satisfaction. the lxii . In other words. together with another factor which was ‘race’. satisfaction with one’s course can also be an influencing factor on academic performance. Therefore. An article by Liu.16 Graph showing respondents’ satisfaction of BA Psychology as their course As seen on the graph. Integrating this idea into the results of Figure 2. those with a higher GWA had a higher level of satisfaction compared to students who had a lower GWA. Sun and Lacost (2004) stated that their initial findings revealed that GWA had a strong impact on the students’ course satisfaction. Based on this idea. most of the students from Group A showed more satisfaction for their course compared to Group B. Incidentally. the graph’s results could be interpreted to mean that those with a higher GWA already possessed a higher level of satisfaction for their course.
From these findings. On the other hand. the questionnaire asked them if they wanted to shift to another course. One wanted to proceed to BS Psychology.findings still match because it would imply that those with a higher academic performance also develop a higher level of satisfaction for their course. Table showing whether the respondents want to shift their course (Group A) 0 1 For Group A. The respondent. however. some of the students in Group A chose to take up BA Psychology because they believed it would provide them with a good educational foundation for further studies that they were planning. but not one that was found in UP Cebu. Four wanted to proceed to a course in which BA Psychology serves as a preparatory course. All of them also said that they would pursue further studies. The following graph shows the results of Group A: Whether Respondents Want to Shift Their Course YES Want to shift to a Course in UP Cebu Yes No 1 NO 9 Want to pursue further studies Yes -Proceed to BS Psych 1 -Masteral or Doctoral 4 -Proceed to a course wherein 4 Psychology serves as Preparatory Course No 0 Table 3. After asking the respondents to rate their overall satisfaction of their course. it can be inferred that Group A does have lxiii . but stated that he was free to shift his course. All in all. This could mean that other than possessing a personal interest in the course. nine of the respondents in Group A stated that they did not want to shift their course (90% of the group). only one respondent wanted to shift to another course. the researchers have concluded that there certainly is a correlation between academic performance and satisfaction. while four students desired to pursue a Masteral or a Doctoral. did not specify what course. specifically Law.
respondents in Group B showed different results. On the other hand. which means that he/she had a good academic performance. there might be indirect and subtle coercion from lxiv . In fact. Below is the table: Whether Respondents Want to Shift Their Course YES 0 Want to shift to a Course in UP Cebu Yes No NO 7 0 0 Want to pursue further studies Yes -Proceed to BS Psych -Masteral or Doctoral 5 -Proceed to a course wherein 2 Psychology serves as Preparatory Course No 1 Table 4. Only one student did not want to pursue further studies. and that personal factors might perhaps be involved. Table showing whether the respondents want to shift their course (Group B) None of the respondents actually wanted to shift to another course. Based on these results of Group A and Group B.a high level of autonomous motivation because the students display intrinsic motivation (personal interest in the course) and the identified form of regulation (belief that BA Psych is a good preparatory course). The researchers therefore conclude that the decision to shift to another course entails more than just academic performance. and six of them wanted to pursue further studies. the researchers were able to conclude that the academic performance of students does not really directly correlate to why they want to shift their course. and at the same time proceed to a course wherein BA Psychology served as a preparatory course. For example. One student wanted to pursue a Masteral or Doctoral. the student who wanted to shift to another course came from Group A.
and they settled on taking BA Psychology. only 24% of the entire sample population planned on taking BA Psychology as their course. such as Culinary Arts. The researchers believe that although the students initially wanted to take up these other courses. if given the means to do so. the percentage of students of who wanted to take a course in social sciences (which includes BA Psychology) was 53%. Five respondents said they wanted to pursue a medical course. and the rest wanted to take up something else. Landscape Architecture. All in all.surrounding influences such as the school environment. and Accountancy. such as Music. Some of the courses they mentioned demand a lot of money. One respondent from Group A answered BS Psychology. four wanted a social sciences course. and chose to study in UP Cebu because they passed the UPCAT. or the student could simply feel uncertain with the current situation (myLot. It is also highly possible that the students took into consideration the university they would enroll in. and other courses listed include Culinary Arts. lxv . they did not have the means to pursue them. there were barriers that hindered them from taking these courses—in other words. and some courses need requirements which cannot be met with an average elementary or high school education. The last item on the questionnaire asked the students what course they really wanted to pursue for college. However. with one respondent from Group B and three from Group A. the students decided to take up the course that they most preferred among all the others. considering that the number of courses in the university is severely limited. Music. 2008). However.com. Only four of the students placed BA Psychology as their answer.
These factors included personal interest. peer influence. belief that the course is easy to pass. The other factors following personal interest (in order. Personal interest was also considered by majority of the students to be a major influencing factor in their course preference. financial situation. The researchers also examined the students’ satisfaction or dissatisfaction with their course. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FINDINGS The researchers initially conducted this study to find out how the students’ course preferences affect their academic performance. After tabulating the respondents’ answers. which is BA Psychology. This supports the researchers’ hypothesis that students who tend to possess a high level of personal interest in their course also have a high academic performance. parental influence. from highest to lowest) were lxvi . advice of high school teachers/counselors. represented by their General Weighted Average (GWA) for the first semester. the primary reasons and different factors which could have possibly influenced the students to take up their course. The variables considered for the study were first of all. The students’ GWA were used to divide them into two groups.CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS. based on academic performance. and the belief that BA Psychology is a good preparatory course. the researchers found out that the first group (composed of students with a high academic performance) were more likely to choose their course based on personal interest. The next variable considered was the students’ academic performance. compared to the students in the second group (those with a lower academic performance).
In fact. as there might be too many personal factors involved in the students’ decision to shift his/her course. and as a result. peer influence. The researchers have also found out that the students’ academic performance do not really have a definite correlation to their desire to shift into another course. only five people. financial situation. belief that BA Psychology is a good preparatory course. and they believed that they had sufficient ability to excel in their course. On the other hand. and belief that the course is easy to pass.parental influence. The rest stated that they would have chosen other courses. those who received a lower grade could possibly have doubted if they truly were capable to take up this course. The researchers also found out that the students who belonged to the first group were more satisfied with BA Psychology as their course. lxvii . compared to those who were in the second group. It was also found out that if given the means to do so. high school teachers/ counselors. The researchers believe that this is because those who received a higher grade gained a sense of fulfillment and belief in themselves. said that they would still have taken Psychology. their satisfaction for their course lowered a bit. the students’ would have chosen to study under another course. which comprises 29% of the whole sample population.
which contributes greatly to academic development and growth.CONCLUSIONS With the results obtained after testing the hypothesis. in order to achieve a high academic performance level. as opposed to those who took up their course because of the influence of other factors. the more satisfied he/she becomes in his/her course. the researchers conclude that if the student possesses a personal interest in the course he/she is taking up in college. the student also develops a high level of satisfaction from his/her course. In doing so. These results mean that the student develops a positive and optimistic learning environment. it is necessary for the student to choose his/her course based on selfdetermined factors. such as possessing a high level of personal interest in the course. Therefore. lxviii . The researchers’ findings also imply that if a student possesses a higher GWA or academic performance. there is a greater chance of him/her having a high academic performance.
as these problems might affect all variables stated in the study. as this study’s sample size is severely limited. conducted not in just one college but in different universities. the study should also be given a bigger budget so that the researchers can afford to visit and conduct the study in many colleges. with more background and with more related studies. If possible. and test it on a larger sample group. more time should be allotted for the research study. Further investigations should be done comprehensively. both for research and gathering of data. Future researchers are encouraged to look for resources other than the university library and the Internet. There should also be more variables examined which could possibly affect the students’ academic performance. Lastly. Firstly. the researchers have made the following recommendations. Future researchers could also improve a lot on the questionnaire. the researchers would also recommend that future studies should be done with a larger sample size. The researchers also recommend that more factors which influence the students’ course choice should be considered and included in the questionnaire. and if possible. lxix . especially to those who perhaps wish to conduct a similar study in the future. especially those which are far from the city. Secondly. it is also worthwhile to explore the most common problems encountered by BA Psychology students in pursuing their course.RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the study’s findings and conclusions.
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from Your Guide to Psychology Education and lxxiii .pdf Electronic Thesis. (2006).. (2004). Natalie M.php" http://www. How to Become a Guidance Counselor. Master's Thesis submitted to the University of Groningen.edu/STUAFF/career/documents/parentssay. The dropout dilemma: One in four college freshmen drop out.org/joe/2006june/rb7. from www. Journal of Extension. Phoenix. M.unt. .pdf" http://www. Harris..pdf Stoever.pdf Whitbourne.joe.html Internet Sources BIBLIOGRAPHY All Star Directories.library. (2006). 2011. A Structural Model of Self-concept. Factors Influencing Career Choices of Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural Pennsylvania./Art_10_144.. March). from HYPERLINK "http://www. Pointe Hilton Tapatio Cliffs.com/meta/p116034_index. (2002). from http://www. & Taylor. Retrieved March 25.investigacion-psicopedagogica. 2011.Ferry.php Taylor. from HYPERLINK "http://www. Dissertation prepared for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 2011. 2011. B. from Parents Have Their Say About Their College-Age Children's Career Decisions: http://uncw. Netherlands. Autonomous Motivation and Academic Performance in Cross-Cultural Perspective.unt.joe. Dissertations and Books Ahmed. (2001).edu/theses/open/20011/stoever_shawn/Dissertation. Retrieved May 26. J.org/revista/. B.. 2010. Retrieved March 27. J. and Lacost.unt. W. Retrieved January 23. S. Retrieved February 13. Liu. & Bruinsma. Retrieved March 27. Multiple Predictors of College Adjustment and Academic Performance for Undergraduates in Their First Semester. .edu/pdf/documents/dropout.edu/theses/open/20011/stoever_shawn/Dissertation. x. 2004-05-11 "Key Predictors of College Student Satisfaction and Future Implications for Student Retention" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Public Opinion Research. 44. What is going on here? What does it take to stay in? Retrieved January 23. from http://moneymanagement.library. (2002. Arizona. S. 2011.pdf Sun. M.org/joe/2006june/rb7.allacademic. 2009. X.
Satisfaction and Performance: HYPERLINK "http://www.com/psychology-careers/guidancecounseling/school-counseling American Educational Guidance Center.collegescholarships.Top Ten Rules for Selecting a College or University.collegescholarships. Of course.htm Dixon. 2011 from HYPERLINK "http://www.mylot. Our respondents are first year BA Psychology students from UP Cebu. Your honest input would invaluably contribute to the results of our study. Retrieved January 23.com/w/discussions/1601353.com/essay/11546/IncreasingMotivation-Satisfaction-And-Performance myLot. Retrieved March 27.Careers: http://www. and how these factors affect academic performance.Y.(2008). 2010-2011 Good day! We are conducting a study to find out the factors affecting course preferences of students.aspx APPENDIX Research Instrument QUESTIONNAIRE For BA.Message posted to http://www.papercamp.htm" http://www.com/ten_rules_for_selecting_a_college_or_universities. What makes students want to shift their course? [Msg 1]. 2011 from Increasing Motivation. Retrieved March 27.allpsychologyschools. lxxiv . all data you contribute through this questionnaire will be kept strictly confidential and anonymous.com/ten_rules_for_selecting_a_college_or_universities.papercamp. T.com.Psychology Students A. 2011 . (2010). (2000).com/essay/11546/Increasing-MotivationSatisfaction-And-Performance" http://www.
Sincerely.) What are the primary reasons why you chose BA – Psychology? (Please check 2 at the most) I’ve been interested in psychology for a long time and because I passed the UPCAT.) I s UP your first college? Yes No If no. [1-7 with 1 as highest and 7 as lowest] ___ Parental Influence ___ Peer influence ___ Personal Interest ___ Financial Situation ___ Belief that course is easy to pass ___ High school counselor ___ High School teacher/s II. Jedidiah K.) Were you expecting that kind of GWA? Yes lxxv . I decided to study it in UP. My high school teachers/counselor advised me to take this course. Choice of Course 1.Cebu. General Weighted Average 1. My parents/family advised me to take this course. Others (Please specify): __________________________________________________________________ 2. I believe this course is a good preparatory course for the career I really want to pursue. Singco Loren Kaye Colina ________________________________________________________________________________________ Personal Info: Name (Optional): _____________________ Age: _______ I. A. what was your previous school? _________________________________________ What course did you take? __________________________________________________ 3. It sounded easy to study.) What was your General Weighted Average (GWA) for the first semester? ______ 2. It was the only course I passed in the UPCAT.) Rank how the following factors affected your choice of course.
) Will you shift to a course that is in UP Cebu. _________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ B.) Do you want to pursue further studies when you graduate? Yes No If yes. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 2 3 4 5 Extremely Satisfied Satisfied Okay Dissatisfied Absolutely Dissatisfied 2. but I could do better. even though you want to? No. therefore allowing you to stay in the same school? Yes No What course will you shift to? __________________ Are there any particular reasons why you cannot shift your course.) Yes If yes. Level of Course Satisfaction 1. No. 3. what kind? Proceed to BS Psych Masteral and then maybe Doctoral Proceed to a course in which BA Psychology serves as a preparatory course Please specify what course: _______________________ 4. Please state the reasons for your answer. proceed to question number 4. I am very interested in BA Psych If no. what are those reasons? ___________________________________________________________________ How would you deal with subjects you are not interested in? ___________________________________________________________________ lxxvi . and because of my 1st semester GWA. proceed to question number 3. I am very dissatisfied. (Proceed to question #5. I am actually free to shift my course. No. I have been convinced that this course is not for me. No 3. I am not very interested in BA Psych No.) Are you currently satisfied with your first semester’s GWA? Yes. If yes. Place an X mark above the number that corresponds to your choice.) Rate your satisfaction of BA – Psychology as your course. it is more or less the best GWA I could get. with 1 as highest and 5 as lowest.) Do you want to shift to another course? Yes. Yes.
what course would you REALLY want to pursue for college? (Supposing you had just graduated from high school and had never studied in college yet) _____________________________________________ lxxvii .) Had you been given the means to do so._________________________________________________________________________________ 5.
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