'

-^

The Bopp Libf^p^,
COLLECTED BY FEANZ BOP?,
Professor of Comparative Philology in University of Berlin.
tlie

Purchased by Cornell

University,

1868.

Cornell University Library

The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924026891907

A

ZAND-PAHIAYI GIOSSAEI.

M OLD
ZAND-PAHLAYI GLOSSIEY.
EDITED IN THE ORIGINAL CHARACTERS

WITH A TRANSLITERATION IN ROMAN LETTERS, AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION AND AN ALPHABETICAL INDEX

DESfUR HOSHENGJI JAMASPJI,
HIQHPMEST OF THE PABSIS IN MALWA,
INDIA.

BBVISED WITH NOTES AND INTRODUCTION
BY

MARTIN HAUG,

Ph. D.,
,

LATE BUPEHINTENDENT OF SANSCRIT STUDIES IK THE POQNA COLLEGE OF THE K. BAVARIAN ACADEMY, ETC.

FOREIGN MEMBER

PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE GOVERSMEPfT OF BOMB.tY.

.^iO<=--

BOMBAY,
GOVERNMENT CENTRAL BOOK
DEPOT

1867.

LONDOBT,
MESSRS. TRUBNER AND CO. ^' PATERNOSTER ROW.

STUTTGART,
PRINTED AT THE
K.

HOFBUCHDRUCKEREl ZU GUTTENBERG

(CARL aEtfNINaEB).

I

^JU^-^^-^M-^^r--

J

PREFACE,
During

my

tour

in

Gujarat which

was undertaken by order
Zand, Pahlavi, Persian
to

of the Government of

Bombay
the

in search of

and Sanscrit MSS.
of
to

in

cold season of
attention

1863

64

in

company

Destur Hoshengji, my
an
old
i

was several
which goes

times directed

Zand -Pahlavi
oim yak"".
I
')
,

vocabulary

by

the
to

name

""Farhang
important,
Director

As
after

I

found

it

on examination
to
I.

be very
the
late
to

proposed,

my
the

return

Poona,

to

of Public Instruction,
to the

Edward

Howard,

Esq.,

recommend

Government

employment of Destur

Hosh-

engji

for

the

purpose of preparing an edition

of this and ano-

ther (Pahlavi-Pazand) glossary, along with a transliteration of the

ambiguous Pahlavi
translation.

characters

in

Roman

letters,

and

an

English

The

liberal
its

Government of Sir Barlle Frere which
to
to

always extended
literature,

patronage

publications
the Director's

relating

to

oriental
to

acceded as readily

recommendation
it.

sanction

my

proposal as he had recommended

1)

It

is

the

same which has been pubhshed by Anquetil Duperron
the value of this publication see the note

in his

Zend- a vesta.
on the
first

On

by Destur Hoshengji

page of his iiitroduclion.

Preface.

Destur Hoshengji,
who
cipally of Pahlavi

a

young Parsi

scholar of great ability

prinpossesses an excellent knowledge of several languages,

and Persian, and of the whole traditional literature

(he

is

the

younger brother of Destur

Nassarwanji Jamaspji,
was
at that time
offi-

Highpriest of the Parsis in the Dekhan, and
ciating as Highpriest in

Malwa), accepted the appointment and came

forthwith

to

Poona

to

commence
the

his

labours

under ray superinyear 1865.

tendence.

He prepared

works
(in

in question during the

Shortly before
the

leaving India

March 1866)

I

was requested by

Government through

the present Director of Public Instruction,

Sir A. Grant, Bart.,

who shows

the

same favour

to publications

of this kind as his predecessor, to revise and print in
gtossaries

Europe the two

which had been prepared by the Destur.

As Zand and
to

Pahlavi type
at

were

requisite,

which are

in

Germany only

be had
is

the Imperial printing office at

Vienna (the Zand type of Berlin
I

very bad, and Pahlavi they have none there),
to

found

it

necessary

purchase (on

my

account) a fount of both from Vienna to avoid,
is

on future occasions, the trouble and vexation one
printing oriental

put to
to

when

works

in characters

which are only

be bad in

one or two establishments

on the whole continent.
finest in

The Vienna
its

Zand type
Pahlavi
racters

is,

no doubt, the
the

existence; but as regards
all

type,
correct.

fount

is

neither complete, nor are
in

the cha-

Several compound letters
are wanting.
I

which the Pahlavi
to

writing abounds,

hope,

on a future occasion,
the wanting

supply the defects of the fount by having

signs cut.
in

The characters of lapidary Pahlavi which are occasionally used
the introduction

have been cut and

cast here.

My
make of

share in the
as
I

work
found

has become
it

much
to

larger, than

I

origi-

nally anticipated,

necessary

add

many
as

notes, and

the alphabetical

index which

contained,

prepared by

the Editor and Translator, the

words of the glossary without mea-

nings and explanations, 9 kind of small Zand -English vocabulary.

Preface.

Besides,

some novel views put

forth

by Destur Iloshengjl
them (as
I

in

his introduction, induced

me

to write In support of

be-

lieve them, on the main, to be correct)
to

some introductory remarks,
to

which two important Pahlavi documents, relating

the history

of the Zoroastrian writings, have been added.

As

regards the original text,

I

made no changes,
disposal,

as

I

have

only one MS. of the

work

at

my

whereas the Destur
it

had many, but had
transmitted to me.

it

printed just in that form in which

had been

Some
as the

scholars will find the orthography of

some

Zand words
tions,

as printed here, objectionable;

but

I

made no
is

alteraIn a

on purpose,
state,

whole orthography of Zand

still

very unsettled

and that one employed

In the printed editions

of the Zand-avesta also open to objections.
In the transliteration of the original characters in

Roman

letters

Avhich will assist principally the students of Pahlavi I tried to bring

more uniformity

into the

system followed by the Editor.

It

is,

as

may be
dingly
instance

easily imagined,

no easy task

to transliterate the

excee(for
')

ambiguous Pahlavi compound
jio>,
jajj)

letters,

some of which
phonetic

possess
offered

about

ten

different

values.

Great

difficulty is

by

the Semitic

words of

the Pahlavi, as
their oriin the

we
gin.

cannot correctly transliterate them, before

we know

The majority of those words

will

be found explained

copious index to the Pahlavi -Pazand Glossary.
In the English translation
I

made comparatively more changes

than in any other pdrt of the Destur's

work

;

they refer, however,
I

more

to style

and composition, than
I

to the sense; the latter
it

alte-

red but in few instances where

found

necessary.

1)

I

possess a long
all

list

(about 12 1/2 pages in folio) of almost

all

the

compound

signs with

the phonetic values attached to

them

(as far as

they are known) which

has been prepared for

me by my
it

friend, E.

West, Esq., from the materials furnished
to

by me.

I

hope to
it

revise

by endeavouring
signs

reduce the number of values and
us.
It

to enlarge

by adding some

which formerly escaped

will

be published

on a future occasion.

Preface.
the original text with the

During- the time
translation

transliteration

and

were
E,

carried through

the press,

I

received great assi-

stance from

West,

Esq,,
is

late

Chief Engineer of the

Bombay
on the
(from

Railway Establishment, who
of the Journal of the

favourably

known
by
his

to

the readers

Bombay

Asiatic Society

articles

cave inscriptions

').

He

assisted

me, during

his stay here,

1866

to

67)

in

correcting the proofs,

and the Enghsh translation

and arranging the alphabetical part of the index, for which service

my

best thanks are due to him.

The Pahlavi - Pazand Glossary of which
printed,
will

the

text

is

already

appear early in the next year.

1)

He

is

now

engaged on preparing an alphabetical index of the

Bundehesh

for

my

edition and translation of this important mythological work.

Stuttgart,

July 12, 1867.

M. Haug.

Introduction.

Though

the Editor

and Translator of

this Glossary

lays

no claim
yet

to

having performed a work of any great research or
justly say that
laid before the
its

ability,

he may

publication

is

the

flrst

of the

kind. that has as yet been

European public by

a Destur.

A

few introductory remarks, describing the value,

possible

age and

general usefulness of the contents of the present volume, as well as the
difficulty the

Editor and Translator has had to contend with in not be considered here out of place.
glossary which
i
is
is

its

prepa-

ration,

may

The Zand-Pahlavi
is

here published for the

first

time

')

the so-called

"Farhang
though
it it

otm

yak''''

which has hitherto been almost

to-

tally neglected,

very important.
to

This glossary,

seems

me, was

originally prepared

from several

works of the same nature
to

for the use of the students of the
is

Zand language

be learnt by heart,

as

it

the case with the

Amara
(in

kosa, Pdthdvali and
in Arabic,

Dhdtukosa

in Sanscrit,

Nissdb us-sibydn
Persian.

verse)

Amad-

ndmeh and Fdrstydt

(in prose) in

In these books the glossarist

1)

Tongh

in 1771

M. Anquetil

Duperron published

this

Glossary along with

a Pahlavi-P^zand one in his ground work on the Zand-avesta; they were not given
in their original form,

but in an alphabetical arrangement, and the arrangement, as

well as the meaning and translation in Pahlavi and French are so incorrect, that,
for
all

practical purposes,

they are useless, and the inaccuracies are such that

it

ap-

pears to

me

that the learned

Frenchman

either

misunderstood the meanings, or his

teacher, Destur

D^r^b of Surat, was unable

to explain to

him the contents
a

correctly.

n

Introduction.

gathers the commonest, simplest and most useful words, and arranges
(if

them

the vocabularies
e.

are
g.

in

prose)

according to their

different

classes in

separate chapters,
to

"words belonging to Godhead", "words belonging
it

husbandry"

etc.

But
at

appears

that

the

alphabetical

order also was
as will to their

not totally

unknown

the time

when

this glossary

was prepared,

be observed that in some places the words are arranged according
classes,

and in others alphabetically, while again in some instances the words

are put together indiscriminately, no particular order or class being strictly

observed.
sary
tion
is

It is,

therefore, resonable to suppose that this Zand-Pahlavi glos-

a collection of

fragments from several works of the same descrip-

which may have been found scattered and were probably collected
in the reign of

(however incomplete)
or shortly after him.

king Ardeshir Babegan (A. D. 226.),
that this glossary
is

The observation

not

at all

one,

but scattered pieces of different books, as they collected whatever they
found,
is

further strengthened by the
that almost all
etc.

fact,

that
-

it

is

now now

universally ack-

nowledged

books of the Zand

avesta

extant

,

such

as

Vendidad, Yasna

are not in a perfect state, but incomplete

and several
the
is

pieces not put in the right place; for they
tors

were arranged,
of the

as

collec-

found them scattered.

The incompleteness
last

glossary

further
last

markedly apparent from the
sentence
is

line of the

work

itself,

since the

obviously incomplete.

As regards the age of
particular

this glossary,

it

is

impossible to ascertain the
I

time,

when

it

was composed.

However,

am

of opinion that

it

must have been compiled some tune before the Achaemenian dynasty, and
certainly before
say,

the Macedonian

conquest
if

of Persia (330 B. C.)

that

is

to

some time about 700

B.

C,

not anterior.

Tough
I

I

am

well aware,

that
sition

by setting forth such a strange hypothesis,

shall find

much oppothat

on the part of other scholars

and

literati

who maintain

the

so-called

Pahlavt or Hozvdresh language was only current during the
Sasanian
dynasty;
to

time
nion,

of the
I

yet before

condemning

my humble
I

opi-

request

them

examine the proofs carefully which

am

going

to give.

Introduction.
Firstly.

Ijl

History records that Persia was ruled over for about 500 years

(from 1230

to

708 B.

C.)

by the Assyrian
it

race,

whose language was Syriac
foreign con-

of the Semitic stock.
quest, the

Now,

is

an obvious

fact, that after a

manners, customs,

religion, as well as the language of the conit is

querors begin to spread amongst the people, as
world,
If

the case throughout the

the Assyrians reigned in Persia for 500 years, without interval,
of Syriac

a mixture

words with Persian
•)

(as

is

the case with the

Hozvdat that

resh or rather

Huzvdnash

language) must have naturally occured

time (700 B. C.)
Secondly.
It

has never been proved that this
at

Pahlavt or Hozvdresh

language sprung up

the time of Ardeshir Bab6gan A. D, 226.
of

We

have

every reason
the old

to

suppose, that Ardeshir, as he was desirous

reviving
also

customs,
old

manners and

religion
it

of the

Parsis,

may have

revived the

Pahlavi by making
that at his

the

language of the court.

We
Per-

learn from the historians
sian)

time the

Dari language

(old

was the

common

language of the people and consequently he (Ar-

deshir)

himself wrote one of his

books

(Mr-ndmeh)

in Pahlavi, in

the
the

language of the court,

and a book of precepts and morals
people, for general use.

Dari,

language of the

common

This fact also proves that

the current and

common

dialect of his (Ardeshir's) time
at the

was not Pahlavi

but Dari, and in the same manner

time of the Achaemenians the

language of the court was that of the inscriptions, and the

common

lan-

guage was, no doubt, Pahlavt.
1)

This word which has been a great puzzle to the European scholars can be
I

explained in a very simple, and

think,

satisfactory

way.

Huzvaresh means
be divided
full

no-

thing, and can neither be explained from the Persian, nor from a Semitic language;
it is

simply a mispronunciation of Huzva,nash which
i.

is to

in

huzvan-

ash

e.

the language of Ash, which can be only Assyria; the

form may have been
this interpretation

Huzv^n-Ashar which was afterwards shortened and corrupted.
I

To

was led by Dr. Haug who directed during our frequent conversations
attention to the fact that the Pahlavi

several times

my
it

was more

closely related to the Assyrian
syllable

than to any other Semitic language.
is

As regards the

^

an
ete.

in

Huzvdnash,

to

be remarked, that the Pahlavi
to

4n

is

always changed to ar in Persian or
to

matan to meher, atan huzvanash became huzvarash.
Dari, as

adar, shatan

shahar

Accordingly

IV

Introduction.

Now,

to

prove

my own

hypothesis

that

the Pahlavi versions of the
this

Vendidad, Yasna, and Visparad,
sary,
I

as well as

fragments of
period but

small glos-

are

no compositions of the Sasanian
the following reasons.

ante

Sasanide,

may adduce
Firstly.

Because in the version of the Vendidad as well as in
there
are

this

small

glossary,

several

names of uncommon Nosks,

such

as

Huspdram., Sakddum, and Nehddum frequently mentioned
ties

as authori-

and passages quoted
in

from them.

Now

it

is

natural that those Nosks

must have been
but
lost
it

the possession of the authors
fact

when

they quote them;

is

a

well

known

that these

above named Nosks were already
is

and destroyed before the time of Ardeshir, as

mentioned

in the

third

volume of the Dinkard,
of
that

as well
facts

as

in the

Arddi Virdf and
the
in

other

works
at

dynasty.

These

confirm

that
still

Zand

texts found

the time of Ardeshir

were those, which are
be
it

our possession, and

that

no more were

to

had
is

at

his

time
to

than the present literature

of Zand-avesta.

Therefore

natural

suppose that the abovementioin

ned books (version of the Vendidad
cited,

etc.)

which unknown Nosks are
that time.

must have been compiled long before
Secondly.

In the version of the Vendidad

names of several Desturs,
etc.,

such as Gogoshasp, Dddfarrokh,
tioned as authorities, which proves

Adanpdd, KosManhujid
that they

are

men-

must have lived long before

the compiler's time; for they would not have quoted
rity

them,

if

their autho-

would not have been well established
speaks for
itself

for a considerable

time.
in

This

fact

that

there must

have been some books
cited passages

Pahlavi

in existence

from which the compilers
Because in

and opinions.

Thirdly.

this glossary as well as in

the version of the Ven-

didad, Yasna etc. a tolerably good
its

knowledge of the Zand language and
;

grammar

is

exhibited in several places by their authors
is

and though

this

knowledge of grammar

not
at a

uniformly correct, yet
time

it

shows
,

that

they

must have been composed
found, yet

when

the Desturs had

if

not a pro-

some knowledge

of Zand

grammar, which unfortunately decayed

Introduction.

V
as

and died out already during the time of the Sasdniam

we

perceive

from some

later versions of Zand-avesta, such as
It

Afrin

etc.

Fourthly.

is

traditionally

known

to all Desturs
etc.,

and even mentio-

ned

in the Rivayats that all these translations

are productions of the
at

disciples of Zoroaster,

and

that

they were not composed

the

time of

Ardeshir.

This
')•

evidently justifies us in assigning

them

to

the ante-Sasa-

nian period

But

it

is

evident

that,

though they are of an Ante-Sasanian dale, they
diffe-

were rearranged from the scattered fragments, and recollected from
rent places during the time of Ardeshir and hence the

confused

state of

the present books, such as the Vendidad, can be easily understood, as the
collectors at that time

(A. D. 226)

put

together whatever fragments they
In the

found' for their preservation in the form of books.
I

same way was,

believe, this glossary

made
of

up.

In the

third

volume

Dinkard

it

is

mentined

that
(i.

"the Pinkard
e.

"was

originally

composed by the

disciples

of Zoroaster

before the

"Achsemenian dynasty, some time during
"Pahlavi language

the Assyrian

reign,

when

the

may have been

in existence),

and were preserved in two

"copies in two different forts,

Shaspigan and Shapan; the former copy
at

"was destroyed by Alexander;
"they
"fort)

the time

of

that

good
(from
a

king Ardeshir
the

found out

from the report the second copy
injured

Shapan
state,

which was much
a

and scattered and in

very

bad
it

"from which

learned

Destur,

Tosreh by name,

recomposed

after

1)

The

later inscriptions of the

Achaomenian kings (400 B.

C.)

add more strength to
forms greatly

this supposition, as in these inscriptions

we

find already the grammatical

confounded and the
in the Vendida,d,

inflections lost, -which confusion
etc.

we

also observe in some- places
at

Yashfs

This fact also leads us to suppose that

that time

there

must have been some other language of an uninflected nature

in current use

(which was probably Pahlavi) and the language of the cuneiform inscriptions was the
court,

and

official

language, as

it

is

obvious that, before a language becomes dead,
it,

several changes and mixtures take place in

as

it is

the case with the
also

Prakrit of

the Mara,thi and

Gujar^ti

languages.

I

must here

mention that many words

quoted in this glossary are totally

unknown

to the present Zand-avesta.

Y[

Introduetion.

"comparing the fragments with

Zand

-

avesta.

The work was again

in a

"scattered and fragmentary state at the time of the Arabs (A. D. 640); the

"fragments were rearranged by the present author".
It

•)

is

not correct,

I

think, therefore, to suppose, that this glossary, or

the version of the Vendidad,

was composed under the Sasanian dynasty.
it,

They were composed prior
but
still

to

though long

after

the Zoroastrian time,
will

much

anterior to the Christian era.
this subject;

Space

not

allow

me

to

dilate

more on

the reader, however,
I

from what has been ad-

vanced already,
It

will

be able,
to

hope, to form a correct idea of the glossary.

is

also
it.

remarkable
This

observe that only a very few verbal
us
to

forms

are given in

may

lead

suppose that very likely the Perdifferent sorts of Dictionaries of

sians had, like their
this

Hindu brethren, two

kind, one devoted to nouns, just as the

Amara
and

and Yiiva koJas

in

Sanskrit, and

Fdrsiydt

in Persian;

and another appropriated

to all verbal

forms, just as the

Dhdtu Pdtha

in Sanskrit,

Amad-ndmeh
glossarist,
it

in Persian.
is

Regarding the grammatical knowledge of the
as
I

evident,
of

mentioned before,
,

that

he was not quite
his

destitute

of a

knowledge

Zand grammar
ject after the

as will

be perceived from
2.

lengthy remark on

this sub-

numerals (see pagg.

46).

Now

this

remark

as well as

the words chikayad, chikayato, chikayen,

for singular, dual

and plural, and several other remarks of the same naplace,

ture in the

same

show
still

that the

glossarist

must have known somethis

thing

of

grammar.

A

more

striking

feature in

grammatical deplural
also

finition is this, that the
is

remark on the difference between dual and

thus simplified,

"and from three upwards any more additions are
it

plural".

However

shows

that,

though the

glossarist

knew

the different

I)

See the

Dinkard volume

3.

A

copy of an extract from

it,

touching the
in

history of the Zoroastrian writings,

has been puhUshed

by Mulla Firoz

Avi-

zehdin 1830
such
is

A. D.

Bombay).

He has read and inlerpreted several words wrongly,
it

as

^^.3^3^

which he read farengi, and translated
soatteredness.

"greek"; but the word
full

only

"pargandagi"

[The extract

is

printed in

along with a

translation farther below.

M. H.]

Introduction.
grammatical forms, his knowledge
tion,
as
it

VII
to

may have come
in other

him only by

tradi-

appears

he could not,
their

instances,

distinguish exactly

the different cases and
stance,
plural,

inflections,

or terminational changes; for infijt

the Zand

termination

anam, am

=

€j^)-u

for

the genitive
').

he takes simply
it

as plural,

but not as the genitive case

But though

is

but justice to the glossarist to say that in his time

grammar was very

little

understood,

we cannot
still

but regret that, since his

time, our Desturs, instead of improving, have
of

more neglected

the study
of

grammar,

so

much

so of
it

indeed

that

they

knew nothing whatever

it*) until a

knowledge

along with a

critical

study of the Zand texts

was revived by the successive laborious studies and deep researches of

some eminent European

scholars,

principally those of
all

Burnouf, Bopp and
texts

Haug, and by the excellent edition of almost
gaard, which
is

the

Zand

by Wester-

highly appreciated by the Desturs.
the
glossarist

As regards the meanings which
flections

(without regard to in-

and terminations) gives

to

the words,

they are in

most instances

correct.
in

But owing unfortunately
the

to the

ambiguity of the Pahlavi character,
to the decline of a

which

meanings are given, and

proper know-

ledge of this language has

among

the Parsi priests, the meaning of the words

become

in

some

places doubtful.

The Editor and Translator has

tried

his best to

find out

those meanings which the

compiler appears to have

had in view.

The

principal reason that the understanding of the
glossarist

Pahlavi meanings

given by the
glossary
is

has become
all

so

difficult

is,

that,

although this

to

be had in almost

Zand and Pahlavi

libraries in India

and

1}

In the Persian this original termination becanie ^n, which

is

applied

now

in all the cases of plural indiscriminately.
2)

The following paragraph, from UlemSii IsUm,

written shortly after the ter-

mination of the Sastoian dynasty, will give an amusing but a lamentable exemple
of the utter ignorance of the Desturs of at even that date in this respect:

Avesta

zeban

i

Ormuzd
God and

ast,

u Zand zebUn

i

ma,,

u Pazand
is

in ast ke paida
that

kunam.
the lan-

The reasoning of the Destur
guage of

in the above passage
it

this,

Avesta

is

that one could not understand

without Zand.

VIII

Introduction.
to the

known
it

Desturs only as a Dictionary of the Zand-Pahlavi language, yet
to

seems neyer

have been carefully or
to to

critically
it,

read by any of them;
is

nor do they seem
quotation from
it

have cared

at all

for

as there

nowhere a

single

be found.

Again, in

many manuscripts, some
some words,

of the

Desturs have inserted interlineal Persian meanings to

giving

them

quite different

from each other,
it

for

when one

reads a

word

9^3)U
dovin,

bunesteh, another reads

bandideh, one reads the word

UH5

another doniv, a third has dogun; one reads the word ))mi~i(^)
heshne, another vanideshne; one reads the

va-de-

word

J^^^y

dokhti, another

dvdti, and so on, the instances being too numerous to be enumerated
here.

To make

the

"confusion worse

confounded", the whole mass of
in Anquetil's

these incorrect readings are

jumbled together
differently

volume, where

again the

meanings are

still

and

most incorrectly rendered,

which shows that even Destur Darab, the professed teacher of Anquetil,
misunderstood and misinterpreted the meanings
learned Frenchman,
to his

zealous

pupil,

the

who made Europe

for the first time acquainted with
it.

the Zand-avesta by publishing a translation of

The
fore,
as

task of the Editor, to render the

meanings correctly was, therein

may be

easily

imagined,

no easy one; for

several

places

it

was very

difficult for

him

to arrive at

an accurate and exact understanding

of what the glossarist

meant, on account of the ambiguity of the Pahlavigreat misconceptions on the

character in general, the

part of the copyists,

and the different incorrect renderings by the Desturs.

Although the Editor

and Translator has

tried [his best, to give a correct translation of the

meahope
inci-

nings of the glossarist,
that
this

he cannot expect,
will

nor

is

he vain enough

to

his first attempt

be found free from the imperfections

dent to a work of this kind in respect of the arrangement and the romanizing,

and especially

as

regards the translation of the work

itself

written

in a doubtful
critically

manner
for
a

in a

language which has neither been carefully nor
centuries
past,

studied

many

and

that translation

too in- the

English language

correct idiomatic

knowledge

of which,

it

is

hoped,

will

not be expected of him.

;

Introduction.
It

IX
a

may be added

that,

though from

philological

point

of

view,

the Editor
in the

found several words and especially forms wrongly interpreted
as

MSS. themselves, yet

an honest Editor he
original

has

thought

it

his

duty not to

make any change
it

in the

opinion of the glossarist, of

whatever nature

may

be.

As

at

the

commencement
as

of
it

the

preparation
is,

of

this

work

it

was

not thought,

nor proposed,

now

to

prepare a series of Pahlavi
has
hitherto

works, in continuation of
thought
it

this,

the Editor

and Translator

hardly worth while to mention his

own way

of reading

and pro-

nouncing the Pahlavi words, although he has since long been of opinion
that the present

way

of pronouncing

some

of

them

(either

European or

Indian)

is

not only incorrect and imperfect, but also without any foundation
is

and though he

of this opinion he has not thought

it

proper to bring

his

own system
out,

into full use in the present
to himself, to

work, which he cannot do with-

in justice

previously
a

fully publishing his reasons for the

change;

for,

publish

thing at

once in quite a new and unusual
be) in the absence of the necesto criticisms

system, (however sound that system
sary explanations,
all

may

would be apparently absurd and open
a

from

sides.

With the exceptions, therefore, of
all

few

essential

changes in
they

the pronunciation,

other Pahlavi words

are

transliterated as

are

read by the Indian Desturs.

As
of a

this

Zand-Pahlavi glossary
it

is

the earliest attempt at the compilation

Zand dictionary,

will

not be out of place to enumerate here the

lexicons, glossaries, indexes which are

known

to

me,

with a few remarks

on them.
1.

There
I

is

a

copy of a

very old but incomplete Zand

-

Sanscrit

glossary which

saw, in
at

company with my learned
employed
then
in

friend Dr. Martin Haug,

for the first time
in
to

Surat while

our tour

through Gujerat
In
it

1863

to

64.

This

small book was

examined by me.
in the

are

be found only those Zand words which are contained
which
latter are exactly the

Yasna with

their Sanscrit equivalents,

same

as to

be found
as unfor-

in Neriosang's version of the Yasna.

The author

of

it is

unknown,

X
tunalely there
is

Introduction.
neither a beginning nor an end to
it

it.

It

cannot, therefore,
his

be ascertained whether
to
is

was made by Neriosang before
his version

own

version
else.
It

assist himself,

or was compiled from

by somebody

not

made

in an accurate

manner, several words, though

alphabetically
as

arranged, being wanting.

As regards the meanings, they are the same

given by Neriosang.
2.

A

small Zand

and Persian glossary compiled by Destur Byramji

Jamshedji Jamasp Asa

(my great - grand

-

father).

It

contains about

500 or

600 words

in

all.

The
to
is

significations are

given after the Pahlavi explanaIt is

tions without

regard

etymology or

classification.
it

in

my

possession,

and

I

believe there
3.

no other copy of

extant.

Mr. Dhanjibhay Framji Patell of

Bombay,

the worthy son of our

most esteemed townsman, the Hon'ble Framji Nassarwanji,
notice

Esquire, gave
a

about

fifteen

years

ago

of

his
to

intention

to

publish

complete
not
it.

Zand-Enghsh

Dictionary,

but up

the
I

present day the hook has

made
I

its

appearance in public, nor have
it.

had the fortune of inspecting

therefore can give no opinion on

Amongst
to

the works

of

this

nature

of

European authorship,

I

have

enumerate the following.
1.

A

carefully

made Index

of

Vendiddd Sdde
in

,

with

a

glossary,

published

by Professor H. Brockhaus
Leipzig, 18S0.

lus

romanized edition of Vendifirst

ddd Sdde.
blished.
It

This book was the

of this kind ever puof the

contributed largely towards
in

making the study

Zand

lanis

guage more general

Europe.

As usual with Dr. Brockhaus the task

very dexterously and accurately performed.
2.

A

complete alphabetical Index of

all

the remaining pieces of the
all

Zand-avesta, wliich had not

been indexed by Brockhaus, including
etc.

the

Yashts and fragments,

Afringan

(pages 144 to 342

of Westergaard's
his

edition of the Zand-avesta)

by Dr. M. Haug, compiled for

own

private

use.
at

Copies of

this

book, however, circulated both in Europe (principally
it

Gottingen where

was copied from the original

by Professor Benfey,

:

Introduction.

XI
it)

who allowed some
the

of his pupils to take copies of

and In India, though

work
3.

has not

been published.
von

Handbuch derZendsprache
In this
in

Ferdinand Justi
to

which

contains a Zand-dietionary.

book which appears

be based on the
to

two indexes mentioned, the passages
in the various

which the words are
it

be found

texts

are

cited

which makes

very valuable for the stuits

dents of the Zand language.

The author has
it.

displayed great energy in

performance and deserves great credit for
as regards the

But

I

must add here

that

traditional

explanations of the words which the author pre-

tends to give he has mostly

followed,

it

seems, Dr. Spiegel who has but
as

an imperfect, and inaccurate knowledge of our tradition,
translation of the Zand-avesta which
in Gujarati.
is

shown

in his

decidedly inferior to those
therefore, erroneous.
it,

we have
Though
is

Many

of his explanations are,

we cannot
regretted
,

expect of him any good knowledge of our tradition,
that so

to

be

many words

are rendered on

mere guesses

of the au-

thor, as these serious imperfections greatly diminish the value of this other-

wise most useful book and

make

it

desirable that a better

Zand dictionary

should be compiled by a more competent scholar.
In preparing this Edition
1.
I

have used the following MSS.

D. H.

This

is

the oldest

and most important of
It

all

MSS. from

which the present text has been prepared.

was preserved

in the library

of Destur Khorsedji Barjorji of Surat, and presented in 1864 to Dr. Martin

Haug

in

recognition of the
*).

great

services

rendered by him

to

Zahd and

Sanscrit philology
2.

D.

J.

The second MS. was written by Destur Jamshed Jamasp
is

Asa of Nausari (my great -grand -father), and
written in the year Yezdegard 1160.
3.

in

my

possession.

It

was

The

third

MS. written by Destur .lamshed Edal Behrara Jamshed
in the

Jamasp Asa (my uncle)
possession.

year Yezdegard

H94

which

is

also in

my

1)

See about

it

pagg. 79. 80.

M. H.

XII
4. at

Introduction.
D. N.

The fourth MS.

written by Destur

Nosherwan Jamasp Asa

Nausari in the year
5.

HSO,

also in

my

possession.

The

fifth

MS. written by Destur Asa Nosherwan of Jamasp Asa

family

(my

father-in-law) in the year 1208.
sixth,

6.
old.

The

a very correct

MS. which

is

about 300 or 350 years
it

The name
It

of the author,

or the year in which

was written

is

not

mentioned.
to
to

belongs to

my

friend Jamaspji

Bomanji Bhowanagari of

Surat,

whom
allow

I

am much

obliged for having readily complied with

my

request

me

the use of his

numerous Pahlavi MSS.

all

of which are very
series of

valuable, and will

be used for the preparation of the Government
I

Pahlavi works with which

have been entrusted.

Poona,

April 1867.

Hoshang Jamasp Destur.

Introductory remarks
by M. Haug, Ph. D.

1.

On

the age and origin of the Pahlavi language.
Hosliengji in
liis

The opinion advanced by Destur
III.)

introduction (pag.

II.

that the

Pahlavt or

so-called

Hmvdresh

language originated during the

reign of the Assyrians over Persia, from 1230 to 708 B.
all

C,

will surprise

scholars

who have
is

as yet to

paid

any attention to that language, and as
will,

the majority

wedded

preconceived opinions, they
it

without proper

examination, almost unanimously condemn

as

an absurdity.
all

Although

he has given no
as
it

sufficient proofs,

yet his view deserves

consideration,

is,

to a certain extent, the traditional

opinion of the whole Zoroastrian
It

priesthood on the

age of the Pahlavi language.

is

actually strange to

perceive that those scholars
tance of Parsi
tradition,

who make
to
it

so

much

fuss about the all-imporas the

adhere

only in
it

minor points, such

meanings of

certain words,

hut abandon

altogether as regards the most

important questions, such as the
preservation
of the

age of Zoroaster, the composition and
the

sacred books,
in
this

age of the Pahlavi language
slightest

etc.

Instead of paying,
tional reports,

respect,
that,

the
for

attention

to

the

tradiis

they maintain,

instance,
as

the

Zand-alphabet
possess
it

of

post-Christian origin, and that the Zand-avesta,

we

now, was

not written before the time of the Sasanidse, and had been preserved for

many

centuries exclusively by

memory,

opinions which are laughed at and

XIY
ridiculed

Introduction.

'

by every Parsi priest (and
is

I

think justly)

as

absurdities.

The
it

Pahlavi language

assigned to the Sasanian period,

as

we do

not find

employed
ters

in inscriptions,
this

and on coins before Ardeshir.
opinion have never,
it

But the promo-

and advocates of

appears, fully considered
did the Pahlavi which

the questions which here quite naturally arise:
is

how

taken as a mixture of Semitic and Iranian languages,
Persia, superseding the Persian ?

become the

lan-

guage of

and why did the Sasanian kings
national

who were

so extremely zealous in preserving the

customs, manlanguage,
I

ners and religion,

make an

essentially Semitic

idiom their

official

disregarding thus the national language of Persia?
pose, maintain, that a Semitic idiom
sians

As nobody

will,

sup-

was the original language of the Perother,

and Modes who were Aryans, we must account, in one way or

for the fact that a Semitic language spread
to

over the whole Persian empire
the
official

such an extent thad

it

could be

made

language.
that

One

has

adduced commercial and

literary grounds,

by saying,

the Babylonian

was the commercial language of Asia and
spread,
Syriac

that, since Christianity

began

to

books were much

studied in Persia;

but these reasons

are

certainly not sufficient to account for the official

employment
fact,

of the Pahlavi

language under the Sasanian dj'nasty,
taries

and the
in
it.

that all the

commen-

on the sacred books were written
language
it

In every

country where

a foreign

is

very extensively

employed, and almost universally
Persian did not become,

understood,

has been spread by conquest only.

for instance, the official language of India, before
lish,

Mohammedan, nor Eng-

before the English conquest, nor French that of England, before the
it.

Normans conquered
Iran
for

Now

the only foreign nations

who held sway

over

any length of time during the period when alone the Pahlavi

can have originated,
reign terminated,
of their capital,
if

were the Assyrians and the Greeks.

The

Assyrian

we

take the latest date, certainly with the destruction

Niniveh,
off the

by Cyaxares and Nabopolassar
Assyrian

in

606 B.
to

C.
it

;

but
off)

the

Medes shook

yoke (or rather began

shake

already at the time of Dejoces (700 B. C.) after the rule of the Assyrians

had been

lasting, as

Herodotus

(I, 95.)

informs us, for 520 years.

Introduction.

XV
however, not

The overthrow
to

of the Assyrian tyranny which appears

have been completed before the end of the seventh century B. C, must
a

have given

great

impetus to the

revival of national
all

manners, customs,

and the paternal religion which we have

reason to believe was that of
fact

Zarathushtra Spitama.
unanimonsly
places

It

is

a

very significant

that

Parsi

tradition

Zoroaster at the very
that
is,

time of the complete
latter

termina-

tion of the Assyrian sway,

towards the

part of the seventh
,

century B. G.

;

for

we

learn

from the Arddi Virdf ndmeh

(composed

during the

first

century of the Sasanian dynasty)

that the Zoroastrian reliIran,

gion had been in existence for 300 years

when Alexander conquered
library
in

and destroyed Persepolis

along with the

which the original

copy of the Zand-avesta was kept (see
of Zoroaster with of the prophet to

my

Lecture on an original speech
this

remarks on

his age pag. 20);

brings

back the age

630 B.

C.

With

this date
'),

agrees on the whole a state-

ment by
lived

MasMi
by

(about 9o0 A. D.)

Lhat the
is,

Magi

affirm, that Zoroaster
G.

280 years before Alexander,
to
it

that

610 B.

Further weight

is

added

a story, related in the Dabistan according to Parsi

and Moin

hammedan

reports (1, pag. 308),

that the

Khahf Mutawakkal ordered
said to

the year A. D,

846 the cypress which Zoroaster was
at

have brought
tire

from the garden of paradise, and planted
at

the gate of the
for

-temple
If

Kishmdr

to

be cut

off,

after

it

had been standing

1450

years.

we

take solar years,

as

we

are fully justified in doing,

we

arrive at
it

604

B. G. as the date
shortly after the

when
fall

the tree was planted; this was done, as

appears,

of Niniveh, in

commemoration

of

some

great event,

probably the revival of the ancient Zoroastrian

religion.

All these state-

ments tend

to

prove that

at the

time of the Median
a great

king Cyaxares

who

was ruling during the period indicated
Zoroastrian faith took place,

movement

in favour of the

which can be only a revival, as the founder,

according to the unanimous statements of early Greek and
lived long before that time.

Roman

authors,

The Zoroastrian

religion appears, as

we may

1)

See Chwolsohn, Die Sabier

II,

pag. 690.

XVI
learn from Agathias
(II,

Introduction.
24, pag.

H7

ed. Niebuhr) to

have become almost

extinct during the Assyrian reign,

and

entirely

amalgamated with Babylobefore the Zoroai.

nian and Assyrian idolatry, as the Persians worshipped,

strian innovations, (as Agathias calls the doctrines of Zoroaster)

e.

before

the revival of the old religion, Bel, Sandes, Saturn etc.

This circumstance

throws

light

on

tiie

expression paoiryodkaesho "a professor of the ancient
chiefly the

religion" by which the traditional books,

Dmkart, understand
in-

only the Zoroastrians.

Their Fravashis appear to have been introduced

to the prayer formulas at the

time of the restoration of the old religion;
as all Parsis

for before

that

time

there

would have been no occassion,

appear to have professed the Babylonian religion,
it

or rather a mixture of
their

with their own, and

made no

distinction

between

own and

that of

the Babylonians and Assyrians.
It is

to the

time of Cyaxares that

we must

ascribe

the invention of

the so-called Zand-alphabet for the purpose of preserving the sacred texts;
for at the time

of Ardeshir

Babegan, there would have been, according
and the Ardai Viraf nameh and the
the
tra-

to the statements of the Dinkart dition

of the

Parsi

priests

about

great

ignorance of the priesthood
to invent

regarding the religion

at that

time, no one able

such

a

minute

alphabet, expressing every shade of articulated sounds of a language which

had been dead,

at

that

period,

for

a considerable

time.

It

was

at the

same time and the
of the

eariy period of the Achsemenian of

rule

that

the books

Zand-avesta

which

llie

present
writing,

Zandtexts are

fragments were

collected, arranged,
at

commited
to

to

and commented on, and not
of the Achfemenian

any period subsequent

it,

for during the rule

dynasty to which the Magian priests never appear to have taken a liking,
as tradition has forgotten

them almost

entirely,

whereas Cyaxares (HusMfor the

dar, VvakhshatraJ

is

expected to appear again
the Zoroastrian
religion

restauration

of

the Zoroastrian creed,

was,

on

political

grounds,

not better cared for than the Babylonian or Assyrian
kings professed the Zoroastrian

idolatry,

though the
facts

creed,

as

we may

learn

from the

Introduction.
that, according
to the

XVII

Bisutun inscription, Darius restored the temples')

which Gumdta,

the

Pseudo
B. C.)

-

Smerdis

,

had destroyed, and Artaxerxcs

Mnemon
put up
at

(404

— 368

ordered images of Andhita to be made and
Protrept.
ch. S. pag. 43.

various temples

(see Clem. Alexandr.
as

ed. Potter) which

must have been regarded
as
it

an abomination by the true

Zoroastrians,

just

is

done by them now-a-days.

As the Magi were

Medes, and desirous of wresting the sceptre over Iran from the hands of
the Persians, the Achtemenian rulers had

no occasion

to strengthen

them

and fan their fanaticism by collecting their books, restoring their religion and spreading their tenets by force,
do.
as

they would have been expected to

Only the two

first

kings of the Achffimenian dynasty,

Cyrus and Gam-

byses, appear to have given

much

support to Hie Magian religion, but after

the attempt of the Magi to seize the reins of
trated by Darius, he and his successors
different
as

government
all

,

had been

frus-

had

reason

to

remain

as inin

possible

to

their

religion,

and avoid taking the lead

any

thing which might have fostered their fanaticism.

Notwithstanding, the

Zoroastrian

religion

remained
of

a

recognized,

and even

to a

certain

extent,

the

state

religion

the

Persian

empire
kept

during the Achtemenian rule,

and religious learning could be
original

easily

up by
matters

tlie

priesthood.

Many commentaries and

books on reUgious

may have been composed

during that time.

But the Macedonian

conquest which was completed in the year 330 B. C. changed entirely the
state of affairs.

The Greeks,

in order to take

revenge for the destruction
killed the priests,

of the temples at Athens

by Xerxes, destroyed Persepolis,

and burnt the library containing

the original copies of the sacred books,

the texts along with the commentaries, as the Ardai Viraf.
attributed

we

learn from the Dinkart and
I

From

this

blow which

is

unanimously, and

think justly,

by

tradition to

Alexander, and not

to the Arabs, the Zoroastrian

religion never recovered.

The books were

scattered, and the

priests be-

came every day more

ignorant, as no native rulers had

any interest in

1)
all,

These can be only idoltemples, as the Magian

priests

had no temples

at

and hated idolworship

as fanatically as the Jews, or Musalraans.

XVIII

Introduction.
a

promoting

knowledge

of the

Magian

religion.
as

After an interval of about
as

500 years, during which the religion
have suffered greatly
person
of
,

well

the

sacred

texts

must

the restorer of the paternal religion appeard in the

Ardeshir

Babegan (A. D. 226.).

Under

his

reign

the

texts

along with the commentaries
the religion of the state.
cial

were recollected, and Zoroastrianism made
raised
to the

The Pahlavi was

rank of an

offi-

language.

Now

the

question

arises,

why

did Ardeshir

Babegan introduce the
language during the
of

Huzvaresh language which had not been the
reign of the preceding dynasty, the Arsacida3?
the national customs, and the ancestral creed,

official

As he was the restorer

we may

expect him to have

given his support to
resh, on account of
inscriptions, can

the cultivation of the national language.
its

But Huzva-

purely Semitic character,

chiefly as

shown

in the

never have been the vernacular language of Persia, which
as

rank must have always been held by the Persian,
antiquity as well as
in

we

find

it

there in

modern times and up

to

the present day.
as a

Had

it

once died out,
is

it

would be no longer existing,

language once dead,
to

generally never

made

a living one.

The preference given

Huzvaresh

by the Sasanian kings over the vernacular can

be only accounted for by
it,

supposing that the character of sacredness was attached to

as

it

was the
the

language in which
laws were written,
a

all

commentaries on the religious books,

and on

occupying for the Zoroastrian

community the rank

of

church and law language just as Latin in the middle ages in Europe.

The question about

the

age of the Huzvaresh language

is

closely

connected with that about the age of the Huzvaresh commentaries on the
sacred texts,

and the

traditional

books written in
history of

it.

The two most im-

portant documents relating to the
introduction
to

the Zoroastrian writings, the

the Ardai Viraf,

and

a passage

from the Dinkart (see the
the

appendix

to this tract) clearly state,

or indicate that commentaries on

sacred books, and original compositions in the Pahlavi (Huzvaresh language)

were extant
polis

at

the time

of

the

destruction of the great library at Perse-

by the Greeks (330 B. C).

For the Dinkart which

is

by

far

the

Introduction.
largest

XIX

HuzvSresh work

in existence'),

and the most important storehouse
is

of traditional lore, comparable to the Jewish Talmud,
originally

said to

have been
it

composed by the
it

disciples

of Zoroaster

himself

(though

is

admitted that
several

was, after the copies had become scattered, and destroyed

limes,

recomposed from the fragments).
copy of the
contained
sacred
texts

According

to

the Ardai
in

VirAf, the original
fort at Persepolis,

which was deposited

the

both Avesta and

Zand;

but by

Zand one

understood throughout the Sasanian period only the Pahlavi language, and

commentaries written in

it,

as

the reader
If

may

learn

from the

first

pages

of this Zand-Pahlavi glossary.

we

farlher consider, that almost the

same

character of sacredness was ascribed to the Za7ul or original Pahlavi com-

mentary

as

to the

Avesta or

original

text

itself,

as

is

clearly

shown by

some explanatory remarks added (during the Sasanian
translation of

period) to the Pahlavi
fact that the Parsi

some passages
called

of the Yasna'^),

and by the

scripture

is

commonly

Avesta-Zand

in the traditional books,

we

are

driven to the conclusion that commentaries in the Huzvdresh language on
the

sacred

texts
at

must have been

in

existence
of

long before the Sasanian
Zoroastrian religion by

period.

For

the lime of the restoration

the
(as

Ardeshir Babegan the priests were so ignorant
Viraf,

we

learn from the Ardai
that they
as

and

as

it

is

generally believed by the Parsis now-a-days)
to
is.

had been utterly unable
that

compose only half
All they could

as

good

a

commentary

one on the Vendidad

do was

to collect the texts

and

1)

There

is

unfortunately only one complete copy of
library of the Destur-i-Desturin.
I

it
it

in existence

which

is

at Nausari in the

saw

together with Destur

Hoshengji on our tour through Gujarat in January 1864;

it

comprises about 2000

huge

pages.
it

Notwithstanding

the

numerous
Parts of
it

efforts

which

have been made,
I

no
pos-

transcript of

could be obtained.

are in several other libraries.

sess (out of the

seven volumes) the second and seventh, which contain the most

extracts from valuable information (hitherto utterly unknown), principally lengthy which are now lost, and many traditional reports about Zoroaster. As Nosks

some

regards the understanding,
ring widely from the easy

it

is

the

most

difficult

Pahlavi work in existence,

diffe-

style

of the

Bimdehesh, Ardai Viraf, and other compo-

sitions of the Sasanian period.

2)

ta, in

Yas. 30,

1.

31, 1.,

and

vJi 29,

7.

are explained

by

i)3)

^jJ^iJj)*

AvestSik

Zand.

XX
translations,
to obtain

Introduction.

and

all

other helps, such as glossaries

etc.,

and

try their best

an understanding of them.

Of the Pahlavi versions of the Ven-

didad, Yasna and Visparad

now

existing,

we

can only assign the glosses

to

the Sasanian time, but the actual renderings must rest (chiefly those of the

Yendidad) on

much

earlier translations.

Now,
hardly

if

according to
to

all

the evidence

')

which has been adduced,

it

is

possible

deny the existence of
if

translations of the sacred texts

before the Sasanian times, and
to the

we bear

in

mind the importance

attached

Huzvaresh

as

shown above, we may

safely conclude, that this language

must have been

in use

among

the Magian priesthood long before that lime.
that
all

However
sufficient to

I

know very

well

the

arguments adduced are not

prove the origin of the Huzvaresh language during the Assyrian
is

period.

This

only possible
at

by showing an actual identity of the Huzllie

varesh with, or

any

rate,

the closest relationship to

Assyrian of the

cuneiform inscriptions.

Although several important items can be pointed
closer

out (as will be done hereafter) to prove a

connection

of

the Huz-

varesh with the Assyrian than with any other Semitic dialect, yet our knowledge of the Assyrian
is

not advanced
this

enough
I

to

settle

tlie

question

finally.

Before

entering

on

discussion

must

slate

my

opinion on the

nature of the Pahlavi language which the Sasanian kings employed in their
inscriptions,

and

its

relation to the Pahlavi of the books.
to

Professor Westerfor
in-

gaard believes them

be essentially

different, as

he takes the former

a purely Semitic, the latler for an h'anian

language.

But on a closer

vestigation of the Sapor inscription
mitic idiom which
of the complete
is

A

of

Hajidhcid (B shows another Seit)
I

no Pahlavi, but very near
language

became
it

fully convinced

identity of the

exhibited in

with the Pahlavi

\)

To

it

the statement of Pliny (N.

II.

30, 2.)

may

be added

x^•ho

savs that
verses.

Zoroaster composed, accordhig to

Hermippos

(250 B. C),

two milhons of

This notice

is

only intelligible,

if

the commentaries are also connted,

as the pure

Zand

texts cannot

have been so numerous according to Parsi tradition.
the Zoroastrian writings,

Pliny men-

tions even

commentarii on

but states that they perished

{that IS chiefly since the time of Alexander).

Introduction.
of the books, and of the purely Semitic

XXI
I

nature of both.

give here

my

proofs in short
i.

').

The termination
is

^

man

which

is

known

as a peculiarity of the

book-Pahlavi

to

be met with

also in the inscriptions,
it

and added

to

the

very same words as in the former;
Instances from the Saporinscription
lin.

is

expressed by the

cliaracter

tt.

A

(Westergaard's Bundehesh pag. 83):

1.

S.

7.

13.

rij^J

zanman
"son";
him,
1.

= ^^
8. 16.

danman

"this";

1.

3.

rt2j baror

man

^)i

benman
"lie,

rtll olman
ri'Ot*

\^)

varman,

valman, olman
"there";
1.

it";

1.9.

tamman

= ^^^
"it is"

tamman
(in

10.

12.

ril^ homan
5^)*>
1.

=

^yt homan
is");
1.

^^y^

homan-am

"I am",

homandd

"he

H. rtU lanman

— ^y

roman, lanman "we";
1.

12. 16.

ri'^')

yadman

=

jjp

yadman
In

"hand";

12.

rt)>-/ lagalman

=

^i>J ragalma7i "foot".
in


have

the

inscription
as

B

the termination occurs only

some

of the

words mentioned, such

zanman^ tamman;
Chaldaic form,

but,

instead of
is

yadman, we
at

yadd,

a

purely

and

homan
(lin.

not to be found

all;

instead of

lanman

"we"

there
2.

is

only Ian

10.).

The

peculiar prepositions and
in

adverbs
Instances:

of
1.

the Pahlavi books are
2.
4.

also to

be found
1,4.

the

inscriptions.

yO min

= ^
into"

min "from";

JQ-^ apan
1.

=

)^ avan
ol

"in";

1.

6. 12.

(2Q. pavan
ol

=

))gj

pavan

"in";

13.15. )l
5-

=

J)

var,

val,

"to,

(comp.

Hebrew hv);
aik

'•

t^'O^ umat
1.

p:^

=

^
=

dicjh "otC';

9.

= ^w ^1 Id = -m^

amai
Id

"tliat";

1.8.9.
11. 14.

"not";

1.

2^.1> akhar
3,

3jiq»

ahhar

"after".

The pronouns
B)

are in both the same.
li

Instances:

1.

1

O) U

(the

same

as in

=

J k,

"1";

1.

11.

nTw lanman

= ^y roman,
hilinguai

lanman

1)

A

translation

and explanation of both texts of the

Sapor inscrip-

tion

I

hope to publish soon.

vjr^i

Introduction.

"too" we";
"this".
4.

rt^S zatman see under 1;

1.

9.

12.

13.

15.

y

zak

=^
1.

zak

The verbs

are, on the whole, the same.
part.

Instances:

5.

6.

14.

((->'?3'22.

shaditan') (B shadH, past

fem. of sh'dai, Chald. xntJ^

"to

throw")
pag. 17.

= ))^))>-'0 shadontan "to send" (see the Pahlavi-Pdzand Glossary
1.

5.);

1.

7-

13.

52{;^^^^ hanahtun,3pl

perf. of ftan«fi« (Ghal-

dee and Syriac

nnx

a/c/ie«

"to put, place", instead of an'khct, causal of

nm

n'fc/i^i "to

descend")
');
1.

= M^D^^
Jt*"?©/
N0"1,)

andtuntan (read: anakhtuntan)
past
part.

"to put, place"

8.

lamitan (B ramti,

fem. of

ram'ai "to throw", Chald.
1.

9.

{Tl.'^O

yehavon

(B.

the
1.

= ))^M^V ramituntan "to same) = ^))yo yehavunat
rt2^ pi^'? rtl^ p2S^9
"it
is

throw";
"it
is"

(Chald.

Njn
^*M>*0

havd' "fuit");

10.

ye/iawdw honian

=
=

V)**

2/e/iaui(niftomawad in the phrase:
of paitdk)

'^.^'J^q.

pcf^a/i;

(instead

yehavm homan

public,

known"

iJ^yo ^))J*0 ^-"COfi) petdk yehavUnt
5.

homanad.

There are nowhere

in the inscription Iranian verbal terminations

to

be observed, but the few which are found, are undoubtedly Semitic; see
4.

those mentioned under
ral suffix

Of nominal terminations

we observe

only the plu-

an

in

J^JyD malkdn
etc.
it

"kings", {^/3/f>22. shataldaldn (instead

of

shatardardn) "Satraps"

which

is

generally derived

from the

old

Persian gen. plur,
son, explained
ace,

andm, but

may be

as well,

and

I

think
is

wth more

rea-

from the Assyrian where the emphatic plural

an, nom. dnu,

d7ia,

gen. dat. dni

(see Oppert in the Journal Asiatique,

Tome XV,

1)

This

11

is

no part of the

infinitive termination

tan, but
infinitive

a suffix, very
is

li-

kely that of the

first
it

person plural.
is

Granimatii'.ally

the

impossible in

those cases in which
2)

found

after
is

(^

t

in

the Saporinscription.

The

inscription
is

B which

only a translation of

A

has instead of

it

ha-

saimun which

clearly a Hilil of Qlfc' "to put".

Introduction.
of 1860, pag. ill;
his

XXIII

statements are confirmed by the texts).
in

For the

proper plural termination

Zand

is

am, and anam
final

only used of the
to

words ending

in a.

The change of

a

m

in

Zand and old Persian
I

n

in

modern

Persian appears to

me

very doubtful, as prove
this

am

not aware of

a single

instance which

would

really

change.

The other Peror old Per-

sian plural termination in sian at
all,

hd cannot be explained from Zand

and we have

to

look for an explanation from the languages of

the cuneiform inscriptions.
scription

The only

trace of Iranian

grammar
i

in the in-

A

appears to be the application of the Idhdfet
I

la

Ol^^lC^'^TL
it

Shakhpukhri; but
be

have no doubt

that

on further investigation

may

also traced to Assyrian origin.

The only
words

Iranian elements to be found in the inscriptions are a few
to religion

chiefly relating

which were borrowed from the Persian,
Zoroastrian"

such as
venly",

{^'?3/0 mazdayasn "a
i^jpj'^ yazddn "God",
Persian farmiidaj
etc.

lyo minu

"divine, hea-

f^^DlQ. parmdt

"ordered" fpairi-

mdta,

The only

real difference

which appears
is,

to exist

between the language

of the inscriptions and that of the books

that the Iranian terminations of

moods, and the persons
whereas they are
easily

in the verbs are omitted altogether in the former,

to

be

met with
in

constantly in

the latter.

This can be

accounted

for, if

one bears
to

mind

that the Parsi priests
all

have become
as
if

accustomed for many centuries

pronounce

Huzvaresh words,

they

were

Persian.

They

write,

for

instance, ))^)))<0 (yehaVuntan),
etc.,

^))>H5

(yehaviinatj, c^))>*0 fyehavunedj, ^)))Hi fyehavuntj

but read always

bMan, bavdd,
persons,

havcd, bud

etc.

As the Assyrian way of distinguishing

moods and
respects,
in

tenses differed very

much from

the Iranian, and was,
it

in several

much more
to

defective than the latter,

was thought

necessary,
Assyrian

order

preserve the
to

correct

understanding of the old
to

(Huzvdnash)

versions,

add the Iranian terminations
so-called
to

the

Assyrian words.

This was originally the
in the

Pdzand

i.

e.

the com-

mentary on the Zand

language

known

every one, whereas Zand

XX!V
(i.

Introduction.
Pahlavi) was
is

e.

the language

of

the

priests

and learned

men.

This

Pazand
lection

certainly of Sasanian origin,

and was added only

after the col-

of

the

fragments of the Avesta with the old Huzvanash versions.

In the course of time both the

Zand (Pahiavi)

and the

Pazand

(Persian)

were mixed up
day with the
scliolars of

into

one jargon, which has taken almost up
priests

to the present

Parsi

the

same place which Latin occupies with
is,

the

Europe.

This

is

the Pahlavi of the books which
all.

as

we

have

seen, no Iranian language at

Now

I

have

to

state

what

I

know

of

the

relationship

in

wich

the

Pahlavi stands to the Assyrian language, or rather of the supposed identity
of both.
identical

Of the Assyrian with which the Babylonian appears

to

have been
called

we have

to

distinguish two principal dialects, which

may be

High-Assyrian, and Low-Assyrian,

the
that

former being the language
of
the

of the

cuneiform inscriptions,

the

latter

common

people which was

generally written with the old Aramaean or Phenician character; they appear
to stand to

one another exactly
the
the

in

the

same

relationship as the language
,

of the Hieroglyphics to

Demotic.
trilingual

The High- Assyrian

as

exhibited in

the

third

language

of

cuneiform inscriptions,
is

and
all

in

the

records' of the Assyrian and Babylonian rulers,

distinct
is

from
in

other

Semitic dialects with which
either

we

are acquainted.

It

richer
this

forms than

the

Ghaldee or the Hebrew, and

stands

in

respect nearest
nearest

the Arabic.
the Ghaldee.

The Low -Assyrian
In later times
find
it

is

an Aramasn

dialect

and stands

it

was known by the name of the Nahathcean

language.

We

officially

employed during the time

of the Acha?.-

meniaii dynasty, as

we may

learn

from the legends on coins which were

struck by various Satraps during that period.
in

The few words which
such
as

occur

them show some
())
at

features

peculiar

to

the Pahlavi,

the vowel

M

the
find

end

of

names whether they are
Tiribazu,
ii221D

of Iranian or Semitic origin.

Thus we
VS'-lMT

nann

Phaniabazri,
').

i^^n Tahalu,

-QV
~i

'Abd-zohar'u,

loiin

Tadnamu

The

relative

pronoun n

1) Seo Due de Luynes, "Ess;u sur la numismatique des Satrapies sous les rois Achfimi^nides. Paris laiS". Blau, "De numis Achmmenida-

Introduction.

XXV

which

is

employed
it,

in

Huzvarash (the Iranian pronouns being generally
etc.)
is

added

to

f»3

ztm

also

found on

a coin of

'Abd-Zohar,

the

Satrap of

Cilicia.

In the

legends on

the Nabathaean
G.

coins

of Petra

which appear

to

have been struck since 151. B.

we

find that

most of the proper names

end

in

u, for instance,

i£033

Nabtu

Nabathaja,

d^D Malku

(Malchus,

name

of a Nabathaean king),

i:ox 'Amanu, n^n Khuldu.

The same we

observe in the Sinaitic inscriptions which are of Nabathaean origin (instances:

inT Yarkhu,

itfD

Mashu,

)b^)

Vilu

etc.); the
it

use of

this

u

is,

ho-

wever, not

restricted to proper

names, but

is

found in

common nouns

also, such as I'T'OX ""Amiru

"Emir"').

As regards
distinctive

tliis

final u,

we may
,

well say that
as
it

it

is

one of the most
to

features

of the Huzvarash

is

added there

almost

all

nouns, infinitives and past participles which end in no vowel expressed by
writing.
it

The most curious views have been

set forth

on

it.

Some
it

regard

as a miswriting, or quite a meaningless addition, others read

n which

cannot be

explained in

any satisfactory way, others a, as some of the
it,

words which are marked with
for instance

are pronounced in Persian with final a,

}^)4

fkantuj harda.

There can be no doubt
to

that

the real

meaning

of this final

u

has been as unintelligible

the Parsi priests almost

since the beginning of the Sasanian times as the cases of the Zand-language.

In the Sasanian inscriptions
it

it is

not employed, which clearly shows
it

that,

as

was no longer pronounced (or understood),

was not expressed

in wri-

ting.

But the
it

priests

who

slavishly

stuck to the

old Huzvanash versions

kept

when making

their copies.

In the High-Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions

we

find

this

u

very fre-

quently employed in nouns as a sign of the nominative case,

e. g.

no

saru

rum AramMO-Persicis. Lipsiae 1855." Munz-, Mass- und Gewichtswesen
351. 429 etc.)
2)

(pagg.

in

5—7. 12. 13.). Vorder-Asien.

J.

Brandis, "Das

Berlin, 1866." (pagg.

by Levy on (he Nabatliman inscriptions in "Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlrendischen Gesellschaft" vol. XIV, pagg. 363—484.
See the
article

]^j^Y[

Introduclion.

"king",

DT rabu

"great",

ax

'abu "father", but

it

appears to have been

used also for the oblique cases, principally in proper names;
Babilu, "king of Babylon".
character
seal

compare sar

In the

Low- Assyrian
early

written in the Aramaean
as

we
at

find

it

also used at a very

time,

we

learn from

a

found

Koyunjik which bears the inscription i;ynny^ leatrazu "be')

longing to 'Atraz".

From
tives
e-

the

final

u

to

be found so frequently

in

nouns and

infini-

we must

distinguish the final

u, or
also to

vti,

to

be met with
to

after verbs,

S-

)?0)W

yehavunetii.

This

is

be traced

an Assyrian source,

but of quite a different nature and origin.
tions very

We

find in the Ninivite inscrip-

frequently after the aorists

(expressed by the

second tense
to

of

the

Semitic
of

languages)
the

the

syllable

va'^)
to

which appears
following,
It

express the

reference
translated
particle

preceding

action

the

and can often be
is

by "and", "and then",
as
it

but not always.

not the

common

"and",

never appears between nouns.
other peculiarities
to a

Let us

now mention some

of

the

Assyrian

and

Huzvaresh languages which point
1.

common

source.
in a

In the Pahlavi

we observe

that

nouns which end in Persian
e. g.

vowel, are generally followed by a guttural, "a meritorious action"
is

avestd

is

avcstak, karfa

karpak, kanpak, nu "new"
in the Assyrian inscriptions
,

is

nuk

etc.

The
in-

same

peculiarity

we

find

.

as

we

learn , for
is

stance, from the way,

in

which the

final

a

of

Ahura-mazdd
sufficient

written.

Though
the a,
rians

the sign of the syllable

da would have been
h fkhj added

to

express

we

find often a guttural

after it,

so that the Assy-

probably

pronounced

the

name Ahurmazdakh ;

other

instances:

1)

See Layard, Niniveh and Babylon pag. i55,
See
tlie

2)

great inscription of

form inscriptions
the same work) col.

of

the great inscription of
I,

Sanherib col. I, lin. 29—35 in "The CuneiWestern Asia edited by Sir Henry Rawlinson vol. I"; Nebucadnezar both in the archaic and common character (in
63; the Assyrian inscription of Persepolis 3:

lin.

iddinu va
pag. 338.

"he gave", Oppert, Expedition en
of Sardanapal in the Louvre,
lin. 2,

M6sopotamie

II,

pag. 2S2;

the inscription
II,

asbat va

"I seized",

Oppert,

E. M.

Inlroduction.

XXVII
Hishi(kh)arsha(lcK),

Akhamamshi(kh)

,

"Aryaramna"

(a

proper name);
(a

Kh^iyarsha "Xerxes";
2.

Vvidarnakh "Vidarna'"

proper name)

etc.

The

suffix,

jiq^j

which forms adverbs from substantives and adthe Assyrian
priests
suffix
it

jectives, is apparently identical with

isli

which serves

exactly

the

same purpose.
to

The

Parsi

read

ihd or hyd which

reading appears

have
as
is,

been current already ad the time of Neriosang
learn from his Pazand transliterations of
just as incorrect

(about A. D. 1350),

we may
however,
as
it

Huzvaresh

texts.

It

as

many

other readings

of old Huzvanash words,

cannot

be explained from
justified in

any Iranian or
reading
it

Semitic language.

We

are,

however, perfectly
is

yash
from

or ish^ in which case the whole mystery
the Huzvanash:
fully";

cleared
"in the

up.

Instances

JiQyjji4»(3Ji))

vandshdnsh

way of

a sinner, sin-

^'OO^OO
^l^b^

ddtlsh "in the right way, rightly, properly"; from the

Assyrian:
!i'D33

shalmish "up

to

the

end,

completely" (from
,

n^li'),

kakhahish "with,
2ito

in stars" (Hebr.
•)

3D12 kokab)

tabish "in a good

manner" (Hebr.
3.

tob).

The name

of

Ahura-mazda
Anhoma,

in the

Huzvanash versions, M^yjy^^

which
rian.

is

traditionally read

can be only explained from the Assyscholars to read out of
it

All attempts

made by some modern

Hor-

mazd

are

in vain, as the Pahlavi characters of

-u^yiyi can by no means
it

express the sounds

required

for

Hormazd.

Moreover,

would be very

strange to suppose that the Parsi priests should have forgotten the pronunciation of the

name

of

their

God, or

wilfully

mispronounced

it,

as this

would have been
is,

a great sin according to their religion.

The explanation
constantly
at the

however,

simple

enough.

They found

the

name

written

-u^yiyi

in the old
it

Huzvanash versions which were collected
conscientiously.

time of

Ardeshir, and kept
did not substitute

This can be the only reason that they
for
it.

^S^Syt Hormazd

The writing

-a^yi
^

represents,

however,

the

name Ahura-mazda

just as well as

A^^iyt
269;

We

must

I)

See Oppert-) Expedition en M6sop.
§.

II, pag.

Grammaire Assy-

rienne

198.

XXVIII
divide
it

Introduction.
into an.
')

ho,

ma.

The

first

is

the -well-known Assyrian
star, as

word

an "God"

(originally expressed

by the image of a

we

learn from

the inscriptions in the archaic character), which always precedes the
of the Gods;
Ixo
is

names

the abbreviation of

hur

,

hor,

and

ma

that of

mazd,

the whole
4.

meaning thus "the God Hormazd".
Another strong argument for
the Assyrian
is

the

supposed original identity

of

the Huzvanash with

furnished by the occurrence of Tura-

nian suffixes and words in

the Pahlavi.

As the Assyrians borrowed
to

their

whole system of writing along with the phonetic values attached
character

each
that

from

a

Turanian nation

^)

,

it

is

quite

natural

to

suppose

Turanian words crept into their language and could interchange with their

own.
to

And indeed

several Assyrian words as read at present do not appear
So, for instance, the auxiliary verb tur "to be",
in the Assyrian inscriptions,
is

be of Semitic origin.
is

which

so frequently

met with

no Semitic
3).

word

,

but

we

find

it

in the Turanian version of the Bisutun inscription

The

suffix

)|«(5

^

t)y^
*)

^

eshn, esn esni which

is

of very frequent oc-

currence in the Pahlavi

cannot be explained from any Iranian or Semitic

language;
(as

but

it

is

partly

employed

in

the

same sense

as in

the Pahlavi

a 3 person of the imperative) in the Turanian versions of the Bisutun
e.

and Persepolitan inscriptions,

g.

farpisni "let him

kill",

nusgasni "let
is

him protect"

s).

The word

i^ajf^

"a place, district" which

traditionally

read^mafc

is

also of

Turanian origin.

For

it

is,

in

my

opinion, identical

1)

In the Riviyats this a n

is

sometimes regarded as being separate from the
of a fine Rivi\yat belonging to
I

name "Hormazd".

For

in a passage

the

collection

of Zand, Pahlavi and Persian
(INr.

MSS. which
is

made

for

the Government of

Bombay,

29, b.
2)

fol.

403, a) the

name

written

^S^yo

yo

An Hormazd,
Exp. en MS s.
vol.
II.

This has been

shown by Oppert beyond doubt

in his

3)

See

my
my

pamphlet

"Ueber Schrift and Sprache der zweiten Keil-

schriftgattung".
4) 5)

Gottingen 1853, pag. 33.

See

See

"Ueber die Pehlewisprache". Gottingen 18S4, pag. 17. "Ueber Schrift and Sprache der zweiten Keilschriftgattung"
pamphlet
II,

pagg. 31. 42;

Oppert, Exp. en M6s.

pag. 198.

Introduction.
with the Turanian kititik "place, town, a cultivated field"
sign of which
is

XXIX
the ideographic

always added

to

the

names

of certain places, such as Baetc. ')

bylon, Borsippa, Sippara, Accad, Elam, the river Euphrates

Another

word of the same
pag. 2,
1.

origin

is

damdamd

"sea" fPaJdavt-Pdzand Glossary

10),

Turanian dim, tim "water, sea".
in the

The arguments adduced
original identity
to

above

will

be

sufficient to

make

the

of the

Huzvarash with the Assyrian appear very probable
Additional proofs
this
I

every impartial

and judicious scholar.
as

may

give

on another occasion,
advances.

my own

knowledge of

very

difficult subject

The Assyrian appears

to

have

been well known

in

Mn

even

at

the

time of the composition of the original Avesta ; for
texts at least

we

find in the present

two words wich were of frequent use

in

the Assyrian, but

cannot be explained by means of the Aryan

languages.

These are aspe-

rena and naska; on asperena "a
on pag. 60.

particular weight, a talent" see note 3
^ii))

Naska "book"

Pahlavi

nusk (NoskJ

is

the

Assyrian
false

nusku which does not

signify

"unction", as Oppert, mislead by a

etymology, supposes, but something connected with writing.
is

Nusku which
is

still

preserved in the Arabic nuskhat "a copy of a book"

the Assy-

rian pronunciation of a very frequent character which
in

was pronounced
the

pa

^)

the Turanian
is

(Gasdo

-

Scythic)

,

and expresses
if

ideographically

God

Nebo who
sign for

the writer
it

of the gods*);

preceded

by the ideographic

"wood",

is

pronounced

in Assyrian

haraf^) which cannot mean

1)

See Oppert, Exp.

enM6s.

It,

pag. 95. 89. (nos.

2.3

- 29.

34. 35).

108 (no.

18).

"The Cuneiform In2) See the bilingual explanation of ideogrammes Henry Rawlinson" vol. II, pag. 2 scriptions of Western Asia, edited by Sir
in
lin.

344.
3)

See

cuneiform character

"Chwolsohn, Die Sabier". (makmir, the writing

II,

pagg. 164.685.

Nebo has revealed the
are well
;

of the

kemarim Dnori who
II,

known

Assyrian idolpriests) in the Old Testament as the Babylonian and

see the

preface of Sardanapal to his vocabularies in
4)

Oppert, Exp. en MSs.

pag. 360.

See Oppert;

Exp/ en Mes.

II,

pag. 87.

XXX

Introduction.
')

"sceptre" as Oppert thinks, but "style used for writing"
"style" Jes. 8,
1.),

(compare tO^n

as the root

Din hharat means

to

"cut, to sculpt, en-

grave"

in the Semitic languages, but has

nothing to do with words meaning
signilies

"to rule, staff, sceptre".

Nusku probably
"God

"hook", and Nebo,

as

the secretary to the gods, was the
It

of books".

is,

according to this investigation,

not

at

all

improbable,

that

tlie

Huzvanash
to
it

language originated at such an early period as that

one assigned

by Destur Hoshengji.

1)

Tlie passages

from the great Nebucadnezar inscription

col.

I,

lin.

43. 60.

where

haratu and harana occur, appear to have been misinterpreted by Oppert, Exp. en M6s II, pagg. 312. 13. 15. The words harata isharti usadmih gatiia (yadiia) mean: lie (Nebo) made my hand raise the style of justice, e. Nebo
the words
i.

directed

my

hands

to write just decrees; in

usadmih

is

the Safel (causal) of
lin.

damakh

which root means

Arabic
I

'to be raised".

The other passage

60 harana
the style of

ishartam tapakid-su,
justice''
i.

translate ''thou (Nebo) hast
it

made him keep

e.

thou hast confided

to his hands, to

made him thy

trustee on this earth;

for the king's decisions

are believed

be inspired by Nebo, the secretary to the

gods
style

who knows

all

their thoughts.

It is,

however, possible that in

later times the

was mistaken

for a sceptre.

Appendix.
1.

Extract from the third volume of the Dinkard (taken from

MuUa
^ii)

Piruz, Avizeh din

pagg.

S— 22).

')

^)^))o

)^^r* )>o-^»

hoi)

^

^6) ^)v)i)

^e))»>o

^

i-

1.

Maam

dinu tiaptk Din-kant-naptk
kant
,

mandu Din-kant-naptk
mahcst paitdkS.

ait

man nakizand man visp ddnukc

vehdinu ho-

pdshid dinu

i)

This text does not appear to have formed an original part of the Dinkart.
its

It

must have been added when

fragments were collected and arranged for the

last

time, to serve as a historical record of the fate of this storehouse of traditional lore.
I

print

it

here from a copy which has been written by Destur Hoshengji for
transliteration
I

my own
which

use.
I

In

my
it

have introduced some changes,
reasons.
,

for the principal of
r,

think

necessary to state
it

my

3)

which

is

generally read v a

I

translitera-

ted ol, as
.3)

is

the Semitic ^)j

the

];'

being expressed in the Pahlavi by
preposition

j

;

compare

vad

"to, up to",

Hebrew
as
it

^i?.

The

uj

"in''

which

is

read dayen,
|j<

I

read
))

yen

or 'in,

is

completely identical with the Assyrian
I

'in "in".

The
it

after the

verba

finita

transliterated
in

vu (va would

be perhaps better) as
pag.

is

evidently the Assyrian
J

va employed

the

same way; see

XXVI.

The
is

final

has been pronounced u throughout; see pag.

XXV. ijW-^

"spirit"

which

generally read

madonad,

or taken for a mispronunciation of
I

minui "heavenly"
word conveying
pronounced

in

Pazand,

I

read

mainivat which

regard as an old Persian

the

same sense
or

as the Bactrian

mainyu.

y^^

"God" which
yazd^n,
as

is

yehan
scholars

ihan by

the Desturs
it,

is

not identical with

some European

have taken
ship".

but also an old Persian word, yasana, or
translation,
I

yadana

"deserving wor-

As regards the

have used the P^izand by MuUa Firuz and

his Gujarati version,

along with the corrections

made by Destur Hoshengji, but

without constantly adhering to their interpretations.

XXXII

Introduction.

2.

Nukhustu kantu

man

shapir dinu poryo -tkcshanu vakhshur yesh-

tu-frohdr Sapetdmdnu Zertoheshtu partum hdveshtu
seshne

pavan punpaitdke

vakhshUneshne

man ham

yesht-frohdr

vehdmu

yehavuneshn dgdst.
3.

Maam

kend babd angusMtak roshni

man bun

roshanu zak bun

punseshn vachir dahyupatu burzdnvad kai Vishtdsp naptkinitvu

bun bun

ol

ganju

i

Shaspikdn avaspdrdvu pazhinu pazhizkihd

vastartanu parmiitvu.
4.

Man

zak akhar pazhinu

ol

dazhu

i

nipisht shadHnitvu

tamma-

nach ddshtanu dgdst.
5.

Yen vazand

man marc dosh-gadman Alaksandar
i
i

ol

Airdnu-

shatanu yen khotde mat; zaki pavan dazhu
zaki

nipisht ol sochashn;

pavan ganchu

Shaptkdn

ol

yadman Arumaydnu matm.

Avash olach
nik guftatiu.

Yiitndik

huzvdn vichdrtvu pavan dgdst

man pcsM-

Introduction.

XXXlll

G.

JastaJcu olmatibi Antakhshatar mallcadn malhd
ol
ol

Pdpakdnu matvu

lakhdr drdsturi Airdnu hlmddyd;

ham napik man pargandagt
avistdk lakhdr

aevak jiiidkjaitgunatu; u porytitk8sh ahluhu Tosre Harpatu

ychavunad
andakhtu.
7.

maam matvu

rutman paitdM mail

Man
ddsht

zak paitdke bundakinidaku parmutvu damdnah kantu an-

gushitaku

man

barash

man bun

roshnu pavan ganju
permutvii dgdai.

i

Shapdnu

pazhmu pasMzkiha perdkhmid

8.

U

akhar

man
i

vazand vashupcshnu
kishur

man

Tdzigdnu olach dtndnu

fuj ganchu

matvu vohuparvartu Atanu-pdt Atanui

frobak
9.

i

Fcrakh-zdtdn
i

hudindn pcshupdi.

Zak pazhhiu

kostuihd pcrgandaku yehaviintu niik apzdr
ol

man

pargandagt lakhdr

hamS dtndnu

zcsh

hdbd jaitgCcntu yen

XXXlV

Jntroduction.

j^^^o

fi^

^-"^

^n>H3

-^e)>H3^£)

))*'>o)*'

'tJ^venisev

10.

o))^-f -<35^)e))

-Ki^^^)

o^ooe)5
3ii^3
^a(y,

^

-o-^i

fin )>^^ ^) i>^^^^
^Y^^) i^

^;o >nj^

^^;^)

J^^eiV-^)

^ ^^
5^^H

12.

-KJ^Aj)
-))ei^

-^^^)Ky)

"^^^i)Of)
-<3«*

^""Y^

^ A"

-"^

^tK

)5^-^ sofii

)^>>'^~X5 ^-"^^

-o^^ejV)

nakirishn
.

andd^^eshni

ol

shapir

din Avistdk u
i

Zand

pouryu-

tMshdnu gobeshni angushitalm
kantu pava7i shiikuptu dramu
10.

pirukii

man

::al;

barash lakhdr

Zand

Zertohesht.
dhidiin

Atanu-frobaUdnu i hudhidnu pcshupdi yehavuntjast zakach
ol

vaslmpashn sak naplk visaslagi pargandagi avtish oJach ka

hiibam vasiagt u putagt matvit.
11.

Man man

zak akhar humanii Atunupdt

i

admUdn

i

hudindnu pcshupdi

yasdnu sohdreshnu dhiu

i

inchest aibdri dcheshni nCik

apmr

khdeshnu u vach sakhun u ranj vcsh
12.

ham

nipisht.

Mcman man

sak nuskhik u zrfipfakx u sCdak u khdk hame dl-

ndn lakhdr vanditu ana meman man lakhdr vagCmatagt vaddnatagt u burdagt u taraptagi lakhdr jaitgHnatu avash vazcd ma-

Introduction.

XXXV

y^

aii

_u|J

S

iAuy^

taku minavad hampunsagi khirat aihdrt pavan lakhdr andukhtdri
i ol

pouryu-tkeshdnu
i

i

pcshiaigdn goheshn kantak Avistdk paitdkc.

13.

Afzun
kinilu

man shaptr dtn-ddndgi daraJchd patash drdstanu rastabdmt man pattraku i zak barash man rosJmi bun roshnu
i

kddmunihd kantu pavan shapir-dinu-nemuddri
nit

danman ndmi-

pavan

saturc

mdnak

i

zak rahu yekhazdr darak.

14.

Pat rdstu yekavimunet pavan yasdnu ntruku u dcheshnt shadunct
olach

maam matu
ol

i

pahlum d'uiu-burtdrdn

i

yen

damdnaku

matvucM
ol

hiidindn yehavuncshn rubdnu dibdri lakhdr patvastii

dvanik Airunu

nakhajid
i

di?iu

mahestu

dgdsi

u hambiin

apzdrtar lakhdr kantanu
veshtdn
i

manach zak aparti/m kantan hdpvnsUdrl.

HusMtar Zertohcshtdnu pavan lakhdr
dimi.

man

HusMtar shaptr

XXXVI

Introduction.

Translation.
d.

The book "Dinkart"
knowledge
all

is

a

book on the

religion,

that people

may

obtain (a

of) the

good

religion.

The book "Dinkart" has been
(to be)

compiled from

the

knowledge

acquired

a

publication

of

the

Mazdayasnian (Zoroas(rian) religion.
2.
toslit
It

was, at

first,

made by

the

first

disciples

')

of the

prophet Zer-

Sapetman

— may
of the

his

guardianangel be worshipped

who belonged

to the people

ancient religion

whose
all

faith

was good, in questions

and answers, that the good religion of
to

those whose guardian angels are

be worshipped
.3.

(i.

e.

the Zoroastriaus) might be

made

public and known.

Tlie excellent king

Kai Yislitasp
tlie

ordered

to write

down

the in-

formation' on each subject, according to

original information, embracing
first to

the original questions and answers, the
last

and deposited them from the

in

the treasury of Shaspigdn^).
(4)

He

also issued orders to spread
to

copies (of the original).

Of these he sent afterwards one
preserved),
that

the castle
raiglit

(where) written documents (were

the

knowledge

be kept there.

(5)

During

tlie

destruction of the Iranian
after
it

town

(Persepolis)

by the unlucky robber Alexander,
that (copy

had come into

his possession,

which was)

in

tlie

castle

(where) written documents (were kept)
in

was burnt.

The other

whicli

was

the

treasury

of Shaspigan

fell

into

1)

Thu

original
in.

has onty the lingular 'the
(if

first

disciple";

but the reading

is

hardly correct, as
out.

such a case the name

the disciple

would not have been

left

The
2)

.^ense
Tliii

requires evidently the plural.

was, perhaps, the
tornb

name

of the fort at Pa^argadse
priests.
It

where Cyrus was
situated at Perse-

buried
polii,

,

whose

was watched by Magian
mentioned,

was not

as

we may

learn
is

from the circumstance that another
^\llich

castle

which

is called

dazliu-i-nipisht
at Persepolis

furmed,

in all probability,

part of the
in the

fort

on the following reason.

The copy which was preserved

dazhu-

i-nipisht was destroyed during the invasion of Alexander, as
fifth para,

we
its

learn from the

of this chapter.

Now

the Ardii Virif (see §§

4. 5.

of

beginning) states
-

that the fort at Persepolis

containing

the

complete copy of the Avesta
it

Zand was

burnt by Alexander.
that the

If

we combine

both statements,

appears to bo very probable

dazhu-i-nipibht was the

library at Persepolis.

Introduction.
tlie

XXXVII
a

hands of the Romans (Greeks),

From

it

Grecian translation was

made

that the sayings of antiquity
6.
7.

might become known.
appeared.

Ardeshir Babekan, the king of kings,

He came

to

restore

the Iranian empire;

he collected

all

the writings from the various
a professor of tlie an-

places

where they were

scattered.

There appeared

cient religion, the holy

Herbad Tosre, with

a publication

from the Avesla from
this

which he

had recollected.

He
It

(Ardeshir)
(Ihe

ordered

to

prepare
(thus)

publication a complete (copy).

Dinkart) was then

restored,

and made

just as perfect

')

as the original light (copy)
^)

which had been kept
to

in the treasury of

Shapan (Shaspigan).

He ordered

spread copies of

it

that

it

might become known.
9.

8.

After the

damage and

destruction which

came over

the belie-

vers (Zoroastrians) by Ihe Arabs at the treasury of Kishur*), the distinguis-

hed Adarbad Adar-Frobag Farakhzadan, the chief of the people of the

good

faith

(Zoroastrians),

arranged the old copies which were scattered,
to ail the believers in

from the fragments, and brought tliem
(Isfahan)-'),

the residence

after having inspected

and collated them with the Avesta and

1)

Tlie expre.-sion in the original

is

bar ash which must be

identified "with

the Persian

barzh

"perfect, entire, full splendour", as

no other meaning would give

any sense.
2)

Destur Hoshengji beheves
the-

this to

be the name of a

fort to

which Ardeshir

Bt\beg4n sent

copy of the Dinkart which had been prepared from the fragments

of the Avesta-Zand.

Bat
at

I

think Shapi\n

is

only a corruption of Shaspigan.
is

The
fell

copy which was kept
into the

that fort,

had not been burnt, as
it

expressly stated, but

hands of the Greeks who had
tlie

translated.
is

If,

therefore, a recovery of (he

fragments from which

book was

restored,

mentioned,

we

can only understand
or fragments of

copies of that one which had been kepi nt the Shaspigiln fort,
Ihe original.

By paying heavy sums
of the

lo

the

Greeks the
fallen

Zoroastrian priests could
into

easily get possession

books again which had

the hands of their

conquerors.

Moreover, the translation could not be made without the assistance of

the Magian priests.
3)

Destur Hoshengji identifies

this

word with kishvar, and takes

it

in

the

sense of "country".
4)

But

it

is

evidently the

name

of a certain place.

The word babil
which was

"gate, door", appears to signify here 'the residence, the

capital"

Isfcihan during

the later Sasanian times.

In this sense the

word

XXXYIII

Introduction.

Zand of the good religion professed by the people of the ancient creed.

The

sayings of antiquity

were restored according

to

the full splendour (the

original text), that the delightful
10.

Zand of Zertosht might be admired.

Adar Frobagan, the chief of the
to

men

of the

good
fell

faith,

passed

away; the believers had

suffer,

the written

documents

to pieces and

were scattered; they became worn out by age and
11.

rotten.

After this (time)

Humiln Atunpat Admitan, the
that

chief of the peo-

ple of the
religion,

good creed, expecting
to restore

God would help

the

Mazdayasnian

wished
witli

(the old books),

and wrote the (divine) words

and sayings
12.

great pains.
of worn-out,

Whatever
by
tJie

mouldering and dusty books had been
carrying them
assisted
olT,

recovered

believers,

he collected by constantly

and taking even forcibly possession of them.
sations with the

He was
to

by conver-

divine

spirit in his

endeavours
ancient
free

recollect

the sayings of
to

antiquity

kept

by

the

men
(13)

of

the
set

religion,

(and)
(i.

make

the
a

Avesia

known

(again).

He

prosperity

e.

he conferred

great boon upon the community) by his composing chapters for the know-

ledge
the

of

the

good

religion.

He

illustrated

the

old works

by

receiving
the

full

splendour h'om the light which
copy),

was originally shining (from
(o

original

and

called

this

work "the guide

the

good
(14)
gift.

religion",
It

which comprises one thousand chapters in lines (verses).
complished

was

acto

through

the

power

of

God, who sent
in

(this)

It

came

the principal
of the

leaders of the
the

religion;
soul

time

it

also

came

to

the people

good religion;

received
will

again

the

assistance

(from the

religion).

In the rest of Iran they

receive the knowledge of the Maz-

dayasnian

religion.

The

followers of

Hushidar, the son
it

of Zertosht, will

reestablish the
it

good

religion as lirm as

was in the beginning, and make

preeminent by their information from Hushidar.

occurs on

many

Sns.nnian
in

coins (see
Zoitsclirift

Mordlmann, Rrkhwung der Miinzen
dor D. M.
it.

rait

Pelilewi Lefjpnden
Viraf, I'crsrp.jlis
is

(J.

vol. Vllt,

pag.

i2).

In ttie Ardfti

In

bo understood by

No

other interpretation gives any sense.

Introduction.

XXXIX

2.

The beginning

of the Ardai Viraf

nameh

').

^^jsy

^->

-^J

);o

i^)j

m

)ny^)^r'

^ 1)^)5

)Ky

^)v^

-^iK

^^5^

T^)

HCJ0» (3)

o

^))^oo ))^oo ^^-^^

-^i

5-00

))^^e)))

•^-^*^

(7)

Aetun yemmviXnet digh aSvakbdr ahluhu

Zcrtoliesht

dinu mak-

derunt yen gehdn rohdk bend kantu vad hundagi 300u sanat dinu yen
avizagt u anshota yen apagumuni yehavunt homanad.
(2)
it

akhar

gujasiaku Gtmdk-minavad darvand

gumunu kantanu
i

i

anshotadn pai

van denmen dhiu
rdydkol
'')

rdi zak gujasiak Alaksagdar
i

Arumdydk

Miidhdihtk

mdneshnu niydzunitu
(8)

pavan gerdn sazd u napartiin

Airdn shatanii jdtunt.

Avash olmcm Airdn dahyopat jakta-

1)

The

text has been prepared
first

from two Pahlavi MSS. which are in
forrai part

my

pos-

session.

The

and most valuable

of the

"Great Bundehesh", the
it

same work which contains a copy
the second
sedji at
is

of the Zand-Pahlavi glossary (see about

pag. 80);

quite

modern, but

correct;

it

was presented

to

me by

Destur Khorpriest),

Poona

(a native of Nausari,
it

and

a very pious

and learned Zoroastrian

who had
literation

written

for

his

own
I

use,

and for the study of the work.

For the

trans-

and the translation

have used the P^zand and Sanscrit translation by
is

Neriosang,

an old copy of which

also in
a

ray possession.

Destur Iloshengji has

prepared a revised Pahlavi text with
will

complete Pahlavi -English vocabulary which
is

be published soon,
2)

I

hope, as the MS.
is

quite ready for the press.

The word
,

a_««_ju3(Oj^

transliterated

by Neriosang

in

this

way:

,^iu/

jy

.

Cji

az chi r^h, which he translates in connection with ma,neshn,
i.

mSirganiviisa 'dwelling on roads,
is

e.

poor, wretched".

But

this interpretation

certainly wrong.

The words Alexander, and

arUmiyak

are omitted in his

XL

Introduction

liintu

bahd u

Ichotdi

vashuft u

avirdn kant.

{4}
i

u denmen

Mm
^)

chasun hamulc Avistdk u Zand

maam

tond posthd

vtrdstaku pavaji
kcritd nipist

miyd

i

zahabu nipishtak yen Stakhr Pdpekdnu pavan
i

anakhtunt yekavimundt u olman patydrak salyd-hakht

Aharmok

i

dar-

vand anak-kantar Alaksagdar Arumdydk Mudhrdydk-mdneshnu maam

translation

altogether.

The -whole passage

is

misinterpreted.

Several Desturs read
It is

the

word merenfhid:\r "murderer''; but

the characters cannot be read thus.
(O

clearly the
ter

name

of a country.

I

regard

for

g
of

dh

in

Zand; but the

cliaracter

is

often

used for
is

C z in old MSS.;

we
name

obtain thus

mudhray^k,

or

muz-

r<\y5,k which

the Semitic and

Persian

Egypt (lludriya

in the cunei-

form

inscriptions).
3)

The words pavan keritft nipist etc
.

are thus transliterated into
.

Paz4nd
ni

(^JOi^JJj

|.t)&Jii^j|

.

^^j^j|

.

{ii^^juu

_ju^ pa

q^ndan

nivist

hidan pitam
The
last

ist;\t;

and translated into Sanscrit: ;\kilrit6 likhitvA nihitam prasthi'
it

'after

had been written,
only a

it

was deposited,
of

it

was placed

in

Sk&rita'

word

is

literal translation

pa q^ndan "in
call,

calling, reading".

Ner
N~|p

had identified keritJi with ))^))(^3a kerituntan 'to

to read",

Hebrew

But

as the

whole
it

translation

is artificial,
i.

and gives no sense, several modern Destur
This
is, I

interpreted
to

as

daftar-kh^nah
Hebrew

e.

library.

think, correct. keritJl

is

not

bo traced to kerituntan, but
n''"]j?

to the Clialdee

^ip

,

xn^^ip qiryet^' "a town",
in

Syriac qerJtd,

qiryJih

("principally

used

poetry, and as part

of

proper names), Assyrian kar,
(Oppert, Exp.

(Tij; 'ir of the

same

origin as qiryjih)

'a

forteress"

en

Mfis. II,

liG.

117.

nos. 231. 44.).

The

original

meaning was, no

doubt, a fortified place, a

fort,

^-li^)

-u^J^

is

thus identical with
4. 6.,

C^X?^) )^)^

dazhu-i-nipisht
documents"
i.

in the passage

from the Dinkart

and means

"fort of written

e.

the fort in

which tho library was.

Introduction.

XLI

)

)*»^ej35ii

J

r^)^^

J

)*^)^^^

^)a

(5)

o^rc

^

i^i)"

Yoor

^) ^'^jvj^

f-Ki^

)^))^-^ «>»-f ^) -xj^oo-*-^^) r^ ^)^

^i^)**

^)))*o

)*^y

wo

» f)',^ Md)

\

(8)

^))j*o -u)*

^^^ii-))o ^

jaitgHntu bend sokht.

(5)

Chand dastobardn u ddtohardn u herbaddn
i
i

u magopatdn u dinu-hurddrdn u avzdrhomanddn u ddndgdn
shatanu rdi bend naksuntvu.
(6)

Airdn

u masdn *) u katak-hliotadn
ol

Airdn

shatanu aSvak rotman tani kin u andishti

miydn ramituntu benafsh-

man

tabrunast
i

ol

dozakh

denbdrist.

(7)

u akhar men zak marashupu patkdr bUt u
i

tumdn

Airdn shatanu

aevak rottnen

tani

ckasUnshdn khotd u dahyopat u sanddr u dastobar
yehaviint.
(8)

dinu-dgds Id

U pavan mandUm

i

yasdn gumdn yehavunt homanad

u kabad ayintnak

kesh u varoishn javit rasti

u gumdht u

javit dd-

destdni yen gehdn betid ol paitdkt jdtunt.

Translation.
(1)
It is

thus

reported
-the

that

after

the
it

religion

had been
the

received

and established by
three

holy
its

Zertosht,
purity,

was

up

to

completion of

hundred years
heresies),

in

and

men were
the
evil

without doubts (there
spirit,

were no

(2)

After

(that time)

the

devil,

the

4)
it

The P^zand has

miyin

"among, amidst", Neriosang madhyfe; but

I

think,

is

incorrect.

XLII
impious, instigated, in
ligion,

Introduction.
order to

make men doubt

of the in

truth of the re-

the wicked
to

Alexander, the Roman,
a

residing

Mudhrai

(Egypt),

that
(3)

he came

wage

heavy fight and war against the Iranian country.

He
it

killed the ruler of Iran, destroyed the residence
(4)

and empire, and

laid

waste.

And

the religious books, that

is,

the whole Avesta and
de-

Zand which were written on prepared cow-skins with gold-ink, were
posited at Istakhr

Babegan

(Persepolis) in the fort of the library.

But Aharin Egypt,

man,
that

the evil-doer, brought Alexander the

Roman, who resided
the

he burnt (the books);

(5)

and

killed

Highpriests (Desturs), the

judges, the Herbads, the Mobeds, the bearers of the religion, the warriors

and

the scholars in Iran.

((>)

The noblemen

,

and

the-

heads of (the

se-

veral) communities

hated

one another, attacked one another, were
(7)

thus
in a
that

destroyed, and went to

hell.

After

this

time the Iranians were
It

complete disorder waging wars among themselves.
Jhere was no master, no king,

came

to pass,

no

chief,

no Destur, nor any one who

knew

the religion.

(8)

And everywhere

doubts arose about God and many
truth,

different creeds

and

sects,

which were devoid of

and

(fall)

of doubts,

and without proper laws sprung up in the world.

Introduction.

XLIII

2.

On the age of

this glossary

and

its value.

The Zand-Pahlavi
published,
affords

(or rather

Avesta-ZandJ
to

glossary,

which

is

here
the

the

best

opportunity

make some remarks on
to

value

of the
as
it

traditional

meanings which are given

the words
of these

of the

Avestd^
tations.

contains a collection of a large

number

interpre-

First of all

it

will

be necessary
glossary in

to

venture upon some opinion about

the possible
it

age of the

question.
,

Destur Hoshengji believes
II).

to

have been compiled about 700 B. C.
is

or even before that time (pag.

I

think this date

much

too early, as

it

cannot have been composed beit

fore the

Achaemenian times.
quite

On

a cursory inspection of

we

find at once

thaL

it

is

incomplete

,

consisting

of several

parts

of unequal value,

and certainly of quite different ages.
in
it,

According

to the topics treated of in
it

and the alphabetical arrangement we can divide
First the

into twenty-seven

chapters.
to "three"

numerals

as far

as ten are

enumerated; from "one"

and of "six" there are the cardinal and ordinal numbers men-

tioned,

of

"two" and "three" (according

to

the

Pahlavi

translation) the

multiplicative

numbers
added;

also,

and of "three" the

fractional
is

number (thrishva
and the
and

"a third")
ordinal

is

of "four" and "five" there

the fractional,

numbers; of "seven" and "eight" we have only the

fractional,

of "nine" and "ten" only the ordinal numbers.

The second chapter

is

of great interest;

it

contains grammatical re-

marks on the masculine and feminine genders, and on the singular, dual
and
plural

numbers,

of

substantives,

adjectives,

pronouns

and verbs.

Remarkable are the

different cases of

va

=

dva "two"
difference

with the peculiar

application of each to different objects.
(Bactrian,
plified as

The

between the Avesta
is

commonly

called Zand) and the Zand (Pahlavi) languages

exem-

regards the numbers of the nouns and verbs.

The

difference of
is

the Gatha dialect

(gasdmk) from

the

common

Avesta language

shown

in

•j^LIY

Introduction.

The various conditions of women, and their qualities are enumerated along witn some words denoOf great interest is the word hapting different degrees of relationship.
the pronouns of the
first

and second persons.

snai-apno-khavo "a bigamist".
the different

Some adverbs
as

are' also

mentioned, and

meaning of some words, such
(3)

nd, vt, apa.
the
in

Now

follows a long chapter

in

which the different parts of
not occur

body are enumerated.
the Zand
lost,

This
extant,

contains

many words which do

texts

now

and quotations from some Nosks which
')•

are

such as the
it.

Nehddum

Words

reating to

speech are also men-

tioned in

The next
lated to,

chapter (4) treats of the relative pronoun, and the words
it.

re-

or derived from

It

contains also quotations of Zand passages
to us.

which are not found in the works known
those relating to
the

Some

of them, principally

astronomical

matters,

appear to have been
to the

taken from

Nddur Nosk

which treated, according
stars

statements of the Din-ito

vajarkart, "of astronomy, of the
which do not belong
to
it

belonging

the zodiac, and those
qualities

2),

of

the good

and bad

of each

star

with reference to their influence on man, their course etc".

Some

of the

1)

Of the seven

lists

of the Nosks, viz.

four from

the Riva,yats:

Punjya,

Neriman Hoshang, BarzuKiy&m eddin, and
kart, and

an anonymons one, three from Pah-

laviworks, the Pahlavi-Pazand Farhang (pagg. 22. 23 of our edition),

Din

i

vajar-

Dinkart

wliich are at

my

disposal, only those contained in the Pahlavi-

Pizand Farhang, and Dinkart have the name
that class of

NehAdum
i.

which

is

enumerated among

Nosks which was styled (da,tik
lists

e.

relating to law, systematic books).

In

all

the other
of,

we

find the

pronunciation
the statements
2)

and

identical with

name Niy^ram which is very likely only a misNeliidum. This Nosk contained according to
is

we have
is

of

it

actually "all that

in the

body

of men''.

This

the traditional explanation of the terms
first is

akhtar, and apakhtar,

or

avakhtar.
"a group
all

The

evidently the Bactrian (Zand)

hakhedhra
it.

'"a constella-

tion",
to

of stars",

and apakhtar

is

the

opposite of

The

latter

appears

mean
is

stars

which neither form part of the zodiac, nor of the lunar mansions,
and other stars which appear
in the Riv^yats, to

that

chiefly the planets,

be

single.

Fragments

of the

for

Nildur appear to be extant the numerous astronomical and
at

but only in a Persian translation;

astrological notices to

be found in the Riv^yats

which are

my

disposal

I

can only trace to some ancient astronomical work of
translated into Arabic and Persian.

celebrity, as the

Nadur was, which was

Introduction.

XLV

passages are taken from the Gdlhas; the Gatha form of the relative pro-

noun

is

even expressly mentioned.
the adverbs derived from
it,

To the forms

of the relative pronoun,

ya and

the glossarist added other words com-

mencing with the same
according to topics.

letter fyj,

and

left

thus the original arrangement

From

the fourth to the twenty-fourth
to the letters of the alphabet

chapters
in the
r,
t,

the words are arran-

ged according

following order: y, k,
z, g,

Ml, sh, m, a, a, v, u, p,

m,

s,

f,

d, J, b,

ch,

g\ gh,

th, h.

This order differs materially from the three principal Zand-alphabets which
are found in the Rivayats, viz. that one in use
that

among
is

the Indian Desturs,

one used

in

Kerman and Yazd,
to

either of which

very old, and that

one arranged according

the Arabic alphabet with the addition of the conso•)•

nants peculiar to Zand, and the vowels

Some

initial letters,

such as

e, i

and
on

n^ are

left

out altogether.

As we cannot discover any

scientific principle
to

which the arrangement may be based, nor an adaptation
bet

any other alpha-

known
but
it

to us,

it

is

difficult

to

determine the period
that
it

in

which

it

origina-

ted;

appears

to

be certain,

its

origin can neither be traced to

the Sasanian, nor to later times, as

neither agrees with the other Zand

alphabets which have been preserved, nor with the Arabic or Sanscrit.

The

1)

These three alphabets, preceded by the Pahlavi alphabet, are contained

in

the fine
fol.

Ri v?iyat belonging

to the Collection of the

Government

108).

They

are identical with those published

and reproduced by Lepsius in his valuable essay

Bombay (No. 29, a by Anquetil and Burnouf, "Das urspriingliche Zendof

alphabet. Berhn, 1863".
I

That one marked ,Nos

1

and 2 in the lithographed table
the Indian Desturs;

which

is

added to

it,

contains the order used

by

No. 3

is

used in
is

Kerman and Yazd, and No. 4
In the first, the

appears to have been in use there also; No. 5

arranged according to the Arabic alphabet, and, no doubt,
first.

much

later

than the
to

two

Zand characters are divided
to a

into 23 (according

the
(just

Rivayat), or 22 (according
as

Zand primer
states; see

in Gujarati),

and amount to 60

many,

as

Masiidi A. D. 930

"Journal des Savants" of 1840, pag. 413); in the second
into 27 groups, and in the third S4 in 37 groups.

QuatremSre in the July number of the we have 56 characters, divided
The
Pa,rsi

priests in India attach
it

the character of sacredness to
daily

it.

Many

pious Mobeds
first

repeat

when

reciting

their

prayers, just as pious Br^hmans repeat the
their

Sutra of P^nini

when

perfor-

ming

Brahmayajna.

XLVI
glossarist did

Introduction.
certainly not invent
it,

but adopted an arrangement which
a partiare
disthis

had already been in use in some particular province, or among
cular sect.

Very remarkable

is

the circumstance

that

several

words

mentioned under

a

g

(pag. 31) which character

has

almost entirely

appeared from the MSS. of the Zand-avesta which are known.
alphabet
all
is

As

not preserved

to us in

its

completeness

we must
is

refrain from
occasionally

further

remarks on

it.

The

alphabetical

arrangement
of

disturbed, and words are misplaced.

The number

words contained unless

der each letter
in the also

is

comparatively very small,' and
texts.

much

than

we

find

present Zand
lo

But

notwithstanding there are in
not occur in
tlie

this

part

some words

be found which do

present Zand-

avesta.

The

twenty-fifth chapter

enumerates various crimes and offences,
Several names
of

dein

fining each of
their Persian,

them very
and not

clearly.

offences

appear

in their old

Zand forms; the terminations are
in the

often

dropped.
find

Several of them
in Pahlavi
witli.

are

not mentioned
as

Vendidad; but we
,

them

works; some, such
This chapter
;

dudhuwibuzda

are nowhere

else to

he met

is

loUowed by
of

a collection of miscel-

laneous words

and some phrases

several

these words

are strange

to

the present Zand texts.

The
It

last

(27) chapter treats of the

measures of length, and of time
do not occur

').

contains several

names

of

measures and words which

in

other Zand books,

and quotations of passages from Zand texts which

are

no longer extant.

The work concludes

quite abruptly; the

end

is

wanting.
at

As regards the composition of the glossary,
least

we can

distinguish

two parts,
the

which

may have

originally
to

formed part of two
topics,

different
to

glossaries,

one arranged according

the other according
the

Ihe alphabet.
date.

The

first

appears

to

be the older work,

latter of later

1)

As regards the measures mentioned on

pag. 43,

my

friend,

E.

West
some

Esq..

has made

me

in his

lefor (dated,
I

St.

Hellers,
in
full.

Jersey, June 2Sth

1867)

very

valuable suggestions which

print here

He

gives preference to the

tfext of

:

Introduction.

XLVII
this

Fragments of two or piore works of
existence

kind must have
collected

beea

in

when

the old

Zand and Huzvanash works were

bv the

my

old

MS. which

differs
it.

from

that one

given

by Destur Hoshengji, and

is,

no
ar-

doubt, preferable to

The

text runs there as follows according to

Mr. West's

rangement

:

s

*
^Aiyyu^u
This he translates thus
2

3

j;C(2

»*»eJ

Tabulating this
the following result:

= yojfist = dashmfist = *** (givast?) 2 tajar = tajar 2 hksar = 1000 gam of 2 ha,sar = 14 angost. English series, and taking the angost =
dashmfist
i

2 givast

1

i

1

1

p?ii

1

pcli

3/^

inch,

he obtains

Say

in

English

measure

XLVIII
Sasanian kings.

Introduction.

'

For

it

is

quite out of question to trace

the whole of our

grammatical knowglossary to the Sasanian, or even to later times, as the
ledge exhibited in
credible
it,
is

far

superior
great

to

any thing

we

can,

according
at

to

statements

about the

ignorance

of the

priesthood

the
learat

time of the Sasanian restoration of the religion,

expect of the most

ned scholars of those times.
a

The
at least

glossary

must have been composed

time when the priests (or

the most learned of them) had a tole-

rably

good knowledge of the grammar of the Avesta language.
language was already in the

As the
state

old Persian

fourth century B. G. in a

of decay (to judge

from the Persian cuneiform inscriptions of those

times)

we cannot

fix

the compilation of a work, exhibiting such a

good knowledge
at

of the old Avesta

(Zand)
It

language which stands next the old Persian,

any later period.

is

possible

and even very likely that works of
at

the

same nature were composed already
If

the

times of Cyaxares,

or Cyrus.

we

consider that

the Assyrian

king Sardanapal
at

V

ordered vocabularies

of several languages to be

composed
if

such an early period as 650 B. C,
the

there

is

notliing surprising,

we

ascribe

same

to

the

kings ef

the

Median and Persian

dynasties.
is,

The alphabetical part of the Glossary which

on the whole,

of

much

less

value than the other part,

may be

of later date.

A

vocabulary

of this kind

may have been composed, from

old sources,

already during

yojana (which appears to range from 41/2 to 2 dakhshmaiti 1 yijaiasti, 2 hS-threra

9 miles).

The Zand

text gives only

=

=

1

tacharem,

corresponding with
totally
in

the

first

and fourth terms of the Pahlavi

series,

and as these two terms are

disconnected, there must be at least two intermediate steps wanting, as appears
the Pahlavi.

The word 'tadhao' cannot well be
to

a fragment of the missing steps,
is

nor does

it

appear to be the third term in the Pahlavi series, which

omitted
for
I

where

it

ought

be repeated; but

it

looks

more

like

an interpolation (ti.ehEir)

correcting the Pahlavi

word

t

a char, as

you have

suggested.

The Pahlavi term

have read givftst might of course be read jinfist, din&st, sn^st; etc.; my reading was chosen to make it correspond as nearly as may be with the Sanscrit gavyEiti which bears the same proportion to the

yojana,
it

as the

givSlst does to the

gim. Your MS.

differs

from the Destur in making
it

equal to 2 pii in other places
consistent with

than the VandidSid, where

equals 3

pM; which

is

the after men-

tion of tne hasa,r being equal ito

1000

gam

of 2 pa,i; that is,

the

common

ga,m"-

Introduction.
the Parthian reign.
deshir,

XLIX

At the time

of-

the restoration of the religion by Arof the sacred

when

all

works bearing on the understanding
after,
it

books

were eagerly sought
not overlooked,
Glossary in
its

the fragments of old
to

glossaries
this

were

certainly

and

is

that

period

that

we owe

Zand-Pahlavi
It

present incomplete

and fragmentary
to

slate.

was subse-

quently only

copied,

and appears

have been occasionally interpolated,
it

chiefly in the alphabetical part.

Besides,
to

suffered

much from
it.

the hands

of the copyists

who were

hardly able

understand

-Another argument for the ante-Sasanian date of the parts of the work
are the

numerous

quotations

from Nosks which were either
in

lost

already
state,

before the Sasanian times,

or

a very

mutilated

and fragmentary

and the occurrence of many
found
in the

(certainly genuine)

Zand words which are not
glossarf must

texts

now

extant.

The authors

of the

have
at

had

a

much more

extensive

Avesta- literature
')•

along with

translations

their disposaPthan

we have now

This leads us again to the Achaemenian
its

times, as only then the Avesta literature was in
In respect of the
interpretations to be

completeness.
this glossary,

found in

their

value

is

not the same.

The most valuable are

of course those which are

derived from sources of the Achcemenian times.
this

The

first

glossaries

of

kind were, no doubt, based on the Huzvanash versions of the Avesta
as

books,

they were

the

only sources whence to derive a knowledge of

the Bactrian (Zand)

language.
in,

And, indeed, we And the

interpretations

given of the Avesta words

our Zand-Pahlavi glossary quite in accordance
etc.

with the renderings of the Pahlavi translations of the Vendidad, Yasna

which we

still

possess.

The value

of our glossary depends, therefore, mainly
I

on

that of those translations

on which

have

to say

here a few words.

1)

It

is

very remarkable, that

we

possess

no Pahlavi translation of other
of the

works than the Vendidad, Yasna, Visparad, a few fragments
Mihir, Fravardin

Hadokht Nosk,

and some minor Yashts and prayers, but none of the larger Yashts, such as Tir,
etc.,

the

Vist^sp Nosk and fragments
that

of

some other Nosks,
priests.

although most of these works have been in constant use with the
reasonable explanation of this fact
the old books were recollected.
is,

The only

no Huzvanash versions were found when

L
As the Pahlavi

Introduction.
translations of the

sacred

hooks are in

that

form
it

in

which they have reached us certainly works of the Sasanian period^

will
slate

be of the utmost importance
(he old Huzvanash

to

determine, as far as possible, in what

versions were

recovered hy the Sasanian kings,

how

much

has heen

preserved of them,

and how much added subsequently.
the fate of the Zoroastrian writings,

According
there
can

to the reports

we have on
that

be

no
at

doubt,
the

the

Huzvanash versions were

in

a

very

incomplete

state

time of the restoration of the religion.
difficult, in

Besides,
of

their understanding

was very

consequence of the ambiguity

the Pahlavi character, and the occurrence of

many words which must

have
ar-

been obsolete by

that

time.

The

priests

who were charged

with the

rangement of the fragments found of the
versions,
their
literal

original Avesta along with their

had often occasion
conjectures.

to

supply

the defects of

the

translation by

own

As the original versions contained, no doubt,
every Avesta word
but few

only

renderings which were written under
translations

(in which

manner

are

still

prepared),

with

explanatory notes,

the collectors,

or subsequent scholars had to interpret

Ihem according

to

the best of their ability.

Thus the numerous glosses originated which we
In the

find in the present texts of the translations.
tions

course of time addiopinions

were made, and changes introduced harmonising with the
copyists

of learned

or

interpreters,

as

the ambiguous Pahlavi
(as
it

characters

were read

differently

by different scholars

is

done up

to the present

day by different Desturs

who

interpret the Pahlavi each in his

own

way).

Thus the

original versions of the

Achaimenian times have become
priests.

greatly
is

corrupted,

changed and misinterpreted by the Parsi
little

This

the

principal reason that so

reliance can

be placed on the present

texts

of the Pahlavi translation of the Avesta, principally that of the Yasna which

appears to have been,
times,
I

for the
inferior

most part, composed during the Sasanian
to that of

as

it

is

much

the Vendidad the bulk of which

unhesitatingly ascribe to the

Achcemenian period.
Rare and obso-

Let us illustrate these remarks by a few instances.
lete

words are generally not translated

in the

verbatim Pahlavi renderings,

Introduction.
but
netic

LJ
the
real

only

transliterated

in

the Pahlavi

cliaracter witli
like

necessary phoPahlavi

changes required for making
(Yas. 32,

them look

words.

Thus the word grehma

12

14.)

is

rendered hy As
it

^^i

gerah-

mak

which

is

to

the

letter the

same word.
as
it

was ho longer under-

stood, the Sasanian interpreters tried,
cases, to find
its

was usual with them in such

meaning by means

of an etymology.
,

They seem
and took

to
it

have
accor-

connected
dingly as

it

with gerew (Sanscrit grih) "to take
is

seize",

"what

taken,

accepted",

which

they

further
if
it

interpreted by
is

pdrak
by him

= Pers.
for
is

para
it

"bribe", as a bribe has no sense,
is

not "taken"

whom

intended.

It

is

remarkable, that the interpretation
14.,

"bribe"

not mentioned, nor intended in 32, 12., but only in 32, 13.
is

where the nominative grehmd

translated by

j^:>

))^

pavan garahj)^

mak

i.

e.

the instrumental, or locative, and interpreted

ya^
that
;

pavan

pdrak
into

^

in order to obtain any sense

by introducing the meaning "bribe"
it

the

passages.

But from 32
of

,

13.

follows clearly

grehma

')

is

the proper

name

some enemy

of the Zoroastrian rehgion (Yas. 46,

see the index.
e.

The words
and

'fcarflpflMd

kdvayascha

H.)

i.

the

priests

sadriflcers of the Devareligion

%

are rendered by

i^yo ^Ja

j

y^ ^^
as

mun kayk u karap homanad.
kdvayas aM'karapano^ but
instead of kik,
as
in

Both are evidently the same words
the Pahlavi form,
if

y/^

is

read kayk,

we

can do,

we

obtain

the Persian
is

kay "king" which
corruption of kavi.

precedes the names of several kings,

and

only

a

1)

Etyraologically the

word has no connection whatever with

the Sanscrit Zandists.

gra,sa "devouring, a mouthful", as has been supposed

by some modern
to

Even granted,

the

meaning "bribe" were correct, what has "a bribe"

do with

"a mouthful"? gra,sa does not a portion of food
in the

mean "a

piece in general", as the Persian p§.ra, but
at

which may be devoured

one time.

It

occurs most

commonly
Dictionary
of a

compound go-gra,sa (wich has been omitted
St,

in the great Sanscrit

published at

Petersburg) "the portion of food,

reserved

at

the beginning

meal to be given to a cow".
2)'

See

my work
etc.

on the G^thas
pagg. 245. 46.

I,

pagg. 177. 179. II,

238—40; my Essays on

the Sacred language

LII

Introduction.
used in the Zand texts before the same
royal

which

is

names; compare
a translitera-

kai Gushtasp
tion of

=

kavi Vtstdspa. harap

is

clearly

enough only

karapano

with the omission of the suffix and the termination. As both
in
a

words which are frequently put together are used

bad sense,

the

Sasanian interpreters did not venture -to identify fcat^a^/os with /cam "king",

but put the meaning "blind" upon

it.

To

this

they were apparently lead
If

by karap,

as

they

identified

this

word with the Persian kar "deaf".
"blind" lay very
it

karap meant "deaf",
And, indeed,
they

the

signification

near for kayh.

could easily obtain
or kikh

by reading

Mk

which means

in

Persian "tlie pupil of the eye",
of the eye". blind
it

"matter collecting in the corner

The

traditional

meaning

of

kavayas and karapano "the

and the deaf"
little

rests thus entirely

on bad etymological guesses, and
judgment,
if

shows

taste,

and

far

less

critical

European
any

scho-

lars

adopt such absurd

interpretations which
if

are without
translate
it

foundation

whatever.

What

sense has Yas. 46, 11.
to

we

"the blind and
life

the deaf are vested with royal powers
their

destroy the

human

through

wicked acts"?

What harm can
find
as

blind and deaf persons do to others?

To heighten the absurdity we
Dictionary")

them

(in Justi's so-called "Old-Bactrian

further defined

"the spiritually

blind

')

and deaf",

as

if

the Zoroastrian religion

knew any
how

thing of such Christian terms!

An

interesting instance

the
is

renderings of the
furnished by
the

literal

old Huz-

vanash versions were misinterpreted

word verezma.
protec-

To

this

the meaning "neighbour,
is

a person that lives

under one's

tion, a client"

ascribed by Parsi tradition.

But, on a closer inquiry into
in

the Pahlavi version of those the

passages

of the Gathadialect

which alone

word occurs, we

find that the interpretation rests

on

a misunderstan-

1) In the appendix to Destur Edulji Darabji's GujarJiti version of the Khordah-Avesta (3. edition pag. 430) we find the following explanation of kik: "he who appears blind i. e. any one who regards the beauty of the creator Hormazd with a bad look, or who cannot see, is caUed a klk". This interpretation clearly

shows that the Zoroastrian
ritual blindness.

priests are

unacquainted with the Christian idea of

spi-

Introduction.
ding.

LIU

The Huzvanash version renders

it

constantly by jpi*) vdriin whicti
to
it

can,

by no means, convey the sense ascribed

by Neriosang.

It

is

apparently identical with the Persian vdriin "unfortunate, wretched" (com-

pare

apdrtm "bad", frdrun "good,
the original

virtuous" in Pahlavi).
translators,
')

And some such
dif-

meaning was intended by
ficulty,

verezend can, without

be
Its

identified with the Sanscrit vrijina

"crooked, wicked, distreseasily

sed".

root

is

vercz "to work", a derivation of which could
as the

be

used in the mpaning indicated,
a

labouring

class

is

comparatively in

worse condition

than

the higher

classes

of society.

The meaning
is

"client,

neighbour" originated

in the following

way.

In Yas. 33, 1.
is

the

word verezmahyd followed by nazAishtam "the next" which
by JCo3^

rende-

^

man

nazdik, "from near", and interpreted by yn^.{^5^
In Yas. 46,
1.

hamesdyakdn
dered by

"neighbours".
(24'^)r-")

then verezend hechd
,

is

ren-

(OA-(X)j*'

vdrunikach hdmsdyakach

the latter being
4.,

the explanation
if
it

of the

former, based on a misconception of Yas. 33,
is

be not the translation of liechd which

quite possible.

From

a mis-

understanding of these two passages, Neriosang and other Desturs derived
the
that

meaning "neighbour,

client"*).

But two other passages clearly show,
In Yas. 32,
1.

vdrun was

not taken in that sense.
4.

the
is is

word

is

not

explained in any way, and 40,
of

hamsaydk "neighbour"
not of verezena

the translation

hakhema "a companion", and
any

which

rendered by
the

vdriin without

explanatory note.

But

even granted,

meaning

"neighbour" were really intended by the old Huzvanksh version, how could
it

be explained

in

any reasonable way?

The

root

is

clearly

verez "to
It is

work".

But what connection has "working" with "neighbour"?
, "

amu-

sing to see

how

the

uncritical

European advocates of the most

fanciful

1)

The word
it

is

not rare in

,the

Rigveda-Samhita,.

In one passage (VII,
that a certain
it.

104, 13.)

is

put together with

kshattriya which shows

class of

men of wretched condition, or
has vrijina-vartani
I,

ill-repute

could be denoted by

A

similar sense
signifies

31,6.

In the G^thas the corresponding

verezSna
See

actually a certain class of people, "slaves, servants,
thas
II,

or working men".

my

Gh-

pagg. 135. 36.

2)

See

my

article in the Zeitschrift der

D. M. G. vol. XIX, pagg. 381—83.

LiY

Introduction.
is

parts of Parsi tradition (as the real tradition

hardly intelligible to them)
of
philological
fancies

get

over this
bears

difficulty.
title

In
-

that

large

collection

which

the

" Old

Bactrian

Dictionary

by Justi"

we

find

the

following

amusing interpretation of the word (pag. 284): "the voluntary
in the service of another in

working

whose protection the worker

stands,

thence clientship,

neighbourhood".

But by which part of the word verewhich would be in
as the
this

zena

is

the

idea

"voluntary" expressed,

case

quite essential,

and could not be omitted on any account,

voluntary
is

labouring for others without special benefits for

mere
is

protection
still

scarcely

known?

Fortunately the word
it

for

"neighbour"

preserved in the

Zand texts;

is

hadhd-gactha "one who has the same gaStha or farm".
lan-

For the expression of the idea "neighbour" we require in the Iranian

guages words expressing "nearness, sameness, joining" but no

trace of

them

is

to

be found

in verezena.

After having thus
versions in later

shown the misinterpretations of the old Huzvanash
it

times,

will

not

surprise

the

reader

it

I

cannot place
as

much

confidence in the traditional

meanings of Zand words
is

given

al

present.

The most searching
intended
for

criticism

required to find out the original
of the

tneaning

by the

Huzvanash translators

Achaemenian
This reof
a

times, and trace the source of the subsequent misinterpretations.

mark

applies equally to our Zand-Pahlavi glossary.

As the interpreters

the fragments of the

ancient

glossaries

and versions possessed neither

good nor

a critical

knowledge

of the

Zand and Huzvanash languages,

they

supplied the defects by guesses and the most fanciful etymologies, in which
respect they have found very zealous competitors in their successors up
the present day and implicit believers in
to

some European

Zandists.

Instan-

ces are furnished by our vocabulary.
sg. of

The common word athaurono

(gen.

dthrava "a

fire

priest")

is

explained as "Ihus agreeable" (pag. 62),

the

word having been divided
I

into

atha "thus", and

unmo

to

which

(from what reason

am

unable to say) the meaning "pleasant, agreeable"
is

was given,

yashtd

(pag. 57)

explained as

"he has come", which
exists in the

is

a

mere

guess, as no root yash, yas "to

come"

Zand and San-

Introduction.
scrit

LV
(pag. 56) cannot
it,

languages

')

(see note 2, pag. 57).


my
have

zaSmano

mean
as
it

"they live", or

"may
to

they live", as the Pahlavi translator explains note (pag. 56).

cannot be traced
translators,

Jiv "to live"; see

Some

times the

or

interpreters

seem

to

confounded

Zand and Pahlavi

words.

So

we And avare
rest

"assistance" explained as "dust, earth" (pag. 20)
identification of

which can only

on the

the

word with the Huzvanash
lin.

-uJy» avrci "dust, earth" (see Pahlavi - Pazand Glossary pag. 2,
But
I

3).

doubt that the original
It

glossarist of the

Achaemenian times commitin

ted such a blunder.

originated very

likely

some misreading

of the

1)

In lusti's "Old-Bactrian Dictionary"

we

find actually such a root mentioit.

ned (pag. 244), and several passages of the Zand-avesta explained by
article

The whole

shows

(as

well as a hundred

others, such as revi,

taradhata, deret^,
fancies) the incom-

pa6sa, vishaptalha, raji, varet, wkra, nighna, avapasti, haslia, zarem,
e,

hiifrJishm6-d2iiti,

dregv^o

etc. etc.

which contain mere

petency oS the author to write a Dictionary of the Zand language, as he displays
there a perfect ignorance of grammatical matters, not to
forces

mention the nonsense he

on the respective passages.

He

identifies this

supposed root yas with Sanscrit
to give, provide"

yam, yacch. But
come"
chata,
bears to
Sanscrit)

the meanings' of this root ''to coerce, restrict

are quite different from that one ascribed by
in the Sanscrit.

him

to
it

yas

.

yam
it,
is

means nowhere "to

As regards the form yastSi,
in

never could be traced to

yam,

yacch,

as the
to

3.

pars, imperf. middle, for which he takes

yacchata, ayacsupposed root yas

which yasata might correspond

the Zand.

I-Iis

yam
to

the same proportion as the actual root jas "to
'to
go".

come" (gacch

in

gam

Now

the imperf. of jas

is

only jasad, the connecting
as

vowel a being kept throughout the so-called conjugational tenses and not jast,
it

would be according

to Justi's supposition.
to
is

If

he traces apa-yasaitfi, "it

is

cur-

sed" apa-yas;\n6 "I will curse"
ning "to take
crimination
corne",
are
off,

this root

"yas", and ascribes

to

it

the meadis-

to

destroy'',

it

only a further proof, that bi^ powers of
If

just' as

poor as his grammatical knowledge.
to

yas means "to

apa-yas can only mean "to go away,
sense should

leave", but not "to destroy".
translating

What

we
It

obtain in Vend. 19,
if

8. 9.

by

"with what word
it

shall I go

away"?

is clear,

apa-yas2inS means
As
far

"I will destroy",

must be

traced to another root.

But

to

wich root?

as our present knowledge goes,

we

can only trace

it

to

y^s which corresponds,
ft

as to its

meaning,

to

the Sanscrit
error,

icch "to wish".

The

shortening of

to a may

either rest

on
to

a

clerical

or

be the consequence of the
voice; compare
is

preposition

apa
of

being joined

it,

or of the middle

kr^mati, and kramatfe

kram

"to walk"-

His article on yfis

an uncritical compilation from Burnouf's statements.

LYI
Pahlavi

Introduction.

word ^Suji^st aibarya
,

"assistance" by wliich

avare was

trans-

lated in the original

and which

is

the real meaning of the word.

The

preposition

a

is

explained as "this" (pag. 60) which seems to rest on some
at,

misunderstanding, perhaps on an identification with the Huzvanash^jw
hi.

The

original

glossarist

had very likely the root of
is

ahya "of
is

this",

ahmdr

"to this" in view, 'which

a, but not d,

and then he

quite correct.
tra-

Notwithstanding these defects, which can be, for the most part,

ced

to

misunderstandings, the Glossary

is

of the greatest value,

as

it

con-

tains the correct

renderings of

many Zandwords, and
It

besides,

many which
philology
only

are not

known

to us
i.

from other sources
e.

will

take in Zand

where

a Dictionary,

a

work
is

stating the

meanings and etymologies
is

with tolerable correctness

still

wanting, the same rank which

occupied

by the Nighantavas
Sanscrit literatures.
ter acquaintance

in

the Vedic,

and the

Amara

kosa

in the classical

Although the
the Avesta

original glossarist possessed a

much

greathe

with

language than any Parsi priest shice
critical

time of Ardeshir Babegan,
of

we

cannot expect of him any
of

knowledge

Zand philology

in

the

European sense

the

word.

His grammatical

knowledge was not very complete.

He knows

only two genders (masculine

and feminine), whereas the Zand has actually three.
the

Of the meaning

of
cri-

lenses he had no
investigated

clear

conceptions.

All his statements

must be

tically

into,

though he deserves

more

credit than

his inter-

preters.

.

.

ydhvondd nyok nydeshne va ehan shame pavan

avastdk mahrigdne va vdj shandkhtdne hend kordsheh denmen

.

chasiin

va

maman zand

dghash

I.

Numerals, and some adverbs.

dua

.

pesh

,

paurva

.

pardum

,

paourim

.

ayok

,

otm

thritim

.

se

,

tishro

.

dontv

,

dvaydo

.

dadtgar

,

hitim

.

dd

chithrushva

.

sarishodeh

,

thrtshva

.

seniv

,

thraydm

.

sadigar

puhtanhem.

panjum,

pukhdha

.

chahdrum

,

tdirim. chasroshodeh

haptahhum

.

shashicm

,

khshtum

.

shash

,

khshvash

.

panjudeh

dasmaM

.

nahum

,

naomahe

.

hashtudeh

,

ashtahhum

,

haftudeh

.

dahum

I

>7(5Sm. Corrected from >/wj^

Zand-Pahlavi.

II.

Genders.

Singular, dual and plural of pro-

nouns, verbs, nouns, and adjectives.

tdM va nakadt va zakart avastdk men mahrigan dvcmik denmen

aghart va myanagi va nitumt va suriturt va shapirt va davdtt va
)

^))^^

•f^y

-4o^e)

)

^))^00

))*»

^

)^

^-JO-^tv

)

va sdtoned rotman padash va jdtoned

an dgh man avshashi va

rdi

mm

chasm ash anddzch va dddastdn padvatided an dgh

khuhie

.

Zand avash javitar avastdk chand va ekvtmoned

mad modd

din yen

CPronouns.)

vaibya

.

wcs/coii

do kend

mdm

,

wai^

.

zakar do kcnd

mam

va

?;a

vastarg khurshna do kend jnam va. nakad va zukar do kend

mdm

.basteh

do

kend

mum, vayo

.

mtnoc va

said

do kend

mdm

kend

mdm

,

vaydo

.

salyd va nyok niv

do

kcnd

mdm

,

vaydoschid

^

.-^fiji»
.

O))*)y0^ -")^^

.fw.JJ^» 0))*(3)Pi
.

jj^^ji^.^

mam, uacAa

dinan do kend mdm, vayuo

darvanddn va ahlobdn do

a2yo/ce

,

hakered

.

akhvdn

do kcnd

mdm

,

uboibyd

.

kaddr

do kcnd

Zand-Pahlavi.

3

javiddkthd
o°o

,

oithra

.

hamzor do chasfm
°

,

hid

,

hadha

.

prdrdst
«

t)*)^^

ne)

js^^5^«y

-»^

)

^f^ ^^9 ^^yf

&"-*"C

A*v

.agnin pavan, hakad. Id

va mendum rotmatimendumS, mdad.rotman
(Verbs,)

baodho , cMhayad jamananuned ayok
.

mdm dmat

tojashnik vands

d^ amaf tojashna,

baodho -varesht

pavan

tojed

,

vareshtahc

.

chika6n jamananuned rdi se dmat tojinyen

.

chikuyato

jamananuned

rdi

avastdk ash rdi se va rdi do zahe chasun tojinyen hamgiineh zand

azirc dmat, chikacn se
io
.

mdm
)"

va, chikayato, do

mdm maman
-IjO^^Jp*

javitar

^

)fO&^ ^m)Hi
ham yahvoned

'-^3^

se

zak chasun

chikacn

ham kabad
meanings

Numbers

in the personal pronouns; the different

of the words: na, vi,

and a pa.

se

var rakum

,

yushmdkem

,

do

var rakum

,

yavdkem

v6

.

rak,

thwam

.

se

zak chasun

ham

avastdk kabad azire dmat va

1

Corrected from

^3*

4

Zand-Pahlavi.

ait,

nd. gdsdnik romane, ni. roman, nd. gdsdnik rakdme, ve

.

rakUtm
^^rtj

.

^)^3

^

^ii;o st5^
,

-sf^
lit

eija tin

^^tO

^^
ait

:f!)>

tin

rakiim dgh jindk ait

.

ayov dgh jindh

gabnd dgh jindk

mtd dgh jindk

ait

,

apa

.

javid va

,

qdheshne

dgh Jindk

ait va

0%
.

bend dgh jindk

ait

va rakhdr' dgh jindk

ait

va

Numbers

in the nouns.

,

se

dmat

.

perendyu, do dmat

.

perendyush, ayok dmat pornd

.aperendyuka, do dmat. aperendyuko, ayok

dmat avarnd perendyunam
y>
se

^
,

^^

io
.

^'^\
narsh
,

^K^ ^-^

-^

0% 6^)^5>jj^)j/{e)-" o
.

^^

do dmai

ayok dmat gabnd

aperendyukandm

,

dmat

.

naro

,

se

dmat

.

nara

Qualities

and appellations of women,

etc.

amai ua. ndirikandm, ndirikaydo, ndiriha

,

hamgiineh nasdman

ijae,

je

,

salid

dmat

.

vantandm

,

vantdhva

,

vanta

,

khup

1

Inserted from Anquetil

Du

Perron's Zand-avasta, vol. 2 page 460.

,

.

Zand-Pahlavi.

5

,ydhhunateh Id shoe pavan dmat chard^tik dgh Jindk ait

jdht

demdno-pathni, shoe nilk dmat. nmdnopathni, kadehbdnuk

.

charditi

amai

i)a. barethri,

varhomand dmat

va, vidhava,

vidhu,vweh dmat.

.nakad, strtm,

dgh

Jindk ait.

vydkhtihava

drdsteh

dgf/i

^mafe

a«f

.

khdhar

,

qahha

,

dgh jindk

ait

.

am

,

mdta

do yahvoned chasun

,

hapsnai-apnd-khavd

.

bentman

,

dughdha

khasurd
_u)iJO»
.

.

zivandeh
^

Id

abu m'un avarnd
l-^ely
-^l^^^

,

saS

.

shoe ayok va

nasdman
>^Ji5)A)

o°0

(«))ai

i^

^ :>^

^^

hana. vdgilnyen benapshman bentmane sh6e rdi gabnde dmat khusrao

shanteh panjdh

zarmdn jamanimuned
.

rdi gahndi

mun va nasdmani

khup

,

huvirdm

.

saleh

navad pddirdnshosav

,

shanteh haftdd han va

.

yahvonad dvdeshnik va vir
original,

1

All

ted, as there is a translation of

Zend words marked f are wanting in the them in the MSS.

but have been inser-

2

Corrected from

^))0f) l^d)) ^

W

Ij^

-^A^

3

Corrected from

^))^^*

,

6

Zand-Pahlavi.

III.

Parts of the body, and

its

qualities.

huraodho

.

ast

pavan khupi chasm hutdsMdeh

,

hutdshto

chasiin

hukarap

,

hukerefsh

.

basarid pavan khupi chasuh

hicrosteh

hordcha

,

nesdk

chasiin hdmik,

bdniya

.

andam

e

pasizagihd

dkhar,

hutarest

.

tarest

va, parun, horun; tarascha,

pardcha,

.

kostch

hamdk man

.roeshman pavan zake

man javtd andamdn pavan moe, hugaonem

.gaesa, drdsteh

se

va do pavan va

.

va/'sa

,

roeshman

mdm

zake

.pir-mo^,
o._u')>jj
qO^

paourusha-gaonem

.

moS

sidh
gO^

vohugaonem
.u30»i*^J>^e)

i3)^Aij-^g)
pdh-vastarg^

^j).W^3jij/?_>»iigj

^^,gj
post,

,s?/rcB.

pasu-vastraM

.

pastahe

.

zivandeh
^^iijjj
e post

mdrdiime
.

e post

H)^
kas

-^

^^
ait

t

-C-f ^

^^
ait

-<5iy

)^->p
,

^Qi^it

i

va

mas

i

avash

roeshman

aMha

,acdha

masyaiiho

henti

kaya, jamnllned nehddtim pavan chasU

.

Zand-Pahlavi.

7

^o»Yi

aparaya

yd

post

mas

zake

homnand kaddr

.

dkhar var gosh

gofteh

afarg

.

mastarg dkhar mien

,

mastraghnya

mastraghnaya

paiti

paouraya

yd

kasyahho

kaya

vaghdhanem narsh jamananuned roeshman vaghdhanem
,

.

pesh

mUn

a^t;o

astern;

jumbinad

bend

vaghdan gabnd

vands-kdr

ac

mastraghndm

yd

vtspacha;

mastarg ayok

ast

,

mastravanam

tandvandr pavan softa yen mastarg

mm zanashna Jiamd zak

,

amdsta

khor ,

chikayato

anyS

a^teS kharochithrem ;

yahbonashna bend

)^^y

m

^^
zaM

)K3« -^ic^^ -^^*-^ »
chasun tojand zakdi
i

)wo^) 'oovwt^^

roSshman pavan

varmanshdn tojashnigihd

chasun jamnunashna mazg anddme

dvdnik zak va

mastarg

va

eiS

iijO

^^"^ ^))^^-4
ast

3
^^^
ast

)^^e>o^^e) ^>*-^

J-"5-o^))

^m^i

karap ayov

mahttoned bend

patSshtdn zake vandskdr jamnimed
)i^

^^m^ ^M^^-f -^
tandvandr mahttoned bend

5)^)-^

^^-^

^-^

^-^-^

e)Ky

mun zanashna hamdk

zak mazg ayov

ddithra

.

rot

.

urua

.

ainik

,

ainikd

.

tojtnad zakdi

varmanshdn

,

,

Zand-Pahlavi.

,uz-yazddna

.

vMk, ndohha

.

chashm

p'eshe

,

pashnem

.

chashm

ya jdtdnashna

,

pardontydo ,

dontydo

.

vinik

mydne va

sapdl

aorafta

.

dawdan

,

dantdno

.

lap

,

aoshtra

.

vin va%r6nashne

.

danddn

azire

,

sparhha

.

pomaman

CWords

relating to speech.)

.

gobashna

,

uac/ia

.

uangf

,

waMs/i

.

hozvdn

hizva

wi/ofc

sr2;ra

.

shanasagt

,

dzaintivaitish

.

sakhun

,

sahhem

namra-

.

ddndgilid ,

dahrd

frdkhtagi

hito

.

nagds

iroe. )^-"

^)^ (^

°

am^^-i^i^auio i)^p so^^ ®
sahhem khtemchid
.

w^^
rdzhd

chasun

s^hun

turn yen,

gobashna dvdd, vdkhsh

dshkdreh

,

vachdo haithem

.

modd nehdn

,

gudhrd-sahho

.

berezata

.

gobashnihd
•=»

khroshd
'

,

vachdo
o°o

khruzhda
-KXi^Hyp

.

gobashnihd
»
,

e^oj^P -^OO^^tVeJ
.

H^iy^l?
vdkhsh
<?o

ja^iJJOO'
khshayad
.

^j^

-*»p^
vacha

gobashna pddashdh

,

gobashnihd boland
®

^))^)' °

-uo»5'""»0U'^^
.

"*00)*to)>'

^1)^^

-">'-"^

-"^»»>*»6^

gobashni, vakhshahha

gobashnihd hamdvand,

vacha

amavata

.

.

Zand-Pahlavi.

9

gobashna, varethraghnibyo

beretibyd

vdkhsh

homandihd

sM

frdrUn

zalce

^ukhdhdo rathwydo

.

pirozgarihd e dadrHnashna

deretd

avastdtem

pairishtem

srirem ukhdhem

.

modd

sarosh e ddshtdr e ekvimijmdd

mdm

nagirtdeh nyok

e

modd sraoshem
,

vahJido mashyd ukhdhashna

.

ckvimunM kard dastobar pavan dgh

mardiime shands modd

zake

,vachdo

ukhdho

danhro

yatha

mravad

.goft

^mraod .jamnun modd ddndke zdk chasun shaptr

paitiasto . gobashna

pasakh

,

paityddha

.

jamnun mru Jamananfined
,
,

nyoshashna

,

sdsndo

gushta

.

gobashna padirashna

,

vachuo

.

dmojashna

paro

.

dashna va hde

,dashin6

^haoio

,

gosh

,gaosh

MS

.

aawar wa azir

,

uparo

,

adharo

.

dkhar va pesh

,

pascha

pirdmun

,

pdiri

.

nimeh harvast

,

7iaemdm vispe
2

laid

10

Zand-Pahlavi.

.

vaghdan e dkhar vaghdhanem pascha
,

.

aervdreh

,

hahhuharen

^\6v*^
arethndo

|>oauo»j
.

.^>WjUij
,

0*0

-X3)^®
.

-J»»-»Of^ 0% »^^-^ *
,

J'O-s-u)^

hdzd
6*0

hdzava
.

dosh

daosha
o^o

.

gardun
o
.

,

manaotht
5*0


.
,

u^4(3>C
.

^IfiWJJ^

4^i»»iJ(a*i^^j|»
,

}^

_u^^
,

0^^
areti

mushta

urashnachand

chidkadhavato

.

yadman
0*0

zasta
•=>

,

\iUQMlxuJ^
,

jWW^
arazdn

^j,

^OOfV
angusht
'

•'^^E^J
,

-*"-*^-f^O0l^
-

4*^1
,

frdrddhdn

.

trezu

mushtmasd

mast

a.4/^i?o*o)W*t )rO&

^y^ ^
.

H^O'^^^'V
fraudkhsli
gOp

0*0

^oop^

W
^
J)
0*0

1

-KiH

varo

.

ndkhun chasun saroba
)j(^(a

,

.

angusht dkhar va pish
.

i 3L)*>
e

sou

^iiii^u
ashaydo

))*»^JOi^
.

j)JjJJ^J^e)

^X>ti
.

(tndarg chasun as
.

,

pestan
»

,

fshtdna

dsya

4w-^) o*oji-^i5-<j
.

c^^ciio>/>

0*0

-xj-"^
.

-»»jj|j-"-«o*»5
,

J^eiK)
softo

Ka/o
0*0

shakamba
•>

,

tiruthware

hakhsh

kashaibya

.

var
0*0

^ ))>*» Jie)

^^)5
e

€^o»3^^

0*0
'

c^
tiz

-i

s«^)eJ* »

e^e^-»o>
.

^iJ^

.

kMin pavan
j^^-Hya
e
•*

post

,

vahhdm
^ ^)^^ «
e

.

e

post
0*0

,

ushadhdm

ndveh

6*0

i-^^v

m

,

owj^j^ei^i^

^)^-^6
.

»

>»F^e)

.

pahluk

roeshman pavan

taluk
0*0

,barozhdahum

pahluk

,paresu

*•
,

V^^^jCZ 0*0 ^^^
ydkare
.

€^^<5i^£

-^K3
.

'>-»0>^

0*0

^y^
sineh

o

ij^^^fi)
,

dil

eredhaSm

sosh

,

sushi

.

pasdno

.zahreh

,zdraseha
^)jj)43

.

sapdrz

,spereza

.rodik
0*0

,

urvatem jegar
.

o.-u^jyiiiy §^

.j|1)Wjj §^ ^5^)^
.

.GjjJO^^W
,

^^^y

»

-^5^£^{^
,verdka

,hakhta

.

sarlneh ,sraoni

kumik

frashnem

.gordeh

1

Omitted in

all

MSS.

2 Corrected from

^^

A ^00)6) and )«0'6)^^OO)6J

Zand-Pahlavi.

H
Mr
fravdkhsh
hakht

,

maesh

,

madsma

.

gond

,

erezi

.

,

.

.

shatman

,

dhadhahha

.

riddnt

,

shdma

.

shosar

,

khshudrdo

0%
.

pateshtdn

,

paitishtdna

.

zdnuk

,

zhniim

.

ran

,

rdna

0%
,

raglaman

e

azir

,

hakhi

,

hakhem

,

frabd

,

frahda

.

zang

,

zehha

kerepemcha

.

ast

,

astern

.

damd

,

vohuni

.

khoehd

,

qaedhem

,

anddm

e

aranj

,

hahhdma

.

mazg

,

mazgemcha

.

hasarya karp

drva-

.

ekvtmont

kard farpch

dgh

ekvimont

varida

,

varedha

.

khoddi

kdmeh

,

vasokhshathrdm

.

robashni

dorast

,

tdtem

tan-

.

apatydragi

khoddi

kdmeh

,

apaitirita

khshayamana

ton

,

havahhem

dareghem

urunaecha

haosravahhem

vaecha

astvdo

ahhush

vispo

bvad

.

ahosh

der robdn va khosrobi

2/awe

yad
))*y^Su

dareghem

apayd
ijyiyj

aflthyo

amarshd
^H)*(5 o
ycthvoned

azaresd
jiu^jajj^

)

A^

^^^^AJii

^iipjj

uffl

amarg azarmdn astahomand akhoe harvast

,

vispdi

J2

Zand-Pahlavi.

aghryotemo

aspo

.

visp

var vad hamd darang apoeshna va ashud

sosyd

,arej6

azindm

gavdm

ashta

varemano

dmihve

chehdr suddrt khodd pavan ekvimoncd dosMd
§0

mddydn mun
-^^

aghrikt'Cim

^y^
.

1

-«))^
tond

araecZ

as chehdr va

IV.

The

relative
it.

pronoun, and some adverbs

derived from

Words beginning

vrith j.

vdedhd

vd

ndiri

vd

nd

utd

dad

yathd

.

dshkdreh

ddnand

ndirik

va zakar

do

ke7id

zak aedun

,

haithim

avaeshdm

nitemchid
*

.

zamik

detimeti

chand

,

zd

tm
.

yatha

^)^) ^(^^

ii\**e^
,

(co»K3JJCe*'e

-hj'-")

-*»SI)5«(j

c^/^u^j) stdrdm

nitum zdkache

vaghdhanem madhmyehe

narsh

yatha

ashtish yatha

.

vaghdan midneh gabnde chand stdrdn varmanshdn

mm

.

padireh pavan ashtch chand
.

,

d

bunem atha
.

paityahmi
i>^)S
zaiidi

.

^j^M mJCsmj^^
ashd
yathrd

^^1^

^«^

_M)^ e

ju»;C5jj5<(j

^tamdman jindk kcnd

yathrd

Zand-Pahlavi.

13

.minashni bundeh rotman ashavahisht dgh

tamaman

^drmaitish hachaiU

laid

khurshtd

zdk dgh

tamaman

,uzditi

hvare

avad

yathrd

,

bakhshad

fradathem

ahurd-mazddo

v6

yatlira

.

uzed

pavan dvdnik arkonad frddaheshnt
.

rdi rakiim

anhomd dgh tamaman

.

hastdn

men kaddrzd

aedUn

,

kahmdichid

yathacha

,

ham^akhun

ahld-

va gospand
»

mun ddd
,

ashemchd

gdmchd
Me)
.

ye

zandi

^fi^

^exi)*'

^

))«)

»

^jCZ. *
,

))*'-»^-o

6°o

^\)^

a-xj^

dvdnik va anddzeh zak pavan

ye

,

gdsdn pavan

yahbonad eshacha

yd Jamanccnuned vSsh

maman

ke

;

mun zand hamguneh

avash

,yd

Jindk

patkdrddr gabnd

mun

,

dadhditi

paiti

mid

peremndi

naere

.

vddunyen

Id

rakhdr

dddastan
1)2)

e

pasokh dghash

,

yahboned
.

laid

Id

^ J()3))^t>0
gras

))*'6oM

°

-">»6j)-*»»)^

-aya^iil^

j»jjc>^Juu(^]

ddtobar parezvdn pavan ,zarvdnemcha varascha

gdtumcha

/ra-

rathwya

dditya

ahubya

vispacha

.

zamdn va var

1

The words

^•^ i^

do not occur in D.H.

14

Zand-Pahlavi,

a/i?;?

harvastacha

,valiishtahc

ddtdish

ashafie

raithya

.

avas/i

dddastdn

frdz

frdruni

va

radl

va

dddt va

nacre

,yd .jamananiined vish va ay ok

mam ,mun

,yd

dgh jamananiined gabnaan var
j^ii)

mm
e

chasun

,

chichi

me

frd

aokhte

1^^

^0

_M^

y

i^

» 1,^ »

-'"WJ

0*0

W^^

Vwie)

;nasdman ayok ayov gabnd do

mdm

,miin

,yd

.

tojashna frdztar

dgh dadrunyen gas gabnd do dmat

,

baraite

gdtum

nara

yd

pavati ,drujim

vandemd

veredd

yehyd

.vddunad zamani

,

tavdchd

isdi

yavad

.

druj

vdnshed gordi varman

e

zak

.

ahldesh khdeshni

dmokhtam and zak homnam tobdnik

khdstdri chand

vdhisht var rds jdmtoned vadarg

hamd

,jimaiti

peresd
0*0

ydmlng

YWf

1

.

doshdkh va

ad« pavan dmat vad hamd

,javaiti

gaya

yavata

1

As

this passage disturbs

the context,

it

has been enclosed in brackets.

Zand-Pahlavi.

15

.

gayomard jodan

,

marata

gayehe

yavata

.

zived

a&te

yava

.

angdred anbdm pavdn

,

yava

,

dgh jindk

ait

.

homnad yahvonad varmamhdn anham

,

zarathushtra ahhem

yoishtd

.

zdSd

frdz

ayojashna

,

fraeazaiU

yoghedha

parmdn

,

tokhshdk

kits

,

paitishdthrdo

hvoishto

thwakhshitdo

.

ddddr parmdn tokhshdk mas yahvoned borddr

.

homned mardum m,un rakdm

,

yushmdkem

yd

yHzhem

^Ara-

puthra

yoi

te

yujiti

pourushaspo

yukhta

yukhta

.

benman Fertdun varmanshdn homnad ayukht

,

etaonahe

.

hesMzeh

sosid

chehdr ayujashni

,

aspahe

chathware

astry-

ydtem

.

gehdn

bahri

,gaethandm
0*0

ydtem

H^oo
jddu-

» •-">'C^)^3J^j^a
,

e^o^'^'^
ydthwdm
.

^V^^
astraed

)^oo
jddu

»

we)»>o
,

pairikandmcha

ehe

.

parikdn va kdn

16

Zand-Pahlavi.

,

ydskerestemem

.

khdsteh

hota

,

avareta

ydonhya

.

herddrtum

kdro

.

mas mruh dmat dardnd shanat

,

mazahho-viro

ydre-drdjo

jdtoned

mam

dghash

asharded

,patenta

yaeshenta

.mi/a

ashardined

,dpem

aeshentem

.

patet bend dghash patined

.

zivdnand

mad

,

zaemano

yaetush

ava

yolihshtayo

.

avzdr

ydn

,surahe

yaoshchini

,

dunma

yayata

.

tdk

se

,

thri-yakhshtischa

.

baretdm

.

tash

ostareh

,

d«ra

yozhdanahe

.

avar

sdtoned

-M>
Za

^S
zak

^
at;
,

^))^)^^ ^-f ^-^
ekvtmuned

^

.

j7iJ^u^)o*»>«0

>0^

Jfi^OHJ
yedlii

mad

zak dt

,yaetatare

U

zaheh

mazddo

ahuro
§^

puthro

yazush

.

ekvimuned mad
-J^-^)*»)*J

.^jjj^^^ .\3i»Y^
beretdbyo

2 3.i*.

._uj(j;^ii^
,

gO^

-^j^)

yaso

.

a^rav'

yazaesha

.

anhomd

e

benman

i

^15

in

D.H.
is

2 In

my

manuscript there

3,

instead of JiiJ

.

M. H.

Zand-Pahlavi.

17

yash-

.

zosar barashni ekvimuned
* ))*^^6
e

mad zaM pavan
*

,

zaothrdbijo

iz -fi^JeJ
.

WO

^^

» («

ijJ>)>id))

^^^«G
mantd

.

^^
td

pard'um

padmdn than mad

.

pouruyo

frazdd-

dpem

yazdi

.

sardeh

jorddk

,

saredha

yavaJie

yasnemcha

.

ststdn

pavan

e

parazd

e

mid ezbahunam

,

naom

ua nydeshna izashna

,

dfrindmi

zavarascha

uzascha

vahmemcha

var vad

,

yavactdtaScha

yavaccha

.

dfrinam

zosar va

6j

.

robashni

hamd hamd

V.

Words beginning with
sh, etc.

ka, kae, khsli,

oVj)^e>o tat
.

^^

^^rc

i

^^ro ^^kj

^^^jfij«»-i-»ojc^5)i3y
farhest
,

ddtobar

dgh

ait jindk

va dtndk jindk

dkacsho

e

ddtobar

ait

kaddr

,

vivishddto

dkacsho

asti

kd

mlire

,

frazdnaiti

urethra

pairi

acta

yd

.

ddd

dgds

1

The Zand words
all

in brackets have
;

been inserted here, as
to

their Pahlavi equi-

valents are found in

MSS.

they appear

have been

left

out

by some

clerical

mistake.

18

Zand-Pahlavi.

varman dmatacha anitoncd

frdz bend saroba

men dddastan zdk men

,

dad dgds

ast

zak va negarddr
tyiej

mdm

saroba men dddastan kabad

^y (^^
Id

^))^)*»

-"> -3jjV->5 1^ ))*'^^SOO
Id betid

^

)^

)

dmatacha anitoncd frdz

saroba men dddastan zak mien va

ddd andgds pavan acha dddastan varman

mdm

Id

va saroba kabad

e

vastarg

,

bdmanydo

kashdo

vacha

vastrdd

.

ddsunashna

vyd-

rdzam

karasho

.

kishvar

,

karasho

.

tardz

bdmik

kote

hapt
0%

jkarshudm

hapta

.

anjumamk

e

virdi

kishvar

,khanam

zaritonSd

frdz

kcsh

,

frakdrayoish

karshaschid

.

kishvar

<?o

.

kesht

,

karshtcS

.

keshinjdr

e

zamtk

,

karshvdo

zemo

.

malkd

,

khshayo

.

rostdk

,

shoithro

.

khoddi

,

khshathro

.

roste?

cMsun

shed

,khshactd

.

pdtakhshd

,khshayamana

.

s/iddt

,

shaito

.

dsdni

,

shydto

.

khdsteh

,

shadto

.

shirint

,

khshuidha

.

katrUnashna

'

,

shiciti

Zand-Pahlavi.

19

,

parshva

.

khushntid

,

khshnuta

.

sitdeshna

,

stuiti

,

shudhem.

.

shumaj

,

shutasmB
(?o

.

vaddkht

,

shustem

.

parashveli
0% ^>K5
.

§z
.

^))^^
sdlonad
*

»

^^^^Jy
,

«x>o «
shin

CJ-Hji' §0 p'-^^ «

ei)j-«o

khshtdt

.

,

khshim
o'o

.

deg

,

shenem

shud

0%
.

^»C

i^^-Hsw
,

o°o

-KS?,6 °
.

>-«o2^
,

^))?£y-*^ °
.

J^J^JO-^-wJo
,

dkhar

fshyo

pesh

fshu

sdtonSd

shaoshaiti

.

anahuMned

,

andhita

VI.

Words beginning with ma, m^,
ing these syllables.

or contain-

.

-u»e e% J

.

e^e
,

o°o

)>*^^e) ®

jo^j*»e
,

o°o

iwj-"^)) «

^ni^i
.

,

md
.

.

ra

mdm
0%
.

.

padman

maite
^
e

-

vandsashna

mayad

^3i»

fuiO^Wc^
,

)^^e) ta
padman dgh
jc«>»>3^j^c
, •

^-"KJ

^-w ®-^o-f*»»Go°o-=»-"
a'lt ;

kharad
i
c

khratumdo

Jindk

mdh
J^6
,

,

mdo

.

al

jpf^e) ^^v**

€jeJ^->^ 0% '))f^ »

0% ))*>^^a
.

padman

harvast

m,diahuhc
))*^'^^

vispem

.

hamgiineh

mdi

padman
^
e

0%
.

^^K*

*

-"^»"G-<w
,

o°o

)

V-?^

®

-"^»"G 0%
,

^)')0'^2)

W-^

ozmud

dmdta
o°o

.

padman va amitar
-""HjJG^ 0%
,

mdta

.

frdgoyod

matun
-u\uiii

^V '

^^Y'Y^

°

(^ -u^JWC-UJ)."}
,

.

amarg

ameslia

.

anozmud

andmdta

,

amana

1

Corrected from

^)y{^tyi.
-ujiifiii
is

2 Corrected here from the Vendidid, as

doubtful.

20

Zand-Pahlavi.

VII.

Words beginning with

a, a,

an,

ai,

etc.

shakndh

,

ainitoish

.

aJdrn

,

ainitoid

.

asar

,

anaghra

.

atojaslma

,

achitho

.

arish

,

airisMo

.

ahhdstgid

chasm

.

anekvimoned

,

astdto

.

khdk

,

avare

.

apcddh

,

achithro

.JojMW
§^
.

,

aspereno
.

.

avdum

,

apemo

.

anttoyiatan yen

,

apvatie

^

^^M
ast

-M^aii §Q O"^ »
asta
.

>^^
.

0%

^nrO

"»"
,

0*0

St))»W

"* •

"^
,

,

tiz

,

dsu

yahvonad
§^
.

ds

.

yahvoned
.

as

§^

^5

.

a« §^

^^<^ °
.

^^ssM
,

^^
atyd
*

,

iU^iii) o
vistdri

0(^M^xs>
,

.zak
.

,

d
le
.

.

yetihonast
GC^J^eo*-"

dstS

astaishum
'>^6W'«
,

^M
dad
-H^^6

§0
.

-«0^)^^

^^-£^
amhdi
o°o

§0 ')^ ®
.

,

romaii
.

,

ahmdkcm
«

amdvandt
irC** »

zak
»

ahmdi

io
.

~w 0% 1)^^
,

-^^io
atha
.

-«©*'

n^^
acdun

^
dd

0% )jii^
.

padash

d

.

aedun

,

dsun

,

adha

.

,

dsun

,

aghrem

,

aghra

.

dj

,

dzoish

.

salid

,

agha

.

dud

,

atha

0%

.rakht

,arura

.zarhonada

azddt

,

ddhdta

.

aghrik ,sr aghrem

i

Correctcil from
,

^^)
D. H.

2 In the old MS.
gird, (1396 A. D.)
for C
z.

,

which has been

-written in the

year 766 of Yazdais

and

is

now

in the

possession of Dr. Haug,

Odh

often written

ad hilt a stands

therefore, very hkely, for

-«^.w»Ciu

JizJita.

In Pahlavi

Zand-Pahlavi.

21

,

arena

.

orUn

,

aora

.

mitarg

,

awra

.

arvand

,

aurvad

arato-

.

bundeh

,

arem

.

hervad

,

acthrapaitish

.

apatkdr

.

izashnekerddr

,

kerethino

,

dtare-vazano

.

vakhshintddr

dtasli

,

dtare-vaklisho

dtare-

.

kerddr

dtasli

,

dtare-kereta

.

vaztntddr
"

dtash

JO-"?tV *
dtash

4|j^£'-"C-F-"^*"
,

o°o

i^'^

^-"^

-XJ-"^
dtash

a**'fiK3-")K3-»/-"^
,

utaremarezanu

.

nimeh tar

taracnucnidd

.

rddtum

zak farvafl

dtash

,

atare-frithitemcha

.

moshiddr

,

drmata
-^r
)

.

dsntddr
*
,

,

dsnatdrem
0*0

.

borddr

myd

,

dheretein

0*0

)^

a»>>^»'»»
.

53V

))';0^ *
,

ip/>^'^o*o Y^Y^-')^
.

.

and va zak

avaiad

robdk dedun
0*0

athaurono

minashna-bundeh

^-Hy

*
,

t^Q^
adhdd

0*0

A"^ '

ja*«JJ-"»-"

.

dkhar

.

tamaman

,

avaydd

VIII.
.

Words beginning with

v.

ujJJj^
,

0*0

^^M *
vanast

fC^>'»-»^
,

0*0

^^Y^ »

-wfij^-B?^
,

t*o

^^)
vis

•=»

4^>»^
,

vis6

.

viste

.

harvast

vispa

.

viso

^^yiJ^ .\S

)

^CViy

^2a,d

va zarh6nad corresponds

to

the Persian expressions
'

^z^d and ^z^dah mard.

22

Zand-Pahlavi.

,

vahmdi

.

kdmeh

,

wasmi

.

vastarg

,

vastra

.

makdariinyei]

,

vitasH

.

dgds

,

vidush

.

aslikahundd

,

vindad

.

nydeshna

.

rahum

,

vo

.

gopt

,

vaohkhtc

.

vafra

,

vafra

.

vidasl

,

veredvo

.

vdniddr

,

vanatam

.

vdncd

.

vanaitc

.

van

,

vana

,

vehrkahe

.

gokds

,

vuikayo

.

ojdaMshna

,

viusaiti

.

narm

.

kahadgord

,

vaakrem

.

ntskkds

,

vanare

.

varg

,

varekaM

.

gorg

.

gohashna

,

vacha

.

ptrozgar

,

varethra

.

varzati kabad

,

varechdo

,

vdtem

.

vands

dgh

e

jindk

ait

gohashna va kdld

,

vdchem

.

wii/a

nasjionad

,

rakduvaroish

.

vahdr

,

vadhairayosh

.

van

va-

.vdred

,vdraiti

.varan

,var6

.

vdred

,varcdhayc

.

navikinam
"^i^ejj

,

vaedhayama
0%
.

.

roniati

,

vaem
0*0

.

gordik

,

reshiji

0%
.

®
,

-M»^}^/*»i?

^

»

-j^'^e**^

^M^^^
dstonad

a»))0^^
,

vafluk

varanava

ywgf/i

,

vadhagha

.

vaenai

1

Corrected from

Uii\ )Y>

Zand-Pahlavi.

23

,

vdstrayahhva

.

dgdsi

,

vaidhim

.

varsak

,

vareina

,

vathwa

.

pdhlum

,

vahishtem

.

shapir

,

vohii,

.

Mrvarzashna

,

vostrem

.

anddeshna

,

voithwa

.

admoeshna

,

verenavad

.

rameh

.

a^os

,

verenyatS

.

narm

,

vercdvd

.

varzashna

,

vcrezyad

.

vandashna

c

vajiddr

,

vichiddrd

.

vasht

,

vurto

.

vardin

,

varetata

,

vaeijo

.

goft

,

vavakhdha

.

bend

,

vichd

.

gdsan

.

vahdr

,

vahri

.

nahuft

,

vaite

.

vehan

,

vaiihdno

,

avizashna

IX.

Words beginning with

u.

.

asprds

,

urvaeso

.

dost

,

urvatho

.

kJiursand

,

us

.

andak
.

,

una
,?o

.

roban

,

urva
<?0

.

laid
^«>» 6

,

us
-»»^>

.

vardashna
0*0 )>

,

urvaSsa
»

-«^J(5>

^•^-^)*»
.

4jj5*

-**)')

-»^>
,

,

ushta

ozid

,

uzyo

.

avat

,

uta

.

do

kend
0. j(3>
,

uva
^^)

m

-v^^

^'^Vj 6'^-^j(^^ ei^^^^^Jo>
,

o°o

-o^
hosh

qO^

pUvan robashni dorast

ashibya

ushtatdtem

.

ush

.

nyok

1

The words ushtatdtem ashibya
is

are

left

without a translation in the

MSS.

That one given in brackets

furnished

by

myself.

For the Pahlavi word

24

Zand-Pahlavi.

,

tirudhidhieiti

.

drag
.

,

urvaedas
o°o

.

tateh

,

ubdaena
-f^ ®
,

.

ahlde

0%
.

^Si
darakht

pi>c^>)>

J^(S »

eiV

o°o

fi{)>

o°o

^J
.

,

uruthad

.

cMr

,

ughrem

.

ham unem

dri

X. Words beginning with
0% \e)
.

p.
"

iAii

§0

\)

®

H3>^Ae)
,peretush

o°o

)^^m

-"^wiig)
,pardta

pMr

,perencin

.vadarg

.

punsashna

o.-uQAue)

o°o

)v^) «

-^^^^
,

o°o

-^vie)

•»»*») Ae) o%

J^^^ei »• j^)A

,pddha
.

.vadrun
0%
.

pdta
)

.

poriidi
.

,perendiu

.

pathdr
.

^perem
§^

-«J);oi»gJ

J^y^
salid

^:>ej

€>^J^ 0%
pitum
.

^^

Jsiii^

pi

,

pacsa

va ped

,

pirn

,

paid

.

rajlama

/jara-

.

panjdh
.

,

pdnchdstem
<?o

.

panj
Bi
.

,

pukhdha
®

.

pSst

0=0

3i»^
dzdr

M5^X3^^'»-"e)
,

^iX
.

'

iV^6
,

^^^J^
raz

-"^^-"^^
,

pairictS

avdm

pdrem

panj

chasat

0%
,

avard

,pasanush
®

.

rds

,palli6
"»0-^-"2)

.

tandvandr
)>*»^'-^^^)

,peshotanm
f»*»JJi»»-»u)j)j,

6°o

<^^6
.

&"^e) 0% 5^16 ®
,ptad .pudeh
,

(?o

patet

paosli

.

vdfrigdn

,perendvaya

.

avarsar

,

pusdm

.

pad

,

paiti

.

patat

,

paitic

4^^

the

original

Zand was wanting.
letter
>

Since
n,

the preceding as well as the
is

foll(

wing words commence with the
translated
d£id,
I

and the Zand word ubdafena

twi

by

4^^

in the Pahlavi

of the

fifth

and seventh fargards of the Venc
-"))0'"3)J>

thonght myself justified in introducing

ubdafina.

Zand-Pahlavi.

25

XI.

Words beginning with m.

,moshu

,

khdneh

,

merezu

.rotman .mad

.gomSzeh .,mithwa

.

vddHnat

,

vavachata

.

kabad

,

mas

.

murd

,

mustemesho

.

tiz

.

hushmarddr hamtsheh

,

mimaro

.

ra

,

mam

.

mayud

,

maydo

,

mashyo

.

ezbahiin

anhomd

,

mazdayasno

.

avivak

,

magha

.garajdaman chasun

,

murd ,merezdndi .mudeh

,mruta

mardum

,

myacshi

.

mutrasht

,

muthrem

,

mazd mezhdem
,

.

mai

,

madhu

.magas

,7nakhshi

.magh ,m,aghem .barhdneh ,maghna .moshashna

.

maruchinashna

,

merekJish

XII.

Words beginning with

s.

.vindk

,

sucha

.

shakbdhdnSd

,

saitS

.khunsandt

,

saidhc

.

.

sud-khdstdr

,

sevishta

,

sM

,

svo

.

vtnashna
4

,

sukem

26
-i-ueja
0*0 -^5)

Zand-Pahlavi.

>»V*
,

* <?o

<^^^
sahid

»

ftuJeJ* 0% ^^j-Ki » • i^^>»i5)>>p
,

spaM0%
.

.

nakad
»

stri

.

sidhiad

.

shekast

,

schindayad
»

-^^W

i^^J^
,

0% ^ ^?^) »
.

-"^>^^
.

o°o

))*»ej^^4)

cj^-Hj
,

nyok-negds

srirdo

ndmtk

sruta

puspan

s/itJTn

.hoshtdp
igj

,srvat6
.

.

sazashna

,

sakhti

.

ekvimonashna
(?o

,stdta

^^Xi
.

>;ujjj)j^3J

0%

iJj^a o
.

.

4/0'-»^^
,

^O^-*^ ®
satizad
0*0

•?^0'-"^J'
,

sai?2

,

stenhya

sf orgr

stakhro

.

stakhto

o°o

^J)^ »

j»-uff^^^

&

^e)^-^ »
.shakeft

€f^e)^^«
,

V'^

*

*

-"o^Jf"^
,

.madmamoned ,sadayad
.

skaptem

.

march
^0
.

sdohha
1*'">W^

j»)m ^0 Jo»>*0
snus
.

J/-u»JUJ)-M

(?o

^))^^-" ®

4^J^1*
,

^r^ *
sarud

*

,

shndvar

,

sndvare

.

allonad

sndto

,

sravad

,

sarihad

.

sakhUn
§^
.

,

sahhem
.

.

nyoshashna

,

srunaoiti
.

.

sukincd
oOg ^^jjJ

^ii^Hiy

_u^j/jj
,

^Q Jji3^ty
.

f»M/»JJ

avaspdred

srita

avzdr

,

surdo

.

jopi

XIII.

Words beginning with
°

f.

^ ^Ai^
.

.

c j7e)

6*0

J^-"
alitor

J'eiW
fedhri

(?o

JO>*0-K5'"-"^4) *

>'»"£^/«
,

dost

,

/Vim

.

,

.

frdkhdahashni

fradathdi
o»)4)

0%^-V-f •»
.

{oz-ujj-w/e) 0% ))*'^-*J0' iy)ii *
,

-Ju^ajjjjjWe)

6*0

o.^^/e)
,

ma/jar

fray arc

.

dvrtgdn frdz

,

frasasta

.

frdz

/ras

0*0

iwiwfij

<=»

ew-'ow

0*0 J-^ie)

-«^»-«o« 0% ^^^-*^ej »
,

-m^j(3)o^^w
,

.

fashuvashna ,fshy6

.

panir

fshuta

.

frahest

fracshta

1
2

Corrected from

^^^
4^1

Corrected from

^

-M^i/M

.

Zand-Pahlavi.

27

XIV. Words beginning with
^0 ^1^) *
.

d.

i^^Jj^^KJf?
,

<?o

)^-^^
.

»

,

\iJy^
dakhmo
«
, •

Si^^- %<iiy^
.

namud

daecayad

azan

dahm

,

dahmo

So ^-Hi-^ ®

-»^^jy^
,

io
.

^))^^^
dstonad

i»^4£f^
darevad
.

o\_n)*^

oj^i»3
,

.[dakhshak

dakhshta

yahbun

dazdi

.

sahht

,

darezera

.

sozcd

,

dazhad

.

kod

,

ddshta

.

dush-dmojashni

,

dush-sastish

.

dush-sroM

,

dush-sravanhc

.

dush-dam

,

dush-ddma

XV. Words beginning with

j.

,jum

.

mahitdnashna

,janad

.

avsahincd

,jinditi

,

jakhshavdo

.

mad

,

jimdd

.

zofar

;

jafra

.

ztvandeh

fjaidhyad

.

vdgunashna

,jareta

.

jdmtonashna

^jataiihad
0%

A
.

00
jeh

>H3)0^e^
,

^^
.

jaesh,

zed

1

Corrected from

^y

'

2

Corrected from ')^)Hi'^)»

28

Zand-Pahlavi.

XVI. Words beginning with

b.

,

bae

.

dabish

.

dbaSshdo

.

hcshaztnashni

,

hacshaza

,

&M2/arf

.

hagh

,

bagha

.

bdstan

,

bddha

.

di

^^^^^jo.fm^^jjj o°o3»-Jit|5^ e%^5<^»--»^(^i|^ bakhedar bakhdhra .yahvondo band handdo bantdo t;?7nar
.

^o^m

,

.

,

.

,

,

baodho

.

Mm

,

byahha

.

dvastan chasun borddr

,

bardhra

,

frdz

bojcshki

,

bishish-framdto

.

vindk

,

baodhahho

.

bod

,

basfti

.

bofe/ii

,

buji

.

bujashna

,

baoshem

.

ozmuddr

.

bakun

,

bathro

.

bajineh

XVII. Words beginning with
0%
.

r.

rad

,

racre

.

ramashna

,

rafne

.

rayomand

,

raSva

,

raodhad

.

rish

,

rdjim

.

rajasteh

,

rdshtem

,

virdsteh

,

razi

.

roshni

,

raoc/ian/iem

.

ros

Zand-Pahlavi.

29

XVIII. Words beginning with

t.

tan-

.

zakacha

,

tdcha

.

taj

,

tacha

.

robashna

,

tdto

.

khdrd

,

taremano

.

tagiktum

,

taremano

.

tagiktum

,

chishtem

,

tanumathro

.

tosht

,

tushish

.

rak

,

titm

.

doj

,

tdya

.

tarvtniddr

,

taradhdta

.

tdslud

,

tashad

,

tanfarman

XIX.

Words beginning with

ch.

.

kerddran

,charetdm

.

aspords-dardnd

,

charetu-drdjo

.

tojashna

,

chitha

.

tokhm

,

chithra

.

pcdaki

,

chaitehti

,

charetutdro

.

chdreh

,

chdram

.

chand

,

chaiti

.

kdmeh

,

chakana

,

chinaicmi

.

farzdneh

,

chistish

.

doshdram

,

chinmano

.

kerddrtum

.

karitdnam

1

This Zand word

is

written partly in the Pahlavi character in the

MSS.

30

Zand-Pahlavi.

XX. Words beginning with

z.

.numdeshntkmaman

,zi

.toban

^zastavad

.yedman

,zasta

,

zusha

.

drdeshna

chasun avzded

,

zita

.

damastdn

,

zyam

,

zaothra

.

derham

,

zushta

.

doshashna
0%
.

,

zaosho
»

.

khustok

^
.

^i^S
,

.

jtt^ 0% )*0>0«>*0 «
.

-»^^^
,

\-^
zor

£^^^
zdvare

^0 J^)-^
.

zamik

zdo

shandmashna

zanta

,

zosar

,

zarva

.

zamati

.

zrva

.

mozd

,

zemana

.

zarhonad

,

zathwa

za6-

.

ddmdd

,

zdmaoid

.

zisM

,

ztxSsho

.

zarmatii

SMro* (*
.

.

gerd

,zgeregneni

.javid
(?0

,

zagathad

.zyodnad
.

,nahha

) rahmaman
'?£i

" • C>0 J^fl
,

i^j

5?>^^y«
khdsteh

3^^Jj5
zorborddri

ftM^jWil
avaretdo

ju.^
beretdo

zeredhaicm

.

,

.

mahitonad

,

zatd

.

jdduk

e

zend

,

ydtumeiita

zinda

XXI. Words beginning with

g.

.

vaguned

,

gerewnad

.

grahmeh

,

grehmo

.

mad

,

gateS

1

Omitted in

all

MSS.

I

have

inserted

it

here from the

first

fargard of

the Vendidiid.

Zand-Pahlavi.

31

,

gudhra
.

.

saritaran

e

yedman chasun
.

,

goh

,

gava

.

jeh

,

ge

6

6)0^^
,

& 5^ii333
.

-*.(«)£^
,

0*0

SO-OVt * -"^»0>-"

<?o

5^W0J
nchdnik

gacm

garisteh

geredha

.

nyoshcd

,

gushta

.

gdthwd-

,

garzashna

,

garezhda

.

gospand

,

gam

.

gayomard va add

.

kdrvarzashni

,

gavdstrydvareza

.

khdeshni

gdsdn

,

shtachad

XXII. Words beginning with

gh.
*

&3^
.

^>H5^)

»

,

Heu
ghendo

<?o

^j-^
.

*

js^Hu
ghndd

&
.

^-^
zad

k^-")l,

kabad nakddni

zandd

,

,

ghnad

XXIII. Words beginning with

th.

,

thndto

.

drdeshna
^0

,

thrdthrd
.

.

patashni
.

.

thrdfdho
o°o

.

_M^^i»»i»)jJC^
,

^.uJ^
sardet

J(3>^W{^
khratush

G^O^
.

))*to)V^^-r

thanavanta

,

thwdm

makdarunashna

.

pomCiman

,

thrcth

.

gordi

e

kheshkdri

,

thamanem

.

siist

.

se-raz

,

thrdydsata

.

st

,

thristem

XXIV. Words beginning

with

h.

,

hakha

.

khosrdbi

,

haosravanhS

.

suddr

,

hareta

32

Zand-Pahlavi.

ds/i-

,

haitU

.

dshkdreh

,

haita

.

agnin

,

hadha

.

hamkhd

,

/iicfti^a

.

nafshman

,

/»uam

.

Ud

,

haiti

.

nafshman

,

Mrdh

,hikush

.ashunjed

,hinchad

.dkhczad

,hikhshad

.pdM

han-

.

hamdahishni

,

handdta

.

hena

,

haena

.

khushk

Jamananiincd chasun farjam hadhahro
,

.

angardtnam

,

kdrayaSmi

anhomd sake pdneh farjdm

,

ukhdham

mazddi

pdm

hadhahro

.

sakhun

XXV.

Crimes and offences.

bodyok-

,baodh6-var$htahS

.

hodozed

,baodhajad

topaft

va zadan

mdm

va yahvdnSd va zad vindgihd chasHn

.

varasht

I

Corrected from

-uliouftb )(Oi
MS.
is

.

2
ligible.
I

From
I

this point the
it

very corrupt, and in several places quite

unintel-

have corrected
to

according to the best of

my

ability.
I

The
MSS.

small alterations
slate,

was obliged

make

are too

numerous

to

be mentioned.

may, however,

that I have adhered, as far as possible to the readings of the 3

D. H. has •^)^-^

zatilm

in

both places.

M.

II.

:

Zand-Pahlavi.

33

gobashna kadbdpavanjamananunSd vesh nagiraslmih mandumicliandan

ash

huUdrt

va

goed va takdSd

nagirashnih vandshed dvdnik

mandami

e

handan topdh zadaii

mum chasm

.

hodyozad vudunijen

mardumdn pavan kddyozad

e

vands

.

hddyozad vandscd

su'IgU:

pavan

varsht bodyoh men javid yok jast

acdHii pdsc bodyozadgik

men zak

avisudagi

pavan

ugh

gospandan

yen zak bodyozad va

pardst

chasiin

mardumdn
Inserted here.

yen

e

vands kddyozad va bodyozad va

.

7iagirashna

i

2

Corrected from 5-0-U))

3 -'OO^-"^'*^^
ted in the

kastarihSl D. H.
is

The words v^dilnyen The omission
is

bodyo

are omit-

same MS.; only zad
M.

written.

evidently a clerical error.

M. H.
4 Omitted in D. 5 D. H.
lias
II.

II.

«0-"M

^5^

-03^KJ

instead of
to

sudgik vanisSd.

M. H.
li.

6 The passage from

"kady6zad pavan"

"aSdun"

reads thus in D.

pavan mardum&n miin b6d6z6t pasii kik
7

aediin.

M. H.

D. H. has ^

.

M. H.

8 Instead of the passage "!lgh

pavan"

to

"kidyozad"

D. H. reads as follow-;:

bodyozad

is

here omitted.

M. H.

34

Zand-Pahlavi.

o^V^^o\^-K5))^S
dstrct
.

i^j^y

^-o**))

5^^ty

^

»

1)**^^^-^ ^"0^)1

karitdnchcd rvbanik vandsi dvdnih zak va

hamimdlan vanasi

^
.

^))*»3i>^^iJ)) „£J

2_^^^^0
suddri

j^^_jj^^^^ l^yiil^^iJ ^J^^^ii

vandskdran pavan

adaraspan

ustdrmed

dshkdreh

%/),ai ac
''

jamnonM

drnat yahvoned zak gohashnihd jdduk

,

ydtukhta

e>o

^))'^ »
e

^irov

))ej

^^

»

-fj^ev-f

-^

-d^)^oo

m

ydv madonad

avsuni pavan drnat

,

maruchmam

bend jddugi pavan

yahvoned zak immdeshni saJim ,diidhuu'ihuzdu .hamgunch jamananuned
.

i^iiul^

§^

-fD^^-f

-HX)**^^

-HyrtJ

H4J

til

^Mll^*

^-^
drnat

,

?;at<t

.

mahitonam satdihd sanchd pavan ugh jamananuned

Mtiasj

c

dkhar men vandskdrt pavan drnat yahvoned zak

khaishnt

men ddas

utnat yahconed zak handarakht

handerekhti

.

rdduned

aypv topdh

varmani var ayov va ddsimcd

pddiran

akhSshkdn

1

Omitted
D.

in

D. H.

M.

11.

2

II.

has ^-\JJtJ
lias

M-

11.

3 D. H.
4 D. H.

only

van As.
*

M. H.

has •*00^)>'-^

-HjJiiyty

'

M. H.

5 Corrected from

-**y£{3jg-"0* and ^J^)*»

.

D. H.

hankereili.

Zand-Pahlavi.

35
^^0)*') iw-o*-^

»-^*^«-?oje
,

io

'tww) ^^^r* -^v (^W)

mithosdst

.

vdgicnashna handarakht avash vdddnycn nahvftch saiyan

kadbd

e

rds

dmat yahvoncd zak

,

dmojaahni kadhd vajdraslmi avash

undyoinihd

c

ddas

var

ardstihd

dmutacha

tajcd

c

ddas

var

,

aingahan

,

avdunhiciti

.

vdyunashnu mcdyosdit avash immdcd

ayov

xcng

pavan

avasJi

vdgimed

f'ruz

c

gabnd dmat yalivoncd zak

(/•«

chand vadash dkhar hashed bend damih pavan ayov ddr pavan

yahvoncd zak
)

,

sapojashnt frdz

frasyadhjaiti

.

kaslicd

chasCin

^)&

)

^^

^)

^1

^'c ^(m>^

vie)

* -«' J
c

^

-^

^^

t'a

chand va

maman

var vad dkhar sapojcd frdz rui

gabnd dmat

zak barin paskonashnu bend

,tliwarcsahe

ava

.sapojcd

chasCin

1

The passage from va ayov

to

v^giinashna

reads in D. H. as follows

M.
2 D. H.
3

II.

has
JaJ

-*M

a,i.

M. H.

D.

H.

.

M. H.
4i instead of e rai.

4

D. H. has

-»«

M.

JI.

36

Zand-Pahlavi.

zah rhh chasun khor

,

qarahc

.jdtonH avash khim

mnn amdr

chand va chasun ugh vadash dkhar jdtoned avash khun

mm

amdr
»eJ

^

^

1^

^

-K5^j

-H^

^

^
e

'f

^)istJ^-^

A"

hcnd zak men zak risk hunt men

zak mahitoncd

maman pavan

yahvonSd zak dgcreft .karttonad huramacha chasun ,shuds

.

avzdcd

avdva-

.

vdgunyen

mdm

saneh rat

e

avands mahitonatan pavan umat

am«i

.

varded

mdm

saneh rdi

e

avands dmat yahvoncd zak

resht

hamahubunacha sham
.

ardiish

andtonad

mdm

saneh vandskdri pavan

tajdred robashna khun mahttonashnt bdzd
^

.

sham

khtir

yahvoned rdi
-^

^^6

m

n^)))^

^-H)0

^

Jh^v^ "O^ei -fj^V
fdvan padash

j)^v

tiil

patct

pavan yahvonatan shdcd

mardum

e

rohan dgh

1

In

D. H.

^))0)

vad6nt

is

added

after

agereft.

M. H.

2

Intead of

avivaresht
)*»^00

D. H. reads:

WO^J) ^OO^^J**

M. H.

3

D. H. has
reads

y?ttan.

M. H. M. H.
J)*»^O0^^fii

4 D. H.

^J-"(5) and

omits 4gh.

5 Instead

of

padash
pavan

t^viln D. H. has

'

M- H.

6 Instead af

patftt D. H. has

^OO'^^ftJ

M' H.

Zanrl-Pahlavl.

37

fcciba

ahu men mun

risk

.

avash tojashna

risk

ydtd

.

tojashna

khor va ardush va avuoaresht va

dgcrcf't

hamgilneh yahvoned and zak

vdgunehcd anddxagihd

ham pavan

kerfchcha karttonelicd ydt va

bd:i;di,

peshotanush

.

karifonehcd hamguneh

padman va mneh

e

sham va

zakdi

c

vands raz

se

chasim

landoandr zand

.pairyctc

lanum

avash va kartlonand tandvandr rdi anddzagihd

ham va hamguneh

tandvandr men va .jdtoned yen vands pavan tandvandr shame va chim

vajdrcd ddd men fidz
1^-f

mun

frdzoshtan
')*»^)>

ait

,jau

.

avzdSd
))ii

--i^

m

n^ey

^^o»

-xj**

^

-Mtit

^y

mamankend pavan goftan dvdcdjaviddk ddd men dghashdenmcn pavan

1

D.

;h.

-jo>*(J)-^

M. H.

2 Omitted in D. H. 3 The passige from

avash

to

ahu

runs as follows
.

in

D. H.:

f^y

^ ^^

.

M. H.
M. M. H.
II.

4 Instead of 5 D. H.

vanis

e

zak^i

D. H. has

A'JW ^gj)^

has

-X^KX which
is

is

probably a mistake,

6 In D. H, there

^^-u

»

M. H,

38

Zand-Pahlavi.

kcrfehd

men pad

dahcshnci

ham

chc

Id

padefrds rueshna tandvandl

ataftddd

.jamananuncd mazadtar vesh tani zakc

e

hdvandish

loct

toeshna va sCid

mun

lihdrashna va

hhoreshna umat

yalwoncd tak

fryoshcd hdvangds pavari nchdzagi

bangam

.

dusancd rakhdr padash

dtarsh asti thripithioodtd ugh jatnananuiicd sakddum

pavan chasun

alha

aiwi-gdme

hlpithwo

hamu

mazdao

ahurahe

amflt

anhomd

e

dtash

alt

pashiin se

maman

.

ashavano

naro

ardvchcsht

chehdr

mun

ahlob gabnd ricdiin damastdn

pavan daUn

.ddsuncd

se

pavan

ac

varhomandtyen ekvtmmicd yahvoned padtsur men

.

hamcst

tobSn

dstonatari

dgh ddnad

peddki bend

.

vichithremchid

1

Instead of

tanavanal,
M. H.

as

the

editor sometimes

writes

D. H.

has con-

stantly tan!ivana,r.

2

D. H.

h;is

^^^

M. H.

3 This passage appears to he an interpolation.
i ;\niat appears to

be miswritten for

ham in.

o 6

D. H.

has -S^fl

After

tobin

D.

II.

inserts

the words;

JU

(2))^

M. H.

Zand-Pahlavi.

39

.

vdt/umjen uhhar

mm

hild

umat yahvoncd zak khroseh

,

khrasyo

zinidar

,

zycid

.

khcstnad ghaii umat yahvoncd zak khisideh

,

void

dzord

satdihd

pcd

azu

satdinch

.hazo

.

dzargihd

dlnd avash

idyush-

.

yahvoncd taraft

dozdihd

taraft

,

tdyo

.

yahvoncd

chamn vandskdr aedan aushdreh dozd

va avshdvch

dozd
\

.

doscha

dasa

pancha

.

tnjashna

avash qahnd va nakad va lord dozdi

panzdch bdzeh-masd

agdhi

vin

ham pavan

,

masdo

sraoni

pasvo

c

sa/i;

t;«

pes/i

c nfnick

cbastin

hdzehmasd

.

panzdch

stna-masd

mdlman
f
do
)

e

jojan dvdzdeh kaspi de gospand chasim

.

stna-masd dkhar
-»)^

^

fiVoV -^tW

eJK^

^^)^

)>

-»"

-O*

^^)^

V
si

c

khorashnacha havand ayov kantah do di
^))\j^

yom kend kantak
^-iflp

-^^

?^

*
c

-^P)eJ

:jM)>

»
e

^«^ 5^S
arzcd kartak

va JamanatiUned rdi bokhtak

purnd gabnd

rodhlk

,

huddshtan khorashna

e

hasp havand vastarg nakad

1

D. H. inserts here

y^j

H. M.

40

Zand-Pahlavi.

XXVT.

Miscellaneous words.

pasu<?o

,

pasushurvan
^))^)^

.

arzdntgihd

mazd
)J<i(\

^

pudhahuhafdem

^)))H5

fi^4)w

^-KiHi

)vwo>M3e)

jy^vwo

.yahvoned haritonad shopunacha sanddri chasun pasushurun shorvan

va yahvoned avam

vaJchshi sdtonatani

,pafraeta

.

avum

,

pdrem

vdzdr-

,

viziita

.

yiihvdncd parvarashna

men arzunik va shapir

tunl

Icavachid

.

yahvoned hdrvarzashnt

,

vavdstrinam

.

yahvoned

gdni

.

ijofteh

rdi jindk Iccnd zamtk denmcn

pavan chigaincha

,

zemo aiihdo

ehadcha

.goftch

rdi

ddasi

kend

,astvat6

anheush

kaschid

ddasi

kend sateh

ahloban

c

zak

chtgdmchd

,

stoish

ashaono

e

3a/i;

me?i dgh

jamandnuncd denmen pavan

,

yactushdda

,

yofteh rui

,nizentcm .sazdktdr

varman nyoshidani va vajidan pavan ekvtmoned

.

zarhoncd khdneh pavan

c

nezand

1

D. H.

-u^^iiitJJiy)
all

.

M. H.

2
3

Thus have
D.
H.

MSS. [SS.
here

M. H.

inserts

^4-

J.

Zand-Pahlari.

41

XXVII. Measures

of length, and of time.

chas^n

,

vitasti

.

angdsht

chehdrdeh chasiin

pde

,

padhem

,

uzashta

.

angdsht

dodzdeh chasiin

,

dishta

.

angdsht

dodzdeh

,

gf^/m

.

ddd

,

gaSm
))e)

.

angdsht
)

hasht
)w
se

dhand
^OO-^^M

hasht
MS)

laid

-iOgj

^M^

^3^0.

A
e

'iS

3i)4)

2-^

4?b

prd- jindh dvdnik pavan

zak va pde

vandiddd pavan zak gam

.

angdsht

zak

chand

,

aStshaya

chavaiti

.

goft

rdst

,

thwdm

antare

dashcha

dvacha

gdmdn

vd

yatha

andarg gam Mstochdr ayov ,rohashna andarg

c

gam

dodzdeh chand

2/yai-

yavad

dakhshmaitish

bishaetavad

.

robashna

chand

yojest

and zak

yojestd

chand dashmcst zak

do

,

astinh

hdthrem
33Jji(y

aetavad
Jfl^
^)(o

bisk

tadhad
i)»)

.

chand tajar zak
yi
.

e

dashmcst

^
.

iiiJ^y

^S

epji^ii^

.

J»-u»*»Xir-.

/tdsar

fa^'ar

cftarad

hdsar and zak

ae

,

tacharem

yavad

42

Zand-Pahlavi.

zamik pavan miuneh

lidsar

vajdrcd
^tfO

padman dgh

ait

dyomeh chand
(S>*toHJ^e)

A*v

)wjv

)^ ^^6 _)>

K

"^''^'^

j^

rotman rohashna mim pde do garni

hazdr karitonad farsangdnacha men

.

anddkhteh shapdn va roz mydneh hdsar e

zamdn

sazashnai

;

sham

uztr

nimd va

,fraiar

.

nimd avash mun yom

,

ay are

zamastan pavan va

.iizirni

nimd va sham rapitavin nimd

uzir

men

men

lelid

,

khshafa

.

yomikhtcd hdvan var rakhdr rapisavm

c

bahr

hvfrd-

.hufrdshmo-dditim

.

pardum

c

bahar hahar

chdr

lelid

uvizagdn

,

crezaurvacsdd

.

dadigar

c

bahar

.

karitonad

shmoddt

,sadigare bahar ,aiwisr(dhrem .bahar do denmen karitonand vardashni

;(/£«

padctsh hoshahin mtin kariloned avzdr

e

hash

,

surdm

usham

fruz

roshnt

,fragai6id

raochahham

.

chahdrfan

e

bahar jdtoncd

,

karitonad

gdsacha hdvan

avash

bam

e

hush

mun

jamtonashni

1

D.

II.

fi^iJ

.

M. H,

Zand-Pahlavi.

43

asf

ftosar

dvdzdeh

,ayare

acjTircm

asti

hdthrem

dvadasah
^

^_3

^ )^
,

^P ,^

j^gj-j^^

gP
roz

^5 ^y :5)^
zak

iS

dodzdeh yen

aghar roz

miin shapan

yoni aghari c zak

ft«sar

.

nitum

e

char o

hist

va

.

myuneh

hist

va

hdsar

,

thrivachahim

hdthrem

nctemem

,

aetem

.

amdr padmdn kahad

,

thrigdmem

gdmahya

tad

.

gohashna

se

padmdn nitum an

tad

dkaeshahe

tad

.

gam

se

c

zak gdman men a6dim

tad

,

gam

se

yen gohds

acdmi ddtohar

acdun

,

vikaiehc

?/e?i

hamdk sakhim dddastan acdun

,

arethavano

tad

arethahc

peshmdl

va pasmdl homnad dddastan

aedun

ddsunashna gdm

se

vajdrSd denmeri ddtohar

,

zushtu

vayo

.

gdm

se

yen dtnd

tani

jamananuned chasun

ait

ayori

e

nyoshiddr va varhomand

e

khdstdr dgh

.

sanjM

drva

44

Zand-Pahlavi.

roeshman khurami va ramashni va shdti va shiim pavan parjvat

zarhonate herpad bmideh din

\ra

napashtam vdje avastdk yahvoned

.

hormazdydr magopat

nasli

men ram pashintan

-==0'

Translatiou.

In the

name

of

God, and

to his praise!

May

this

explanation
is

')

for

understanding the words and phrases of the Avesta,
in

that

the

meaning

which, and

how

(they should be taken), be good (for the reader)!

I.

Numerals.

— paourtm, — paurva, before. — bitim, second. — dvaydo, twofold. Dva, two. — thrayam., threefold. — Tishro, three. — thritim,
Oim,
one.
first.

third.

thrishva,

the third part.

— tuirim, fourth. — pahtahhem, the Pukhdha, — khshtum, Khshvash, — ashtahhum, Haptaiihum, the seventh naomahe, ninth. — dasmaM, tenth.
Chithrushva, the fourth
fifth.

part.

fifth part.

six.

sixth.

part.

the

eighth

part.

I) In

my

MS.

M^

mSim, "on, about,"

is

used instead of
as

^J(^i»J)4

^%i
is

denmen

kor4,sheh.

This appears to be a later addition,

korisheh

no

proper Pahlavi term, but an Arabic expression, khuISisat (the essence of a thing),

which in the meaning of "explanation,
Gujarilti (k

elucidation''

is

very frequently used
India.

in the

hulls 6)

as spoken

by

the Parsis of

Western

M. H.

:

46

Zand-Pahlavi.

II.

Grenders.
and verbs.
Adjectives.

Singular, dual, and plural in nouns

The following words from the Avastdk are
nine,
singular or
plural,

either masculine or femi(adjectives),
is

of

good or bad

qualities

positive,

comparative or superlative , according to the termination which

added

to

them, and with which they are construed, or the adjective to which they
are joined.
as

Their meaning and signification should be taken accordingly
is

they are mentioned in the religion (that

the religious books)
different

;

and

also there are

some words (avastdk) which have some

meaning

fzand).
Genders and numbers of dva, va, "two".

Some

adverbs.

Va, (nom.

accus. of the dual,

masc, instead of dva two) two males.

vaic,

(nom. accus. dual, fem.) two females.

vaibya, (dative and instru-

mental of the dual) for both male and female, and for both food and
clothing,

and

also for

both this and the other world.
joined.

vayo
of

,

(locative

of the dual) two
for both

things

vaydoschid,
(genit.

(genit.

the

dual)

good and bad,

vaydo,

of the dual) for both pious
(genit.
eitlier.

and impious, fasha va darvandj.
for both

vaydo,

of

the

dual)

ways or customs (good and bad).

— vacha,

uhoibya,

(dative of the dual of

uhS both)
Jiadha,

for both worlds (or lives).

Hakered, done
joined.

at

once.

hid, are used

when two

things

are

oithra, separately.

mdad,

together with,

and "not,"

(a negative).

— hakad,
;

at

once.
a

When
death

a

punishment for

crime for one
i.

is

mentioned then one

uses cliikayad

baodhovareshtaM,

e.

he should be punished with two
is
is

(singular)

when

a

punishment
chikacn

for

mentioned
used.

,

chikais

yato (dual); when

for three

(plural)

The Zaml
(for

the same, tojcnd, for two,

or for three,

but the

Avastdk
used.

the

dual and plural)

is

different; for

when two
of,

are spoken of, chikayato,

and when three, or more, are spoken

chikacn

is

Numbers

in the

persona! pronouns
nS,,

;

the different

meanings of the words

vi,

and apa.
,

Yavdkem,
many

of

you two.

yushmdkem
Avastdk

of

you three,

and

if

more,

(or)

are spoken

of,

the

is

the

same

as for three.

thwam,

Zand-Pahlavi.

47

thou.

vo, you, in the Gdthd
dialect,

dialect, ue, you.

n6,

*)

we,

in

the

Gdthd

ne, we.

nd, means

in

some

places

"a man",
in otliers
in

and
it

in others "or".

vi, in

some

places

means "you", and

means "privation," "against", or "without."

apa, means

some

places "water," and in others "back," also "without."

Numbers
If

in nouns.

one grown-up person

is

spoken of,

then perendyush
If

is

used;
is

when two, perendyu; when three, perendyunSm.
ken
if

one

child

spo-

of,

aperendyukd

;

if

two children are spoken of,
If a
is

aperendyulca ; and
of,

three,

aperendyukandm.
if

single

man

is

spoken

narsh;

if

two

men, nara;

three,

nard

used.

Qualities

and appellations of women.

The same

is

the case with the -word

"woman"

as

ndirika

(singular),

ndirikaydo (dual) and ndirikandm,

(plural).
is

When
(singular),
ful)

a

good (virtuous) woman
(dual)

spoken

of,

she

is

called

vanta

vantdhva^)
is
is

and vantanam
is

(plural).

woman
girl

spoken of, she

called je,

jac and
3)

When a bad (lustjaht When an una

married

spoken

of, she

is

called charditi.

Nmdnopathni,
ried

the mistress of the- house.
a bride.


a

demanopathni,
a

newly marbarethri, a

woman,

vidhu, vidhava,

widow.

pregnant woman. — vydkhtihava, dressed or woman. — mdta, mother. — qahha strim, daughter. — hapsnat apno -khavo dha,
a

adorned woman.
a sister.


an

a

'),

dugh-

a

-

,

a

husband having two
is

wives,
orplian.

a

bigamist.

saS,
a

a

child

whose father

not

living,

qasuro^),

falher-in-law.

1)

This word, meaning
I

we,
it

is

translated

by •^)^J you, which being evidently

a mistake,
2)

have corrected

to

py

we.
;

This form does not look like a dual

it

is

the locative of the plural, fem.

M. H.
3)

The MSS. give only the Pahlavi meaning; but the
is

original

word of the

AvastEk

omitted in

all.

I

have inserted

it

from the third Fargard of the Vandi-

did and the Hadokht Nosk.
4)
5)

The Pahlavi meaning of
In all

this

word

is

omitted in D. H.

MSS. both

this

word and

the next were written in Pahlavi characters

48 Hana,
sar
a

Zand-PahlaTi.

man, and

also

a
if

woman.

If

they are 50 years

old,

then they

are called
').

zarman;

they are 70, han;

and

if

90, pddiranshoqualities.

huvirdni, good-looking, and one with the requisite

III.

Parts of the body, and

its qualities
beautiful, of

Hutdtshto, well formed as regards stature.

huraodho,

good

complexion.


,

hukerefsh, well-formed, beautiful.
nisd fNishdpurJ
*).

bdmya,
and

splen-

did, spacious, as

Hordcha, pardcha

tarascha,
all

this side,

and

that side,

across.

hutarest, beyond

sides.

Hugaonem,

the hair of the body, except that of the head.

varsa, the
curls.

hair df the head.

— gacsa
hair.

,

the hair dressed in

two or three
hair.

vohiigaonem, black
skin.

— paourusha-gaonem, grey
There
is a

— pdstaM,

sura,

— pasu-vastrahe,
in the

(gen. sing.) wearing a dress of skin.

the skin of a living man.

AMha,
as

the skin of the head.

large
:

aedha and
heriti

a small

aMha,
?

mentioned
is

Nahddum
skin
is

fNoshJ

kaya

masyahho aedha
skull.

which

the large
,

(of the

head) ?


of

yo aparaya paiti
the

masays,

straghnya
it

that

which

on the back
ear.
is

Afarg

is

from the back of the


the

kaya kasyahho
small

?

yd paouraya
which
is

paiti

mastraghnaya

,

which

aedha?

that

on

the forehead.

Vaghdhanem, head,
passage quoted).
the

as

it

is

mentioned

(in the

Nahddum Nosk,

in the of

narsh vaghdhanem, one who shakes the head
is

man,

(without a SagdidJ

a

sinner.

vanam,

or shakes any of the skull bones.

— aslem acvo mastra— vispacha yd mastraIn

instead of tliose of the AvastJi, whicti D. H.
1)

I

restored here in their original form.
is

qasur6

is

omitted, but

its

Pahlavi meaning
third,

given.

In the Pahlavi

commentary on the

and seventh fargards of the Ven-

didid, where
of the z

these

words occur, the age of the

hana

is

stated at forty,

and

that

arm an at fifty years. 2) B^mi is taken by the from bim, "the dawn", but it
as a country, as will be seen
as

Dasturs in the meaning of "splendid" and derived
appears to

me

that

it

also

means "wide", "spacious",

from the

first

fargard

of the

Vendid4d,
the

as well

from the instance above.

B^mi

and

bam fen,
HerM.

are

also

names

of large

towns, the former in Balkh, and the latter in

Zand-Pahlavi.

49
slcull
is

ghnam amasta
pass the

')»

all

striking

by which the

injured (pierced)

should be taken as (the act of a) tandvandr, (the sinner
bridge Chinavad
tlie
»).

who cannot

— qardchithrem
for

aStee

anyS chikayatd,
of wounds)
for

they undergo
the other the laead,
calls

punishment
just as

a

hhor
is

(inflicting

(parts),

that

which

mentioned for (wounding)
brain (head);
so

skull,
a

and the other parts

of the
a

one

him

criminal
;

who

strikes

a

foot,

bone, the fleshy
a bone,

parts,

or the brain (]head)
the

every one

who breaks
for

should undergo
other (parts of

punishment of
s).

a

tandvanar

(injuring)

the

the body)

Ainiko, forehead.
or eyelashes.

— urua, — ndohha,
lips.

face.

doithra, eye.

pashnem,

eyelids

nose.

uzyazddna, bridge

of the nose,

or nostril.
ling.

dontydo, pardontydo, breathing, inhaling and exha-

aoshtra,


teeth.

dantdno,

teeth.

dohha, mouth.

sparhha, gums of the

Words
Hizva, the tongue.

relating to speecli.

sanhem,

— vdkhsh, voice, a sound. — vacha, a word. — dzaintivaitish, with a meaning or
translation contains

utterance.

signification.

d)

The Pahlavi
was

more than the Zand

original; the latter

may

be translated as follows: "every one
a one
to be taken for a

who

thought of skull- breaking".
is

That such

tanS-vanSir,

either

an addition of the translator,
out by the transcriber.

or the Zand original conveying this sense has been
2)

left

The passages
from the

from

narsh-vaghdhanem
Nosk, but incomplete.

to

qarochithrem
place for

are quota-

tions

Nahadum
when

They very

likely refer to

some

surgical operation, or

the construction of a temporary
the winter

disposing of the

dead,

at times, to

or weather

may have been

too severe to allow
is

them

be taken out to the Tower of Silence.

This temporary place
or thrJiy6kata,
feet of

called in
is

the Sth fargard of the VendidSid

daity6-kata,

and

descri-

bed

to

be so formed, that the head, body, hands, or

the corpse

touch the walls or any other surrounding parapet or railing of the

may not kata (see Ven-

did4d

5,

H.

ed.

Westergaard) ; but here both the Avesti (Zand original) and Zand
I

(Pahlavi translation) are very corrupt and obscure.
the ideas which they contain, but
3)
it

have given,

in the translation,

is

very

difficult to give

an exact rendering.
etc.

The

translation of the
I

commentary on qarochithrem
it.

has been

left

out

by Destur Hoshengji.
for a

have supplied

The meaning

is,

that the punishment

khor,

i.e.

the inflicting of wounds, remains the same whichever part of the
if

body may have been injured; but
heavier.

a bone should be broken, the punishment

is

M. H.
7

50

Zand-Pahlayi.

sw«,

not envious, kindly disposed; handsome; exalted.

hito, ease;

exalted.


-

dahro, wisdom.

— namravdkhsh,
berezata vacha

words of benediction.


se-

qtemchid

sahhem

,

dark

(mysterious) words.


,

gudhrd-sahho.

cret words.

haithem-vachdo,

simple, or plain words.
witli a

khruzh-

da-vachdo,
high words.

iiarsh words.

loud voice, or

khshayad-vdkhsh, proper words, or royal words.
bold speech, or victorious words.


'),

amavata vacha,
salutary speech.

vakhshahha
,

brings victory

— vukhsh-beretibyo vdrethraghnibyo speech — rathwydo ukhdhdo, good words. — and
whicli

success.

ukhdhemsrtrem pairishtem avastdtem dereto sraoshem,
well-considered, dignified

a matured,
ac-

and orderly speech, which

is

composed

cording to

rule.

ukhdhashna mashyo vahhdo yatJia dahhro
fully

ukhdho vachdo, one who
(poetry)
is

understands the composition of words

as

good

as

a poet.

mraod, he
say

said (imperf.

of the

verb

mru

"to say").

mravad, he may
olmru).

(3'^

person singular of

the conjunctive, present tense,

— mru (imperative) speak! —
words of
assent.

puityddha, answering.
gushta- sdsndo,

paitiasto vachdo,

listening to advice, or following avdvice.

Gaosh,

ear.

— haoio,
part.

dashino,

left

and

right.

— paro,

pascha, backwards

and forwards; before and

beliind.

adharo, uparo, lower part and
in all directions.

upper

us, up, high.

vispS-naSmam ,
'^),

pdiri, surrounding.

hahhuharene

jaws, or jaw-bones.

pas-

cha vaghdhatiem^), the back

of the head.



arethndo,

Continuation or the parts of the body.

Manothri*), neck.
elbow.

daosha, shoulder.

bdzava, arm.


is

zasta, hand.

chidkadhavato farashnachandj, an arm's

1)

This

probably a mistake for
of Ihis

vakhshvanha.
all

2)

The meaning
it

word

is

omitted in

MSS., here
In

I
it

have restored and
is

explained

from

Yasna
is

11, 4. ed. Westergaard.

Pahlavi

translated with

yjiyiii, which

rendered by Dastur

Di\rJib Plihalan,
it

in his Persian version, as

"jawbones", though some Dasturs take
guess, as in the Vendida,d "left ear"
3)
is

for "left ear" also;

but

this

is

a

mere

expressed

by havya gaosha.
of

This

is

translated

by J)«0^vaghdiln only, the meaning
all

pascha, "be-

hind", being omitted in
4) Corrected

MSS.
see Vendidild i3, 37. ed. Westergaard.

from

manaothri,

Zand-Pahlavi.

51
handful.

length,
inch).

a cubit.

nmshta-maso,

a

— —

erem,
little

finger (an
finger.


arazdn, frdrddhdn, the forefinger and the
a

fravdkhsh,
breast.

horny substance

like the nail.

varo, the bosom, the

fshtdna, breast fpistan, in Persian).
breast.

ashaydo, the part

between the shoulder and



2).

kashaihya, armpit.

uruth')•

ware,

belly.

ndfd, the navel,
part
of the foot

ushadhdm,

the backbone

vahhdm, upper
dria).

paresu, the side (hypochon-

— barozhdahum,

sushi, lungs.
intestine.

the upper part of the side.
heart.

— pasdnd,
liver.

the bo-

som.

vatem,a gut,

the gall-bladder, bile.

— ydkare, the — eredhaSm, — — spereza, the spleen, the — veretka, kidney. — frashnem %
milt.

— ur—
*).

zdrascha,

testicles.

sraoni, the buttocks.

— hakhta,
of urine.

the sexual parts (male or female)
testicle,

the — fravdkhsh, male organ generation. — erm, the — — khshudrdo, semen, sperm or — maesma, scrotum. shdma, the excrement. — dhadhahha, the backside. — rdna, the
seed.

1) The editor and translator has left this difficult word without any translation. The rendering 'backbone" has been added by me. I followed the original reading of tbe MSS. posht-i-tiz, which has been changed by the Destur to post-i-tiz in

his edition (pag. 10, lin. 8).

The reading adopted by him
would

I

cannot understand,
is, I

as

post-i-tiz could only mean "a sharp skin", but what that
If

am

unable to say.

we

adhere to the original posht-i-tiz then
is,

it

literally

mean "a sharp
This

back"; which
interpretation

in all probability, a technical

term for the backbone, the spine.

is

supported by the

fact,

that

we do not meet

in this very copious

enumeration of parts of the body with any other term which

signifies

'backbone". M. H.

2)

The two words,

ushadhim

and

vanhim

are

translated in

PahlaTi with
andpost-i-

''posht-i-tiz" and "posht-i-pahan",

which should

be, Ithink, post-i-tiz

"pahan" have any connexion with posht, vanbim means blood, or "bloody part". In the 3'* fargard of the Ven(back), did^d the word "pknsto-frathanhem" is translated in Pahlavi with post pahni; but the Zand word here is quite different from that of the Vendidid; therepavan khun,
as neither

"tiz" nor

fore

I

believe they

were miswritten
appears to

in

Pahlavi
"spinal

for

p6st-i-tiz and post-i-pavan
it is

khun.
Sanscrit

[vanhftm

mean

the

marrow";

identical

with the

vas^ "marrow".
This

The

translation

"upper part of the foot" cannot he right. M. H.]
in D. N.
is

3)

word

is

translated in

Pahlavi by kumifc which
"it

translated

into Persian
4)

by kh4,yegln ba,shed,
MS. there
is

may mean

testicles".
is restricted

In

my

a Persian

gloss in

which the expression

to

the sexual parts of females.

M. H.

52
thigh.

Zand-Pahlavi.

zhniim, the knee.

— paitishtdna,
from heel

foot.

zehha

,

the leg.

— frahda,
Qaedhem,
kerepemcha

a bridge of the foot
sole of the foot.

to toe, or a foot's length.

hakhem, the

perspiration, spittle, sweat.
'),


vohuni, blood.

astern, bone.
brain.

a

body of

a

man

or animal.

— mazgemcha,
apaitirita

hahhdma^),

joints of the body.

varedha,

fatness, or obesity.

— —
at-

drvatdtem, doing well, vigour, health.
tainment of one's
controlled power.

vaso-khshathram , the
^

own

desire.

— tanvaecha
to
e.

khshayamana haosravahhem urunaccha dareghem
an unto

havahhem, comfort
for a long time
(i.

body and freedom from death
and long
life).

the

soul

health

hvad vispo ahhush

astvdo azareso amarshd afithyo apayd dareghem

yad yave

vispdi,

may

all

this

world be without decay, mortality, hunger or

thirst for

a long time, for ever!

Aspo aghryotemo dahhve varemano ashta gavam azindm arejo
most excellent horse,
i.

,

a

e.

a

mare which has been milked, has the
(if

value of four cows and four goats to a governor

presented

to

him).

ly.

The
it

relative

pronoun; some adverbs, derived

from

(yatha, yathra).
tidiri

Words beginning with
that thus both,
6.

j.

Yathd dad utd nd vd

vd vacdhd hdithm,

man

and woman, may publicly knowl
zd,
so


^).

(Yasna 35,

W.).

yatha tm

much

of

this earth.

nitemchid avacshdm stdrdm yatha

narsh madhmyehc vaghdhanem
the middle of a man's forehead.

Each

setting

of those stars

is

as

1)

The Desturs take

this also in

the sense of "corpse" or "carcase''.
in

2) In

Pahlavi

it

is

-^J**

•^flr-";

Persian

the word

firanj

means

also

"elbow".
3)

^
are evidently
is

This, as well as the following passage,
or, rather, astrological

taken from some astroare torn out of

nomical

work, which

now

lost.

As they

their connection, a correct understanding

of them will he for ever impossible.
it

The
its

several

words of

this passage

are

clear

enough; but

is

difficult

to

state

even

general sense.

The meaning appears

to be: "as often as those stars are setting, they

touch the middle of a man's forehead,
his fate
is

and have him thus always

in their

power;

indissolubly connected with them".

This was really the belief of the an-

cient Persians, as

any reader of Pahlavi books may know.

M. H.

Zand-Pahlavi.

53
(The Pahlavi translation
is

Yatha

ashtish paityahmi
')•

atha hunem

d.

here unintelligible)

The meaning

of

yathrd

in all places
is

is

"where" or "there".

— yathrd
,

ashd hachaitc drmaitish, where there
the drmaiti

the ashavahishta (purity), with

(contentment).


as

yathrd avad hvare uzditi, where the
where
other places or comto
all

sun

rises.

yathrd vu Ahuro - mazddo fradathem bakhshad
prosperity
for ever.

Ormazd may grant you
parisons

In

all

ydthacha

is

used,

yathacha kahmdichid, thus

and

every one individually.
In
in other

the

Gdthd
(the

dialect

ye means

"that",
is

"who"
in

and
its

"he who";
but the

places
is

common Zand) yd
ye

used

place,

meaning
sage in

the same, as "that",

"who", (compare,

for instance, the pas-

the

Gatha dialect),
cattle

gdmchd ashemchd ddd (Ormazd), he
(or
light,
as
fire,
etc.);

who

created

and

also

purity

(with

the

common
not

Zand) yd natri peremndi
to
(his)

mid
as

paiti dadhditi, he who does

give answer

adversary,

we should not

give

answer

to

an adversary.

Gdlumcha varascha zarvdnemcha, "pavan parezvan ddtobar gds var — Vispacha ahubya ratubya ^) dditya rathwya frd va zamdn'''
">).

1)

The Pahlavi
ft,

translation omits the last three
its

words

of the
is

Zand

passage,

atha

bunem

allogether;
is

rendering of the

first

three words
is

hardly

intelligible.

The Zand ashtish

translated

by ashteh which

evidently the
is

same word, and Zend

paityahmi by padireh
the Pahlavi translation
direct.
is,

"acceptable, accepter",
in this place, of

which

probably only a guess. As
to axplain the

no use, we must try

Ashtish, which

is

not found

in

any passage of the now existing Zand-avasta,
or from

can be derived either from ashta

"eight",

ash, "to reach, arrive".

If

derived from ash la,

it

could

mean

only 'a set of eighl', or 'a period of eight days'.

As such an explanation does not
the

bring any sense into the passage,
in the

we

better derive
astro-

word from ash, and
prononu) and

take

it

meaning of

arrival.

It is,

no doubt, an

nomical term as well as
like a

paityahmi (probably

locative

of paiti wtiich is declined

bunem. As
nadir.

the two latter words are evidently opposed to one
I

another,

and

bunem

means 'bottom, ground',

take the

first in

the sense of ze-

nith, the

latter in that of

The passage may be
(is its arrival) at

translated as follows:

"as

the arrival (of the star) at the zenith, so
2)

the nadir".

M. H.

This and the following passage are evidently either interpolations, or quota-

tions

which have been mutilated,

as

they

have

neither

a

connection with the

preceding nor the following sentences, in which the use of the relative particle y6, y6, and its genders and numbers are mentioned. They appear to refer to judicial

54

Zand-Pahlavi.

raithya ashahe ddtdish vahishtahe
chieftainship
is

,

and

all

(kind of) authority and

to

proceed justly and in a good and
i.

proper manner

through Asha-vaJiisht,
Yd,
i.

e. If

purely

')•

6.

who, which.

one and more are spoken

of,

yo

2)

is

used, as yo
that

naSrc aokhtc frd
punished

mc

chichi,

just as

one

tells

the

men

they are to be
or
the

severely.

For the dual of the mas-

culine,

singular
'^) ,

of the feminine,

yd

is
i.

used,
e.

as

yd nara
*).

gdtum

baraite

which two

men

bring time,
*)
,

appoint a time
slay
as
I

yehyd veredd vanacmd drujim

that
^)
,

we may
as

the druja

by that army.


will

yavad
I

isdi

tavdchd

much

have the

means

so

much

desire

purity (meritorious works).

yarning

proceedings, just as the preceding sentence

from the same work.

y6 naSrfe etc., and are very likely taken The Pahlavi explanation, of which Destur Hoshengji has given
as follows: a "plaintiff requires a judge, a place

no translation, may be translated
(tribunal), a

board

(to write his

complaint on), and a time (for hearing)".
to the Persian

parfezvSin,
suffix trans-

or perizpS-n can

be only traced

periz "a complaint" with the
is

vSin or pin, "having a complaint",
lated,
3)
1)
is

var by which the Zand varas(cha)

probably identical with the Persian var "a board to write upon".

M. H. M. H.

This
I

word has been omitted

in the text, but

it

is

found

in

D. H.

cannot agree with the above translation of
strictly

my
all

learned friend, which he has

made without

adhering to the Pahlavi in this place, but would propose the
things that are proper (and)

following rendering of this incomplete passage: "and

seasonable for the two lives (which are)

the chiefs, are to proceed according to the
are datives of the dual, and cannot
hves'' are this life,

laws of Asha-vahishta''.

Ahubya

and

ratubya

be translated as nominatives of the singular.

The "two

and the

next, and are often mentioned in the Zand-avasta.
the laws
of nature, as the
original

The 'laws
is

of Asha-vahishta' are

meaning of asha

not "purity", but 'going
is

on

in a regular
;

way,

regularity'.

The Pahlavi

translation of this passage
:

hardly

intelligible

it

appears to express the following sense

"all

mastership, and justice and

chieftainship,
2)

and excellence are
is

his laws (the laws of Ashavahisht)".

M. H.

This statement

not correct;
plural
is

y6

is

only the singular of the mascuUne of
In the
plural of

the relative

pronoun; the

y6i; that of the neuter ya.

MSS.
ttie

of the

Zand-avasta

we

find indeed in several places
for instance,

y6 used

as the

relative

pronoun; see,
3)

VendidM

2, 39. 41. 42. in the editton

of Westergaard.

M. H.
This
is

here evidently a 3* person dual, present tense, middle voice;

it

stands

instead of barafttS.
4) 5)

M. H.
4.

See Yasna 31,

M. H.

Yasna 43,

9.

M. H.

Zand-Pahlavi.

55
(chinvad)

'peresd jimaiti

')

,

the whole

bridge

goes on the way to

heaven aud

hell.

Yavata gaya Javaiti, may they
rata
*),

live for ever!

yavata gayehe ma-

young Gayomart (name
yava, means
')

of the

first

king of the Peshdadian dy-

nasty.

in

some
it

places reckoning of a period, as
is

yava

aetc

ahhem

zarathushtra,

their period.
*).

Yoghedha fraeazaite, by

joining will be born
,

yoishlo

thwakhsM-

tdo hvoishto paitishdthrdo

the

one who

exerts

himself less should
a

be

a

dependant, and the one who exerts himself more should be

commander.
Yiizhem yd yiishmukcm. you who are men.
Yulchta pourushaspo, yvjiti tS yoi puthra thraetaonahe ,
those sons of

Feridun

are very industrious

").

yukhta-chathware- aspahc, power

of four strong horses.

Ydtem gacthandm,

share, the fortune of this world

(i.

e.

any wealth or

estate in this world).

— ydtem

astryehS, sorcery should be punished.
sorcerers and
fairies.

— ydthwam pairikanamcha^
Ydohhya avareta,
small fortune.

ydskerestemem, most

efficacious.

1)

Yasna 48,

2.

Instead
as
it

of peresfi,
is

peretha must
'bridge'

be read,

if

the Pahlavi

translation be

correct,

rendered by
is

(perethu).
guess.


takes
it

y:\m6ng

is

translated
2)

by

hamk
yuvan

'all',

which

certainly a

mere

M. H.

This passage

is

hardly

intelligible.
is

The Pahlavi

translator

yavata
M. H.

in

the sense of
It is

'young' which

not possible without changing
of the Iranians
is

into

yuvata.

doubtful whether Gayomart, the
3)

Adam

meant here.

Instead of

anhem

{!«' pers. sg. imperf.)

we

expect here

anhen

(3''pers. pi.

imperf.), as the first does not give
4)

any sense.

M. H.
it

The meaning

is

doubtful. I have translated

according to the Pahlavi. [The

translation appears to

be incorrect; frafiazaitS cannot be derived from the root
translator has
is

zan
to for
is

"to produce, to be born", as the "to worship", as the 6
after

done; but

it

is

to

be traced

yaz
ya.

fra

either a contraction of
(his

aya, or stands

The meaning probably

is:

"he prays having joined

hands)";

yoghedha
H.]

not the past participle of the root yuj "to join", but an adverb derived from the
suffix

same root by means of the
5)

dha

which serves such

a purpose.

M

This passage
is

is

not completely translated in the Pahlavi,
in the

as the

name

of

Pourushasp
is

mentioned
it

Avast

Si

(Zand), but omitted in the Pahlavi. [Yujiti
its

not correct;

ought to be yujfiinti, or yujyfiinte, to correspond with
in the plural.

noun

puthra, which

is

M. H.]

56
Yctre-drdjo vird-ma%ahli6 ,
(1.

Zand-Pahlavi.

for a year (he will
a

be subject
to

to) vironii

e.

a sin

committed by the breach of

promise

the value o

human

being, whether slave or betrothed).
if it

Yacshenta patenta, seething;
ter), that
it

(the pot) boils over,

it

spills (the

^

falls

out,


live

acshentem dpem, boiling water.
long
').

yach

zacmano, may they

Yaoshchini surahc fydn^) avzdr), fortunate,
Thri-yakhshtischa
the
,

victorious.

three twigs of the

harsom,

(an

implement used
other ceren

Parsi priests,

when performing " yazashm'"'' and
the passing of the clouds.

nies).

yayata dunma,

Yozhdanahe ddra,
procurable,

a razor for shaving.
(i.


if

yedhiU

yaetatare^),

if it
tl:

or not procurable

e.

they have

any means

1)

This translation cannot be correct, as the Pahlavi

word

mad

does uot m(
ren(

"long", but "he has come".
the Superlative
is

Thus the Pahlavi translators of the Zand-avasta
deriving
it

yafetushtema,

from the root

i,

or yl,

"to go".
is

T
]

only a guess, as this meaning does not suit the sense.
it

As the word

here

together with words signifying "to boil, to seeth",

may

appear to have a simi
it

meaning.
lifies
is

In Vispered 11,

3.

(W.)

we
it

find
is

yafetushischa zaothrSo, where
also

qi

the holy-water (zaothra).

As

used of the
it

fire

(Yasna

1, 2.),

whi
i

said to be the

yafitushtema

of all the angels,

cannot have that meaning

boil),

but

it

appears to signify 'agile', which would be in the case of water "hi
fire

bing up", and in that of

"blazing up".
it is

The

root

is

yat

"to

be

active,

make
voice.

exertions"

;

as to the form, of the

the participle of the perfect tense in the acti
(genit. sing, of

The meaning

word zaeman6
it,

zafiman) cannot
meani
j

"may

they live"! as the Pahlavi renders
5.),

as

za6man

is

a substantive,

probably "activity" (see Yasna 44,
"to live".
2)

and no verb, nor traceable to the root

M.

II.

According to Dr. Haug the term ))H^ (See G;\thas of Zarathustra
signify "

I,

pagg.

41-4
;

yin
it

in Pahlavi does not simply

magnitude, good, happy" as explained

b

means any thing seen
the Sanscrit
silra

in a state of ecstacy.

The word -»•/>» sura

is

to be trac

to

"a hero"; which

is

always explained in Pahlavi by 3iiJ\
are not translated in the
origir

avzir.

The words yokhshtay6 ava baret^m,

MSS.
3)

The form yafttatare appears
t

to

be the

3'^

person dual, present tense, of
etc.

t

root y a
lation

(See

my

Essays on the Sacred Language,

pag. 78.).

The Pahlavi
at

trar
it

appears to contain a perception of this verbal

form being a dual,

translated

by an

alternative sentence.

M. H.

Zand-Pahlavi.

57
for

should do

it,

otherwise

it

is

optional

them

to

do).

— —

yazush

puthro ahuro mazddo, the sublime son of Ahuromazdd.
aSsha,
if ')

yaz-

2/««o beretdbyd

fzaothrdbydj by virtue of

that well-

made zor

(by taking

zor in the yazashne ceremony).
receiving
of the
first

yashtd

mantd (pourwy6*)
saredha, cereals.

the

measure,
I

yavaM


is

yazdi
in

dpem frazddnaom,

pray to the water,

Frazddn, which

Sistan.
I

yasnemcha vahmemcha uzascha

zavarascha dfrmdmi,

bless with

my

praise, sacrifice, and with
,

all

my

might.

— yavaScha

yavaStdtaScha

for ever

and ever.

V.

Words beginning with
In

ka, kae, khsh, sh, etc.
religious

Dkaesho.

most places

it

means

order,

commandment, and

also a Destur, or a judge, as in the passage:

ko asti clkaSshd vivish-

ddto, who

is

the

judge gifted with discernment?


,

y6 acta pairi
(a

arelhra frazdnaiti, one who can discern a case, from
is

few) words,

an

dgdhddd

(a

competent judge)

;

but one

who

notwithstanding
is

his hearing for

much, cannot understand anything from
(an incompetent judge).

it,

to

be taken

an

andgdhddd

Vastrdd vacha kashdo bdmanydo,

a small, wide, silken dress

3),

1) This word is rendered in Pahlavi by yazaSsha means "thou shall worship".
2)

J

"ra", which

is

evidently wrong;

See Yasna 31

,

7.

The Pahlavi

translation
of the

which
;

is

here found, agrees with
its

the one given
doubtful.

by the Pahlavi

translators

Yasna

but

correctness

is

very
(the

Yashti

(instead of yas-t&) is rendered
it

by mad, "he has come";
is

meaning "receiving", given to
lators derived the
tically impossible;
is

by Destur Hoshengji
from the root
in the
if

unknown

to

me); the transis

word

therefore,

yS.

"to come", which

gramma-

mantS, they take

meaning of

padm^n
it

"measure", which

another grammatical impossibility;

taken as a noun,
signifying
that

can be only a
it

nomen

actoris, from the root

man

"to think",
it;

"a thinker"; but

never can

mean "measure"'
form mS,na.
In

or anything like

in

case
I,

my work

on the Githas (see
this first"
i.

pag.

we should have to expect the H. 131. 32.) I have rendered
it.

the whole passage:

"who thought

e.

invented
is
;

I

took manta, as a verit

bal form

(3''

pers. sing, aorist,

middle voice) which

grammatically possible;

may,

however, be taken in the sense of a

nomen
was

actoris

but the meaning of the sentence

would remain the same.
3)

M. H.
left

The
it

translation of this passage
here.

out in Destur Hoshengji's MS.
to

I

have

supplied

The Pahlavi rendering does not appear
it

be correct, as vacha
cha), or "speech"; as

cannot mean "small";

means

either

"two" (from dva with

8

58
Karasho,
a

Zand-Pahlavi.

zone,

climate.

karasho-rdzam vydkhanam,
to the

a

good

a(

ministrator of a zone,
of

who belongs
>)•

assembly

(i.

e.

well spoke

by the assembly of the good
or seven zones.
i.

hapta

karshudm^
circles.

the sevf

countries,
Shalt


lines

karshaschid frakdrayoish ,
in

thou

draw the kcsh,
fit

e.

magical

zemd karsl
karshtij,

vdo, land

for tilling.

karshteS, (dative

singular of

field for corn.

khshathro, master, ruler, lord.

shoithro, a coui
*),

try,

a region.

khshayo, the king.

sessing.

perty.
living,
praise.

— khshaeto, splendor — shydto, — shaito, — khshuidha, residence. — khshnuta, pleased,
ease.
hail *).

(as in light).

— khshayamana — shaeto,
sweetmeat,

ruling, po

wealth, pn

marriage, merriment.
a

sweetness.

— —

shieit
stuii

satisfied.

Parshva, snow,

shustem, melted, dissolved.

shutasmS,

lar

the latter

meaning

is

inadmissible here,

we

can only apply the

first.

Kashao

b

many^o
is

are (grammatically) genitives of the dual from

kasha, and bAmani; kasl

identical with the Sanscrit

kaksha,

Persian
1

kash, "the armpit", and appears

have the sense of sleeve in

this passage.

render the Zand words: "a dress wi

two wide
1)

sleeves".

M. H.

ofkarash6, karsh6 is to be written. The Pahlavi translation karsh6 does not mean kishvar, "a zone", which karshvare in Zand, but "a line", "ploughing", "a furrow". Vy^khanSi appea to mean "congregation", and not "belonging to a congregation". I render the U
Instead
neither exact nor correct;

words: "the congregation for superintending ploughing".

Compare

the fratres a

vales
2)
1

of the

Romans.

M. H.

The names
2
7

of the haft

kishvar "seven kishvars"

in Pahlavi are as follow 5

Arzeh,

Shaveh,

3

Fardidafsh, 4 Verdedafsh,

Vauru,

6

Vaur
M. H.

zaresht,
3)

Khunaras b^mik.
3'^

The Pahlavi has the

and not the

2'^

person, as the Zand has.
the

4)

Khshayamana
are taken
'Tay all
to

as well as

patakhshi, by which

word

is

rendered
',

the Pahlavi,

by the Desturs

also in the sense of "certainty

"withe

any objection",

means", or "they are permitted to do so".

[Khshayama;
its

apaitirita appears
striking

have been a
title

title

of kings.

It

bears,

as to

meaning,
i.

resemblance to the

maharajasa apadihatasa ^aaddas
M. H.]

dvixytov,

"the invincible king" on the Indo-Bactrian coins.
5)

In

Pahlavi

this

word

is

rendered by
is

word

itself;

but the meaning here

taken from
is

parashveh, which is the origh Yasna, 68, 6. Westergaar
by "snow"

where the word parshuyio occurs and
"hail".

translated in Pahlavi

Zand-Pahlavi.

59

prepared for sowing
utensil, pot.

').

shudhem, hunger.


it

shemm
after.

»)

,

sword,

Mishim, lamentation.

shaoshaiti,

goes.

fshu, before.

khshtdt, he goes, stays.

fshyo,

andhita,

unpolluted, pure.

VI.

Words beginning with ma, ma,
these syllables.

or containing

Mayad

,

destruction, decay.
(a negative).

maitc,

a

measure.
In

mam,
places

I,
it

me.

ma, not

mdo,
as,

the moon.

some

means

"measure" and "appropriate";
requisite knowledge.
as

Jchratumdo, one who possesses the
as the

— mdi,
all

the

same

preceding word (measure),

vispem mdiahuhe,

the

measures of Meher (mithra) the posalso a

sessor of wide pastures.

mdta, mother, and

measure.

VII. Vi^ords beginning with
Amdta,
tried,

a,

a,

an, ai, etc.

experienced,

examined

(as a

medical man).


amana

(andmdta?) unexamined.

amesha, immortal.
etc.).

anaghra, ever-

lasting, endless (as, light, lustre,
ill-will.

ainitoid, without hatred, or

ainitoisli

^),

poor, one without

money

or means.

airishto,

1)

This word

is

rendered in Pahlavi by S'^)Hi> which

I

read

shumaz (shdmiz
Pah-

in Persian). 2)

^
this appears to stand for

Some MSS. read shnem, but
)

shenem. The

lavi translation is
is

^?,^

>

which can be read

either

deg

or

tegh; but the former

the
3)

most

usual.

Both words, ainit6id and ainit6ish, are evidently only two cases of the
latter the genitive,

same word, ainiti, the former being the ablative, the

and can-

not have such widely different meanings, as assigned to them here, by the Pahlavi
translators.

They appear
But
in,

to

have

confounded ainiti with
to

ainishti, the
"sin, hatred",

latter

meaning "poverty"; ainiti they seem
the negative
a.

have traced to afinanh,

with

this appears to

be nothing but an etymological guess.
should
expect aininiti,

If deri-

ved from a root

"to hate",

the negative a takes the form of

we an

and not ainiti, as

before words commencing with a vowel.

We

have therefore to derive the words either from an
haps from the root an, "to breath, to blow",
vation; as niti can only

+

iti, or
I

from a -f-niti, or perprefer the second deri-

(in Sanscrit).

mean "the

state of being

down, oppressed", ainiti must
in

mean "ease",

"easiness*.

This appears to

be really the meaning of the word


60
not wounded, uninjured.
visible,

Zand-Pahlavi.

achithd, unpunishable.
dust,

achithro,

in-

unproduced.
exist.

avare,

earth
well,

').

astdto,

one who

does not

apvatic"^), to
it

know

to

understand fdly.
^)


,

means topmost). — aspereno — as and he pers. was imdirem or dirham. — asta, bone. — astaishwm, one who — dsu^ of as

apemo
perf.

,

endmost , (sometimes

a

as,

(she,

it)

(3*

sing,

to be).

swift.

asks for an arrow, one
dstc,

who wishes

for an arrow, (a warrior, or soldier).

he

is

sitting (present tense of

as "to
*).

sit").

— a*),

that, this.

dh-

mdi,

to that, to

him. — amhdi, victory

— ahmdkem, we
34. 51. as

(genit. plur.,

Yasna 58,
vashis.
1)

4.

West.; compare ainita Yasht 13,

an epithet of the FraM. H.

This meaning rests on nothing but an erroneous identification of the Zand
is

avare, which
(avas
2)

a G^tha form of the

common avanh, av6,
is

"help, assistance",

in Sanscrit) with the Pahlavi

avra, "dust", which
be

a purely Semitic word.

M. H.

The correct form appears
it

to

apavatayS,
But
this

dative of

apavati.

The Pahit

lavi translator derives

from apa-vat, "to know, to understand", and takes
interpretation
is

in

the sense of an infinitive of the purpose.
as

very doubtful,
I

we
it

should, in that case, expect a crude form
as the negative of

apavataiti, or apavatana.
M. H.

take

pavati, "putrefaction", meaning 'exemption from
That
it

decay'.

3)

This

is

a very remarkable word.

means a

particular weight,

and not

a coin, as coins were

unknown

at the

time of the composition of the Zand-avasta

(we

fin

d nowhere any trace of them), follows from the inscription on a bronze weight
in Asia Minor.
:

which has been found near Abydos
Aramajan character, and runs

The

inscription

is

in the ancient
I

as follows

^<SD^

'']

N''~iriD

^Dp^ pBDX, which
i.

read

and explain: asparan leqabbel satirayyi zi kaspi,
ing) the silver-staters" (a silver-stater
is

e.

"an asparan for (weigh-

equal to two drachmas or dirhems).

The

in-

terpretations mentioned

by

J.

Brandis in bis valuable work '^Das Miinz-,
bis

Mass- und

Oewichtswesen in Vorderasien
(pag. S4, 2.)

auf Alexander den Grossen.
and unphilological.

Berlin 1866."
cannot mean
It is

are

destitute

of sense,

Satarayy^
have taken
it.

"satraps", or "conservators of silver", as the interpreters

precisely

the Pahlavi-Persian istir,

the
jio

name

of a particular weight,

and

identical -with the

Greek axmriq, which

is

by

means a Greek, but a foreign word, which the Greeks

borrowed, along with their weights, from the Babylonians.
question represents a talent, the highest unit of weight
4)

The asparan-weight
the Greeks.
it

in

among
to

M. H.
is

This

word has never

in

Zand the meaning assigned
like the

here

;

it

every-

where a preposition, or postposition,
pear to have identified
5)
it

Vedic

H.

The Pahlavi
M. H.

translators ap-

with the Pahlavi

M,

"this".

This meaning appears to rest on a complete misunderstanding, as

amhii

Zand-Pahlavi.

6i
atha., thus.

"of us").

a

'),

to.

— aad, then. — M, — adha, then. — — dfha, smoke. — agha^ badness, wickedness. —
thus,

dzoish, the

dzish deva, one

who

is

opposed

or an

antagonist

to

khorddd amcovetous-

shdspand (dz
ness,
etc).

in Persian

means

also passion, lust,

avidity,

— aghra, aghrem, sraghrem, uppermost, the highest or — ddhdta, born in prosperity, lucky. — arura^), a — aurvad, of gentle breeze, a horse). — awra, zephyr. — aora, here; good-looking. — arena^ unopposed. — — aethrapaitish, a herbad, the or order a arem, contented, content; complete. — aratd-kerethino celebrated
superlative.
clothes.
suit

swift (as

a

this side,

first

clerical title

;

tutor.

,

for

making yazeshne
,

(offering, etc.).

Atare-vakhshd
in

a fire kindler,

an

officiating priest called

rdspi,

who

is

company with the
a

zota,
to

when performing
kindle
the
fire.

the yazeshne

ceremony. —

dtare-vazano ,

fan

kerddrj, the vessel in which
the square stone
to
it

fire is

— placed. —
is

dtare-kercta fdtash-

dtare-taraenaemdd,

put

the

fire -vessel
fire

on, or the inner vessel in
placed.

which, after fiUing

with ashes,

dtctre-marezano,
consecrates the

the fire extinguisher.
fire; the higli priest.

dtare-frithitemcha, one

who

Aberetem, water bearer

(traditionally the

name

of an angel

who

stands in

his respective place with

Havandn

and the other

five angels, at the

time of performing yazeshne; see VisparadS.).

dsnatdrem, the

dsnitdr (an angel, co-operator with the above-mentioned angels; one

who

has

good wisdom, or one who
a contented

purifies

or washes

another).

drmaia, having

mind, the drmaiti, an epithet of

earth.

is

nothing but another pronunciation of

ahmki

(dat. sing.

masc. of the demonstra-

tive

pronoun).
1)

M. H.

In the

MSS.

is

^^

pad, "master",
[This
is

'lord",

which appears

to

be miswritis

ten for

-J(J^4)

pad ash.
paiti

a misunderstanding;

pad, which

the same

as the preposition

in Zand, is quite a correct rendering of k, "to''; the suffix

ash

is

not wanted here.

M. H.]

2)

arura

is

rendered in Pahlavi by

^tV^j which can be read
or

either

"rakht"
generally

or ''rid"; the former "a generous person";

means "a

suit of clothes", the latter signifies

"a benefactor",
is

but as in the
I

Zand avasti "rita"

"dita"

used in the latter sense,

have adopted the former here.

;

62
which
is

Zand-Pahlavi.

called
').

Espdndamad Amshdshpdnd.
that, that


as.

athaurono,

thus
there.

agreeable

— avaiad,

much,

as

much

avaydd^

adhdd,

then, afterwards.

VIII.

Words beginning with
place.

v.

Viso, street, abode, house,
vise, they accept.

vtspa,

all.


«),

vistc, ugly, bad.

vastra, clothes.


a

vasmi

desire.

vahmdi,

prayer.

vindad, may he obtain,

get.

vidush, one who knows,
snow.

intelligent.

told,
will

— vaohkhtc^ he — vanaitc, he tree, a v6, you. — vana, — vanatam, one who decreases. — veredvo, lessen, decrease. — viuaromatic wood (generally applied smooth, — vaikayo, witness. — vehrkahc, sun, moon, — vanare^), well informed, one having — varekahe, — vaakrem*), very courageous, very of a much knowledge discriminator, one who distinguishes between round. — varechdo, — vacha, word. — vd— varethra,
said.

— —

vitasti,

a

span.


to

vafra,

forest.

fine,

for

fire).

saiti, rising, (of

etc).

wolf.

leaf.

thing.

a

things.

victorious, successful.

a

chem,

voice, speech; in

some

places

it

means

also sin.

vdtem,

air,

breath, wind.
a

— vadhairayosh^),
vakduvaroish
,

a channel of water,, a flowing canal,

spring.

a

meandering stream.

varedhaya,

1)

This rests on an etymological misconception;
as

it

seems the Pahlavi translator
the

took the Zand

two separate words

,

"atha" and "uruno"; but
is

word means

"priest", "clergyman",
2)

which meaning
first

too well

known

to

admit of any doubt.
,

This

is

no noun, but the

person,

present tense

active voice of v a

s,

"to wish".
3)

M. H.
-(3-U^.uJiJ)

The Pahlavi word

by which van are

is

rendered,

can be read

veshSiga,h, and also nasJikash.
the latter signifies

The former means "iuteUigent, or well-informed"
i.

"one

who

drags the nasi",
holes,

e.

dead bodies.
bones,

This

is

an animal,
dead

a kind of wild cat,

which

digs

and
it

carries off the

flesh, etc. of

bodies from the grave-yard.
4)

In Hindi

is

called

ud,

in GujarJiti
is

van6run.
means

kabad gond

(or gord)

by which

the

word

translated in Pahlavi

"very rough", "coarse", and also "very courageous";

gord

stands perhaps for gird,

"round".
5)

In Pahlavi
I

it

is

very obscure;

^'*{y)

can be readnfthar, vahar, nakhir,

or

neher; here

have adopted the

last.


Zand-Pahlavi.

63

growth.

var6,

a cave,

an excavation.

vdraiti,

it

should
I

rain.


')

vareshyd, heroism.

vaem, we.
see.


vacdhayama,

invite, invoke.

vacnad, he should

vadhagha
bag,

(vugh), a tyrant, (an appela fall.

lation of

Zohdk, king

of Persia).

varanava,
in

— vareina

(varsak),
are put.

a bit of cloth, or small

which medicines or drugs

vaidhim, knowledge,

intellect, information.

yahhva,
flock,

agriculture.

vohii, good.

vahisMem,
or

best.

— vdstra— vathwa,
verenavad,
plaster,
la-

herd

(multitude of cattle, animals,

men).

getting, following, believing.

voithwa,

plastering,

cement,

incrustation.

— —

vostrem, acquiring.
fine.

boring.

vcredvo, smooth,

— —

verezyad, taking, adopting,

verenyaU, delivery

of a child

prematurely.
a dance.

varetata, surrounding.
a reciter of
said, told.

— —

vart6^),

good, beautiful,
by,

— vichiddro, through, — vavahhdha, good men. — vait6, concealed,
of

gdthds.


*)
,

vichd, without,
pure.

vacijo

vahhdno,

hidden.

vahri, spring, beginning

summer,

IX.
Us, content, happy.
rounding. — us,

Words beginning with

u.
open
field

urvatho, a

friend,

(without any buildings), an extensive plain.

high up. — urva, comes up, uva, both. — uta, thou, thee. — uzyo, — ush, death; dawn; understanding, good, blessed.
soul, spirit.
it

— urvaeso, an — urvacsa, — una,

circle,

sur-

less, httle.

rises.

ushta,

judgment*).

1)

This

is

doubtful; the translation

is

written in

Zand
is

character,

varsak, which

has the above meaning; but in other places
(desire, hope, 2)
etc.).

varena

translated

by

^^

kSlmak

In Pahlavi this

word

is

rendered by

^OO)

>

which

1

read

vasht and

trans-

late accordingly.

3)

The Pahlavi term
signifies
it

in the

MSS.

is

>H5U'"

'rising".
I

This
it

is

a mistake for

yai^iy which
as in

"pure"; on which account

corrected

here accordingly,

Avasta,

means "pure" throughout, and not "rising"; compare the Persian,

vizeh, avizeh and vijak.
4)

The various English terms applied
here by the translator.

here, are only translations of one

and the
as-

same Pahlavi word, bosh, osh, or ush, which may have any of the meanings
signed to
it

M. H.

64

Zand-Pahlavi.

ushtatdtem ashibya good conduct proceeding from rectitude or purity.

ubdaSna

')

,

clothes

made

of leather.

urvaSdas
less,

»),

belch,

stench, dirt.

vrudhidhiciti, drdd^).

unem,

deficient.

ughrem, powerful, overcoming, triumphant,
a tree.

victorious.

iiruthad,

X. Words beginning with
ParMa,
full.

p.

questioning, asking.

— peretush, way,
pers. plur.
father,

path, a channel.
,

— perendi,
milk.

a discussion, a controversy.
(2''

pdta, protect, guard

— perendiu imperative). — pddha,
also "bad".
fifty.

— per mem, youth. —
a

foot, leg.

— paid,
pukhdha,
hundred.

— pitum,
front of a

and

paSsa, leprosy.
five

five (the fifth).

pdrem,
in

a debt.

a low wall

— — pdnchdstem, — pairiete, house. — peshotanush,
after

pahchasata,

disease, pain, hurt, malady;
tanafur,

one who
his

cannot
sins.

pass

the

bridge chinvad

his

death
dust,

on account of

patho, path, roadway.
blessings.

— pdsanush,

mud.


5), a

perend-

vaydo,
fall *).

paosh, rotten, old, weak.


a

ptad, he should
sins.

— paitictS,

patet, a

kind of confession and repentance of

paiti, a head, a chief.
the head.

pusam (avarsar),

crown

diadem,

K)

In the Pahlavl,
It

ushtatSitem ashibya
appears to

is

translated

by tateh

^^^

,

which
left

has no sense here.
out in the MSS.

me

that the

meaning was, by some mistake,
of leather",
I

As the PahlavJ tatah, "clothes made
(see

translates the

Zand word ubdafena

VendidM

7,

15.

ed.
24),

Westergaard),

have introduced the

latter into the text (see

my

note pagg. 23,

and translated accordingly.
in Pahlavt
all

2)

In D.

J.

it

is

urvafiz^m a6dh6, and

drunak, which means
MSS.
it

"the inner part of the belly", or "rainbow",
"urvafedbis", and in Pahlavt •iy.JJi
3)

but in
is

other

is

in AvastSl

airogb, and

given here accordingly.

Destur Hoshengji has

left

both the Zand and the Pahlavt words unexplained

here.

The meaning

of ir^t,

or Slir^t,

by which urudhidhifiiti compound

is

translated,

is

just as obscure as the original;

urudhidhifeiti can be traced
it

to the root

rudh, ruh,

in Sanscrit "to
is

grow";

appears to be a

of

urudh — urudh "growth"
Essays on the
M. H.

with dbi, which
Sacred Language,
4)

used for the formation of denominatives (see
60);
it

my

etc. pag.
is

would simply mean "be grows".

This explanation

not quite correct;

ptad

is

no

potential,

but the

3'"

pers.

sing, imperf. of

p a t "to

fall".

M. H.
stands for afsar,
i.

5)

It

appears that

avarsar here

e.

the thing

which

is

used

above or over the head or forehead, a crown.

Zand-Pahlavi.

65

XI.

Words beginning with m.

Mithwa, mixed together, coupled.
or boundary of a country.

— mad, — moshu,
cohabitation.

with.

merezu,
at

a

border

swiftly,

immediately,
greater.

once.


a

— mas, much, more, — [vavachata, — maydo, — mam, me. — mimard, he makes] — magha, bachelor — mazdayasnd, constant worshipper Ormazd (God). — mashyo, man, people. — mruta, — madhu, wine. — — merezdndi^ murd^), injured, — myaesM, m^zhdem, reward, remuneration. — muthrem, make water. — maghna, naked, nude, — maghem. "magh",
mustemesho, myrtle.
').

reciter, a repeater.

a

*).

a

of

infirm.

belly.

urine.

to

stones

arranged to
bathing.

sit

on for barashnum or the cleansing of the body by
a
fly.

— makhshi,
is

merekhsh,

to

crush, to destroy, to

kill.

1)

This explanation

evidently wrong, as the
to the form,
3'^

word

is

only derivable from the

root

vach

"to speak''.

As

it

appears to be a dual form of the perfect
,

tense, or a

kind of pluperfect, in the

pers. sing.

middle voice.

M. H.
difficult

2)

This explanation rests entirely on a misunderstanding of the
4, 47.

passage
the Pah-

Vend.

West.:

yatha magav6 fravkkhsh6id, which

is

rendered by
Hfi)

lavt translation as follows:

^

^)U|)^i ^))^-^

W»)2J

-0?£
i.

)^

)T(i(\

^r
to a

IP-*^)

chasvln

mun pavan maght

pan^j sitiint yekavvimuntd agh
state of

nesiman

loit, "just as

he who may enter the

maght,

e.

the state of not

having a wife".

This latter remark does not refer to a state of celibacy, but only

temporary abstinence from having intercourse with a wife, while being enga-

ged in the great Barashnom ceremony.
is

As

the

word niirivaitS "having
that

a wife"

mentioned

in the preceding

sentence, and the passage contains throughout such
it
it

contrasts, asvlsJii evisii,

etc.,

was concluded
is

magav6 must

have a mea-

ning opposed

to

niirivait^; but

to

be borne in mind that the structure of

the other sentences differs from the one
opposition to niirivaitft;

in question;

magav6

does not form any
left

but the one expected (an^iirivaite) has been
it

out.

Magavd means
one
etc.

here the same as

does elsewhere, "a magian priest''; particularly
(See

who performs
pag. 66). 3)

the magic ceremonies.

my

Essays on the Sacred Language

M. H.
fully translated;

These words are not
is

in D. H.

and D. N. a blank
according to which

is

left,

after
it

which

written

)K3 but
i,

in D.
belly.

J. it is

)Hi^Y^

,

I

took

here for garoj daman,

e.

66

Zand-Pahlavi.

XII.
SaidhS, contentment.
on.

Words beginning with

s.

saite, desired, wished, got.

— sucha

')>

a look(

suhem

'),

to look.

sv6, benefit.
a

sevishta, one

who

d

sires a benefit.

wishes, desires.
dian.

— —

schindayad,
siri,

break, a defeat.

sidhiad,
a gu;

a female.

spakhshtim, a protector,

— sruia^ renowned, celebrated. — srirdo, one having a go — statu, standing. — sakhti, decaymg, ending. — srvato, — stahhto, contending, obstinate, oppressing. — stdkhro, — stenbya, a quarrel, an opposition, ang( impudent, — sdohha a measure a cash calculation a number. hatred.
sight.

fine.

te

rible,

large.
,

,

,

sJcaptem, wonderful, surprising.

sadayad, he wishes or

desires.

-

sravad, sung,

chanted. —

varj

2)

,

a

bow and
said.

sndto, washed, bathed. — sndvare, arrow, or bow-string. — snus, he may or w
a

(shru

benefit.

srunaoiti, hearing, paying attention.

sahhem,

a

wor
-

sahhad, he
srita,

siirdo, heroic,

having a supernatural power.

made over, handed

up.

XIII.
Fradathdiy furthering.
up.

Words beginning with

f.

— fedhri,

frasasta, well-known, lauded.
fully,

fraeshta ,

abundantly.

— frim, — fras, ove — frayarc, to-morrow. — fshuta cheese. — fshyo
father.

friend.

-

*),

*)

,

mil

1)

These words are rendered in Pahlavi by "a looker-on" ^-"P) and "lookini
are

)y^Y)f which

evidently correct.

The Deslurs

identify

them with the

Persii

sozashne,
2)

"burning" and "to burn".
J-*i)*(J

By

a mistake in the original MS.
(^-u

shosar, was written instead
the

^»»>*(J

shan4r

and

•*»

being
is

nmch alike) and

word was then

res

shosar, "seed, sperm", which

evidently wrong, as in the
is

14*

fargard of

tl

Vendidad,
3)

the

word "sndvare"

translated

by shanar and not by shosar.

Corrected from pes hut a,
Corrected from

4)

pashuy6

as in

Yasna,

10, 48.

Westergaard,

and also

a

cording to the alphabetical arrangement.

Zand-Pahlavi.

67

XIV. Words beginning with
Dahmo,
pious, religious, godly, devout.

d.
tower of silence,

dahhmo,

a

a tomb, a grave. — daSvayad, he should look. — dazdi, give! (imperative). — darevad, he showed, he saw. — dakhshta, a mark, a — ddshta, made. — dazhad, he sign natural or physical inflames, he burns. — darezera vigorous, powerful. — dush-sra— dush-sastish, word. vanM, having an — dush-ddma^):, having bad
(a

defect).
'),

ill

ill-advising, ill-teaching.

a

creation.

XV. Words beginning with
Jinditi ,

j.

he exhausts ,
a

it

decays.

— janad

^)

,

killing.

— jum
*).

,

living.

jafra, a den,

cave, a ditch.

— jimdd,

he may reach

(3''

pers. con-

junctive, present tense),

should reach.

had,

to arrive, to reach.

— jareta,

to take.

— jakhshavdo — jatah— jaidhyad, he asked.
b.

jatsh, whoredom, adultery.

XVI. Words beginning with
Bacshaza,
healing, health.

dhaSshdo, injury, harm, hurt, sickness.
constantly.

hac, two.
luck.

hddha, always, ever,
I

bagha, a
»).

lot,

a part,

buydd, may he be

(used in a blessing)

bakhdhra,

i)

In D. H., which has often

S

dh

for
it

-^

z, it is

daredhera.

In Pahlavi

it is

^O*^'
in

which

I

read sakht.

I

corrected

here to darezera, as the word occurs
3, 5.

the
2)

Ardibehesht Yesht, Westergaard
A A Corrected from -**.^-XJ^
to

with the same meaning.

^-^y

A

A
i

as

the

word occurs

in several

places in the present AvastS, in opposition to
3)

(»MJ*0* huda6.

This cannot be the meaning as to the form.
imperf.

Janad may be

a third perIt

son

sing,

conjunctive of the root jan,

"that he might slay".

can be

also taken in the sense of
4)

an indicative, "he slew".
translation in
,

M. H.
;

This

word has no Pahlavi
[It is

any MS.

therefore no meaning

is

given here.
the root
5)

very likely the past participle

active voice, of the desiderative of

zan

"to slay, destroy", meaning "one

who had

the desire of destroying".

M. H.]
See about this form of the precative,

my

Essays pag.

67.

M. H.

68

Zand-Pahlavi.

uncastrated, not gelded (as bullocks).


a

banddo,

a

band, a

tie.

bantdo,

sick, unwell.
life,

baodho,

spirit.

bishish-framdto ,

freedom,
bashi
')
,

liberation.
a

— harethra, pregnant. — byahha, — haodhahho, seeker, one who searches. medicine). — baoshem, a well experienced doctor — — buji, released, liberated, saved,
fear.

— — —

(in

free.

cucumber.

— —

bathro,

difficult.

XVII. Words beginning with
Raeva, having
adorned.
splendor.

r.

rafne, happiness, pleasure, merriment.

racre, benevolent, generous.

razo, well arranged, decorated and

odhad,

— rdshtem, he grew up. —

true, just.

rdjim,
light.

a

wound,

a hurt.

— ra-

raochahhem,

XVIII.

Words beginning with

t.

Tdto, lasting, duration, current, continuous.
also he,

tacha, flowing.


2),

tdcha,

and he, and

that.

— tanchishtem,
thief.

most vigorous, very strong.


a

taremano, most vigorous, very strong.

taremano,

small.

tdya, (instead of tdyuj a

tiim, thou.
'),

tushish

a spade,

hoe,

a gardener's sack.

tanumdthro

one who has command

over his body, active,

hard-working, or

a

most obedient person.

tashad, he formed, he created, he made.
or breaker of things.

taradhdta, a destroyer

XIX. Words beginning with
Charetu-drdjo , an open
field

ch.
of ground,
a

for

riding,

a square

piece

square course for horses.

charetdm, workers, doers.

chaetenti,

1)

In Pahlavi

it

is

written

^Hfi)

>

which
or

I

have read

bujinak
then
it

(cucumber),
"figs,

but

if

taken for the Persian
is

word buzinah,

b6zanah,

signifies

an ape, or a bud which
2)
If

not expanded".
is

the Pahlavi
if
it

^00)^
is

pronounced
it

tusht,

it

means

a

"hoe" or

a

"spade", but

is

pronounced tarsht,

means a "gardener's

sack''; here the

the former signification
3)

more

suitable than the latter.
is

tanfarmin

(in

Pahlavi)

an appellation of the angel Sarosh;

it

is

taken

in the sense of "most obedient to God".

Zand-Pahlavi.

69
or-

plainness, obviousness, clearness

— chithra, seed, progeny or — chitha, punishment, an atonement. — chahana^ — chaiti, how many? how much? — chdram^ — charetutdro, very remedy, one who makes great — chinmand, esteem, — wise man, sopher. — chinaiemi, implore. pray,
'),

ganism.

a

a wish,

a desire.

reparation,

redress.

active,

efforts.

love.
I

chistish,

a

a philo-

I

XX. Words beginning with
Zasta,
a hand.

z


zi,

zastavad, mighty, able, one having power, might or
for,

means.

because, why, (a causal particle).

zydm,

winter,

snow, cold season.
something.

zita, an increase,

as in adorning or arranging
a

— zaosho, — zushta, derhem, Babylonian pleasure, wish or — zaothra, "zor", the consecrated waand Persian the Yazeshne ceremony. — zdvare, strength, power. — used zanta, meaning, commentary. — zdo, earth, ground. — zathwa, — — zemana, remuneration, reward. — zrva, born, — zaSshd, awkward. — zdmzarva, declining age, old — — zaenahha, watchful son-in-law. dog aoio, disappeared. — zgeresnem zagathad^), he parted,
zusha^ hurt, injured;
inclination.

asked, wished*).
a

a

a

coin,
ter

also a

coin.

in

a

created.

time.

age.

ugly,

a

(in sleep, as a

asleep).

separated,

fled,

*),

1)

This explanation

is

certainly

a mistake, as chafetenti can be only a third

person plural of the present tense, of a root chafet, or the participle, present tense,
in the feminine gender,

of the root chit, "to

know".

In the latter case
i, 3,

it

corre-

sponds exactly with the Vedic form chetanti (Rigveda Samhita,
it

11, where

refers to the goddess

Sarasvati) which
M. H.

the commentator explains

by jnkpay-

anti "she who makes known".
2)

According to the Pahlavi mode of pronouncing,
I

it

can be read k bust eh

or

kbasteh, and
3)

have accordingly given here the
it is

signification of

both words.

In

all

MSS.

gathad, which appears

to

me

to

be miswritten for zagaz, I
is

thad. As the preceding and following words commence with

have corrected
also

it

to

zagatbad.
egj^
,

In Pahlavi

it is

rendered by

^^)'

which,

I

think,

miswritten for

as

in the 9"" fargard of the
is

Vendidid

46, ed. Westergaard, the
in others

word za>

gathaitfe

translated in

some

copies with
I

^^

with

J*'*'^'.^

both of

which mean "apart",
This word

"asunder".
to

have accordingly corrected

both Avasti and

Zand, from gathad and duist,
4)
is

corrected

zagathad and joid. from zgeregnem to zgeresnem,

as the writers of

70
round, circular.

Zand-Pahlavi.

zuro-beretdo-avaretdo, one having strength and
person).

money
word
is

(a

strong and wealthy

zeredhaiem

') ,

heart (the

also
a

taken in the sense of violent, hard).

zinda ydtu-

menta,

great sorcerer.

zato, stricken, beaten.

XXI. Words beginning with
Gatee, he reached, he has gone.

g.

grehmo,

a bribe, a gift.

gerew-

nad, he may
hand of a
he may
row.

take.

ge%

whoredom,

adultery.

gava^) (goh),

listen

wicked person. — or hearken. —

gudhra, mysterious,
geredha, a hole
also

secret.

— gushta,

in the

ground, a bur-

Persian

Gaydmard (the name of the first ga^m, soul, life; and gam, cattle (such beasts king of the Peshdadian dynasty).


,

as cows, sheep, oxen,

etc.).

— garezhda,
heart*).

complaining, murmuring, a

cry against injustice.

gdthwo-sMachad
them by

one who repeats the

Gdagri-

Ihds constantly to learn
culture.

gavdstrydvareza,

XXII. Words beginning with gh.
Ghnad, he
women.
killed,

or destroyed.

ghndd, may he destroy!

ghendo,

the MSS. often confound
14, 10.

a>

Westergaard, where he preferred
Dr. Spiegel

in K. 1, 2, 9.
is

The word occurs in the Vend id Ad uzgeresnd, but he also found zgeresn6 has uzgeresn6 in his edition, page 41, and the same
s

with

.1)

g.

also in the

edition published in
in

Bombay under Destur Edul-Diru
is

Sanj^nJi in the

year 1201,

Yezdegard;
;

some MSS. g

often written

M, which

resembles J)

s

very

much

hence the mistake.
is

1)

This word
1, 4.

not translated in the Pahlavi.

Its

Pahlavi meaning

is

given from

Vend.
2) 3)
it

This stands instead of

j 6.

gava

here

is

taken as the hand of a wicked person, but in some other place

is

taken in the meaning of "tongue".
4)

This explanation of the Pahlavi translator

is
is

evidently a mistake, as
gSltu,

g&thw6
in
is

cannot be identical with gSltha, "a stanza", but

"a

place",

with the 6

which the

first

part of

compound words

often

ends.

The meaning of the whole

unknown.

M, H.

Zand-Pahlavi.

71

XXIII.
ThrdfdM^

Words beginning with

th.
•).

descent of an angel upon a particular day, a favored person


he

thrdthrd, adorning.
sings.

thndld^ acceptance.


thwdm-khratush

'),

thanavanta,

lazy, sluggish, unwilling to work.
a

tha-

manem,

industrious,

independent,

co-operator,
thirty.

heroic,

manly.

thrah,

the mouth.

thristem,

thrdyosata, three

hundred.

XXIV. Words beginning
Hareta, a head, a
chief, a master.

with

h.

kingdom or the
at once,

royal dynasty.

— haosravanhS, — hakha,
existing, public,

pertaining to royalty,

a friend.

hadha,

with,

together with.

— haita,
;

known,

evident, clear.
haiti,
it

haithi, public-spiritedness, a public benefaction.
self,

hvdm,
rises').

himself.

hichitd, purity, cleanliness.

— —

is.


Mkhshad^ he

— hinchad,
I it is

he sprinkled.

ure.

hikush, dried, free from moistgift.

ha^na*), an army.


I

handdta, having the same
perform a ceremony.

hankdrayaSmi,
the end, as

accomplish, or

hadhahro,

said

hadhahrd

pdm mazddi ukhdham,
*).

protecting at

the end are the words of Ormazd

1)

The

original

meaning of thr^fdh6

is

"descent", but technically

it is

taken
called

as a descent or alighting of an angel for making a revelation, etc.,
in Arabic
2)
is

which

is

tanzil and voriid.
appears that this
is

It

a quotation from some
either in

unknown Nosk.
In

The passage
the

not completely given
is

here,

Avasti

or in Pahlavi.

Pahlavi,

there

only

the

word p^itJi)

sar^ed, which stands as a

translation for both

words
3)

in the

above quotation.
interpretation here rests only

The Pahlavi

on the similarity of sound which
Pahlavi and Persian).
It is

exists

between hikhshad, and ikhtzed "he

rises" (in

only one of the numerous, bad, etymological guesses with which the Pahlavt translations

abound.

Elymologically,
it

hikhshad
is

can

be

only derived from

the

root

hinch
4)

"to sprinkle", of which

an aorist form.

M. H.

Corrected from, juj^jjielj

zha6na

to

-«)»C-"«)» haSna.

5)

This translation can be hardly correct, as

ukhdhSkm, which

is

an accusative,
real

has been taken as a nominative

by

the Pahlavi translator.

As the

meaning

72

Zand-Pahlavi.

XXV.
Baodhajad (bodozcdj,
others

Crimes and
the

offences.')

name

of a sin.
kills

haodho-varshtaU (howrong thing

dyokvarsht), when one wilfully
to

another, or knowingly persuades

destroy

or

kill

another person,

doing

a

to

make

worthless a good act of another, etc.
ill

bodyozad, the wish
all

to

do another person wrong,

using any one or anything, and

sins

of a like description (save the
as

bodyokvarshtj. —
cattle

kadyozad, the same
it

the

above, the ill-usage of
or robanik sins.

or

man;
making
,

is

included in the

hamimdl

— astaraspdn,
him by sorcery,

oneself the head of
the
sin,

the sinners.

ydtukhta (jdduk-gobashnihd)
kill

when one

threatens another to

or intends to use sorcery

for destroying or ruining another.


to

dndhuwibuzda fsahm numdekill

shnij,

a sin,

such as threatening
torture

with

uplifted

weapon, or
,

threatening to

another person.

vditi (khdishnt)
kill

a

sin,

such as pursuing another with malicious intent to

or injure.

handerekhti (handarakht) ,

a sin,

such as maliciously

and secretly

ruining or injuring another person.

mithosdst (kadbd vajdrashni

va dmojashntj,
tion,

a sin, such as giving a

wrong explanation or
abating

instruc-

or misleading another,

or wrongfully

another's

dues;
as

this is called

medyosdst.

avdunhiciti faingahanj , a sin, such

recklessly dashing another to the

ground, or against hard projections,

of

hadhanr6
it is

(which occurs nowhere in the present texts of the Zand-avast^)
impossible to give any satisfactory explanation of the passage.
is

is

uncertain,
1)

M. H.

The

text of this chapter

too corrupt to admit of any accurate translation.
is

In the following, only the general sense

given.

[Many of the Zand words
corrupt

are

not given in their

original,

but in a somewhat

form

which
find

probably

represents the popular
instead of mith6-sasti,

Persian pronunciation of them.

Thus we

mith6-sast

av^varesht
to

for

avivareshti.

Bodyozad

appears to be

no proper Zand word, but an old Persian one, the

original

form having been bolife

dyozati which would correspond
in

baodh6-jaiti, "the slaying of the
in

(soul)",

Zand; just

as

baodhd-varshta

Zand was baodyo-varshta

in the old Per-

sian, as

may be

seen from the Pahlavi

bodyok-varsht:

the Iranian words in Pahlavi
to

always represent Zand, and no old Persian words.
an old Persian, and no Zand word.

Ka,dyo-zad appears

be also
is

The explanation of these criminal terms

pro-

bably correct on the whole, but
school of priestly lawyers.

it

appears to represent the views of a particular

M.

H.]

Zand-Pahlavi.
SO as to cruelly injure

73

him,

witliout intermission to the last.

fra-

syadhjaiti (frdz sapojashni),
tion,

the sin of driving another

to

despera-

or stahbing or wounding him, without ceasing.
sin of cutting or

ava-thwareto flow.

sahe, the

wounding, and causing blood


the

qarahS (khorj, the
to flow,

sin of

wounding any one and causing

the blood

or retarding the cure of a

wound and
that
is,

thus increasing

injury.

shuas, a sin like

huram,

pride,

of raising a
sin of

weapon

to injure an innocent person.

— — avdvaresht,
ardush;
flows,
if

dgereft, the sin
the

advancing on an innocent person,
It

with a raised weapon, in a
assault

threatening attitude.
is

is

also

called

avdvaresht when the
is

nearly perfected.
is
is

Maliciously

stahbing
if

called

the

wound wound

serious,

it is

called Jchor; and
it

much blood
For
all

and the

great and serious,
is

is

called

bdzd.

which crimes

the delinquent

liable

to

punishment besides patet
all

').

dgereft,

avdvaresht, ardiish, khor, bdzdi, ydt,
ting

these are the sins of cut-

and wounding, or disfiguring by degrees, and the kerfeh (or the
to

good works and atonement) and punishment are meted according
the nature of the offence,
as

well

as its

degree and aggravation.
is

Peshotanush tanum pairyStS.

The

explanation

a

tandvandr.

They

call

three hundred other sins of the same quality and measure,
the nature and the
^).

tandvandr; they have

name

of

tandvandr, which

may

still

increase.

— jau

Khrasyo (khroseh), one who runs
(ztntddr),

or cries after another threateningly.

void ("khistdehj, making one terrified (and so injuring him).

one who injures through violation of the law.

— —

zySid

hazo

fsatdmehj, injured, wronged or oppressed.
(as a robber).

tdyo, hidden or fled
a

tdymhdoscfia

,

an abettor of thieves, a thief, or

1)

In the fourth fargard of the VandidSid, there

is

the same interpretation given.
left

2)

The foUowing sentences

are hardly intelligible,
to

and have been

untranslated

tob^n kamfist is evidently an interpolation. It contains a quotation from the Sakidum Nosk, which is no longer extant, in which it is said that "the fire (the son) of Ahura-mazda is thripithwddhi in summer, and bipithw6 in winteir". Pithwa appears to mean a part of the
by Destur Hoshengji. The passage from hangSim
day; compare

arem-pithwa Yasna
fire

44,

5.

West,
in

"noon, midday"

The meaning

seems to be: the

has three times a day

summer, and two

in winter, as Ra-

pithwan (noon) G^h comes together with Havan GJlh (from 6 o'clock in the morning
to noon).

See pag.

76.

M. H.
iO

74
nest
the
of

Zand-Pahlavi.

rogues are
as

all

called

by

this

name, and
both

are

punishable iu

same manner
is

thieves

of cattle,

man and woman.
').

The

atonement

panchadasa pasvo sraoni masuo

XXVI.
Pddhahuhantem, deserving
a debt.

Miscellaneous words.
of remuneration.

pasushurvan, the shepflock.

herd-dog, one like a shepherd-dog who guards the

pdrem,
one

pafracta, the

act of

repaying debts by instalments;

who

is

thriving and satisfied, or happy and healthy.

vizuta, trade,

merchandize.
Jcavachid
astvato,

vavdstrindm^

a

husbandman, or
this earth.

agriculturist.


any

anhdo zemo^ anywhere on
every one in
this world.

kascMd

aiiheush


chadcha ashaono

stoish,

one from amongst good and
is

pious

men.

yaetushdda, one who

capable of hearing and speaking.
^).

nizentem, one

who

is

born

in

the house

XXVII. Measures
Padhem,
the

of length,

and of time.
dishta, a measure of ten

measure of
3),

a footprint of fourteen inches (or fmger-breadths).

— vitasti
1)

a

measure of twelve

inches.

This passage has been

left

untranslated by Destur Hoshengji.

The sense

is

not clear as the Pahlavi translation does not appear to agree with the

Zand

text.

The

latter

has only one measure,

sraoni-masao

,

but the Pahlavi has two,

bizehBoth

mas^
value.

"of the length of an arm", and sina-mas2i "of the length of abreast".

expressions

may be
this is

interpretations of

sraoni-masa6 which must
cattle,

signify a certain
"fifteen

As

preceded by

pasv6 (pasav6)

the whole

may mean
cattle''.

pieces of the

sraoni

weight, each of the value of a piece of

This view
"sheep",
is

seems
is

to

be taken by the Pahlavi commentary.

The value

of a

gospand,

calculated at twelve silver pieces, and thirty zozan of full weight; gospand of

the

translation

pasv6.
it

The sraoni was
more

a measure

which had a

certain weight,
figures

and a certain length;

had perhaps the form of a sheep, or a cow, or their
likely as the Assyrian weights

on

it.

The

first is

the

which have been found,

show the forms
2)

of animals, such as a duck,

and

a lion.
call to

M. H.

The meaning and etymology
slave, servant.

of this

word

mind the
is

Sanscrit

nija

one's
it

own, as a

The form

of the

Zand word

however

different;

is

an active participle of the present tense of the root
position ni.

zan

"to

produce" with the pre-

The meaning "born
etymology
it

in the

house" becomes thus somewhat doubtful.
as one's

According
3)

to

would mean "producing
in the

own".

M.

II.

This

word

is

found

same form and meaning

in the Sanscrit,

vitasti.

M.

II.

Zand-Pahlavi.

75

inches.


,

uzasMa,

a

measure of eight inches.
a footmark.

gacm,
it

soul.

gdim

')

a

measure of

In

the Vandidad , footmark.

is

of three

footmarks;

in other places, of
?

only one

chavaiti act-

shaya, how many inches
tliwam'^), as

— yatha vd gdmdn dvacha dashcha antare

much

as twelve footmarks, or twenty-four footmarks.


are

hish

actavad dakhshmaitish yavad

yijaiastish, two
to

dashmest

^)

one yojM*), and two yojest are equal
hish
is

one
a

tadchar^). —

tadhao

aetavad hdthrem yixvad tacharem,

measure of three hdsar
to
a

one tachar^).

There are several kinds of hdsar
it

measure

with,

as in

measuring land

is

like a

farsang,

that

is, is

measure of one

thousand footmarks;

also in walking.
e.

A hdsar

also applied to the

measure of time,

i.

night and day.
is

Ay are,

a day, half of which

called fraiar,

and another half

is

uzir'^),

1)

This form can hardly be correct.

We

ought

to

expect gSima instead of

ga,im,
2)
It

M. H.

The Pahlavl

translation of the
as
is

Zand passage contains more than
case,

the original.

appears that the latter,

often the
steps",

was not given

in full.

The Zand

passage

knows only

of "twelve
also.

but the Pahlavi mentions besides them
thee, within thee",

"twenty-four steps"
are rendered by
rest on

The words antare thwa.m "between

andarg robashne
as

"within the walk, the course", which must

some misunderstanding,

thwim

can be only the accusative of the pro-

noun

of the second person,

and can by no means have the meaning of "going,

walking".
3)
4)

M. H.

These terms of measure are unknown.

The Pahlavi
is

is

not in accordance with the Zand original.

The

latter

means
mea-

"a dakhshmaiti

twice as

much

(double) as a yijaiasti" (two

names

of

sures which are quite unknown).

The Pahlavi
:

translation
.i

contains the addition:
are

"a yojSst

is

equal to a tachar"

The words

a3

^.)3^w^.3 ^)(o
a

an

inter-

polation, representing the view "that a

dashmSst and
the

yojSst

are equal",

which

contradicts the sense of the original.
6)

M. H.
Zand.

The Pahlavi does not
is

agree with

The word tadhao
It

as

it

is

written in the MSS.,

not translated in the Pahlavi.
clerical error,

does not appear to
to

mean

"a measure", and

is

very likely a

hussi^

be read as ta,cha,r,

being written in the Pahlavi character.
char
is

The meaning

of the

Zand

original is: a ta-

twice as

much

as a h^sar.

M. H.

6)

Frayar and uzir

are Pahlavi forms of ancient Persian words, the primitive
first

forms being frayar a, and uzayara, the former meaning the

part of the day.

76

Zand-Pahlavt.

which has again two parts, the
uzfrin; in the
the

first is

called rapitvin,
is

and the other

summer months
to say,

the rapitvin again

mixed up with
is

Ildvan Gdh,
that
is

(Then the Rapitvin Gdh, afternoon,
the rapitvin

called

hdvan,
and

remains for seven months only,
').

for five
it

months the two hdvans)
is

Khsafa, night;
dditim
*)

divided, into four parts, the
in Pahlavi)
;

first

part
is

is

hufrdshmo-

fhufrdshmoddt

the second part

called erezaur-

the forenoon,
parts,

the latter the second, the afternoon.

Uzayara

is

divided into two
lasting

rapithwina

gJitha, and uzayfeirina

gatha, the former

from noon

to three o'clock in the afternoon, the latter
1)

from that time to sunset.

M. H.

The words

in brackets in the text.

contain an explanation added

by Destur Hoshengji,

and are not found
2)

M. H.

This passage settles for ever the real meaning of the

word hufrAshm6That
it

da,itim which had been explained by some Zand scholars as "sunrise"

means just the opposite,
second volume of
certainty

i.

e.

sunset, as

I

have already shown in the preface to

the

my work
passage.
a

"Die funf

G§,thas Zarathustra's'' (pag. XIII)

foUows with

from

this

Additional proofs are furnished by some passages of
the ceremonies, principally on the prayers, both in

the

Neringistin,

work on
I

Zand and Pahlavi, of which

possess a fine copy.

There

we

read on

fol.

71,

a and b;

3ii^^

-*»J

0% ">^«>)0^£'{^

C{)^O-^*»JJ5-i0

J^O*^

io*)'"^

^\

Zand-Pahlavi.

77
parts are

vaSsdd, the turning

of the pure.

Both these
is

counted in
e

the aiwisruthrem (GdhJ.

The

third part

usham suram (hosh
the
light

avzdr

in Pahlavi)
is

with which the

osahhtn (Gdh) commences.

The

fourth part

raochahham fragatoid,

when

and dawn

commence;

that part is also included in the

Hdvan-gdh.

The following
begins the
of the
filling

is
,

a translation 6f the

Zand

text:

"from which time
i.

(of the day)

(in

and consecrating) of the good waters ?
This

e.

during what time

day may the waters be consecrated? (Answer).
the

lasts

from sunrise to
brings the

sunset in

summer

(about the winter nothing

is

stated).

He who

zaothra
if

(holy water) after sunset (and) before sunrise does no better
intent) ithe

work than
are to be

he should drag secretly (with malicious
Azhi".

cloth of the water-poisoning

demon

The Pahlavi commentator remarks, that the ceremonies
is

performed during the day, and that one
the Zor.

only permitted during that time to bring
sacrificial

This

is

(juite in

accordance with the

customs of both the Parsis

and Brahmans.
at night.

No ceremony, no
this circumstance
is

Izeshne, no Afrigin, or Darun, can be performed
it is

From
7S,

evident that the time from

hu-vakshat

to

hufrishm6-dllitim

the time from sunrise to sunset.

On

fol.

a and b of the same work we read:

78
Dvadasahhdthrem
asti

Zand-Pahlavi.

aghrem ayare,
')

of

twelve

hasar

is

the
is

first

day and night, of twenty
lowest.

is

the middle, and of twenty -four

the

There are several ways

of

measuring

a

Hdsar; actem nctemem

hdthrcm thrivachahim

,

the

lowest (smallest)
"this

Hdsar
three

is

three paces.
the

Tad gdmahya thri-gdmem,
lowest";

from paces,

paces are

tad dkaSshaJiS tad vikaichc, thus the judge and

the. evi-

ne)

i^?^r

mr

V)*

f^v

^(\

^'

-^^^^

^

^«>*-^

^

ij

^

I

render the Zand as follows:

"from which time

in the

afternoon does the

satisfaction of the

ratus (heads of creation) begin? (Answer).
to its

It lasts

from uzary-

ara (uzayara, the beginning of the afternoon)

middle (about 3 o'clock), from

uzaryara
(at) the

(Ihe

second half of the afternoon, from 3 o'clock) to sunset in summer
If

as well as in winter.

one repeats before sunset the Ahuna vairya prayer often
six times very well, then
to

ceremonies,

and the Spenta,-mainyu-linos (versos)

one may, without suffering any injury, afterwards repeat those other (G^thas) up
midnight".
1)

M. H.
eighteen,
is

Instead of twenty,

to

be read.

In the MSS. there are the nu-

merals for 18 with an additional ii, which Dostur Hoshengji appears to have read
for

y

2

;

but this would be a very strange
is

way

of writing the numeral 20.
to say

The

passatro itself
first

hardly intelligible,

.as

it

is

diflioult

what

is

meant by the

day and nighl, the middle, and the lowest.

M. H.

:

Zand-Pahlayi.

79

dence (should be within three paces).

Tad

arethahc, tad aretha-

vand, thus

in all answers three

paces are mentioned;
is

and

in justice

to the plaintiff

and defendant
').

it

also

mentioned within three paces.

Vayo zushto

May

it

(this

work) be completed
or writer).
tlie

to
I,

the

joy,

satisfaction,

pleasure

and dehght (of the reader,
the religion,
a

Pashintan

Ram,
Mobed

a servant of

Herbad by
2).

birth, of

family of the

Ilormazdyar,

wrote the Avasta words

1)
I

The
it

translation
as follows:

of the last sentence has been

left

out by Destur Hoshengji.
plaintiff

render

"the judge should decide this (case) of the
of them)

and the

defendant;

what (each
It is

accordingly".
ding
tion, of

difficult to

may say he ought say how the Pahlavi
to

to

weigh

rightly,

(and decide)

translator understood the prece-

Zand words, vay6 zushtS; they appear
which
is

be only the beginning of a quota-

not given in fuh.

The meaning
out, as
it

of
is

zusht6

is

"pleased, satisfied"; that

vay6

cannot be so easily

made

capable of conveying
it

more than one
likely, "quarrel,

sense.

As

the passage refers to judicial proceedings,

means very

dispute";
inst,

and may be derived from the preposition (and adverb) vi ''asunder,

aga-

separately";

vay6 zusht6 would
alludes.

thus mean: "a settled dispute".

To

this the

Pahlavi
2)

commentary evidently

M. H.
of the writer (which

The

translation of this postscript

may

serve as a speci-

men
din

of this kind of writing) has been

supphed by me.

The writers cah themselves
of a Herbad"
is

bandeh

"servant of the religion", and
is,

herbad-z2ideh "the son
The

(afethrapaiti), that

belonging to a priestly family.
{>»)

postscript given here,

found in
is

my

MS.

;

the words
at

A^M^iJ^j*

are,

however, omitted.
fix

Although there

no date mentioned

the

end of the glossary, we can

the time

when

the

writer,

Pashintan Rim, lived, as the glossary forms only part of a miscellaneous voin

lume written by the same hand,
cestors,

as well as the date

the

end of the Ard4 Virif

when he made his copy. nimeh and Gosht FarySin

which the writer mentions himself and his anSo we read on fol. 204 a, at

^i -^^^^

)»*»

^

^y^

r^r*)

-^

))j»^3p2J

^

fK

^

^y*yii

^^5^

i^

)jo

^

)y<i^^r'r'

~"r^ wr-^ ^'^~^ ^-T ^J^

80

Zand-Pahlavi.

i.

e.

may

it

be completed and finished

(to the

joy of the reader)
I

I

This Arda VirSf and the story of Gosht Faryin,
a Herbad

the servant of the religion,

by

birth,

a teacher

(of the religion),

Pashintan

Rim,

(a

descendant) of

Kamdin,

of Shahary^r, of Neriosang, of Shaharasbay, of

Bahrim, of the Mobed Hor-

mazdy^r, of the Herbad R^myir, wrote (them) from the copy of the Herbad Rustam,
the son of MihirJtb^n, on the day
of Fravardin, in the

month

of

Vohuman,

in the

year 766 (A. D: 1396) of Yazdagard, the King of Kings, the

Ormazd worshipper".
same MS.

The same genealogy
There
it is

of the writer

we

find

on

fol.

43, a, b. of the

stated that Pashintan

R4m

wrote the copy in "the country of the Hindus"

(bum-i-Hindugin),

in the city of

Baroch

(in Gujarat),

which has been

a seat of

Zand and Pahlavi learning

for several centuries.

The

original

copy of the miscellaneous work, of which the Zand-Pahlavi Farin

hang forms a part, came from Nishapur
Seroshy^r, as
is

Khorisin and belonged
it,

to

the

Mobed

to be learnt

from

my

old MS. of

fol.

203, a.

M. H.

-<=K><=-

Alphabetical Index
to serve as a

Zand -English Glossary.

N. B.

The

alphabetical

arrangement of

this

index

is

that
it

of

the

Sanscrit

alphabet,

with
is

the

modifications

necessary for adapting

to the

Zand letters, and

as follows:

Vowels.

u

a,

m
f»M

d,

i i,

^t,
a.

y

u,

» H,

^

e,

ce,

)0 fO

^>

^

o,

4

0,

do,

Jt

Consonants.
Gutturals:

^ k,
|i

(jy

kh,

^uq,

^
j d,

M

g,

i^gh,
jg n.

)

h,

i^ n.

Palatals:

jo

eft

,

jj^',

els zft,

f 2,

Dentals:

^
^

«,

O
^
>"0

C5

th,

w m y d

,

adh,

)

n.

Labials:

p,

f,

j b,
2/'
'

fi

m.

Semivowels:

j^Z
:

•'•*

''5

^ »
o* ^•

^'

o/w.

Sibilants, etc.

J(j

Hysh,
in

J» s,

The
second
the

first

number,
the line;

each reference,

indicates

the page,

and the
to

number

but

when

there are
is

more than one reference

same page,

the

number

of the page

not repeated.

In the pages
')•

of Zand-Pahlavi text, only the lines in that type are counted

1)

All the grammatical explanations and etymologies as well as

the

critical

remarks enclosed in brackets which are contained in this index: have been added by me. M. H.
11

82

Zand -English.

A(aJ.
ainiko,
s.

(nom,
s.

sg.

m.) forehead

7,

13.

49, 11.
59, 16,

ainitoid,

(abl. sg.

of ainiti) without hatred 20, 1.

ainiidish,
3.]

(gen. sing.) without

means

20,

1.

59, 17.

[ease, see 59, not.

airishto, past part. (nom. sg. m.)

of risk "to injure" uninjured. 20, 2, 59, 17.
in winter 38, 6,

aiwigdme,

s.

(loc. sg.
s.

of

aiwi-gdma)

77, 27.

aiwisruthrem ,

(nom. sg. n.) the first half of the night. 42, 9. 77, 2.
sg. n.

aurvad,
2l",

adj.
1,

(nom.

of

aurvant, of the root dr "to run")
57, 13.
8.

swift.

61, 7.
pi. n.) this 17, 10.

acta, dem. pr. (nom. ace.
43, 4. 78, 4.

— actem
3.

(ace. sg.

m.)
pi.

amc

(dat. sg.

m.

f.)

7,

49,

aetS (nom.

m.) 15,

2.

55, 6.
8, 10.

actavad, adv. so much. 41,

75, 6, 8.

actshaya (or aSta shay'a, nom.
aSthrapaitish,
s.

pi. n.)

these inches 41,

5.

75, 3.

(nom.
pi.

sg. m.) a

herbad. 21, 2. 61, 9.
head, scalp.
6, 11, 12.

acdha,

s.

(nom.

m.

n.) skin of the
7, 5.

48, 15, 16.

aBvo, num. (nom.

sg.

m.) one.

48, 24.
of aes/i,

aeshentem
ling.

(ace. sg.

m.

of the active part,

ya^h

"to boil") boi-

16, 5.

56, 5.

aokhU
aora

V.

(3 sg. pres.

middle of vach "to speak"), he

tells.

14, 4. 54, 5.
1.

adj. (inst. sg. n.
s.

oiaora

=

avara)
8, 3.

this side;

good-looking. 21,

61, 8.

aoshtra
agha,
s.

(nom. dual) both
pi, n.) pi.

lips.

49, 14.

(nom.

badness. 20, 9. 61, 2.
n.) highest. 20, 9. 61, 5.
1.

aghra,

adj.

(nom.

aghrem, (nom.

sg. n.)

highest. 20, 9.

43,

61, 5.

78,

1.

aghryotemo,

adj.

(nom.

sg.

m.

of the superlative of
15.

aghrya

first,

excellent)

most

excellent. 12, 1. 52,

ahhush,

s.

(nom.

sg.

m.)

life.

11,11. 52, 11.
3
pi.

— ahheush (gen.
40, 6.

sg.)

40,7. 74, 10.
3.

ahhem,

v. (instead of

ahhen
55

impf. of as "to be") they were. 15,

55, 6,

[see pag.

not. 3.]
f.

anhdo dem.

pr. (loc. sg.

of a)

on

this.

74, 10.
1.

achitho, adj. (nom. sg, m.) unpunishable, 20, 2, 60,

achithro, adj, (nom, sg, m.) unproduced. 20, 3. 60,

1.

azhdish,

s.

(gen. sg.) Azhi-demon. 76, 29.

azaresd, adj. (nom. sg. m. of azaresa) without decay. 11, 12. 52, 12.

azindm,

s.

(gen. pi. of azi) of goats, 12, 2. 52, 15.
in,

antare, prep,

within41, 6. 75, 4.

Zand -English.
atha, adv. thus,
so.

83

13, 10. 20, 8. 38, 6. 53, 1. 61, 1.
s.)

athaurono,

s.

(gen.

thus agreeable. 31, 9. 63,

1.

[an individual of the

dthrava

caste, a priest.]
8. 61, 1.

adha, adv. then. 20,
adharo,
adj.

(nom.
(of

sg.

m.) one

who

is

below. 9, 12. 50, 30.
10. 62, 3.

adhdd, adv.

adha

+

dd) afterwards. 31,

anaghrd,

adj.

(nom.

pi.

n.) endless. 20, 1. 59, 15.

andmdta,

past part., untried. 19, 10. 59, 15.
adj.

cmdstaretd,

(nom.

sg.

m.) not suffering any injury. 78, 11.

[The me-

aning "without lying

down

to sleep" suits better.]

andhita,

adj.

(nom.
f.

sg.

f.)

unpolluted. 19, 5. 59, 3.

any6, pr. (dat. sg.
others ace. pi.

of

anya

another) to the other 7, 8. 49,

3.

anydo,

f.

78, 12.
4, 3. 47, 4.

apa,

s.

and adv. water; back; without.

apaitirita, adj. (nom. pi.
tive a)

m.

n. of paiti-irita
9.

"opposed" with

the nega-

unopposed, uncontroled 11,

52, 8.

apaya,

adj.

(nom.

sg.

m.

pres. part. act. of
thirst.

pd

"to drink" with the nega-

tive a) not drinking, without

11, 12. 52, 12.

aparaya,
7, 1.

adj.

(inst. sg.

f.

of

apara

the latter, future) on the hinder part

48, 17.

apemo,

adj.

(nom.
s.

sg.

m.

of the superl, of

apa) endmost.
full

20, 4, 60, 4.
chil7.

aperendyuka,
dren. 4, 6.

(nom. dual, "not having the

age, child") two

47, 9.


f.

apermdyukanam
sg.

,

(gen. pi.) of the children. 4,
child. 4, 6. 47, 9.

47, 10,

aperendyukd, (nom.

m.) a

apam,
apvatiS,

s. s.

(gen. pi. of
(dat.
sg.

dp
of

water) of the waters. 76, 20.

apavati exemption from decay; see note 2 on
60, 3.
piti, fithi

peg. 60) for the full understanding 30, 4.
afithyo, adj.

(nom.

sg.

m. of a supposed noun

which

may mean

feeding, nourishing, of

pd

"to drink") without hunger. 11, 12. 52, 12.
is

[In the Yashts as edited by Westergard there

afrithya; see 19, 11.

89. 24, 45.]

amana
for

adj.

(nom.

pi.

m.

n.,

or

inst.

sg.,

or nom. sg.

f.

standing probably

andmdta
adj.

unexperienced) untried. 19, 10.
sg.

59, 14.

amarsha,

(nom.

m.

of pres. part. act.

of

maresh "to die" with
53, 13.

the negative

a

"not decaying") being immortal. 11, 12.
adj. (inst. sg.

amavata (vacha),
8,

m.

n. of

amavat

"strong") bold (speech.)

12.

50, 7.

84
amesha,
adj.
v.

Zand -English.
(nom.
pi. in. n.

of amesJia

= amarta)
20, 7.
1.

immortal. 19, 10. 59, 15.

amasta,
7,
7.

(3 sg. aor. middle of
49, 1.
pr. (dat. sg.

man
that.

"to think") he thought, believed.

amhdi, dem.
ayare,
s.

m. of a)

60, 9.
75, 13.

(nom.
s.

sg. n.) a day. 42, 4.
sg* adj.

43,
4.

78, 1.

arazdn,

(nom.

m.) forefinger. 10,

51, 12.

arato-kerethino,

(nom.

pi.

of arato -herethin, instead of dreto-kere-

thino "performing sacred rites") performing Izashne.

21, 2.

61, 10.

arura,
arejo,
s.

s.

(nom.
(nom.

pi.

n.)

a suit of clothes. 20, 10.
2.

61, 6.

sg.

m.) value. 12,
s.

52, 15.
a

arethavano,

adj.

or

(nom.

pi.

m. of arethavan "having
8.

law-suit"^

suitors, the plaintiff

and defendant. 43,

79, 1.
8.

arethahe,

s.

(gen. sg. of

aretha "a case") of the case, law-suit. 43,
elbows. 10, 2.
n.,

79,

1.

arethndo,

s. s.

(nom.

pi.

f.)

50, 25.

arethra,
suits.

(nom.

pi.

m.

probably an

error for aretha) cases,

law-

17, 10.

57, 14. 21, 2.
61, 10.
f.

arerri; adv. content.

arena,
21,

adj.
1.

(nom.
61, 8.
that

pi.

m,

n. or sg.

of

rena opposed, enemy) unopposed.

avaiad, adv.

much. 21,
pr.

9.

61, 2.

avacshdm, dem.
avad, (nom.
ava-thwaresahe,

(gen.

pi.

m. of ava
13, 2.

that)

those.

12, 7.

52, 22.

ace. n.) that
s.

53, 5.
"incision, cutting in")

(gen. sg. of
73, 3.

avathwaresa

name

of a crime. 35, 9.

ava-baretam,
to".

past part. (ace. sg.

f.)

of hare "to bring" -|-

ava "brought

16, 7.

56. 32.
62, 2.

avaydd,
avare,
s.

adv. there. 21, 10.

(nom.

sg.

n., a Gatha

form

for

av6 "help", see

not. 1 pag. 60)

dust. 20, 3.

60, 2.
pi. n.

avareta,

s.

(nom.

of the part, avareta) small fortune 16, 1. 55, 18.
pi.
f.)


is

avaretdo, (nom.
a past participle

30, 8. 70,

1.

[This

is

a mistake; the

word

meaning "not put on,
as

a thing with
clothes,

which nothing
etc.;

has been covered, not used", such

new

carpets

see

Vend. S, 60. Vend. 19, 26.;
negative a.]

18, 34.
it

9, 30.

Yt.

17, 7.;

"not covered with grass"

can only be derived from vare "to cover" with the

avastdtem,

adj.

(nom.

sg, n. of

the part, ava-stdta "composed, consisting")

dignified. 9, 3.

50, 10.

Zand -English.

g5
[It is a

avdmihUiti,
act.

s,

name

of a crime. 35, 4.

72, 20.

verb, 3 sg. pres.

of

ah

=

as "to throw", meaning "he throws, dashes against";
asyati.']
pi.
f,

compare Sanscrit
avdo, dem. pr. (nom.

of

ava

"that") those. 78, 11.
61, 7.

awra,

s,

(nom.
adj.
pi.)
s.

sg.

f.

or

pi.

n.) a gentle breeze. 21, 1.

ashaono,
(nom.

(gen. sg. of ashvan)
the pure 38, 7.

pure. 40, 8.

74, 11,


s.

ashavano,

ashaydo,
ashahe,
s,

(gen. du) the part between shoulder and breast. 10, 6. 51, 4.

(gen. sg.) purity, nature 14, 1. 54, 1.

ashd,

(nom.

sg.

f.)

Ashavahisht. 12, 11.

53, 4.

ashemchd, (nom.
ashibya,
ashta,
s.

ace. sg. n.)

and

purity. 13, 6.

53, 13.
,1.

(dat. inslr. du. of

ashi "purity") for the two Ashis. 23, 11. 64
52, 15.

num.

eight.
s.

12, 2.

ashtanhum,
ashtish,
as, V.
s.

(nom.
sg.

sg. n.)
f.)

an eighth part.
12, 9. 53,
1.

1,

9.

45, 13.
1

(nom.

arrival.
it

[See note

on pag. 53.]

(3 sg. imperf. act.)
s.

was. 20, 5.

60, 5.

asta,

(nom.
5.

pi.

n.) a bone. 20, 5. 60, 6.

astern,

(nom.

sg.) a

bone.

7,

11, 5. 48, 24. 52, 4.
s.

asta-ishum,

(ace. sg.

m. of asta-ishu) an arrow-seeker. 20,
given by Destur Hoshengji on pag. 60

6.
is

60, 6.

[This interpretation

neither

in accordance with the Pahlavi,

nor with the Zand;

it

means "having

an arrow discharged"; asta "thrown", ishu "an arrow".]
dstdto, adj.
asti, V.

(nom.

sg.

m.) non-existent. 20,
of as "to be")
is.

3.

60, 2.
38, 5.

[not standing.]

(3

sg. pres. act.
v.

17, 9. 11.

43,
[It

1.
is

57, 12. 78,

1.

astryehc,
a

he should be punished. 15,
sg.

55, 16.

no verb, but
is

noun, the gen.

of astrya which may mean "one who
it

no wife",

a kind of

hermaphrodite;

may be

also miswritten

for

astairyeM,

the

name

of a particular disease; see

Vend. 20,

3.]

ttstvato, adj. (gen. sg.

m.
sg.

n. of astvat)

endowed with
52, 12.

a body. 40, 7. 74, 11.


aspaM,

astvdo, (nom.
s.

m.) 11, 11.

(gen. sg. of aspa)
12,
1.

of a horse. 15, 10. 55, 13.

aspo, (nom.

sg.) a horse.

52, 15.

asperend,

s.

(nom.
s.

sg.) a dirham. 20, 4. 60, 4.
pi.

[See note 3 on pag. 60.]

ahundscha,
ahubya,
s.

(ace.

m.) repetitions of the dhuvairya prayer. 77, 28.

(dat. du. of

ahhus

life)

for both lives. 13, 12.
6.

53, 19.

ahuraM-mazddo,
sg.)

(gen. sg.) of
3.

Ormazd. 38,
53, 6.

ahuro-mazddo, (nom.

Ormazd. 13,

16, 11.

57, 2.

86
ahmdi, dem.
n.)

Zand - English.
pr. (dat, sg, m.) to that. 20, 7. 60, 8.
that. 76,38,

ahmdd,

(abl. sg.

m.

from

ahtnakem^

pers. pr. (gen. pi.) of us. 20, 7.

60, 9.

A
a,

(a),
53,
1.

dem.

pr. this.

12, 10.

20, 6, 8.

60, 8.

61, 2.

76, 23.

78, 12.

[prep, to,

at.]

aad, adv. thus; then.

12, 5.
f.

20, 7.

52, 20.

61,

1.

77, 27.

dzaintivaitish, adj. (ace. pi.
significant. 8, 6.

of dzaintivat "having a

meaning-ozamti-)

49, 18. 61, 2.

dzoish,

s.

(gen. sg. of dzi "lust"), the Azi devil 20, 9.
s.

dtare-herda,

(nom.

sg.
s.

m.) the fire-vessel. 21,
(abl. sg.

5.

61, 14.

dtare-tarac-naemdd,
fire-vessel. 21, 5.

m.) the flre-vessel stand,

or the inner

61, 15.
(ace. sg.

dtare-frithitemcha,

s.

with cha) the fire-eonsecrator. 21,

7.

61, 18.

dtare-marezano,
-

s.

(nom.

sg.) the fire-extinguisher. 21, 6,

61, 17.

dtare-vakhshd,

s.

(nom.
(nom.

sg.) the fire-kindling priest. 21, 4.

61, 12.

dtare-vazano,
dtarsh,
s.

s.

sg.)

the fire-fan. 21, 4.

61, 14.

(nom.

sg.) fire.
f.)

38, 5.
9.

dtha,

s.

(nom.

sg.

smoke. 20,
61, 1.

61, 2.

dd, adv. thus. 20,

8.

ddhdta,

adj.

(nom.

sg. f.) lucky, 20,

10.

61, 6.
56, 5.

dpem,

s.

(ace. sg.) water.

16, 5.
[It

17, 3.

57, 6.

dpc,

dat. sg. of

dp

"water"). 76, 25.
v.
s.

stands for the ace. dpem.]
I

dfrindmi,
dberetem,
priest

(1 sg.
(aec.

pres. act.)

bless. 17, 5.

57, 8.

sg.

of dberet

"one who brings to") name

of a certain
8. 61, 20.

engaged on the Visparad ceremony, the water-bearer. 21,

dmdta,

part.
s.

(nom.
(nom.

sg.

f.)

tried.

19, 9.

59, 14.
1.

drmaitish,

sg.) Armaiti,

the angel presiding over the earth. 13,
8.

53, 4.

drmata,
ds, V.

adj.

(nom.

sg.

f.)

having a contented mind. 21,
was. 20, 5.
60, 6.
sit")

61, 5.

(3 sg. imperf. of

as "to be")

60, 5.

dsu, adj. (nom. sg. n.) swift. 20, 5.
aste, V. (3 sg. pres.

middle of as "to

he

is

sitting.

20, 6. 60, 8.

dsnatdrem,

s.

(aec. sg.

m.) name of a certain priest

at

the Visparad ce-

remony. 21,

8.

61, 22.

IfiJ.
isdi, V. (1 sg. pres.

conjunct, middle of is "to have, possess")
54, 10.

I

may have

the means. 14, 8.

Zand -English.

87

im, dem. pr. (nom.

ace. sg.) this.

12, 7.

53, 21.

V
ukhdhashna,
ding,
adj.

fuj.

(nom.

sg,

m.) of a compound
ior

ukhdha-ma,

"understan-

knowing words", shna stsaAiag
one who
fully

zna; compare ^wa „knowing"
9, 5.

in Sanscrit)

understands the composition of words.

50, 12.

ukhdhem,

past part, of

vach

to

speak (nom.

sg. n.), speech. 9, 3. 50, 10,

ukhdhd, (nom. sg.m.) speech, word. 9,6. 50, 13.
pi.
f.)

— vkhdhdo,
f.)

(nom,

words. 9, 2. 50,

9.

ukhdham,
24,
2.

(ace. sg.

32, 6. 71, 17.

ughrem,

adj.

(nom.
adj.

sg. n.) powerful.

64, 4.

uzayairindm,

(gen. pi. of uzayairin

"belonging to the second half

of the day, to the afternoon") of the uzlren gdhs, the afternoon hours
77, 22.

— uzaryardd,
(nom.
(nom.
sg.) a

s.

(abl. sg.

m. of uzaryara) from the

after-

noon. 77, 24, 25.
uzashta,
s. s.

measure of eight hngers, 41,

2.

75, 1.
17, 5.

uzascha,

ace. sg. n. of

mahh

=

aojahh "strength") might

57, 7.
uzditi, V. (3 sg. pres. act. of
it

i

"to go"

and uz "up", instead of uzaSiti)

rises.

13, 2.
s.

53, 5.
nostril. 8,
rises. 23,
1.

uzyazddna,

(nom. du.)
it

49, 12.

uzyo, V. (nom. sg. m.)
of

10.
is

63, 21.
to
is

[It

is

the part.

fut.

pass,

vaz

"to carry",

meaning "he
63, 21.

be

carried.]
it

uta, pr. thou. 23, 10.

[This

a mistake;

is

a

conjunction,

meaning "and,
utd, conj. (Gatha

also",]

form
sg.
f,)

for uta) and, as well as. 12, 5.
little.

52, 20.
sg.

una,

adj.

(nom,

23, 9. 63, 20.


adj.

unem, (nom.
is

n.)

defi-

cient. 24, 2. 64, 3.

[The more correct form
12.

iina.]
sg.

uparo, adv. above. 9,
above".]

50, 20.

[It

is

nom.

m. "one who

is

uhdibyd,

adj.
s,

pr. (dat. du. of

ubS "both")
1.

to both. 2, 11.

46, 19,

ubddma,
urua,
s.

(nom.

pi.)

leather clothes. 24,
7,

64, 3. [See note 1

on pag. 64.]

(nom.

sg.) face.

13.

49, 11.

[This

meaning

is

very doubtful,
the

and appears to be only a guess from the Persian
is

riii face;

word

probably the same as tirva soul.]
s.

uruthad,

(nom.

sg. n.) a tree. 24, 2. 64, 4.

[part, n, act, of

uruth "to

grow".]

88
urufhware,
s.

Zand -English.

(nom.

sg.

n.) belly 10, 7.
act.

51, 5.
1.

urudhidhiSiti, v. (3 sg. pres.

of

urudh "to grow") 24,
and
to the soul.

64,

3.

[See note 3 on pag. 64.]

urunaScha,

s.

(dat. sg.

of

urvan

soul)

l\, 10. 52, 9.

wva,
urvaedds,

(nom.
s.

sg.) spirit. 23, 9.

63, 20,
is

(ace. pi. of
dirt.

urvacda "what
64, 2.

to

be got out of the body,

excrements")

24, 1.

urvaSsa,
vrvacso,

s. s.
s. s.

(nom
(nom. (nom.

sg. sg.

f.)

a circle, surrounding. 23, 9.
8.

63, 19.

m.) an open plain. 23,

63, 18.
51, 10.

urvatem,
urvatho,

sg. n.)

an intestine. 10, 11.

(nom.

sg.

m.) a friend. 23, 8.

63, 18. du. "both",

uva,

pr. or.

num.

(instead of

uha nom.

or va

=

dva

two)

both. 23, 10.

63, 21.

ush,

s.

(nom.

sg.)

understanding, judgement. 23, 11.

63, 22.

[Se note 4

on pag.

63.]
s.

tisMdham,

(ace. sg. f.)
s.

backbone. 10, 8. 51,
f.

6.

[See noto 2 on pag. 51.]

usham-surdm,

(ace. sg.

of usha)
Sansc.

sura the

third quarter of the night.
of

42, 10. 77, 2.

[mha
sg.
f.,

=

ushd morning dawn; sura instead

siira heroic, victorious.]

ushta,

adj.

(nom.
s.

or nom.
f.

pi.

n.)

good. 23, 10.

63, 21.

ushtatdtem,

(ace. sg.

of ushtatdf) excellence. 23, 11. 64, 1.
50, 21. 63, 18. 63, 20.

us, prep, up. 9, 12.

23, 9.

m,

adj.

or adv. happy. 23, 8.

E
erezaurvaSsdd,
s.

(e).

(abl. sg. of

ereza-urvaesa) from the

circle of the pure,

name

of the second quarter of the night, 42, 8, 76, 7.
is

[The Pahlavi
to

interpretation

only a bad etymological
to

guess; the word appears

be an astronomical term referring
globe.]
erezi,
s. s.

the

movement

of the celestial

(nom. (nom.
s.

sg.) testicle. sg.) finger.

11, 1.
10, 4.

51, 13. 51, 1.
10, 10.

erezu,

eredhacm,

(nom,

sg, n,) heart.

51, 9.

foj.

otm, num. one.
or

1, 4,

45, 6.

[another

more contracted form

for

aSvem,

aSvim

n. of

aSva

one.]
(6J.

dithra, adv. separately, 3,

1.

46, 22.

Zand -English,

89

Ao
dohha,
s.

(do)

(inst.
s.

sg.)

mouth.

8,
f.

3.

49, 14.

dontydo,
is

(gen, or abl. sg.

of donti) inhaling, 8, 2. 49, 13.
is
ti.']

[The root

an

"to blow, to breathe, the suffix

Kfk).
kaya, interrog.
48, 16, 19.
pr.

(nom.

pi. n.

of ki

=

chi which?)

which?

6,

13.

7, 3.

harashd,

s.

(nom,
s.

sg.

m., instead of karshd) a zone. 18,
ace. sg.

6,

58, 1.

karshaschid,

(nom.
line.

n.

of

karshahh "a line" with

the enclitic

chid) any

18, 8.

58, 4.

karshudm.,
58, 3.
is

s.

(gen. pi. of

karshvare "a zone")

of the (seven) zones.
is

18, 7.

[Instead of

karshvdm, karshvdn

perhaps to be read which

the ace. pi. See the
v.
s.

names

of the seven zones in note 2 pag. 58.]

karshdid,
karshteS,

(3 sg. potent, act. of
(dat. sg.

karsh "to drag") he may drag 76,

30.

of karshti "ploughing, a ploughed field") a corn-field.

18, 9. 58, 6.

karshvdo., adj. (nom. sg.)

fit

for tilling 18, 9. 58, 5. [gen. du, of karshvare.]
5.

kavachid^ adv. anywhere. 40,

74,

10.

kashaibya,
kashdo,
s.

s.

(dat.

instr.

du. of kasha) armpit. 10, 7. 51, 5.

(gen. du. of kasha)

two sleeves. 18,

5.

57, 18.

[See note 3

on pag. S7.]
kaschid-i
indef. pr.

(nom.

sg.

m.) any one 40,
chid)
to

7.

74, 10.
13, 5.

kahmdichid,

(dat. sg. of

ka who? with
(nom.
pi.

any one.

53, 8.
little)

kasyahhd,
48, 19.

adj.

m.

of the comparative of

kasu

less.

7,

3.

kahmdd,

interrog. pr.

(abl.

sg.

m. of ka) from which? whence? 76, 20.
57, 12.
5. 52,
5.

77, 23.

_
s.

M, who?
(ace.

17, 9.

Icerepemcha-,

sg. of

kerep with cha) and the body. 11,

Kh
khratumdo,
adj.

(kh).

(nom.

sg, ra. of

khratumant "endowed with wisdom") one
59, 8.
31, 7.

who
khralush,

is
s.

possessed of knowledge. 19, 7.

(nom.
71.]

sg.

m.) wisdom,

intellect.

71, 3.

[See note 2

on pag.
khrasyd,

adj. s.

(nom.

sg.
1.

m.) one
73, 23,

who
[It
is

threatens another by crying, a kind

of offender. 39,

probably miswritten

for

khrusyo

"crying".]
^2

90
khruzhda,
hhshaSto,
adj.
s. s.

Zand -English.

(nom.
sg.

pi,

nj

harsh. 8, 10.

50, 4.
9.
[a king.]

(nom.

m.) splendor. 18, 11. 58,
m,) a ruler. 18, 10.
11, 8.

khshathro,

(nom.

sg.

58, 7. 52, 7. a

khshathram, (see vaso-khshathram)
khshafa-i
s.

(nom.

sg.,

instead

of

khshapa)

night 42,

6.

76,

6.

khshafdd,

(abl. sg.) a night.

78, 12.
sg.),

khshayad-vdkhsh, an
50, 6.

adjectival

compound (nom.
pi.

the royal word. 8, 11.

khshayamana,
58, 8.

part,

middle (nom.

m.

n.) ruling.

11, 9. 18, 11. 52, 8.

khshayo,
klishim^

s.
s.

(nom. (nom.
s. s.

sg.

m.) a king. 18,

10.

58, 8.

sg. n.) lamentation.

19, 3.

59, 2.

khshuidha,

sweetness. 18, 13.

11. 58,

khshudrdo,
khshtdt
,

(nom.

ace. pi. n.)
,

semen. 11,

2.

51, 14.

V.

he goes. 19

3.

59, 2.

[3 sg. imperf., or aor. act. of std to

stand; "lie stood".]

khshtum,

s.

(nom.

sg. n.) the sixth part.

1, 8.

45, 12.

khshnuta, past
pi.

part,

of

khshnu

"to please,

satify"

(nom.

sg. f.,

or nom.

m.

n.) pleased.
six.

19, 1. 58, 12.

khshvash, num.

1, 8.

45, 12.

78, 9.

Qrqj.
qacdhem,
qahha,
s. s.

(nom.

sg.
f.)

n.) sweat.

11, 5.
5.

52, 4. 47, 22.
of a crime, 36, 1. 73, 5.
inflicting

(nom.

sg.

a sister. 5,

qaraM,

s.

(gen. sg. of
s.

qara "a wound") name
ace. sg. n., of

qarochithrem ,

(nom.

qard - chithra) the

of a

wound.
qasiiro,
s.

7, 8, 49, 3.
sg.
,

(nom.

m.) a father-in-law,
adj.

5, 7.

47, 25.

qtemchid (sahhem)
8, 8.

with the enclitic chid (nom, sg. n.) dark (words).

50, 3.

G
gaethandm,
ga^m,
gaesa,
s. s.

(g).

s.

(gen. pi.

f.

of

gaStha) of the world. 15, 11. 55, 15.
2. 41,
3.

(ace. sg.

m.) soul; Gayomart. 31,
f.)

70, 10. 75, 1.

(nom.

sg.

curled hair. 6, 7. 48, 11.

[This throws light
all

on the

word gacsu
interpreters;

Yas. 9, 10, which has
it

been misunderstood by
the hair in curls";

European
article in

means "wearing

see

my

the Zeitschrift

der Deutschen Morgenlaendischen Gesell-

schaft

vol, 19, pagg, 588, 89.]

Zand -English.

91

gaonem,
gaosh,
s.

s.

(nora. sg. n.) hair. 6, 6, 8.

48, 10, 12.
50, 19.
is

(instead of gaosho) ear. 9,

IL
[It

gatU,

V.

he reached.

30, 10. 70, 6.

no verb, but the
datives

dat. sg. of a

substantive gati, gaiti "going";

these

are

used in the sense

of infinitives, see

my
life

Essays pag. 85.]
(see

gaya,

s.

(inst.

sg.
s.

m.)

gacm)
first
it

14, 12.

55, 3,
1.

gayth^-ma/rata,

Gayomart, the

king of the Iranians. 15,

55,

3.

[The form cannot be correct ;
garezhda,
s,

should be

gaycM marathno
pag. 74.J

gen. sg.J

complaining. 31,

3.

71, 12. [3 sg. aor. middle of gerez to cry,
I

"he cried", see

my work

on the Gathas
1.

gava,

s.

hand

of a wicked person. 31,
s.

70, 7.
[It is

gavdstrydvareza,
for

agriculture. 31, 4. 70, 14.

a

compound standing
by means of cows,

gdu-vdstryavareza^ the

cultivation of the fields

or oxen.J

gavam,
gdim,
s.

s.

(gen. pi. of

gdu) of cows. 12,
feet, or

2.

52, 15.
[It

a

measure of three

one

footstep. 41, 3. 75, 2.

appe-

ars to

be a mispronunciation for

gdmem

which has the meaning in-

dicated.]

gdtum,
11.

s.

(ace. sg.) a time.

14,

6.

54, 8.

gdtumcM,

and a time 13,

53, 18.
s.

gdthandm,

(gen. pi.

f.

of

gdtha) of the times of prayer, prescribed

in

the Parsi religion 77, 22.

gdthwo^shtachad,
stantly.

adj.

or

s.,

repeating the Gathas (songs of Zoroaster) con-

31, 3.

70, 13,

[This

interpretation

is

a

mere guess; see

note 4 on pag. 70.]

gdmahya,
78, 6.

s.

(gen. sg.

m.

of

gdma,

a

measure of two or three

feet) 43, 5.

— gdmem,
6.

(ace. sg.) 43, 5. 78, 5.

gdman,

(ace. pi.) foot-

marks. 41,

75, 10.
secret.

gudhra, ad. (nom. pU)

31,

1.

70, 8. [root gudli
9.

= guz

"to hide".]

— gudhrd
gushta,
v.

(sanho), secret (words). 8,
listen.

50, 3.
[It
is

he may

31, 2. 70, 8.

;

listening 9, 9. 50, 18,

either

the past part, of gush "to hear", or the 3 aor. sg.

middle "he heard".]

geredha,

s.

a burrow. 31, 2.

70, 9.

gerewnad^

v. (3 sg. imperf. act. of

gerew

to

take,

"he took") he may

take. 30, 10.
ge,
s,

70, 6.
adultery. 31, 1.
70, 7.

(nom.

sg.

f.)

92
gam,
s.

Zand -English.
(ace. sg.

of

gdu cow;
13,
6.

see

gavam)

cattle.

31, 3. 7, 11.

gdm[This

chd, and
grelimo,
s.

cattle.

53, 13.

(nom.

sg.

m., instead of

grehmo)
;

a bribe. 30, 10. 70, 6.

meaning
12

rests evidently

on

a guess

the

word occurs only
of

in Yas. 32,

14,

and

is

apparently a proper

name

some enemy

of the Zo-

roastrian religion; the

meaning "bribe" gives nowhere any sense; see
I

my work

on the Gathas

pag. 176.]

Gh
ghendo,
s.

(gh).
70, 17.
"to kill) he killed. 31, 5. 70, 17. 70, 17.

(nom.

pi.

f.)

women.
act.

31, 5.

ghnad,
ghndd,

v. (3 sg.

imperf.

ofjan

= ghan
(ch).

(3 sg. subjunct.)

may he

destroy. 31, 5.

Ch
cha,
enclitic,

appended

to

many words, "and,
69, 3.

also".

chaiti, adv.

how much?
s.

29, 7.

chaetenti,

plainnes,

clearness. 29, 6.

68, 23.

[This

is

a mistake, see

note

1
s.

on pag. 69.]
a wish. 29, 7.
[It is

chakana,

no noun, but 3

sg.

perf. act. of

kan

to

wish, "he has wished"; see

my

Essays pag. 81.]

chathware, num.

(n.)

four.

15, 10. 55, 13.

chadcha,
charditi,

pr.
s.

any one 40,
sg.
f.)

7. 74, 11. [instead of

chidcha any thing whatever.]
2.
7.

(nom.
adj.

an unmarried
sg.

girl.

5,

47, 18.
69, 4.

charetutdro,

(nom.

m.) very

active. 29,

[This inlerpre-

tation rests

on a wrong etymology; the word cannot be derived from
as the Pahlavi translator has

here "to
native

make"

done, but

is

a determithe

compound (Tatpurusha)

charetutdro meaning

"crossing

riding-ground".]

charetu-drdjo, a square riding-ground. 29,

5.

68, 23.
f.

charddm,

s.

workers. 29,

5.

68, 23.

[ace. sg.

of

chareta, course,

a

race course; see Yt. 19. 77.]

chavaiti, adv.

how many?
f.)

41, 5.

75, 3.
69, 3.
a

cMram,

s.

(aee. sg.
,

redress. 29, 7. of

chidhadhavato
cubit.

adj.

(gen. sg.

chiakadhavat) of an arm's length
to

10, 3. 50, 26.

[chidkadha appears

signify the fore-arm.]

chikaSn,
3, 5,

v.

(3 pi. potent, act. of

d

"to atone") they should be punished.

7, 8, 46, 27, 30.

chikayato, (3 du. potent.) both should be

;

Zand -English.

93

punished

3, 5, 7.

7, 8.

46, 26, 29. 49, 3.
3, 3. 46, 25. 4.

cMkayad, (3

sg, potent.)

he should be punished.
chichi, V.
is

to

be punished. 14,

54, 5.

[The form

is

unexplicable;

it

appears to
of chi.]
chitha,
s.
s.

be miswritten for chidhi which w6uld be the imperative

(nom.

sg.

f.)

punishment. 29,
69,

6.

69, 2.

chithra,

(nom.
s.

pi.)

seed. 29, 6.
1, 6.

1.

chithrushva,

a fourth part.

45, 10.
is

chid, an enclitic (n. of the

pronoun chi) which

appended
e.

to

nouns and

pronouns making their sense more general,
whosoever.
chinaicmi,
v.
s.

g.

kaschid anyone,

(1

sg.

pres. act. of chin)

I

pray. 29, 8. 69, 6.

chinmano,
chistish,
s.

(gen. sg. of

chinman) esteem.
69, 5.

29, 8.

69, 5.

(nom.

sg.) a sage. 29, 8.

[wisdom, knowledge.]

JfJJ.
jaidhyad,
27, 8.
v.

(3 sg. imperf.

act.

of

jadh "to

ask,

implore") he

asked.

67, 13.
sg. instead of
')

jau,

s.

(nom.

Java

or

jva

life,

living) part of the soul 37, 8.

73, 22.

jae,

s.

(nom.
s.

sg.) instead of

jahi) a lustful woman.

4,

10.

47, 14.

jaesh,

adultery. 27, 9.

67, 14.

jakhshavdo,

(part. perf. act. of the desiderat. of
7.

jan

"to destroy) one

who

had the desire of destroying. 27,

67, 12.
is
it

jatahhad,

arriving. 27, 8.

67, 13.

[The interpretation

wrong,
is

as the

word cannot be derived from jam, jim "to go";
"he (or she) was beaten".]
jafra,
Jareta,
s. s.

jata ahhat

(nom.

sg.) a cave. 27, 7. 67,

11. [adj. deep.]

taking. 27, 8. 67, 13. [nom. sg. praiser of

^ar

"to praise".]

1)

The explanation which
39. 40. has
is

is

given of this term by
untranslated

the compiler of the glosI

sary

on pagg.

been

left

by Destsr Hoshengji.
one

render

it

as follows:

"jau

the continuous power of

life
is,

(fr^z-ushta,n) which separates

from the soul in such a one (a criminal), that

parated from the soul in any Tanavanir (a sinner

punishment

is

awarded, but there

is

may call it (the ushta,n) sewho cannot pass the bridge) no compensation by means of good works (i. e.
all lost in

the good works of the TanStvanS-r are not counted, they are
of his mortal sins)"

consequence

94
javaiti, v. (3 sg. pres.
act.

Zand -English.
of jiv "to live")

he

lives.

14, 12, 55, 3.

jahi^

s.

(nom.

sg.

f.)

a lustful

woman.

5,

1.

47, 17.
exhausts.
27,
6.

jinditi, v. (3 sg. pres. act. oi Ji,

jyd "to grow old") he
"to

67, 10.

jimaiti, v. (3 sg. pres.

act.

of

Jim

come") he comes 14,
7.

10. 55, 1.

jimdd,

(3 sg. pres. subjunct.)

he may reach. 27,
6.

67, 11.

jiim, adj. (ace. sg. m. ol jva) living. 27,
^e,
s.

67, 10.
4,

(nom.

sg. instead of

jaM)

a lustful

woman.

10.

47, 17.

Zh
%hnii,m
s.

(zJi),
3.

(ace. sg.

of

%hnu) knee. 11,

5,

52,

Z(z).
zacnahha,
adj.

wakeful. 30, 6. 69, 18.

[s.

instr. sg. n.

of

zaSnahh watch-

fulness, "with watchfulness".]

zacmand, may they

live

I

16, 6.

56, 6.

[s.

gen. sg.

of

zaSman

activity,

see note 1 on pag. 56.]

zacsho, adj. (nom. sg. m.) ugly. 30,

6.

69, 17.
69, 13.

zaothra,
pi.)

s.

(nom.

sg.

f.)

holy- water. 30, 3.


(ace.

zaothrdbyo,
sg.)

(dat.

17, 1. 57, 3. to the waters.

zaothram,
3.

holy -water.

76, 25.

zaosho,

s.

(nom.
v.

sg.

m.) a pleasure. 30,

69, 11.
7.

zagathad,
zanta,
s.

(3 sg. imperf. act. of
sg.)

zagath) he separated. 30,
30, 4, 69, 15.

69, 19.

(nom.

a

meanmg, commentary.

zato^ past part. (nom. sg. m. root

zan

"to strike") beaten. 30, 9. 70, 4.

zarathushtra,

s.

(voc. sg.) Zoroaster, the
sg.) old age. 30, 5.

prophet of the Parsis. 15,

3. 56, 66.

zarva,

s.

(nom.

69, 17.

zarvdnemcha,

(ace. sg.)

and time. 13, 11.

53, 18.
sg. n. with

zavarascha,
57, 8.

s.

(nom.

cha; instead of zavare) strength. 17,

5.

zasta,

s.

(nom. du.) hand. 10,
adj.

3.

30,

1. 1.

50, 26.

69, 8.

zastavad,
zd,
s.

(nom.
f.;

sg. n.)

mighty. 30,

69, 8. 52, 22.
69, 17. 51, 10.

(nom.
s.

sg.

instead of zdo) earth. 12, 7.
sg.

zdmdoid,
zdrascha,
zdvare,
s.

(nom.

m.) a son-in-law. 30,
cha)
bile.

6.

s.

(nom.

sg. n. with

10, 11.

(nom.

sg. n.) strength.
sg.
f.)

30, 4.

69, 14.
69, 10. 70, 3.

zita, past part.

(nom.

increased 30, 2,

rnida-ydiwrnnta, (nom.

pi.

n.) a great sorcerer. 30, 9.

[The two

Zand -English.

95
nom.
pi. n.,

words from no compound; %inda
and ydtumenta
cery"; zinda
zi,

is

a substantive in the

is

its

adjective;

they

may be

translated

"sins of sor-

is

the Persian zhinda "ugly, horrible".]
69,
9.

conj. for. 30, 1.
adj.

zwo-beretdo,

(a

compound, nom.

pi.

f.

of

zwro

=

zdvare "strength",
7.

and beretdo "brought", or "bringing") having strength. 30,
zusha, injured; asked. 30, 2. 69, 11,

70,
to

1.

[zusha

is

incorrect;
it

it

ought

be

zushta past
fied"

part, of

zush "to be pleased";

means "pleased,

satis-

and not "injured", or "asked".]
a

zushta,

s.

derhem. 30,

3.

69, 12.

[This

meaning

is

very doubtful;

it

ap-

pears to rest only on the mistaken

identification

of zushta "pleased"

with the Pahlavi zozan, which

is

the

name

of a certain coin.]

zushto, part. (nom. sg. m.) settled.43, 10.

79, 4.
leg. 11, 4.

zehha,

s.

(nom.
s.

sg. f.; instead of
sg.
f.)

zanga)
5.

52,

1.

semana,

(nom.

reward. 30,

69, 16. 58, 5.

umo,

s.

(gen. sg.) land. 18, 9. 40, 6.
s.

74, 10.

zeredhaiem,
zdo,
s.

(nom.
sg.
f.)

sg. n.) heart. 30, 8.

70, 2.

(nom.

earth. 12, 7. 52, 22.

zathwan, born.

30, 5.

69, 15.

[nom.

sg. n. birth of

zan

"to

be

bom"
19.

with the abstract suffix thwan.]

zgeregnem,

adj.

(nom.

sg. n.) altered to

zgeresnem, round, 30,

7. 69,

[See note 4 on pagg. 69. 70.]

zym,
zyam,
zrva.

s,

a

kind of offender, 39,

2.

73, 24.

[It is

a verb,

3 sg. imperf.

act.
s.
s.

of

zyd

to injure,
f.)

"he injured".]
30, 2. 69, 9.
5.

(ace. sg.

of zyd winter.

[snow.]

(nom,

s,

m.; see zarva) time. 30,

69, 16.

T
tacha,
s.

(t)

flowing. 29, 1.
s.

68, 13.

tacharem,

(nom.

ace, sg. n,) a

measure of three HSsars. 41,

11. 75, 8.

[See note S on pag. 75.]
tanchishtem, adj. (nom. ace. sg. n.) most vigorous. 29,
tad, dem. pr. (nom. sg. n.)
this.
1.

64, 14.

43, 5, 6, 7, 8. 76, 24, 78, 6, 7, 79, 1.

tadhao, 41, 10. 75,

7.

[a mistake; see
5.

note 5 on pag, 75.]

tamm,

s.

(ace.

sg.)

body. 37,

73, 19.
(dat.

-

tanush,

s,

(nom,

sg.) 24, 8.

37, 4. 64, 13.

tanva^cha,
sg.

sg.) to

the body. 11,
3. 68, 7.

9.

52, 9,
is

tanuJathro,

s.

(nom.

m.) a body-subduer 29,

[Te word

96

Zand -English.
generally used as an adjective,

meaning "one

in

whose body the

sa-

cred words are"

i.

e.
f.)

thoroughly knowing the religion.]
a destroyer. 29, 4.

taradhdta,

s.

(nom.

sg.

68, 19.

[past part, of

tara-

dlid "to pervert", generally used in the phrase

taradhdtem anydish

daman

Yt.

12,

1.

2.

19,

9.

etc.

"perverted, spoiled by the other

creatures"; the inborn light, the primitive intellect dsno khratush are

regarded as spoiled by their contact with other things.]
tarascha.) adv. and across. 6, 4.
48, 8.
68, 15.

taremano,

adj.

(nom.

sg. m.) small. 29, 2.

[The meaning

is

very

doubtful.]

taremand,

adj.

(nom.

sg. n.)

very strong. 29,

2.

68, 15. [part, pres. middle

of tar to cross, "crossing, running".]

tavdchd,
I

v. (1 sg. subjunct.

middle of tu "to be able" with the
8.

enclitic

cha)

may have the means 14,
v.

54, 10.
4.

tashad,

(3 sg. imperf. of
pr. with
sg.

task "to cut") he formed. 29,
ace. pi. n.)

68, 19.

tdcha, dem.
tdto,
s.

cha (nom.

and
13.

that.

29,

1.

68, 13.
of tan

(nom.

m.) duration.

29,

1.

68,

[past

part,

"to

stretch, extend".]

tdya,

s.

(nom.

sg.;
s.

instead of tdyush) a thief. 29, 3.
pi. f.)

68, 16.

tdyushdoscha,
73, 27.
thieves.]

(nom.
a

an abettor of thieves, a nest of rogues. 39, 4.
of

[It is

compound, tdyu-sha, which may mean place

tdyo, hidden. 39, 4.
tishro,

73, 26.

num.
s.

f.

three. 1, 5. 45, 8.
sg. n.)

tuirim,

(nom.

the fourth parth.
29, 3.

1,

7. 45,

10.

turn, pers. pr.

(nom.

sg.) thou.

68, 16.

tushish,
tS,

s.

(nom.

sg.) a spade.
pi.

29, 3. 68, 16.
this)

[See note 2 on pag. 68.]

dem.

pr.

(nom.

m. of to

these 15, 8. 16, 10. 55, 12. 56, 11.

Th
thanavanta,
adj. adj.

(th). 31, 7. 71, 4.
8.

(nom.
(ace. sg.

pi.

n.) lazy.

thamanem,
thndtd,
s.

m.) industrious, independent, heroic. 31,
acceptance.
31,
6.

71, 4.

(nom.

sg.

m.)

71,

3.

[past,

part

of thnd, a

root of uncertain signification.]

thraetaonaM,
thrah,
s.

s.

(gen. sing.) Feridiln. 15, 8.
sg.) the

55, 12.

(nom.

mouth. 31,

8.

71, 6.

thrayam, num.

(gen. n.) threefold. 1, 6.

45, 8.

Zand -English.
thrdthrd,
of
s,

97

(instr. sg.,

or nom.

pi. n.

of thrdtar, protector, nourisher, or

thratrem nourishing) adorning '). 31, 6. 71, 3. thrdyo-sata, num. (both words being in the nom. pi.) three hundred.
31, 9. 71, 6.

thn-gdmem,

s.

(nom.

sg. n. of a

Dvigu - compound) a measure of three

paces. 43, 5. 78, 6.

thrittm, adj. (nom. sg. n. of the ordinal

number

thritya) third.

1, 5.

45, %,

thripithwd-dhi,

adj.

(a

Tatpurusha compound of thripithwd three
5.

stations,

three times, and dhi making) holding three times. 38,

thri-yakhshtischa, adj. (nom.

sg.

m.

f.

of a possessive

compound) and three

twigs (having three twigs, consisting of them, as the Barsom) 16,8. 56,8.

thri-vachahim, (nom.

sg. ace.
5.

m.

f.

of a

possessive

compound) having

three words. 43, 4. 78,
fhristem,

num.

thirty.

31,

1.

71, 6.
inst. sg,

thrishva, (instead of thrishva

or nom. du.) a third part.

1, 6.

45,

8.

thrafdho,

s.

(nom.

sg.

m.) descent of an angel.

31, 6. 71, 2.; see note 1

on pag. 71.
thwahhshitdo,
adj. (gen. du. of

thwakhshita) energetic,

active. 15, 5. 55, 7.

[See under paitishdthrdo.]

thwdm,

(ace. sg. of

tUm

thou) thee. 3, 10. 31,

7.

41, 6. 46, 34. 71,

3.

75, 5.

,

D

(d).

daevayad,

(3 sg. impf. of the

causative)

he should look. showed".

27,
If

1.

67, 3,
is

[The Pahlavi translation
correct, then the root
is

namud means "he

the form

div which means in the Zand "to cheat, deappears to have traced
for
is
it

ceive";

but
in

the

translator

to

di "to see",

didan

Persian,

v may, however, stand
it

p,

in

which case

it

might be a regular causative of di; but
error for

very likely

a clerical

daesayad "he showed".]
2.

daosha, shoulder. 10,

50, 25.

1) This is the translation of
dered.
of the
in the
It is,

)fHjiUJM arieshna by which the word
clerical

is

ren-

however, nothing but a

error for |^i^jj)jO serlyashna being
for the latter is generally rendered so

same root (thr^) as the Zand thrStt^;

Pahlavi translation of the Yasna and Vendidad.
it is

See Yas. 50,

1.

Vend.

2, 4. 5.

In Yas. 71, 13.

translated

by

^JJtjQii,

"assistance, help".

M. H.
13

98
dakhmo,
dakhshta,
s.

Zand -English.

(nom.

sg,

m.) a depositary for the

dead, tower of silence.

27, 1. 67, 2.
s.

(nom.
s.

pi.

n.) a

mark. 27,

2. 67, 4.

dakhshmaitish,

(nom.
adj.

sg. f.) a certain

measure. 41,

8,

75, 6.
50, 2.; wise,

dahro, or dahhro

(nom.

sg.

m.) wisdom,

[wise]. 8, 7.

intelligent. 9, 6. 50, 12.

danhvS,

s.

(dat. sg.

of

danhu "a province")

to

the
it

governor.

12, 2.

52, 15.

[The Pahlavi translator has identified

with

danhu -paiti
3.

"a ruler, governor"].

dazhad,
dazdi,
v.

v.

(3

sg. imperf.

act.

of

dazh

"to burn")

he burns. 27,

67, 5.

(2 sg. imperat. of
v. (instead of

da

"to give") give! 27, 2. 67, 3.
sg. pres. act.

dadhditi^

dadditi 3

of

da

"to give")

he

gives.

13, 9. 53, 15.

dantdno,

s.

(nom.
(adj.

pi.

of.

dantan "a
n.) long.
f.)

tooth") teeth. 8, 3. 49, 14.

dareghem,
darezera,

nom.

sg. sg.

11, 10, 12. 52, 9, 12.
3.

adj.
v.

(nom.

powerful. 27,

67, 6.

darevad,

(3 sg. imperf.)

he saw. 27,

2.

67, 4. [miswritten for

daresad,

of dares, to see.]

dashino,

adj.

(nom,

sg.

m.) right. 9, 11. 50, 19.
ten. 41, 6. 75, 4.

dashcha, num. with cha, and

[instead of
1,

dasacha.]
14.

dasmahe,

adj. (gen. sg.

m,

n.

of

dasema)

tenth.

9. 45, 1.
pi.

dahmd,
dditya,

adj.
s.

(nom.

sg.

m.) pious, religious, devout. 27,
13, 12. 53, 19. [adj.

67, 2.
n. proper, sui-

justice, propriety.

nom.

table.]

ddtdish,

s.

(instr. pi.)

through, with the laws. 14,

1.

54,

1.

[past.

part, of

dd
ddd,
ddra,
V.
s.

"lo make".]
(3 sg. aor. act. of

dd

"to

make, create") he created.
11.
[It

13, 6. 53, 13.

(nom

sg.

f.)

a razor. 16, 9. 56,

ddshta, past part. made.
ddta.]
dishta,
s.

27, 3.

67, 5.

appears to be miswritten

for

a
s.

measure of ten
(nom.
s.

fingers. 41, 2. 74, 17.

dughdha,

sg.)

a daughter. 5, 6. 47, 22.

dudhuwibuzda,
pon. 34,
5.

name

of a crime, threatening to kill with uplifted
[It

wea-

72, 12.
s.,

does not appear
part.,

to

be a compound, but two
instr.; dudhuwi buzda may mean

words,
is

dudhuwi

and buzda, past

both in the

very likely the

name

of a particular weapon, and

Zand -English.

99
the \rhole phrase
at".]

"turned" (root buz
signify "with a

=
a

buj

to inflect);

would thus

weapon, turned, pointed
sg.

dunma,

s.

(nom.

n.)

cloud. 16, 8.
is

56, 10.

[The phrase yayata

dunma means
dush-ddma,
dush-sastish,
adj.
s.

"the cloud
sg. f.)

passing, or has passed

moving about".]
5. 67, 8.

(nom.

having a bad creation. 27,
67, 7.

(nom.
adj.
s.

sg.) ill-advising. 27, 4.

dush-sravanhS,

(dat. sg.

m.
f.)

n,)

having bad words. 27, 4. 67,
47, 19.
[mistress

6.

demdno-pathni ,
house.]
dereto,
s.

(nom.

sg.

a bride. 5, 2.

of the

(nom.

sg.

m.) a holder.
first

9,

3.

50, 10.

[It

is

past part, of

dere

"to hold",

forming the

part of the Tatpurusha

compound deretoZand

sraoshem holding Serosh, keeping him; the

past part, has in

now and
doithra, drdjo,
s. s.

then the meaning of the
sg.
f.,

act.

part., see

my

Essays pag. 84.]

(nom.

or

nom.

du.) eye. 7, 13. 49, 11.
16, 3. 29, 5. 56, 1. 68, 23.
evil spirit 14, 7. 54, 9. 7. 52, 7. 6,

(nom.
s.

sg. n.) length, extent.

drujim,

(ace. sg. of
s.

druf) Daruj, an

drvatdtem,

(ace.
1,

sg. of drvatdt) health. 11,
4. 45, 7.

dva, num. two.

dvacha, and two. 41,
sg. n.) a

75, 4.

dvadasah-hdthrem,

a

Dvigu-compound (nom.

measure of twelve

hasars. 43, 1. 78, 1.

dvaydo, nom. (gen. du.

f.

of

dva) twofold.

1,

5. 45, 7.

D
dkaSshahc,
a
s,

fdj.

(gen. sg. of dkaesha) 43, 6. 78, 7.

dkacshd, (nom.
is

sg.)

command;

a judge. 17, 8, 9. 57, 11, 12.

[This

the traditional ex-

planation which can scarcely be proved from the Zand-avasla as far as
it

still

exists.

The word may have had
very much.

the

meaning of "judge"

in

works which are no longer
regards the Zand
it I

extant, or in the old Persian language; as
In

doubt

it

the existing

Zand

texts

clearly

means "creed,
latter

religion; religious doctrine", forming very fre-

quently the
fessing the

part

of a

compound

(e.

g.

ahura - dkaesho

"pro-

Ahura

religion",
is

paoiryd-dkacsho "an adherent of the andissolved
into
its

cient religion")

which

now and then

component

parts,

but without altering the sense (so

for instance
It
is

paoiryandm
originally

dkaeshandm instead of paoiryd-dkaeshanam).
same with the
Sanscrit

the

dikshd "instruction,

initiation

principally into

100
sacred
rites".

Zand-En^ish.

No

other etymology

is

possible;

those

which have

been proposed by same modern Zandists are absurd.
on the Gathas
dbaeshdo,
s.
IF,

See

my

work

pagg. 177. 78.]
n. of

(nom.

pi.

dbacshahh)

injury. 38, 1. 67,

16.

Dh
dhadhahha,
as
s.

CdhJ.
[It

(instr.

sg. n.)

the backside. 11, 2. 51, 15.

is

the

same

zadahh

podex.]

N
naemam,
nacre,
adj.

fnj.
50, 22.

(ace. sg.

f.)

half.

9,

13.

[vtspe-nacmam

in all di-

rections.]
s.

(dat. sg., instead of

nairS of nar a man)
(nom, du.) two men.
4, 8. 38,
7.

to a

man.

13, 9. 14, 3.

53, 15. 54, 5.

— nara,
pi.)

4, 8. 14, 6. 47. 11. 54. 7.

— naro,
naomahS,

(nom.

men.
m.

47, 11.
1, 9.

adj. (gen. sg.

n. of

nCtoma) ninth.

45, 14.

namra-vdkhsh, an

adjectival
7.

compound (nom,
50. 2.

sg,

namra
is

-j-

vdksh)
it

words of benediction, 8,

[This

meaning

doubtful;

ap-

pears to be based only on an identification of
sian

namra
made

with the Perout.]

nemdz

prayer; the real meaning cannot be

narsh, (gen.
nd,
s,

sg. of

nar) of

a

man.
4,
1.

4, 7. 7, 4. 12, 8. 47, 10. 48, 23. 52, 23.

and adv., a man;
s,

or.

12, 5. 47, 2. 52, 20.

ndiri,

(nom.
s.

sg.) a

woman.
f.)

12, 5, 52, 20,
4, 9. 47, 13.

ndirika,
of

(nom.

sg.

a

woman,

ndirikandm, (gen.
of two

pi.)

women.

4, 9.

47, 14,

ndiriJtaydo, (gen. du.)

women.

4, 9. 47,

14.
sg. n.) navel.

ndfo,

s.

(nom.

10, 7, 51, 6.

nizentem,

act. part.

pres. (ace. sg.

m.) one who

is

born in the house. 40, 10.

74, 13.

[See note 2 on pag. 74.]
s.

nitemchid,

(nom.

ace. n.

of nita with chid) each setting. 12, 7. 52, 22.

[See note 3 on pag. 52.]

netemem,

adj.

(nom.

ace, sg. n. instead of
pi.,

nitemem) lowest.
4,
1.

4, 3, 4.

7, 8, 3.

ne, pers. pr. (aec. dat. gen.
of us.]

Gatha form) we.

27, 2.

[us, to us,

no, pers. pr. (ace. dat, gen. pi,) we. 4,

1.

47, 1.

[See ne.]

noid, adv. not. 13, 9. 53, 15. 76, 23.

ndohha,.s. (nom.

sg.

f.)

nose, 8,

1,

49, 12,

nmdnd-'pathm,

s,

(nom.

sg. f.) mistress of

the house. 5, 2, 47, 19.

Zand -English.

101

P
paio,
s.

(Ph
5.

(nom.

sg. n, instead of
at.

payo) milk. 24,

64, 10.

paiti, prep, on,

7,

1, 3.

48, 17, 20.

paiti-dathditi ,

v.

(3 sg. pres. act. of

dha

+

paiti) he returns, answers.

13, 9. 53, 15.

paitiastd (vachdo),

adj.

words of

assent. 9, 8.

50, 17.

[instead of

pai-

tyasto assenting.]
paitietc,
s.

Patet, confession

and repentance of

sins, 25,

10.

64, 17,

[The

form cannot be correct; patet comes from paitita
patita in Sanscrit "fallen from virtue";
stand for paititi
"fall,
if it

"fallen",

compare
can only

be

a

noun,

it

confession of a fall".]
15, 5. 55,8. [The interpretation
is

paitishdthrdo
ful;

^),

si

a

commander
it

doubt-

at to its

form,

is

a gen. du.

The

derivation
in

from paiti "lord",
right.

and hhshaihra "rule" which the compiler had
I

view cannot be

derive

it

from

a

word paiti -shdtra which may mean "a meeting
another one, a party",
sit",

convened

for opposing

as

shdtra

is

only tra-

ceable to shad,

had, "to

being a corruption of shastra, the s
in compensation
is

being dropped, and the

a lengthened
remarks on

for the loss;

compare hddroyd (gen. du. of hddri which
thri) Yas. 32,
7.

a Galha
I,

from

for

ha-

with

my

it,

Gathas

pagg. 167. 68.]

paitishtdna,
paitt,
s.

s.

(nom. du.)

foot.

11, 3. 52, 1.
10. 64, 18,
sg. of

(nom.

sg. instead of paitish) a chief. 24,

paitiapta,

adv. with

malicious intent. 76, 30.

[instr.

the past part.

paityapta,^

paityahmi,
53, 1.

s.

(loc.

sg.),

an

astronomical term,

probably zenith. 12, 10.

[See note
s.

1

on pag. 53.]
8.

paityddha,

answering. 9,

50, 17.

pairi, prep, about. 17, 10. 57, 13.
pairi6tS,
it

s.

pain, malady. 24, 7.
a substantive,
s.
it

64, 12.
to

[The form

cannot be

correct;

if

be

ought

be pairyaiti or pairitl]

pairikandmcha,

(gen. pi. of pairika "a fairy" with cha) and of fairies.

15, 12. 55, 17.

1)

The passage

in
:

which the word occurs, looks

like a

proverb.
is

I

propose

the following translation
ties".

"he who belongs to two industrious people

of

two

par-

The meaning

appears to be, that

one cannot serve two masters.

102
pairishtem,
adj.

Zand -English.

(nom.

sg.

n.) well

considered. 9,

3.

50, 10.

[It

is

formed

like a past part,

from pairish, "round about", meaning "turned about",
used of wood,
if

looked

at,

chiefly

properly

examined before

it

is

thrown

into the sacred fire.]
v.

pairi-sachaiti,
76, 23.

(3 sg. pres. act. of

sack "to pass" with pairi)

it

lasts

pairyctc,

v.

(3 sg. pres.

middle of pere "to destroy" instead of pairycite,
is

see Vend. 4, 17. West.)

joined to tanu, meaning "he destroys his
5.

body, becomes

a

Tanavanar". 37,
1,

73, 19.

paurva,
paSsa,
s.

adv. before.

4. 45, 6.

leprosy. 24, 5. 64, 10.
adj. (instr. sg.
4.
f.)

paouraya,
first.

7, 3. 48,

19.

paourim,

adj.

(nom.

sg. n.)

1,

45, 6.
adjectival

paourushagaonem, an
48, 12.

compound (nom.

sg. n.)

grey hair.

6,

paosh,

adj. rotten.

24, 9. 64,

16.

[s.

gen. sg. of a word

pu; perhaps

it

stands for paosha.]

pahtanhem,

s.

(nom.

sg. n.)

a fifth part. 1, 7.

45, 11.

panchadasa, num.
panchasata, num.
panchdstem, num.
patenta,

fifteen.

39, 6. 74, 3.
6.

five
fifty.

hundred. 24,

64, 11.

24, 6. 64, 11.

v. it falls out.

16, 4. 56, 4. [pres. part.

(nom.

pi.) of

pat "to

fall".]

patho,

s.

(gen. sg. ace. pi.) a path. 24, 8. 64, 15.
s.

padhem,
pafracta,
[It

(nom.

sg. n.)

a foot. 41, 1. 74,

16.
3.

s.

paying of debts by instalments; happy, healthy. 60,
the past part,
fulfilled,

74, 7.

may be

of an

intensive

of pere

"to

fill",

meaning
oflf".

"completely

discharged"; with reference to debts "paid

pa may
meaning

also stand for

upa, and fra6ta be derived from

fri,

prt,

"satisfaction".]

pura, prep, before. 76, 26. 77, 28.
para-sachaiti,
v. (3 sg. pres. act. of

sack

to pass with

para)

it lasts.

77, 26.

pardcha,
parata,
paresu,
s.
s.

adj.

(instr.

sg.
3.

of

para

another) on that side. 6, 4. 48, 8.

asking. 24,

64, 7.
10, 9. 51, 7.

(nom.

sg.) the side.

par6,

adv. before. 9, 11. 50, 19.
s.

pardontydo,
parshva,
s.

(gen. sg. of pardonti) exhaling. 8, 2. 49, 13. [See dontydo.]
1.

snow, 19,

58, 13.

Zand-EngUsh.

103

pashnem,
pascm6,
s.

s.

(nom.

sg. n.) eyelid. 8, 1. 49, 11.

(nom,

pi.)

bosom. 10, 10. 51,

8.

pasu-vastrahc,

adj.

(gen. sg.) clothed in skins. 6, 9. 48, 13.
1.

pasushurvan,
pascha, adv.

s.

(gen. sg.) a shepherd-dog. 40,

74, 5.

after,

behind. 9, 12.

10,

1.

50, 19, 32.

76, 36.

paschaita, adv. (instead of paschaSta) afterwards. 78, 11.
pasvo,
s.

(nom.

pi,

of

pasu)

cattle.

39, 7, 74, 3. [prep, instead of pairi round.]
4.

pdiri, surrounding. 9, 13. 50, 23.

pdta, (2

pi.

imperat.
foot.

act.

of

pa) protect! 34,

64, 9.

pddha,

s.

a

24, 4. 64, 9.
adj.

pddhahuhantem,
40,
1.
s. s.

(ace. sg.

m.

of

pddhahuhant) deserving rewards.

74,

5.

pdrem,
pitum^

(nom.

sg. n.) a

debt, 24, 7, 40, 3. 64, 12. 74, 6.
5.

and. adj. (ace. sg.) a father; bad. 24,

64, 10.

[The word can-

not have both these meanings;

in that of "father" the compiler conthis

founded

it

with pitar

which has
as
it

meaning.

Whether

it

means

"bad", or rather "badness",

can be only a substontive, cannot

be decided
rishment";

from
but
it

the existing Zand texts,
is

where pitu, means "nouit

quite

possible

that

conveyed the sense of

"badness"
Latin,

in passages

which are now

lost;

compare pejus worse
I,

in

piyati "to scorn" in Vedic Sanscrit, see Rigv.
adj.
fifth.

147, 2.]

pukhdha,
puthra,
s,

1,

7. 24, 6, 45,

11. 64, 11.

(nom.

pi.) sons.

15, 8. 55, 12.

puthro,

s.

(nom.

sg.) a son.

16, 11. 57, 2.

pusam,

s.

(ace, sg.
s.

f.)

a crown. 24, 10. 64, 18.

peretush,
perendi,

(nom.
(dat.

sg.

m.) a way, a channel. 24,

3, 64, 4.

7,

s.

sg. of

perena) a discussion. 24,

64, 8.

perendiu,

s,

(instead

of

perendyu)

a youth. 24, 4.

64, 8.

perendyu,

(nom. du.) two
4, 6. 47, 8,

adults. 4, 5. 47, 8.

— perendyundm,
sg.)

(gen. pi.) adults.

— perendyush,
have done.

(nom.

an

adult. 4, 5. 47, 7.

perendvaydo,
as the

s.

blessings. 34, 9. 64, 15.

[This

meaning

is

very doubtful,

word cannot be derived from d-frt
It

"to bless" which the

com-

piler appears to

seems to be miswritten for perendya-

vdo gen.
perenem,
peremndi,
adj.
s.

du. of

perendyu "a youth".]
sg.

(nom.

n.) full. 24, 3.

64, 7.
9.

(dat. sg.) to

an adversary. 13,

53, 15. [pres. part, middle

of pere "to fight".]

104
peresd,
s.

Zaiid-Kngliih.

(nom.

sg.

f.)

bridge. 14, 10. 55, 1. {j)eresd

is

only the Persian
the

pronunciation

of

the

Bactrian perethd;
it

see note 1 on pag. 53;

translator has identified

with perethu

"bridge", referring

it

to the

bridge
is

Chinvad which

separates heaven
is

from

hell.

This interpretation

very doubtful, as perethd
I

the

nominative,

and gives no good
II

sense.

have explained

it

in

my work

on the Gathas
I

pag. 163. as

"fight, strife,

war"

to

which interpretation

still

adhere.]

peshotanush,

s.

(nom.
s.

sg.

m.) a Tanavanar, a great sinner. 24, 8, 64, 13.
sg.


is

peshotanush,

(nom.
is

m.) 37,

4,

73, 19.

[The correct form

pesho-tanush which

a

Tatpurusha compound of peshd, instead of

pereto "destroying" (the past part, being used in the sense of an active one) that
is,

and tanush "body", the whole meaning "destroying the body"
It

suicide.

does,

however, not necessarily imply the idea of

suicide, but

sins

which are regarded as aggravating and great as the

destruction of one's

own
m.)
sg.

life
first.

is

according to the Zoroastrian religion.]

pouruyo,

adj.

(nom.
s.

sg.

17, 2. 57, 5.
8.

pourushaspo,
55, 12.

(nom.

m.) Pourushasp, the father of Zoroaster. 15,

pom,

adj. (ace.
s.

sg.

of

pa) protecting. 32,

6.

71, 17.
dust. 24, 8. 64, 15.

pasanush,
pastahc,
s.

(nom.

sg.

m. instead

of

pdhsush)

(gen. sg. m.) of the skin. 6, 9. 48, 12.

ptad,

v.

(3 sg. imperf. act. of

pat "to

fall")

he

fell.

24, 9. 64, 16.

FffJ.
fedhri,
s. s.

(log. sg. instead of pitari of pitar) a father. 26, 9. 66, 18.

fraiar,

(instead of
s.

frdyara) forenoon. 42,
sg.)

4.
5.

75, 13.

fraudhhsh,
fracazaite,

(nom.
will

horny substance. 10,
4.

51, 3.

v.

be born. 15,

55, 7. [probably

miswritten for fraya-

zaitc 3 sg. pres. middle of yaz, "he prays", see note 4 on pag. 55.]

fraeshta, past part,
26, 11. 66, 20.

(instr. sg.

used in the sense of an adverb) abundantly.

frahdrayoish,

v.

(2 sg. potent, act. of the causal of kare)

thou shalt draw.

18, 8. 58, 4.

fragatoid,

s.

(abl. sg.

of fragati) beginning. 42,
act. of

11. 77, 4.
it

frajasaiti, v. (3 sg. pres.
76, 20. 77, 23.

jas

= gachh

"to go" with fra)

begins.

Zand-EngUsh.

105
know" with fra) he
discerns,

frazdnaiti^

v.

(3 sg. pres. act. of

zan

"to

decides. 17, 10. 57, 14.

frazddnuom,
57, 6.

s.

(ace.

sg.

of frazddnu),

name

of a river in Sejestan 17, 3.

fradathem,

s,

(nom.

ace. sg. n.)

prosperity. 13, 3.

53, 6.

fradathdi.

(dat, sg.) for furthering. 26, 9. 66, 8.

frabaraitS,
76, 25.

v.

(3 sg. pres.

middle of bare "to bring" with fra) he brings.

frdbda^

s.

a bridge of foot from heel

to toe, a foot's length.

11,4. 53,

2.

frayarS, adv. tomorrow. 26, 10. 66, 19.

fravdkhsh,

s.

(nom.

sg.)
sg.

male organ of generation.
10, 13. 51, 11.

11,

1.

51, 13.

frashnem,

s.

(nom.

n.) testicles.

frasasta, past part, of sas "to praise" with/ra, well-known. 26, 10. 67, 19.

frasyadhjaiti ,
ration,

s.

name

of a crime,

the sin of driving
7.

another to despe[It
is

or

stabbing

and wounding him. 35,
"striking, a

73, 1.
to

a

com"stab-

pound; jaiti means
bing, piercing".]

blow"; syadh appears

mean

frasrdvayciti, v. (3 sg. pres

act.

of the causal of sru "to hear" with fra)

he repeats,

sings. 77, 29.

fra, prep, (instead of fra). 14, 4. 54, 5.
frdtish,
s.

(nom,

sg.) filling.

76, 20.
ti,

[It

is

to

be derived from pere, pare

"to

fill"

with the suffix
part.
1.

being a contraction for paratish.]
pi.

frdraithya,

fut. pass.
[It
is

(nom.

n.)

they are

to

proceed.

13,

12.

53, 19. 54,
riage",

to

be traced

to a

denominative of ratha "car-

meaning "to move".]
s.

frdrddhdn,
frim,
s.

(nom.

sg.)

little

finger. 10, 4. 51, 2.
n. of

(ace. sg.

m.

or.

nom.

frya dear, beloved)

a friend. 36, 9.

66, 18. fras, adv. over. 26, 10. 66, 18.

fshu, adv. before. 19, 4. 59, 3.

[This

meaning appears

to

rest

entirely
is

on an

identification with

the Persian pesh "before".
at the
it

The word

of

frequent occurrence in the Zand texts

end of compound words,
is

meaning "increasing";
"cattle".]

in

some words

a

contraction

of

pasu

fshuta,
yd,

s.

cheese. 26, 11, 66, 20.
[This

adv. after, 19, 4, 59, 3,

meaning

is

unknown

in the existing 14

106
Zaad texts;
"one who
fshyd,
s. it

Zand -English.

may be an

adjectival

from of pas behind, meaning

is

behind".]
36, 11. 66, 20.

(nom.

sg.) milk.

[This
to

form

is

a correction

from

the

pashuyo

of the

MSS.
i.

;

it

ought

be fshuyo meaning "what co-

mes from
fshtdna,
s.

cattle,

cows"

e.

milk, fshu being a contraction of pasu.]
6.

(nom. du.) the breast. 10,

51, 4.

BfbJ.
haS,

num.

(instead of
s.

duyc) two. 28,
n.) health. 28,

1.
1.

67, 17.

baeshaza,

(nom.
s.

pi.

67, 16. [remedy, medicine.]

baodhahho,

(gen. abl. sg. n.) a seeker. 28, 5. 68, 3. [part of the soul,

soul, life.]

baodhajad,

s.

name

of a crime. 32, 8. 72, 2.

[It

stands for baodho-jaiti

"the slaying of

life",

see note 1 on pag. 72.]
life,

baodho,

s.

(nom.

sg.

m.)

soul. 28, 4.

68, 3.

[scent, smell, but in

Persian.]

baodho -varshtaM,
3, 3, 46, 25.

s.

(gen. sg. of

baodho - varshta)

capital

punishment.

baodhd-varsMahe,

(gen. sg.)

name

of a crime of
is

murder
8.

for

which the

severest kind of capital punishment

awarded. 32,
part

72, 2. [As to the
is

etymology of

this

compound, the

first

baodho "soul"

clear;

the second varshta cannot be taken do", as
"to
it

as past part, of

varez "to make,
the root

would give no sense;
which
it

it is

to

be traced
part;

to

vrasch
fut.

tear", of
inf.

can be a

past,

compare the forms

vrashtd,
Sanscrit,

vrashtum,

part. fut. pass,

vrashtavyam

of this root in

Pdnini 8, 2,
life

36.

The whole compound thus means: the
applies to a very

tearing of

(out of the body) which

severe kind
in

of capital punishment, such as
pieces.

disembowelment, or cutting the body

That

it

clearly

means the

heaviest kind of punishment, follows
it

from the passages of the Zand-avasta where

is

mentioned.]

baoshem,

s.

(nom.
adj.

sg.

n.)

freedom. 28,

6.

68, 4.

bakhdhra,
21.

uncastrated. 28, 3. 67, 18.
of the
foi.

[The word occurs in Vend. 19,

The readings
Vendidad Sade
as

MSS.

differ;

Westergaard has bikhedhrem;

my

228, a has bakhedhrem;

my

Pahlavi-Vendidad

reads

West, does; the Vend. Sade published in

Bombay
has

in

1232

Yazdagird, has

bakhdharem.

The Pahlavi
as

translation
;

^-^^

which must be read bakhdarah,

n

is

only b

my

Pahlavi-Persian

Zand-EngUsh.

107
it

Vendidad which has been copied from a Surat MS. reads
and
translates
it

bdkhtah

by hi koftah not bruised,
its

i.

e.

uncastrated.

The
first

reapart

ding bikhedhrem appears to owe

origin to etymology; the

ha having been taken
"uncastrated, not

as hi
is

=

vi "without".

Although the meaning

gelded"
is

on the whole undoubtedly correct, the
the
right

form hikhedhrem

hardly

one;

I

prefer

hakhdhra,

or

hakhdhar which was simply an
hakhshad,
v. (3 sg.

expression for the male, the bull]

imperf. of hdkhsh "to

make

a present")

he may grant,

13, 3. 53, 6.

bagha,
hantdo,

s.

(nom.

pi.

m. or
pi.
f.)
f.)

n.)

a

lot.

28, 2. 67, 17.

adj.
s.

(nom.

sick.
tie.

28, 3. 68, 2.
28, 3. 68,
1.

banddo,

(nom.

pi.

a

baraitc, v. (3 du. pres. middle of here, bare "to bring") they (two) bring.
14, 6. 54, 8.

bareta, bereta, past. part, of two roots
2.

1.

bare

= Sanscrit
4.

bhri "to bring";

bare

=

S. hri "to take"

;

e. g.

yasobereta "taken under prayer".

baretam,
barethra,

past. part, of here.
s.

16, 8. 56, 32.; see

ava-baretam.
68, 2.

(nom.
it

sg.

f.)

a

pregnant woman. 28,

[The form
it

is

uncommon;

appears to stand for barethri; very probably

is

only

a clerical error.]

barethri,

s.

(nom.
s.

sg. I) a

pregnant woman.

5,

3.

47, 20.
10, 9. 51, 8.

barozhdahum,
hashi^
s.

(nom.

sg. n.)

upper part
6.

of the side.

(nom.
s.

sg.) a
pi.

cucumber. 28,
of

68, 6.
2.

bdzava,

(nom.

hdzu) arms. 10,

50, 25.

hddha, adv. always. 28, 2. 67, 17.

bdmanydo,
bdmya,

adj.

(gen. du. of

bdmani) wide.

18, 5.

57, 18.

[See note 3

on pagg. 57. 88.]
adj.

splendid; spacious. 6,
sg.
n.,

3.

48,

6.

[See note 2 on pag. 48.]
1, 5.

bitim, adj.

(nom.

instead of

bitm) second.

45, 7.
38, 6.

bipithwo, adj. (nom. sg.

m.) having two times,

stations.

[See note 2

on pag.

73.]
as

bish-aetavad, adv. twice
bishish-framdto,
s.

much. 41,

8,

10.

75, 6, 8.
5,

(nom.

sg.

m.) a well-experienced doctor. 28,

68, 4.

form of the Zand haSsli{hisMsh appears to be only the old Persian "medicine"; framdto is past part. (nom. sg. m.) of

aza, meaning
the root

md

with fra,

and has the same meaning

as

dmdta "expe-

rienced".]

108

Zand -English.

buji, adj. liberated. 2S, 6. 68, 5.

bunem,
buydd,

s.

(nom.

sg. n.)

bottom. 13, 10. 53,

1.

V.

(3 sg. precat. act.)
adj.
(instr.

may he
sg. of

bet 28,

2.

67, 18.

berezata (vacha),
8,

berezat "high, loud") a loud voice.

10.

50, 5. [with a loud voice.]
(dat. pi.
f.

beretdbyo, past part.

of

bereta)

to those (waters)
pi.
f.

which have

been taken.
bathro,
adj.
s.

16, 12. 57, 3.
sg.

beretdo, nom. ace.
28, 7. 68, 6.

30, 8. 70, 1.

(nom.
(instr.

m.)

difficult.

byanha,
bvad,
V.

sg.) fear.

28, 4. 68, 2.

(3 sg. pres. subjunct. act. of

bu "to be")

it

will be.

11, 11. 52,

11.

[on the meaning as future, see

my

Essays pag. 82,]

M fmj.
maite,
s.

(nom.
adj.

sg. instead of
(dat. sg.

maiti) a measure. 19,
to

6.

59, 7. 77, 25.

maidhydi,

of

maidhya, middle)

the middle.

maidhydd,
mainyucha,
s.

(abl. sg.)

78, 12.
ace.
pi.

(nom. du., or

of

mainyu

with cha) in connection

with spento-mainyu, the
ses beginning with

name

of the third Gatha,
9.

meaning "the ver-

Spento-mainyu". 78,

maesma,
makhshi,

s.
s.

(nom.
(nom.

sg. of

maesman)

urine. 11, 1. 51, 14.

sg.) a fly.

25, 7. 65, 12.

magha^ maghem,
maglma,

s.
s.

a bachelor.

25, 4. 65, 6.
n.)
a

[See note 2 on pag. 65.]
sit

(nom.

sg.

stone to

upon,

when undergoing
7.

the great

puriflcation
adj.
s.

ceremony which
7.

lasts for

nine nights. 25,

65, 10.

naked. 25,
(gen. sg. of
3.

65, 10.

mazahho,

mazahh

"largness,

greatness")

see

vird-ma25.

zahho. 16,

56, 1.
sg. n. of

mazgfimcha,
mazdayaS7i6,

s.

(nom.
adj.
s.

mazga

with cha) and the brain. 11,
a

6. 5,

(nom.
65, 6.

sg.

m.) worshipping Mazda,

worshipper of

Ormazd. 25,

4.

mazddi,

s.

(dat. sg.)
s.

Ahura-mazda, Ormazd, the name of God. 32,
(nom.
sg.)

6. 71, 17.


mantd,

mazddo,
s.

13, 3. 16, 11. 38, 6. 53, 6. 57, 2.

receiving. 17, 2. 57, 5. [a noun, denoting the doer, to

be deri-

ved from
pag. 57.]

man

"to think",

meaning "the thinker"; see note 2 on

mad,

prep. with. 25,
s.

1.

65, 2.

madhu,

(nom.

sg. n.)-

wine. 25,

6. 65, 8.

Zand -English.

109
"middle") middle, the middle.

madhmyche,
manothri,

adj.

s.

(gen. sg. of

madhmya
2.

13, 8. 52, 23.
s.

(nom.

sg.

f.)

neck. 10,

50, 25.
to its form,
it

mayad,
maydo,

s,

destruction. 19, 6. 59, 7.

[As

is

the pres. part,

n. of
s.

ml

"to destroy" which has the

same meaning

in Sanscrit.]
to rest prin-

cohabitation. 25, 3. 65, 5.

[This
Afrig.

meaning appears
1, 4.

cipally

on the word stryomaydo
"cohabiting with

which
is

is

interpreted by
for

the Desturs as
this

women".

There

some ground
is

meaning,

as the

modern Persian mdyeh
it.

"origin"
in

either identical,
I.

or closely related to

See more about
1.

it

my

Gathas

pag. 206.]

marata,
mashyo,

s. s.

Gayomard. 15,
(nom.
sg.

55,

3.

[See gayeh^
9,
5.

marata

pag. 91.]

m.) man, mankind.

25, 4. 50, 12. 65, 7.
2. 65, 5.

mas, adv. (instead of

maz

"greatly")

much.

2.5,

maso^

s.

the latter part of the
s.

compound mushta-maso.
39, 7. 74, 3.

10, 4. 51, 1.
[It

masdo,
the

(nom.

pi.

f.)

greatness, value.

forms part of

compound sraoni-masdo having

the value, or greatness of a sra-

oni; see note 1 on pag. 74, and sraoni.]

mastraghnaya, or mastrahnya,
traghni skull) on the
(ace.

s.

(instr.

sg.

f.

of

mastraghna, or mas-

skull.

7, 2. 3. 4.

48, 17, 20.

— mastraghndm,
is

sg.)

7,
it

6.
is

48, 25.

the skull.

[The meaning
it

undoubtedly cor-

rect;

but

difficult to reconcile
is

with the obvious etymology of
striking";

the

word which
is

composed of mantra, and ghna "beating,
masta, mastaka
to
;

mastra

identical with the Sanscrit
;

it

thus

means
?

"striking the head"

how

can

this

term be applied

the

head

One

may

think of

tiie

brain; but the expression would not be very appro-

priate, as the brain does not strike the skull,

and moreover there
It

is

another term used for
likely refers to

it

in

Zand,

viz.

mazga, Persian mazg.

very

the bones of the neck which are in contact with the

skull; see

mastravandm.]
s.

mastravandm,

(gen. pi. of

mastravan) the

skull.

7,

6.

48, 24.

[It

is

evidently only rniswritten or mispronounced
pi.

for

mastraghandm,
to signify
it.

gen,

of

mastraghan, mastraghna, which appears
its

not simply

the skull, but

bones and those closely connected with
Yt.

The same

word

is

mastareghanascha

10,

72.

where

mastraghanascha

should be read.]

masyahho,

adj.

(nom.

pi.

m. of the comparative masyo
16.

=

mazyd

of

maz

"great") greater. 6, 12. 48,

110

Zand -English.
adr. (prohibitive particle) not. 19, 6. 59, 8.

md,

mdad,
it

adv. together with; not. 3, 2. 46, 22.
is

[When

it

means "together",

only a lengthy pronunciation of
it

mad

"with";

when

it

is

a nega-

tive,

is

a contraction of
8.

md

"not", and

dd

"thus, so".]

mdi,

s.

measure. 19,
s.

59, 10.
8.

[perhaps for mdya.]
[It
is

mdiahuhc,

measure. 19,

59, 11.

either the dat. sg. of a

noun

mdyahh,

or 2 sg. imperat.
first

middle of
is

md

"to

measure"

instead of
;

mdyahuha. The
mdta,
(nom.
s.

explanation

probably the correct one

it

thus

means "for measuring".]
s.

sg.) a
sg,,

mother; measure.

5, 5.

19, 9. 47, 22. 59,

12.

mithosdst,
ching,

(nom.

instead of mifho-sdsti)
instruction.

name

of a crime, false tea-

giving

wrong
s.

35,

1.

72, 17.

[mitho adv.

falsely,

wrongly, sdsti,

of sds "to teach", doctrine.]
1.

mithwa,

adj.
s.

mingled. 25,
sg.

65. 2

[s.

joining, a pair.]
3.

mimaro,

(nom.

m.) a

reciter. 25,

65, 5.

[It

is

an intensive for-

mation of the root

mar
n.,

"to repeat,

count",

meaning one who con-

stantly repeats, recites prayers.]

muthrem,

s.

(nom.
sg.
is

sg.
f.)

instead of

muthrem)
5.

urine. 25, 6. 65, 9.

murd,

s.

(nom.

the belly. 25,

65, 8.

[See note 3 on pag. 67.

The meaning
mushta-maso^
mustemesho,
s.

very doubtful.]
sg.)

adj.

(nom.

handful. 10, 3. 51, 1.
25, 3. 65, 4,

[mushta

— mushti the
25, 5. 65, 9.

fist.]

(nom,
sg.

sg.) myrtle.
n.,

mezhdem,
merekhsh,

s.

(nom.

instead of

mizhdem) reward.
[In

s.

destruction.

58,

8.

65, 12.

the shape mentioned

it

is

only the root, meaning "to destroy";
piler

the substantive which the com-

had in view, may have been merekhsha.]
s.

merezdndi^

the belly. 25,

5.

65, 8.
it

[The meaning

is

not distinctly

sta-

ted; see note 3 on pag. 65;
"to wipe
off,

is

clearly traceable to the root
to

merez
object,

take off".

It

appears

be the name of some

perhaps that of a broom.]

merezu,

s.

(nom.

sg.) a

boundary. 25,

1.

65, 2.
14, 4. 54, 5.

me,

pers. pr. (gen. dat sg.) of
at

me,

to
1.

me.

moshu, adv. quickly,

once. 25,

65, 3.

mdo,

s.

(nom.

sg.) the

moon; measure,

appropriate.

19, 7. 59, 8.

[The

author takes the suffix

mdo^ nom.
is,

sg.

m. of man,

mant

in the

me-

aning of "appropriate" which
it

however, erroneous.

In this sense

means only "endowed

with".]

Zand -English.

{{l

mam,
or

pers. pr. (ace. of
s.

azem,

I) I,

me

19, 6. 25, 3. 59, 7. 65, 5.

myaesM,

tiie

making water. 25, 6. 65, 9. [This meaning is eitlier wrong, word is miswritten, or mispronounced. If it means "making
it

water",

can

be only traced

to

miz

=

mih

in

Sanscrit
I

"to

make

water";
take
it

tlien

we

ouglit to expect

maeza

or ma^zi.

am

inclined to

as a verb 2 sg. pres. potent

middle of a root mi, standing for

mayaSsha.]

mraod,

v.

(3 sg. imperf. act. of

mru

"to speak") he said. 9, 7. 50, 14.
say, 9, 7.

mravad,
mru,
V.

v. (3 sg. subjunct. act.)

he may

50, 15.

(2 sg. imperat. act.) speak! 9, 8. 50, 16.
adj. injured. 25, 5.

mruta,
can

65, 7.
It

[I

cannot trace
miswritten

it

to

any root which

convey such

a sense.

is

or mispronounced.

The

Pahlavi has

mMa;

the original
in

Zand may have been mtJto, of the
which
is

root m-Ci "to fasten"
"inviolable".]

Sanscrit

preserved in

amuyamna

YfyJ.
yaetatare,
v.

(3 du. perf. act. of yat)

it

is

procurable. 16, 10. 56, 11.

[See note 3 on pag. 56.]
yaStush,
v.

has come. 16,

6.

56, 5. [See on the

form and meaning note

1

on pag. 86; "aspiring
yaStushdda^
[It

after".]
is

adj.

one who

capable of speaking and hearing 40, 9. 74, 12.

appears to be an abl. of yaStnsh, standing for yaetushdd.']
pi.

yaeshenta, pres. part, of yacsh "to seeth" (nom.
56, 4.

n.)

seething. 16, 4.

yaoshchini,

adj.

fortunate.

16, 7. 56, 7.

[The form
is

is

somewhat doubtful;
as

instead of yaoshchini,

yaoshchina

to

be read,

china

is

now and
known

then used as an enclitic, just as the Sanscrit

chana, generalising the
is

meaning; yaosh

=

yos "fortune, prosperity" of the V6das
(see
article

form the 9. my Deutschen Morgenleendischen Gesellschaft
GSthas Yas. 44,
in

Zeitschrift der
vol. VIII, pagg.

740
is

43), and forms part of the well-known verb
interpreted
as

yaozh-dd which
to

generally

"to purify",

a

meaning which appears
incorrect,

be only a derived one.
the correct reading

yaoshchina may be, however,
(gen. sg. of

and

may be yazaoschina
I,

yazu "sublime,

high" see

my

Gathas

pagg. 137. 138.), as

we fmd

Yt. 24, 48. West.
I

yazaoischina (my MS. of the Vistasp Nosk has yazaoischina).
yazaoschina.,
as the sense

prefer

"all that

is

high, sublime" agrees better

112

Zand -English.
with the adjective sicraM "heroic, victorious", than with yaosh "fortune, prosperity".]

yakhshtischa,

s.

(nom.
if.

sg.

with cha) and a twig. 16, 8. 56, 8.
57, 2.

yazaSsha, adv.

16, 13.

[This

is

a mistake;
;

it

is

a

verb 2

sg.

potent, middle of yaz, "thou shalt worship"

see note
I

1

on pag. 57.]

yazdi,

v.

(1 sg. subjunct.
adj.

middle of yaz "to worship")
1.

pray. 17, 3. 57, 6.

yazush,

(nom.

sg.

m.) sublime. 16, 11. 57,
as

yatha, adv. as; so much;
52, 21, 22. 53,
1.

much;

just as. 9, 6.

12, 7, 8, 9. 41, 6. 50, 12.

75, 4. 76, 29.
5.

yathacha, adv. and thus, 13,

53, 8.
5.

yathd, adv. (Gatha form) thus. 12,

52, 20.

yathra, adv. where. 13,

3.

53, 6.
2.

yathrd, adv. where. 12, 11. 13,

53,

3.

5.

yad,

relat. pr. which.

11, 12. 52, 12. 76, 29.
it

yayata,

v. (3

sg.

potent, act. of yat)
to

may
55, 5.

pass.

16, 8.

16, 10.

[3 sg.

perf. of

yat

move, make exertions.]
2.
[It is

yava^

s.

reckoning of a period. 15,
pi.
;

either instr. sg.

,

or

nom.

the latter suits best the sene of the passage

where

it

occurs,

yava
In the
instr.

aetc

ahhem zarathustra
of

"these were the periods, o Zoroaster".

passages

the

existing

Zand

texts

is

is

better

taken as an

sg. in the sense of
s.

an adverb "ever".]
"duration") for ever. 17, 6, 57,
57, 9.
9.

yavaecha,

(dat. sg.

of

yava

yavaetdtaecha, adv. and
takes
it

for ever. 17, 6.

[The Pahlavi translator

as consisting of

two words yavae, "always, ever", and tdtaS
it is

"going on". Grammatically
"eternity, duration",

the dat. of an abstract
for all time".]

noun yavaetdt

meaning "for ever,
of

yavata,

adj.

(instr.

sg.

yavant "how long",

and yavan
1.

=

yuvan

"young")

for

how

long a time; young. 41, 12. 15,
8. 41, 8,

55, 3.

yavad,
yavahS,

adv. as
s.

much. 14,

11. 54, 10.

75, 6, 8.

(gen. sg. of

yava

grain) of grain.

17, 3. 57, 5.

yavdkem,
yavc,
s.

pers. pr. (gen. du. of turn thou) of
all

you two.

3, 9.

46, 33.

(instead of yavdi) for
s.

time, eternity.

11, 12. 52, 12.

yashtd,

receiving. 17,
pr.
;

1.

57, 4.

[U 2

is

a contraction

of
also

yas

relat. pr.,

and td dem.
pag. 132.]

see

note

on pag. 57,

and

my

Gathas

I,

yaso, which has come,

16, 12.

57, 3.

[The Pahlavi translator derives

it

from

a root

yas

to

which he attributes the meaning "to come" which

;

Zand -English.

113

has no foundation whatsoever. It is a noun, occurring in the compound yasd-bereta which is applied to the zaothra i. e. holy-water, and means "taken (not "brought") under prayer, with prayer", yaso stan-

ding in

this
s.

compound

for the instr.]
7.

yasnemcha,
yd,
rel.

(ace. sg.
sg.
f.

with cha of yasnd) praise. 17, 4. 57,
du. m.) who, which. 14, 5, 6. 54, 7.

pr.
s.

(nom. (nom,

ydkare,

sg. n.)

the liver. 10, 10. 51, 9.

ydtukhta,

s.

name

of a crime, threatening to kill another

by sorcery. 34,

3.

73, 10. [a spell,

spoken by

a sorcerer;

ydtu "a

sorcerer,

and ukhta

"spoken".]

ydtwmenta,

s.

a sorcerer. 30, 9.

70, 3.

[adj.

nom.

pi.

n.,

endowed with

sorcery, witchcraft.]

ydtem,

s.

(nom.

sg. n.) a share,
it

fortune; sorcery. 15, 11.

55, 15, 16.

[In

the sense of "sorcery"

stands very likely for

ydtum which

has that

meaning.]

ydthwam,
ydmeng,
ding

s.

(gen. pi. of

ydtu

a sorcerer) of sorcerers. 15, 12. 55, 17.

adj. all, the
is

whole. 14, 10. 54, 11.

[This

is

a mistake.

The

rea-

very doubtful.
is

Westergaard reads yd
If

the quotation

taken.

the
if

reading

meng Yas. 48, 2. whence ydmeng be correct, it would
right, the first is the instr.

be the accus.

pi. of

ydma;

yd meng be

sg. of the relat.

pronoun, and
pag. 163.]

meng
3.

a corruption of

manahh "mind"
explanation
inas
e.

see
ydre,
s.

my

Gathas
sg.

II,

(nom.

m.) a year. 16,

56,

1.

[The

traditional
all

of this

word by "year" which has been followed by
is

European

terpreters
Yas.
1, 9.

hardly correct.
1, 2.
,

If

we

closely

examine such passages
i.

Yisp.

where the invocation of the ydirya ratavo
is

the masters of a

ydre,

followed by
all

an enumeration of the six Gait

hanbars or seasons,

we have

reason to conclude that

means

a

season, a period of about

two months, and not a year; ydre-drdjo

during a season.]

ydskerestemem,

adj.

(nom.

sg. n.

of ydskerestema

,

superlative of ydsheret

"active, energetic")

most

efficacious.

16, 1. 55, 18.
6.

yijaiastish,

s.

(nom.

sg.)

name

of a measure. 41, 8. 75,

yukhta,

past. part, of

yuj "to join" (nom, pi) joined;

strong. 15, 8, 9.

55, 12, 13.
yujiti, V,

(instead of yujSinti 3 pi. pres. act. of yuj) they

are industrious.

15, 8, 55, 12.

114
yfczhem, pers.
pi',

Zand -English.
you. 15,
pr.

7.

55, 11.

ijushmaMem, pers.

(gen. pi.) of you. 3, 9. 15, 7. 46, 33. 55, 11.

ye, relat. pr. (nom. sg.

m.

Gatlia

form) -who, which. 13,

6, 7.

53, 10, 13.

yczi, conj.

if.

77, 28.

yMM^
ychyd,

conj. (Ihe
relat.

same

as yezi)

if.

16, 10. 56,

11.

pr. (gen. sg. m., Galha form)

that.

14, 7. 54, 9.
is

[Avliose.]
;

yoishto, adv. the less. 15, 4. 55, 7.
it

[The meaning

very doubtful
is
its

hut

is

difficult to

find

out a better one.
less,

As hvoishto
it

correlate,
I

both
ijt

may mean
(nom.

"the

the more"; but
is

cannot be proved.

take

as a contraction of
s.

yd ishto "who

wishing, or wished for".]
7.

yokhshtciyo,
is

pi.

yokhshti means, power). 16,

56, 32.

[Te word

not translated in the Pahlavi.]
s.

yoghedha,

(instr.
s.

sg.)

by

joining.

15, 4. 55, 7.

yozhda7iahc,

(gen. sg.) for shaving. 16, 9. 56, 11.
a razor.]

[yozhdana "cleaning";

yozhdanahc dura

yd, relat. pr. (nom. sg. m.)
15, 7. 17,
10.

who, which, what.
53, 11,
15.

7,

1,

3,

6. 5.

13, 8.

14, 3.

48, 17, 19, 25.

.54,

4,

55, 11. 57, 13.

76, 25.
y&i, relat, pr.

(nom.
(nom.

pi.
pi.

m.) who, which. 15,
f.)

8.

55, 12.

ydo^

relat.

pr.

78, 12.

R
racrc, adj. generous. 28, 8. 68,
9.

(r).

raeva,

adj.

(nom.
s.

sg.) splendid.
light.

28, 8. 68, 8.
68, 11.
[adj.

raochahhem,

28, 10.
light,

ace.

sg.

m. of raochahha^
it

raochdo "having
substantive

shining"; the compiler confounded

with the

raochahh

"light, splendour".]

raochaididm-fragatuid, the fourth quarter of the night, when

light

and

dawn commence.
lights";

42, 11. 77, 4. [literally,

"from the beginning of the
light.]
8.

raochahham
sg.

gen.

pi.

of

raodiaidx
to
9.

raodhad,
razo,
adj.

v. (3 sg. imperf. act. of

rudh

grow) he grew up, 28,
68, 9.
[It

68, 10.

(nom.
at
s.

m.)

decorated. 28,

stands

perhaps for
adjusting".]
is

ruza,
ralufrish,

the end of

compound words, meaning, "arranging,
m. instead of
satisfaction
is

(nom.

sg.

ratiifiitisJi

,

as

tlie

word

written

in the Zand-avasta)

of

the

heads of creation
it

by invoking

them. 77, 22.

[This

a

very remarkable word, as

furnishes

among

many

others a very decisive

proof of the close connection which the

Zand -English.

115

ceremonies and prayer formulas of the Zoroastrian creed have with
Ihose of the
origin,
far

Brahmans
with

as

shown

in the Vedas.

For ratu
but

is,

as to

its

identical

the Sanscrit

ritu "a

season",

is

used in a

more comprehensive
to

sense,
six

signifying not only the six Gahanbars

which correspond

the

seasons of the Hindus,

but the parts of

the day also, as well as any other regular period, and even any being
of the visible

and

invisible world,

under whose, rule a certain
supposed

class of

creatures of a cognate
it

nature are

to stand, in wliich

sense
influ-

is

best
all

translated by "head, chief", the seasons

under whose

ence

beings are, being taken as the

principal

heads of creation.

friti is

completely identical with the ^Sanscrit priti.
(i.

Now
i.

at

all

the

so-called Ishtis
fices

e.

the minor sacrifices, exclusive of the
part)

Soma
the

sacri-

of

which they form only
sacrifice
is

the

Yajamdna
to repeat,

e.

man

in

whose favour the

brought has
(see

after the perfor-

mance
II,

of each of the five
a

Praydjas

my Aitareya Brahmanam
vasantam ritundm
I

pag. 18, note 12,),

mantra
The

in

which the words ritu and prlas

ndti^

pritah

etc.

occur.

first is
i.

follows:

prtnami, sa
spring;

md

pritah prindtu

e.

among

the seasons

please the
is

may

he, pleased, please

me

(also)!

The same formula

ap-

plied only with the change of the name

to the

other seasons, sisira
the

and hemanta being taken

as

one;

see

the

Samhitd of
The

Black-

Yajurveda
garded
rattibya,
s.

\,

6, 2,

3.

(I,

pag.

8S9 ed. Cowell).

ritus are re-

as the deities
(dat.

which occupy the objects of the Prayajas.J
chiefs.

du. of ratu) for both
pi.

13, 12. 53, 19.

rathwya,

adj.

(nom.

n.) seasonable,
pi.
f.)

in

proper manner. 13, 12. 53, 19.


rafne^

rathwydo, (nom.
s.

9,

2.

50, 9.

(nom.

sg.

n.) pleasure.

28, 8. 68, 8.
9.

rdjim,

s.

(ace. sg.)

a wound. 28,
f.)

68, 10.

rdzam,
rdna,
s.

adj. (ace. sg.

of rdza, arranging. 18, 6. 58, 1.

thigh. 11,

3.

51, 15.

rdshtem,

past. part, of

rdz (nom.

sg. n.) just. 28,

9.

68, 10.

V
va, num. (nom.
ace.

fvj.

du. m.) two. 2, 6. 46, 12.
f.)

vaie, (nom. ace. du.

two. 2,

6.

46, 12.
22, 5. 62, 12.

vaikayo,
vait6,

s.

(nom.

sg. m.) a witness.
7.

adj.

hidden. 23,

63, 15.

[I

doubt very

much

the

existeuce

of

116
such a word;
it

Zand -English.
appears to be the dat. of the suffix vat,

vant,

to

which some interpreters might have attributed the sense indicated.]

vaidhim,
vairyan,

s.

(nom

.sg.

n.)

knowledge. 23,

1.

63, 6.

adj.

(ace.

pi.

m.) the Ahuna vairya

prayers

(see

ahunascha),

77, 29.

vaibya,

(dat. instr.

du.) to two, both. 2, 6. 46, 13.

vacijo, adj. (nom. sg.) pure. 23, 6. 63, 14.

vacdhayama,
invite. 22,

(1 pi. imperat.

act.

of the causative of vid "to

know")

let

us

11. 63, 2. of vid)

vacdhd,

v. (3 sg. perf.
v.

he knows. 12,

5.

52, 20.

vaSnad,

(3 sg. imperf. conjunct, of

vaSn

"to see") he should see. 22,

12. 63, 3.

vaem,

pers. pr.
v.

(nom.

pi.

of

azem

1)

we. 22, 11. 63,

2.

vaohkhte,

(instead of

aokhtS 3

sg. pers.

middle of the root vach "to

speak") he speaks. 22, 3. 62, 8.

vaakrem,

adj.

(nom.
s.

sg. n.)

very brave, or round. 22,

6.

62, 14.

vakauvaroish,

(gen. sg. of

vakauvari which
a

stands probably for
9.

vakra62, 19.

vari "a crooked stream, canal")

meandering stream. 22,

vakhshahha,

s.

(instr. sg. of

vakhshahh, nom. vakhsho) through

salutary

speech. 8, 12. 50, 7.

vakhshdd,

abl.
s.

sg. see

hu-vakhshdd,

76, 23, 27.
7, 4.

vaghdhancm,
50, 23.

(nom.

sg. n.) the head.

10,

1.

12, 8.

48, 22, 23.

52, 23.
sg.) spring. 23,
7.

vahri,

s.

(nom.
adj.

63, 15.
7.

vahhdno,

(ncwn. plur.

m. of vahhan "being good") good men 23,

63, 14.

vahhuindm,
vahho, (nom.

(gen.

pi.

f.

of

vohu "good") good.

76, 20.

sg, n. of the
f.

comparative of vohu) better. 76, 28.
spinal

vahham,
vanhdo,

(ace. sg.
adj.

of
sg.

vahhd)

marrow. 10,

8.

51, 7.
better,
a

(nom.

m. of the comparative of vohu good)

better man. 9, 5. 50, 12.

vacha,

s.

(instr.

sg.,

or

nom.

pi.

n.)

utterance,

a

word.

8, 5,

11, 12.

22, 7. 49, 17. 50, 5, 7.

62, 16.
either. 2, 10.

vacha, num. (instead of dva) and two,
vachastishtem,
s.

17, 5. 46, 19. 57, 18.
to the

(aec. sg. n. instead

of

vachastashtem) according

sentences, verse lines. 78, 9.

vachahim,

43, 4. 78, 4.; see thrivachahim.

Zand -English.

117
50, 4,
62, 18.
5,

vachdo,

s.

(nom.
s.

pi.)

words.
sg.)

8, 9,

10.

9, 6, 9.

13, 17.
is

vadhairayosh,

(gen.

a

brook.

22, 9.

[The meaning

very doubtful; see note 5 on pag. 62.]

vadhagha,

s.

(nom,
6.

sg.) a tyrant,

an appellation of Zohak. 22, 12. 63,

3,

[Vend. 19,

vadhaghano dahhupaitish,]
f.)

vana,

s.

(nom.

sg.

tree, forest. 22, 4. 63, 9,

vanaitc, v. (3 sg. pres. subjunct.
[3 pres. indie,

middle)

he

will

lessen.

22, 4.

62, 9.

he

lessens, destroys.]

vanaSmd,
14, 7.

v.

(3 pi. potent, act. of

van

"to slay,

destroy")

we may
of

slay.

54, 9.
s.

vanatdm,

a diminisher.

12, 4.

62, 10.

[pres.

part.

(gen.

pi.)

van

"to destroy",

meaning "of those who are destroying,
(nom.
sg. n.)

of the destroyers".]

vanare,

adj.

or

s.

well-informed;

a particular animal drag-

ging dead bodies. 22,

6. 62, 13.

[See note 3 on pag. 62.]
said of a
4,

vanta,

adj.

(nom.

sg.

f.)

virtuous,

if

woman.

4, 10.

47, 15.

vantanam,
(loc. pi.)

(gen. pi.) virtuous

women.

10. 47, 16.

vantdhva,

virtuous

women.
dva)

4,

10. 47, 16.

vafra,

s.

(mstr. sg.) snow. 22, 3. 62, 8.
(loc.

vayo, num.
vayo,
s.

du. of

in both, in two. 2, 8. 46, 15.

(nom.

sg. m.) dispute, case. 43, 10. 79, 4. [See note 1
2, 9. 46,

on pag. 79.]
16.

vaydo, num. (gen. du. of ua, dva "two") of both.

vaydoschid, num.
46.
17, 18.
s.

(gen. du. of va,

dva

with chid)

of

all

two. 2, 9.

10,

varanava^
varascha,

a

fall.

22, 12. 63, 4.
ace. n.

s.

(nom.

with cha) and a board. 13, 11.

53, 18.

[See

note 2 pagg. 83. 54.]

vareina,
note

s.

a small bag, in which medicines are put.

23, 1.

63, 4.

[See

1

on pag.
s. s.

63.]

varekahe, varechdo,
varelata,

(gen. sg. m.) of a leaf. 22, 6. 62, 13.

(nom.

sg.

m.) discerning, a discriminator. 22,

7.

62, 15.

s.

surrounding. 23, 5. 63, 12. [3 sg. imperf. middle of varet

=

Sanscrit vrit "to turn", he turned.]

varethra,

adj. (instr. sg.,
[s.

or nom.

pi.

n.,

instead
II,

of verethra) victorious.

22, 7. 62, 16.

victory; see
6.

my

Gathas

pagg. 105. 106.]

varedha,

s.

fatness.
s.

11, 7. 52,

varedhaya,

growth. 22, 10.

62, 19.

[2 sg.

imperat.

of the

causal

of

varedh "to grow", meaning "make grow".]

;

118

Zand -English.
[pres. part,

varemano,

s.

rule.

12^ 2.

52, 15.

middle
It

(nom.

sg.
tlie

m.) of

vare "to choose", meaning "being
which
is

cliosen".

refers to

horse

to
3,

be presented
4.

to a

governor, or king.]

varcshtahe,

46, 25.;

see vanhtahe.
2.

vareshyo,

s.

heroism. 22, 10. 63,
pass.

[As

to

the form,

it

appears to be

a

part. fut.

(nom.

sg.

m.) of varez "to work" meaning "one

who

has

to

work".]
sg.) the sg.)

varo,

s.

(nom.

bosom. 10,

5.

51, 3.
1.

varo,

s.

(nom.

an excavation. 22, 10. 63,
adj.
is

varto, past part, or

(nom.

sg.)

beautiful. 23, 5.

63, 12.

[The MSS.

have varto which
varshtahe, past
part, of

miswritten for varto.]

varch

=

vrasch "to tear" (gen.

sg.)

32, 8. 72, 2.

see haodlw-varshtafic.

varsa,

s.

(instr.
v.

sg.,

nom.

pi.)

hair of the head.

6,

7.

58, 10.
said.

vavakhdha,
23,
6.

(3 sg.

reduplicated aorist, middle of

vach "to speak")

63, 14.
v.

vavachata,
speak".]

he makes. 52,

2.

65, 4.

[3 sg.

subjunct. aor.

of

oach "to

vavdstrinam,

s.

(gen,
s.

pi.

of vavdstri)
sg.
f.)

an

agriculturist. 40,

5.

74, 9.
11, 8. 52, 7.

vasd-khshathra?n,
[vaso,

(ace.

attainment of one's desires.

vasahh
s.

desire, wish.]
ace.
pi.

vastarem,

(nom.
s.

sg. n. instead

of

vastrem)
1.

cloth,

dress. 76, 30.
abl.


a

vastru;

(nom.

n.) clothes.

22,

62, 6.
6,


9.

vastrdd,
48, 13.

sg.

dress. 18, 5. 57,

18.

— vastrahe,
[d
1.

gen. sg.

vasmi,

s.

desire. 22, 1. 62, 6.
sg.

sg.

pres. act.

of

vds "to wish",
adj.

1

wish.]
n.

vahishtahe. gen.

14,

1.

54,


1.

vahishtem,
be,st.

(nom.

aec. sg.

of

vahishta, superlative of

vohu good)

23, 2. 63, 7. 78, 9.

vahmdi,
the

s.

(dat.

sg.)

prayer. 22,

62, 6.

[Literally

goodness

.,

being of

same root
s.

as

vohu "good"

instead of

vahn, Sanscrit vasu.]
5.

vahmemcha,
name

(ace. sg.

m. with cha) and prayer. 17,

57, 7.

vd, conj. either, or. 12, 5. 61, 6. 52, 20. 47, 4.
vditi,
s.

of a crime,

persuing

another with malicious intent.

34, 6.

72, 14.
rdl:hsh,
s.

(nom.

sg.
s.

f.)

voice. 8, 5. 8, 11. 49,

17.

50, 2, 6.
1.

vdlthsh-heretibyo,

bringing,

or taking speech. 9,

50,

8.

[dat. pi.

of

heretl "bringing", or "taking",

derived from hare,

here by

means

of
of

the

sflix

ti.

It

is

a

Talpurusha

compound, meaning "the taking

Zand -English.

|j[9

speech (the vdch of the Vedas, Idj in Parsi)
remonies.
is

at the

beginning of ce-

In Gujarati

it is

called bdj levdvi "the taking of baj" which
after

done by the

repetition of an introductory formula,
is

which nois

thing alien to the prayer which

repeated, or the

rite

which

per-

formed,

is

allowed to he spoken, or done, before
after

tlie

prayer or cereis

mony
ficial

is

over,

which the hdj

is

set

fi-ee,

which

called bdj

chhoddvi, the liberating, dismission of the bdj.
custom of the Brahmans
in this respect,

Compare

the sacri-

Aitareya Brahraanam 2,

21.; pag. 119 of

my
f.

translation.]

vdchem^
vdteni.,
s.

s.

(ace.

sg.
sg.

of

vdch

voice, speech; sin. 23, 8. 62, 6. 62, 7.
it

(nom.

n.) air. 22, 8.

vdraiti, v.
a

(3 sg. pres. act. of

vdr)

should

rain.

22,

10.

6,3,

1.

[It

is

deminutive of vara rain;

on the

different

meanings of

this

word

see

my

Gathas

I,

pagg. 190
(dat.
pi.

— 92.]
of

vdrethraghnibyo.,

adj.

f.

varethraghni)
63, 6.
[It

victorious. 9,

1.

50, 8.
pi.

vdstrayahhva,

s.

agriculture.

24, 1.

looks

like

a loc.

of

vdstrya, an agriculturist.]
viusaUi,
s.

rising.

22, 5. 62, 11. "in rising",

[loc.

sg.
it

of the pres. part, ics "to shine",
rises".]

+

vi,

meaning

"when

vicha, adv. without. 23, 6, 63, 13.

vichiddro,

s.

(nom.

sg.

m.)

a reciter of Gathas.
is

23, 5. 63, 13.
is

[Either the
If

form, or the meaning which

given here,

incorrect.

the form
to

be correct, the word cannot mean "reciter",
it

as the

only root

which

could

be traced, would be vach "to speak", and not vich.

The

original

form appears

to

be vachitdro nom.

pi.

of

vacJntar "a spea-

ker, reciter".]

vizuta,

s.

trade. 40, 4. 78, 8.
(3 sg. imperf. act.

vindad,

v.

of

vind

"to obtain")

may he

obtain. 22, 2.

62, 7.
vitasti,
s.

[he obtained.]

(nom.

sg.)
act.

a span. 22, 2. 41, 1. 62, 8. 74, 17. of vid "to
f.)

vidush, part. perf.

know" (nom.

sg.)

knowing. 22,

2.

62,

7.

vidhava,
vidhu^
viro,
s. s.

s.

(nom.

sg.

a widow. 5, 3. 47, 20.
5, 3.

(nom.

sg.)

a

widom.

47, 20.
16, 3. 56, 1.
(in-

(nom. sg. m.) in the

compound viro-mazmiho.
sg.
is

stead of

vtro-mazahho gen.
it

of mazanli

greatness)

of the

value
i.

of a male, slave or bride;

the
4,
4.

name

of

one of the mithras,

e.

promises, contracts;

see Vend.

120

Zand -English.

vivishddto, past part, (nom. sg. m.) competent, having
57, 12.

knowledge. 17,

9.

vishdpahS,

adj. (gen. sg.)

water-poisoning. 76, 29. [literally "having poison

water".]
vise, V. (3 pi. potent, of vis "to accept") they

may

accept,

21,

11.

62, 6.

[1 sg. pre?, middle,

I

obey, accept.]

viso,

s.

(gen. sg. of vis, or
ugly. 21,
adj.

nom.

pi.)

an abode. 21, 11. 62,

5.

vistc^ adj

11. 62, 5.
pi. n.

vispacha,

(nom.

with cha instead of vispacha) and
all.

all.

13, 12.

53. 19.
sg.


all.

vispdi, (dat, sg.) for
11, 11. 52, 11.

11, 13.

52, 12.

— visp6.
2. 47,
3.
7.

(nom.

m.)

vi, pers. pr.,

or adv. you; privation; against, without. 4,
(gen. sg. of
adj.

vikaichS,

s.

vikaya
sg.)

=

vaikaya) of a witness. 43,

48, 7.
38, 10.

vichithremchid,
[This

(nom.
is

knowing without being

known.

meaning which

given by the compiler appears to rest on etyin

mology; VI was taken
of "public,

the

sense

of

"without"; chithrem in that

known", and chid

in that of

"knowing".
wf,

I

prefer to take
as the

vichifhrem as "decision", derived from cith with

and chid

well-known
vispa,
adj.

enclitic.
pi.

The word appears
all.

to

mean "any

decision".]

(nom.

n.)

21, 11. 62, 5.
f.)

vispe-naemdm,
verezyad, pros.

adj.

(ace. sg.

in all directions. 9,

13. 50, 21.

part. act. of

verez "to work" (nom. sg. n.) taking, labouring.

23, 4. 63, 10.
verezyciti, v. (3 sg. pres. act. of verez)

he performs. 76, 28.

veretka,

s.

(gen. du.) kidney. 10, 12. 51, 11.
(instr.

vereda,

s.

sg.

of vered) through an army. 14, 7. 54, 9.
sg.

veredvo,

adj.

(nom.

m.) smooth. 22,

4.

23, 4. 62, 10. 63, 11.

verenavad,
verenyate,

adj.
s.

getting, following, believing. 23, 3. 63, 8.
childbirth.

premature

23, 4. 63, 11.

[It

appears
is

to

be

a

de-

nominative of verena "pregnancy," meaning "she

with child".]

vehrkahe,

s.

(gen. sg. of vehrlca wolf) of a wolf. 22, 5. 62. 12.

ve, pers. pr. (ace. dat. gen. pi.,

Gatha form, of turn "thou") you.

4,

1.

47,
void,
s.

1.

[you, to you, of you.]
sg.)

(nom.

name

of an

offence,

doing injury by

terrifying one.

39, 2. 73, 24.

voithwa,

s.

plastering. 23, 3. 63, 9.
3.

vostrem, acquiring. 23,

63, 10.

Zand-EngUsb.

121

vohuni,

s.

(nom.

sg.

f.)

blood. 11, 5. 53, 4.

v6, pers. pr. (ace, dat. gen. of

tUm "thou")
blacR hair.

you. 3, 10. 13, 3, 33, 3. 47,

1.

53, 6. 62, 9. [you, lo you, of you.J

vohugaonem,

s.

(nom.

sg. n.)

6, 8. 48,

12.

voM,

adj.
s.

(nom.

sg. n.) good.

23, 2. 63, 7.

vathwa,

a herd.
adj.

23,

3.

63, 7.

vydkhanam,
bydkhtihava,

(gen. pi.)
1

belonging

to

an

assembly.

18, 6.

58,

1.

[of

assemblies; see note
s.

on pag. SB.]
5, 4. 47,

an adorned woman.

21. [loc. pi. of vydkhti.]

SH
shaitd,
s.
s.

fshj.
58;,

(nom,
(nom.
v.

sg.

m.) marriage. 18, 12.

10.

shaSto,

sg.

m.) wealth. 18, 12. 58,
it

9.
3.

shaoshaiti,

(3 sg. pres, act.)
pi.)

goes. 19, 4. 59,
2.

shdma,
sMSiti,

s. s.

(nom.

excrements. 11,

51, 15.
its

residence. 18, 13. 58, 10,

[As to

form,

it

looks like a verb,

3 sg. pres.J

shuas,

s.

name
s.

of a sin, pride. 36, 4. 73, 7.
sg.)

shutasme,

(loc.

land ready for sowing. 19,

2.

58, 13. [This
2, 31.

word
is

is

apparently a corruption of khshuistc

zemS Vend.

which

ren-

dered in Pahlavi ^Uj

J-\^;*(5

shosdr damtk; in

my

Pahlavi-Persian

Vendidad

it

is

explained by ab

zamtn "water

of

the earth", which

can in our passage only be understood as "irrigation".
is

The meaning

in the

main correct,

as the

sentence khsMistS zemS vtshdvaySintS
(the earth) go asunder (by treading,
irrigated".

can only be translated "they

make

and other operations)

in a field

which has been

The. Pah-

lavi translation takes khshuiste

and zemc
is

as

two accusatives depending
^)U))^iii3

on the verb vishdvayeinti, which

rendered by
is

-mu

hend sdtiintnand "they make go" Cbend
translation by he, not by
bij.

explained in the Persian
to

The sense according

the
i.

Pahlavi
e.

translation is: "they
irrigate it".

make

the water flow through the field

they

The
is

translator identified khshuiste witli

khshudra "semen
to
it

virile"

which

rendered by shosdr, and attributed
is

the

meaning

of "water".

This

a mistake; but both

words are of the same root

khshud, or khshvid "to move, flow".]

shudhem,

s.

(ace. sg.

m.) hunger. 19, 3. 59,

1.

16

122
shustem,
is

Zand -English.

past. part.

(nom.

aec. sg. n.)

melted* 19,

3.

58, 13.

[The root

shud, khshud, Skr. kshud which has the meanings "to bruise", and

"to move, flow".]

shenem^
shoithro,

s. s.

(nom. (nom.

sg.

n.)

sword;

pot.

19, 3. 59,

1.

sg.

m.) a country. 18, 10. 58,
the

7,

shtachad, pres.

part. act. in

compound gdthwo - shtachad ,

repeating.

31, 4. 70, 13.

[See gdthwd-shtachad.]
s.

shhyaothananam,

(gen, pi. of

shkyaothand "works") of works.
work. 76, 38.

77, 30.

— shkyaothanem,
shydto,
s.

(nom

sg. n.)

(nom.

sg.

m.) ease. 18, 12. 58, 10.

S
salts, V. (3 sg. potent, act.) [3 sg. pres.

fsj.
9.

he should wish, may wish, desire 35,
si "to lie
9.

66, 3.

middle of

down.".]

saidhS,
saS,
s.

s.

contentment. 25,
sg.)

66, 2.
5, 7.

(nom.
s.

an orphan.

47, 34.
7.

sakhti,

(nom.
v.

sg.) decaying. 36, 3. 66,
sg.

sahhad,

(3

imperf. act.

of

sahh

to

say,

speak)

he

said.

36, 7.

66, 15.

sdhhem,

s.

(ace. sg.) a

word

8, 6, 8.
8, 9.

36, 7.
50, 3.
it

49, 18.

50, 3.

66, 14.

sahho, (nom.

sg.

m.) word.

sachaiti, with pairi^ v. (3 sg. pres. act.)

lasts.

76, 33. 77, 26.
5.

sadayad,
to

v.

(3 sg. imperf. act. of

sad) he wishes. 26,
Gathas
11,

66, 11. [he

made

happen, to cause; see
s.

my

pag. 209.]

saredha,

a year.

17, 3. 57, 6.
s.

sastish, in the

compound dush-sastish,

(nom.

sg.) teaching. 37, 4. 67, 7.

sdsndo,

s.

(ace, pi.) teachings. 9, 9. 50, 18.
sg,

sidhiad, v, (3
[It is
s.

imperf.

act.

of sidh == sad)

he wishes. 36,

1.

66, 4.

apparently only miswritten for sadhayad.]
(ace, sg.

sukem,

m. instead of sukem) looking. 25, 10.

66, 3.

[faculty

of seeing.]

sucha,
sura,

s.

a looker-on. 25, 9. 66, 2. [burning.]

s.

skin of a living man.
adj. adj,

6, 9. 48,

13.
victorious. 16, 7. 56, 7,

surahc^

(gen, sg. instead of qualifying

sHraM)
f.)

suram,
sushi,
s.

usham

(ace. sg.

43, 10. 77, 3.; see

ushdm.

(nom. du.) lungs. 10, 10. 51,

9.

surdo,

adj.

(nom.

ace. pi.

f.

of sHra) heroic. 26, 8. 66, 15.

Zand -English.
sevishta, adj. one
entirely

123
[This

who

desires a profit. 25, 10. 66, 3.

meaning

rests

on a preposterous etymology of the word; sev was

identified
It
is

with Slid "profit", and ishta taken in the sense of "desiring".
the superlative of a seva
useful, advantageous".]

= sdva

"advantage, profit", meaning "most

sdohha,

s.

a

measure, a number. 26,

5.

66, 10.
5.

skaptem,

adj.
s.

(nom.

sg. n.)

wonderful. 26,
4.

66, 11.
sg.

schindaiad,

a break. 26, 1. 66,
cut.]

[v.

3

imperf. of the

causal of

schind "to cut", he

stakhto, past part. (nom. sg. m.) obstinate. 26, 4. 66, 8.

stakhro, adj. (nom. sg. m.) terrible. 26, 4. 66,

8.

slaia, past part, of std "to stand", standing. 26, 3. 66, 7.

stdram,
stuiti,
s.

s.

(gen. pi. of star "a star") of stars. 12, 8. 52, 32.
sg.) praise. 91,
1.

(nom.
s.

58, 11.
4.

stenhya,

anger, quarrel, hatred. 26,

66, 9.

[As

to

the form

it

is

a

dat. instr. du.]

stoish^
stri, s.

s.

(gen. sg. of sti world, creation) of creation. 40, 8. 74, 11.
sg.
f.)

(nom.

a female. 26,

1.

66, 5.

strtm, (ace. sg.) a

woman.

5, 4. 47, 22.

sndto, past. part, of

snd "to wash" (nom.

sg.

m.) washed. 26, 6.

6^, 12.

sndvare,

s.

(nom.

sg.

n.) a bow-string. 26, 6. 66, 12.

snus, V. (3 sg. potent.) he
a

may

benefit. 26, 6. 66, 13.

[It is
it

no verb but

noun

of

snu "to

flow".

The compiler derived

from su "to be

useful".]

spakhshtim,

s.

(ace.

sg.) a protector. 26,

1.

66, 5.

sparhha,

s.

(nom.

pi.)

gums

of the teeth. 8, 4, 49, 15.

spentd-mainyiicha, 78, 8.; see
spereza,
s.
s,

mamyu.
10, 12. 51, 12.
as large as a sraoni).

the spleen. 10, 11. 51, 10.

sraoni,

(nom.

sg.) buttocks.
adj.

sraoni-masdo,

(nom.

pi.

39, 7. 74, 3,

[See

note 1 on pag. 74.]

sraoshem,

s.

(ace. sg.

m.

over the of sraosha) Serosh, the angel presiding

divine worship. 9, 4. 50, 10.

sraghrem,
sravad,

adj.

(nom. sg.
part,

n.) highest,

20, 10. 61, 5.
sg.)

pres.

of sru

"to

hear" (nom.

sung.

26, 6.

66, 12.

[hearing.]

srdvaymi,

causal of sru) v. (3 sg. pres. act. of the

he repeats. 78,

9.

•[24

Zand -English.
v. (3 sg. potent, act.

srdvayoid,

of the causal) he

may

repeat. 78, 12.

srita, past part, of sri,

made

over. 26, 8. 66, 16.

srira, adj. (nom. sg.

f.)

well-disposed. 8, 6. 50, 1.

srirem. (ace. sg. m.,

or

n.) 9,

3.

50, 10.
pi.
f.

srirao, (nom. sg.) one having a good sight. 26, 2. 66, 6. [nom. ace.
of srira fortunate, happy.j

sruta, past part, of sru, famous. 26,
srunaoiti,
v.

2.

66, 6.
7. 66, 14.

(3 sg.

pres. act. of

sru "to hear") he hears 26,
like a gen.

srvato,
of

s.

a fine. 26, 3. 66, 7,

[The word looks

sg. pres.

part.

sru "to hear".]
(nom.
sg.

svo,

s.

m.) benefit. 25, 10. 66,

3.

H(TiJ.
haita, adj. public. 32, 1. 71, 11.
haiti, V. (3 sg, pres.)
it is.

32,

1.

71, 12.

[This

is

a mistake;

the com-

piler has taken the Pahlavi

^ii

ait, hait, "it is" for a

Zand word.]

haithi,

s.

(nom.
adj.

sg.) public-spiritedness.

32, 1. 71, 12.
publicly. 12, 6.

haithim,

(ace. sg. n.

used as an adverb) in public,

52, 20.

haithem-vuchdo
haena,
haoio,
s.

s.

(nom.
f.)

pi.) plain

words. 8, 9. 50,
4. 71,

4.

(nom.

sg.

an army. 32,

15.

adj.

(nom.
s.

sg.

m.) left 9, 11. 50, 19.
ace. sg. n.)

haosravahhem,
vanhS,
s.

(nom.

comfort. 11, 10.
[It is

52, 9.

haosra-

(loc.
is

sg.) royalty 31, 10. 71, 9.

derived from husra-

vanh which
hakad, adv.
at

the proper

name

of

one of the most celebrated kings

of the Kayanian dynasty, of

Kavi Husrava.]

once. 3, 2. 46, 23.
at

hahered, adv.

once. 2, 11. 46, 21.
sg.

hakha,

s. s.

(nom.

m.) a friend. 31, 10. 71, 10.
the foot. 11, 4. 52, 3.

hakhem,
hakhta,

(nom.

sg. n.) sole of
pi.)

s.

(nom.
s.

the sexual parts. 10, 12. 51, 12.
the body. 11, 6. 52, 6.
1.

hanhdma^

(nom.
s.

pi.) joints of

hahhuharenS,

(nom. du.) jaws, jawbones. 10,

50, 22.

hacha, prep. from. 76, 20, 23. 77, 22, 25.
hachaitS,
v. (3 sg. pres.
1.

middle of hack "to follow")

is

followed, accom-

panied. 13,

53, 4.

hazd,

s.

(nom.

sg. n.)

wronged. 39,

3.

73, 25.

[violence.]

Zand -English.

125
hankare)
is
is I

hankdraySmi,
I

v.

(1 sg. pres.

act.

of the causal of
71, 16.

accomplish,

perform

a

ceremony. 32,

5.

[This

the

only correct into
it

terpretation; the

meaning

"I

proclaim" which
is

given

by some
ac-

modern

Zendists in Europe,
sacrificial

incorrect and does not

show much

quaintance with
fee

customs, the tradition

and the meaning of
II,

word

in the Iranian languages; see
part, of

my

Gathas
gifted.

pagg. 99. 100.]

handdta, past

da (nom.

pi. n.) similary

33,4. 71, 15. [the

continuous parts of a prayer.]

handerekhti,

s.

(nom.

sg.)

name

of a crime,

secretly ruining another per-

son. 34, 8. 72, 16.

hadha, prep. with.

3,

1.

32, 1. 46, 21. 71, 10.

hadhahhro,
hana,
s.

s.

(nom.
sg.
f.)

sg.

m.) the end. 32,

5.

6.

71, 16, 17.
1.

(nom.

an aged person.

5, 8. 48,

hapta, num. seven.

18, 7. 58, 3.
sg. n.) a
s.

haptahhum,

s.

(nom.

seventh part.
sg.

1,

8.

45, 13.
5, 6. 47,. 23.

hapsnai-apno-khavo,

(nom.

m.) a bigamist.
6.

hama,
hareta,

s.

(instr. sg.) in

summer.- 38,

76, 24. 77, 27.

s.

(nom.
s.

sg.) a chief.

3, 10. 71, 9.

havahhem,
hdthrem,
s.

(ace. sg. n.)

freedom from death.

11, 10. 52, 10.

(nom.

sg. n.) a

measure of length.

51, 10. 43,

1,

4.

75, 8.

73, 1, 4.

Mkush,

adj.

(nom.

sg.

m.) dry. 32,

3. 71, 14.

[instead of hishku.]
act.

hikhshad,

v.

(3 sg. pres.)

he

rises.

32, 3. 71, 13. [3 sg. aor.

of hinch

to sprinkle.]

hichiid,

s,

(nom.

sg. f.)
f.)

purity. 32, 2. 71, 17.

hizva,

s.

(nom.

sg.

tongue. 8, 5. 49, 17.

Mnchad,

v. (3 sg.

imperf. of hinch "to sprinkle")

he sprinkled.

32, 3.

71, 14.
hito, past part.

(nom.

sg.

m.) ease.

8,
1.

7.

50, 1.

hid, (for

hadha)
enclitic
adj.
s.

adv. together. 3,
it,

46, 21.

Mm,

an

pronoun,

him. 76, 29.
6, 2. 48, 6.

hukerefsh,

(nom.

sg.

m.) well-formed.

hugaonem.

(nom. sg. n.) hair of the body. 6, 6. 48, 10.
all

hutarest, adv. beyond

sides. 6, 4. 48, 9.
1.

well-made in stature. 6, huldshto, past part. (nom. sg. m.)

48, 5.

huraodho,

adj. adj.

(nom.

sg.
f.)

m.) beautiful.

6,

1.

48,

5.

huvirdm,

(ace. sg.

good-looking. 5, 10. 48, 3.

:

126
hu-frdshmd-dditec
'),

Zand-EngUsh.
sunset. 77, 25.

s.

dal. sg.

to

hufrdshmo-dditim,

ace. sg. tUe first
it.

quarter of the night, sunset, and the time following

72, 7. 76, 6.

hu-frdshmo-dditim,
77, 28.
[All

ace. sg. 76, 26.

— hu-frdshmoof

dditoid, abl. sg. 76, 23.

the

passages

the

existing
this

Zand

texts in

which the word occurs confirm the correctness of
In the

interpretation.

Aban

Yasht Yt. 5, 91. the
the

time of the day duwater, can be
is

ring which

alone

Ardvi sura andhita^
for sacrificial

celestial

worshipped, and water
stated to

purposes be taken from her,

be hacha huvakhshdd a hU-frdshmoddtoid which can only
sunrise to sunset", as Anahita
is

mean "from

not allowed

to

be wornor

shipped after the night has set in,

or before the sun has risen,

1)

In addition to the

two passages quoted from the Neringistan

(see pagg. 76
is

— 78)

regarding the meaning of this

word

I

have

to

mention a third one which

apparently incorrect,

and seems
Desturs.

to

have given

rise

to the

misunderstanding of the
read

word by some modern

On

Fol. 77, a of

my

MS.

it is

&> )>*»^^^

))ii

))^** ))'^ Me) ))^**

& {OC^(^J0^^
to
it

.

|WJ^

.

-^G-uw
from

(Question.)

"From which
to

(time) in the

AiwisrAthrem Gih

(lasting

sunset to midnight) begins the satisfaction of the ratus (heads of creation)? (Answer)
It lasts
it

from

Hiivakhsha

Fr{ishm6d&iti,

midnight; in summer and winter

is

the same". The Pahlavi commentary has:

lasts

from HilfrJishm6dat

to the

Hilvakhsh^d is evidently a clerical error, as it does not give any sense. It is to be read: hAfrkshm6diit6id, and vakhshSld is to be struck out altogether, as the Pahlavi does. If the reading were correct we should have to take htlvakhsha in the sense of "sunset" which contradicts the use of the word
middle of the night.
in all other passages,

and
it

its

etymology; only

in that case,

hvlfrashm6daiti could
The use of the word
its

mean, "midnight" as
in

has been interpreted by some Desturs.

the

Zand-avestSi does, however, leave no doubt whatsoever about

real

sense in this glossary (pagg. 42. 76) and the two passages which have been already

adduced from the Neringist^n.

Zand -English.

127

water to be consecrated (see the note on pag. 77). To consecrate water pascha M-frashmodditim i. e. after sunset, is regarded as a custom of the Devaworshippers, not to be imitated by the Zoroastrians
(Yt. 8, 94.).

Sraosha,

th guardian angel of the religion

commences
good crea-

to fight against

the Devas

(who injure and disturb the good creation
7, 58.)
e.

pascha M-frdshmoddittm Vend.
tion

and

to protect the

pascha hiifrashmodaitim
work
of Serosh
;

i.

after

sunset

(Yas. 87, 10. 16.);
lasts until

for the

begins

at

once after sunset, and

the light appears again

on which account the pious
I

Parsis pray to

him

when

the night

is

setting in, as

have witnessed many times.
e.

Mithra

touches both ends of the earth,

i.

the horizon,
set

pascha hiifrdshmdhe

ddittm
earth
in

(Yt.

10, 98.)

after

the

sun has

having passed over the
until
rises

her breadth,

in

which position he remains
against

again, protecting

the creatures
Tliis
I

the

attacks of

Aharman which

are only

made

at night.

exposition in connection with the other
for ever
that

proofs will be sufficient

think to refute

the
the

interpretation

so pertinaciously persisted in

by Prof. Spiegel

word means

"sunrise, or daybreak".]

hii-vakhshdd,

s.

abl. sg.

from sunrise.
hora) and

76, 23, 26.
6,
3.

hordcha,

adj.

(inst.

sg. of

this side.

48, 8.

[It

is

an ad-

verbial expression.]

hvare,

s.

(nom.

sg. n.)

the sun. 13, 3. 53,

5. 5.

hvoishtd, adj. (nom. sg. m.) the more. 15,

55, 8.;

see yoishto.

hvdm,

pr, (ace. sg.

f.

of

hva)

self.

33, 3. 71, 13.

Additions')aethrapaitish, and hdvishta.

As regards the etymology of

this

very comis

mon

word, by which the lowest grade of the clerical order
it

under-

stood now-a-days,

is

a

compound

of acthra

and paitish meaning

"the master", lord of an acthra (compare nmdnd-paitish "master of
the house"),
adjectival
8. 68, 12.

aethra
it,

itself

occurs never in the Zand-avesta,
,

but an
7.

form of

acthrya

is

found in several places, Yas. 26,

West. Yt. 10, 116. 119.

The Pahlavi

translation renders

it

by

1)

All the following remarks have been added

by me.

M. H.

128
)^**)^O0)'0* which
is

Zand -English.

read by the Desturs
i.

dMshtdn and hdveshtdn,
as
7.)

and explained
In

as

shdgirddn

e.
is

pupils,

and

heh-dtn
translated

i.

e.

laymen.
i.

my

Pahlavi Persian Yasna

it

once (26,

by zoti
is

e.

the zota at the Izeshne ceremony.
correct one as
in the
tity

The reading hdveshtdn
in the

the only
texts

we

find this very

word several times

Zand

form hdvishta Yas. 68,

12. Yt. 10, 116.

Unfortunately the idenlies

of both words,
to
is

Zand hdvishta, and Pahlavi hdveshtdn which
have escaped the Pahlavi translators; rendered by ytt^Ji^vu
it

at

hand, appears

for in Yas.

68, 12. hdvishta

which

is

read

hdrmgan
"neigh-

(more correct

is

hamydgdn;
as

stands perhaps for

hamsdyakdn

bours") and interpreted
account of
its

"companions" (Persian hamydz) only on
to

being joined

hasham which

they wrongly identify

with

hakha

"friend".

The

real

sense of hdvishta
in Pahlavi,

can be easily as-

certained

from the use of the word
of hdvesht
is

and

its

etymology.

The proper meaning

"a layman", and stands thus always
wliich terms are only applicable

in opposition to acthrya, or
to the priestly order.

dthrava

Thus the

Parsis distinguish

two kinds of

Penom

fpaiti-ddna the

cloth with
,

which the

mouth
,

is

covered when cere-

monies are performed)
(acthrapaiti), and

laymen wear the
Nydyish, Patet

paddm i harbadi the Penom of Herbads, paddm i hdveshti, the Penom of laymen for the Penom when they make Abdn Nydyish, Atesh
;

etc.
').

by simply holding up their Sadra, or the sleeves
Etymologically
to
it

towards the mouth
extract the
to as
its
it

can be only traced to

hu

"to

Homa

juice,

perform the

causal

hdvay

"to

make another
suffix

Homa ceremony", or rather perform the Homa ceremony";
(compare vdzishta from vaz)

has

the superlative

ishta

the
i.

word means "one who
very pious.

gets

performed many

Homa

ceremonies"

e.

As the performers must be priests, the hdvishta

1)

Ttiese

two kinds
is

of

Penom

are hinted at Vend. 18,

L paitid4.nem ainim
P^dJim

baraiti which

translated in Pahlavi
is

AJi
the

jut^^

-^tsii

zakM bared

"he wears the other Penom", that

who have

taken their orders, and not the

Penom only to he worn by the priests common one which the laymen are perinterpreters have not nnderstood

mitted, or even enjoined to wear.

The European

the real sense of the
essential.

passage,

as

they have omitted the word

ainim which

is

Zand- English.

129
is

who

is

always

distinguished
i.

from them

the

Yajamdna_

(to

use a
is

Brahmanical term)

e.

the

man

for

whose

benefit

the ceremony

performed, who can be only a layman,
quire no
assistance

as the Zoroastrian priests re-

when performing
instructed by

a

ceremony.

As

all

those

who

stand under the spiritual guidance of the priests are regarded as pupils
it

who

are to be

them

in the

principles

of

religion,

was taken by some in the sense of

"pupil". — According

to this in-

vestigation the translation of

a^thrya by hdvesht must

rest

on some

misconception.

Very

likely the interpreters

were lead

to this explana-

nation by the constant connection of aethrya with aethrapaiti;

they

probably thought,
are his pupils.

if

the aethrapaiti
is

is

the master, then the

aHhryas

But what
to,

the real

meaning of aethrya ? Simply "one
acthra
itself

who belongs
place", as
it

or has an aethra'\

must mean "a
;

fire

can be only derived from idh "to burn"
It

compare Greek

at^w, "to burn", ai^Qa, "a clear sky".
of the places
all

was

in all probability the

name

where the sacred
;

fires

were kept and which were spread
the

over Persia

the

word nvQsiov which
it.

Greek writers apply
is

to

them,

may be

only a translation of

The acthrapaitish
the

thus the

master, or superintendent of such a fireplace,
priests subordinate to
to such a place.

aethryas are the

him

,

or the servants, or other people, belonging

That aethrya cannot

meaning,

it

could be only a derived one)
Yt. 13, 97.

mean "pupils" (if it had may be gathered from
it is

this

the

compound sato-aethryo

where

said of

^hum-stut, yd

paoiryo sato-aethryd frakhshtata paiti dya zemd, which cannot be translated "who first appeared with a laundred pupils on this earth" ')j
as
it

would be against
fact

all

common
this earth.

sense to

suppose that the only

remarkable

known of Ahumslut was,

that

he had

for

the

first

time a hundred pupils on
teachers in the Orient do

Such an

insignificant fact (great

not count their pupils
,

by hundreds, but by

thousands,

and ten of thousands) nobody would have thought worth commemorating. The slatement that he was "the first sato-aethryo'''
that

indicates

satd-a^hryd must be
If
i.

a

title

of

high honour which
of

but few did obtain.

we
e.

take

it

in the

sense

"one who has

a

hundred

fireplaces",

one who has

established a

hundred places

1)

This translation

is

actually to be found,
Justi.

among

a hundred other absurdities,

Dictionary by in the so-called Old-Bactrian

^^

130
of worship, or kindled a really deserved
to

Zand -English.

hundred sacred

fires,

then

we
The

liave a fact

which

be handed down
has performed
best

"to posteritj'.

Sanscrit

term saan

takratu "one who
epithet of Indra)

a

hundred

sacrifices"

(generallj^

may be

compared; the
a

translation
intellects",

proposed by some
is

modern

Sanscritists

"one who has

hundred

a

mere

guess.

pairishtem.
are

The etymology
ways
the

of this

word
il,

offers

some

difflculty.
it

There

three possible
(see

of explaining

by deriving

from pairish

"round about"

index),

or

from the root ish "to wish", or "to

come" with pairi, or from pairi-shta "standing about".
explanation
is

The

traditional

p^3.3a)
i.

o^^p
e.
its

jjgj

pavan roshnt
feeding the

naktrit "inspected as
sacred fire with
piece
it

regards
This

its

Hghting"

fitness for

it.

inspection

must be undertaken
to
e.

just

before the
is

of

wood
is

is

thrown

into the fire,

see wliether there

nothing on

what

tech-

nically styled

nasd
the

i.

any impurity,

such as hair, dirt
as

etc.

According

to the Pahlavi,

term does not mean "dry",

has been supposed, as
to

the Pahlavi
derivation
"stale,

a-^^

Jmshk "dry" never corresponds
of

pairishia.

The
to

from pairi-shta the original meaning
vigour",
is
is

which seems

be

without

applicable

to
it

the
is

term pairishtu-khshudra
it

"whose sperm
be applied
has been
to

without vitality".
as
it

But

very doubtful whether
in

can

aesma "wood",
i.

would mean which
is

that case only

"what

standing about,

e.

dry",

clearly

not

in

accordance

with the views of the Pahlavi translators

Besides, the

compound dahmosacrificial

pairishta

')

Yas. 65, 10.

(it

is

used of the zaothrdo "the

water"),

which

is

translated

by

dahdmdnu-nakiritu
spected by
view.
a

digli

pavmi sanddr ddsht yekavtmunet
is

(i.

e.

inthis

dahman

wlio

kept as

a
is,

chief),
in the

does not fovour

The

derivation from ish

+

pairi

two

last cases

the most

1)

In

tlie

"Old-BactrJan Dictionary", the term

is

explained "sifted with prayers"

wliich is sheer nonsense!

How

can waters be

"sifted"?

dahma

does uot

mean

"prayer" (see the index), as has heen supposed by Professor Benfey, which opinion

has been copied hy the hasty, uncritical and fantastical compiler of the said Dictionary.

cipaljy a prioft witli

The term simply means "inspected, or kept by a pious man" -whereby prin unimpaired magical powers is to he under itood.

Zand-English.

131
sense the root ish which

likely;

but

it

is

difficult
is

to to

determine in
I

wtiat

has several meanings

be taken.

prefer the signification "to search",

which can mean

in connection -with

pari "to examine". The most suitable

etymology would be afforded by iksh "to look", pariJcsh "to examine";
but
I

have not yet found sure traces of
itself.

this

root in

the Zand,

if it

be

not pairi-ish

Errata.
page
2,
lin.

13 for Pronouns, read, Genders and numbers of dva, va

"two". Some adverbs.
5 5

!2

i'mti

"'

fe;'#*^;-,:i^^

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