Types of matrix

1> Row matrix: A matrix having only one row is known as row matrix. for example: , ,

2>Column matrix: A matrix , having only one column is known as column matrix. A matrix of order 2×1 is also called vector matrix. For example:

,

,

3> square matrix: A matrix having same number of rows and column is known as square matrix. For example:

,

and

4> Rectangular matrix: A matrix that is not a square matrix or a matrix not having equal number of rows and column is known as rectangular matrix. For example:

,

and

5> Diagonal matrix: A square matrix having all non-diagonal elements zero is known as diagonal matrix. (NOTE: All the elements of square matrix whose row and column position is same are known as diagonal elements.)

Note: A triangular matrix having elements 0 below diagonal is called upper triangular matrix . For example: 7> unit matrix or Identity matrix: A diagonal matrix having all the diagonal elements equal to 1 is known as unit or identity matrix. and 6> Scalar matrix: A diagonal matrix having all the diagonal elements equal . is called scalar matrix.For example: . For example: 8> Zero or null matrix: Any matrix having all of its elements 0 is known as zero or null matrix.A triangular matrix having elements 0 Above diagonal is called lower triangular matrix and if a matrix have elements 0 both below and above the diagonal then it is a diagonal matrix. For example: 9> Triangular matrix: A square matrix having all the elements 0 either below the diagonal or above the diagonal is known as triangular matrix. .

For example: 12> Sub-matrix . 10> Symmetric matrix: A square matrix “A” is called a symmetric matrix if all of its elements follow the rule that : any element “a” is equal to another element whose row and column position is equal to the column and row position of the element “a” respectively. Note: Every skew-symmetric matrix have its diagonal elements 0. For example: 11> Skew-symmetric matrix: A square matrix “A” is called a skew-symmetric matrix if all of its elements follow the rule that : any element “a” is equal to the negative value of another element whose row and column position is equal to the column and row position of the element “a” respectively.For example: . For example: is a sub matrix of matrix . A matrix formed by eliminating some rows or columns or both of another matrix is called submatrix of the original matrix.

are called diagonal elements. [2 5 -1 5] Column matrix A matrix with one column is called a column matrix.. There is no difference between a 1 x 1 matrix and an ordinary number. In a square matrix the elements ai.Definitions Matrix A matrix is an ordered set of numbers listed rectangular form.4. Square matrix If a matrix A has n rows and n columns then we say it's a square matrix. [7 [0 [0 0 5 0 0] 0] 6] The matrix is denoted by diag(7 ..3.2. Example. The diagonal matrix is completely defined by the diagonal elements. [2] . 5 . Remark.i . with i = 1. Let A denote the matrix [2 [5 [3 5 6 9 7 8 0 8] 9] 1] This matrix A has three rows and four columns. We say it is a 3 x 4 matrix. Example. We denote the element on the second row and fourth column with a2. .. 6) Row matrix A matrix with one row is called a row matrix. Diagonal matrix A diagonal matrix is a square matrix with all de non-diagonal elements 0.

A scalar matrix S A scalar matrix S is a diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements all contain the same scalar value.2..j = bj.i for (i = 1.3. We write shortly 0 for a 0-matrix.i The transposed matrix T [7 [0 [3 1 ] 5 ] 4 ] = [7 [1 0 5 3] 4] of A is denoted T(A) or AT 0-matrix When all the elements of a matrix A are 0. a1.2.n) [7 [0 [0 0 7 0 0] 0] 7] The opposite matrix of a matrix .[4] [3] [0] Matrices of the same kind Matrix A and B are of the same kind if and only if A has as many rows as B and A has as many columns as B [7 [0 [3 1 5 4 2] 6] 6] [4 [1 [8 0 1 6 3] 4] 2] and The transposed matrix of a matrix The n x m matrix B is the transposed matrix of the m x n matrix A if and only if The ith row of A = the ith column of B for (i = 1.1 = ai. An identity matrix I An identity matrix I is a diagonal matrix with all the diagonal elements = 1.. we call A a 0-matrix.3.m) So ai...

If A' is the opposite of A then ai.j = aj.i .j = -aj. Then ai. for all i and j.j' = -ai. Then ai. for all i and j. [7 [1 [5 1 3 0 5] 0] 7] A skew-symmetric matrix A square matrix is called skew-symmetric if it is equal to the opposite of its transpose.If we change the sign of all the elements of a matrix A. A symmetric matrix A square matrix is called symmetric if it is equal to its transpose. [ 0 [-1 [ 5 1 -5] 0 0] 0 0] .j.i . we have the opposite matrix -A. for all i and j.