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Vanuatu
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Vanuatu Ripablik blong Vanuatu Republic of Vanuatu République du Vanuatu

Deviză: Let us stand firm in God Imn: Yumi, Yumi, Yumi

Port Vila Capitală (și cel mai mare oraș) 17°45′S 168°18′E / -17.75, 168.3 Limbi oficiale Sistem politic - Președinte - Prim Ministru bislama, engleza, franceza Republică Iolu Johnson Abil Sato Kilman Independență - 30 iulie 1980

Suprafață - Total - Apă (%) 12,200 km² km² (locul Locul 156) 0% Populație - Estimare - Densitate Monedă Prefix telefonic Domeniu Internet Fus orar 199.414 (locul Locul 172) 16/km² loc/km² Vatu (VUV) ++678 .vu UTC+11
modifică

Republica Vanuatu este o țară insulară situată în Oceania. Arhipelagul se afla la 1.750 km distanta de Australia.

Cuprins
[ascunde]
   

1 Istorie 2 Geografie 3 Clima 4 Note

[modificare] Istorie
Melanezienii locuiesc pe insulele care alcătuiesc în prezent Vanuatu încă din anul 1300 î.Hr.. Localnicii au trăit în armonie, până când, în anul 1606, în arhipelag a sosit primul alb: exploratorul portughez Pedro de Queirós.

[modificare] Geografie
Lanțul de insule care intră în componența acestui stat, situat la nord - est de Noua Caledonie, se întinde pe o distanță de aproximativ 800 km. Cele mai mari dintre cele treisprezece insule principale ale arhipelagului sunt Espiritu Santo (4.900Km²), Malekula (2.023 km²), Efate (923 km²) și Erromango (894 km).[1] În afară de acestea, Vanuatu mai dispune de aproximativ 70 de

insule mai mici. Arhipelagul își datorează existența vulcanilor (în vecinătatea sa, au fost descoperite chiar două conuri submarine).

[modificare] Clima
Clima este tropicală și subtropicală umedă, cu temperaturi medii multianuale de +27 °C în ianuarie și + 23 °C în august. Cantitatea medie multianuală de precipitații este între 1.500 și 2.500 mm.

[modificare] Note
1. ^ Revista "Atlas", Ed. "Trustul de presă DeAgostini", nr. 134

Vanuatu
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Republic of Vanuatu Ripablik blong Vanuatu (Bislama) République de Vanuatu (French)

Flag

Coat of arms
(Bislama)

Motto: "Long God yumi stanap" (In God we stand[1][2][3]) Anthem: "Yumi, Yumi, Yumi" ("We, We, We")

(Bislama)

Capital (and largest city) Official language(s) Demonym Government President Prime Minister

Port Vila
17°45′S 168°18′E / 17.75°S 168.3°E

Bislama English French Ni-Vanuatu; Vanuatuan Unitary parliamentary republic Iolu Abil Sato Kilman

Independence - from France and the United 30 July 1980 Kingdom Area 12,190 km2 (161st) Total 4,710 sq mi Population estimate 224,564 (July 2011 est.)[4] 2009 census Density 243,304[5] 19.7/km2 (188th) 51/sq mi 2010 estimate $1.216 billion[6] $5,500 (2010 est.)[6] 2010 estimate

GDP (PPP) Total Per capita

GDP (nominal)

[8] and the word tu ("stand"). The archipelago.[9] Contents [hide]     1 History 2 Geography o 2.[9] Together the two words indicated the independent status of the new nation.1 Religion 4 Government o 4.090 mi) east of northern Australia. The first Europeans to visit the islands were the members of a Spanish expedition led by Fernandes de Queirós who arrived in Espiritu Santo in 1605. west of Fiji. and the Republic of Vanuatu was created in 1980. Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu). The nation's name was derived from the word vanua ("land" or "home").2 Climate o 2.1 Flora and fauna o 2. is an island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean. English /ˌvɑːnuːˈɑːtuː/ ( listen) vah-noo-AH-too or /vænˈwɑːtuː/ van-WAH-too). and southeast of the Solomon Islands.2 Politics .3 Earthquakes 3 Demographics o 3. is some 1.[7] which occurs in several Austronesian languages. and in 1906 they agreed on a framework for jointly managing the archipelago as the New Hebrides through a British-French Condominium. officially the Republic of Vanuatu (French: République de Vanuatu. which is of volcanic origin.693 (medium) (126th) Vanuatu vatu (VUV) VUT (Vanuatu Time) (UTC+11) right VU .vu 678 HDI (2004) Currency Time zone Drives on the ISO 3166 code Internet TLD Calling code Vanuatu (Bislama IPA: [vanuaˈtu].750 kilometres (1. Vanuatu was first inhabited by Melanesian people. near New Guinea. 500 kilometres (310 mi) northeast of New Caledonia.835[6] 0.- Total Per capita $721 million[6] $2.1 Administrative divisions o 4. An independence movement arose in the 1970s. In the 1880s France and the United Kingdom claimed parts of the country.

arrived on Espiritu Santo. When international cotton prices collapsed. looking for land on which to establish cotton plantations. but the establishment of the Caledonian Company of the New Hebrides in 1882 soon tipped the balance in favor of French subjects. In 1906. however. France and the United Kingdom agreed . more than one-half the adult male population of several of the Islands worked abroad. and the Samana Islands.[10] In 1825. in need of laborers. Fiji. For example. and. and called it La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo or "The Southern Land of the Holy Spirit". thinking he had arrived in Terra Australis or Australia. planters switched to coffee. Pottery fragments have been found dating back to 1300–1100 BCE. archaeological evidence supports the commonly held theory that peoples speaking Austronesian languages first came to the islands some 4. Settlers also came. coconuts. trader Peter Dillon's discovery of sandalwood on the island of Erromango began a rush of immigrants that ended in 1830 after a clash between immigrants and Polynesian workers. By the turn of the century.       o 4. planters in Australia. Fragmentary evidence indicates that the current population of Vanuatu is greatly reduced compared to pre-contact times. Europeans did not return until 1768.000 years ago. encouraged a long-term indentured labor trade called "blackbirding". John Geddie (1815-1872).1 Communications 6 Culture 7 Health and education 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links [edit] History Main article: History of Vanuatu The prehistory of Vanuatu is obscure. a name that lasted until independence. the French outnumbered the British two to one.3 Foreign relations and military 5 Economy o 5. At the height of the labor trade. Captain Cook named the islands the New Hebrides. In 1774.[10] The jumbling of French and British interests in the islands brought petitions for one or another of the two powers to annex the territory. cocoa. British subjects from Australia made up the majority.[10] It was in the 19th century that both Catholic and Protestant missionaries arrived on the islands. bananas. New Spain. when Louis Antoine de Bougainville rediscovered the islands. Initially. During the 1860s.[10] The Vanuatu group of islands was discovered by Europeans in 1606 when the Portuguese explorer Pedro Fernandes de Queirós working for the Spanish Crown. most successfully. a Scots-Canadian Presbyterian missionary landed on the island of Aneityum in 1848 and spent the rest of his life there converting the inhabitants to Christianity.

The belief in a mythical messianic figure named John Frum was the basis for an indigenous cargo cult (a movement attempting to obtain industrial goods through magic) promising Melanesian deliverance.[10] The first political party was established in the early 1970s and originally was called the New Hebrides National Party. Pentecost. was instrumental in the rise of nationalism in the islands. Renamed the Vanua'aku Pati in 1974. a paramilitary group. Vanua Lava. with about 800 miles (1. geologically newer islands of volcanic origin (65 of them inhabited). with their informal demeanor and relative wealth. these are Espiritu Santo. New elections have been called for several times since 1997. and longitudes 166° and 171°E. Tanna. most recently in 2004. who later became Prime Minister. Malakula. Erromango. Fourteen of Vanuatu's islands have surface areas of more than 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi). Melanesians were barred from acquiring the citizenship of either power. Efate. Epi. From largest to smallest.[10] During the 1990s Vanuatu experienced political instability which eventually resulted in a more decentralized government. The nation's largest towns are the capital Port Vila. Called the British-French Condominium. with separate governmental systems that came together only in a joint court.300 km) north to south distance between the outermost islands. and Anatom or Aneityum. Gaua. Ambae or Aoba. amidst the brief Coconut War. it was a unique form of government. Maewo. There were allegations of corruption in the government of Maxime Carlot Korman. the party pushed for independence.[13] Two of these islands (Matthew and Hunter) are also claimed by the French overseas department of New Caledonia. and Luganville on Espiritu . attempted a coup in 1996 because of a pay dispute. The Vanuatu Mobile Force. Malo. in 1980. One of the founders was Father Walter Lini.[11][12] the Republic of Vanuatu was created. Vanuatu is an island archipelago consisting of approximately 82 relatively small. The arrival of Americans during World War II. Ambrym.[10] Challenges to this form of government began in the early 1940s.to administer the islands jointly. situated on Efate. The country lies between latitudes 13° and 21°S. John Frum is both a religion and a political party with a member in Parliament. [edit] Geography Main article: Geography of Vanuatu Cinder plain of Mount Yasur on Tanna island. Today.

165 ft). at 1. and fishing. putting tremendous pressure on local ecosystems. as well as several underwater ones.Santo.[14] The highest point in Vanuatu is Mount Tabwemasana. and little permanent freshwater.879 metres (6.[13] They have been logged (particularly of higher-value timber). Vanuatu has a limited number of plant and animal species. known as the Vanuatu rain forests. There are no indigenous large mammals.739 sq mi))[15] of which its land base is very limited (roughly 4. the lack of employment opportunities in industry and urban areas and inaccessibility to markets have combined to lock rural families into a subsistence or self-reliance mode. most islands also show signs of deforestation.[13] Proper waste disposal and water and air pollution are also increasingly troublesome issues around urban areas and large villages. converted to coconut plantations and cattle ranches. and show evidence of increased soil erosion and landslides. . the Solomon Islands. The 19 species of native reptiles include the flowerpot snake.700 square kilometres (1. including Lopevi. and New Zealand. hunting. grazing.[13] Some 90 percent of Ni-Vanuatu households fish and consume fish.[13] [edit] Flora and fauna Despite its tropical forests.4 percent annually)[18] is placing increased pressure on local resources for agriculture.[16] The shoreline is usually rocky with fringing reefs and no continental shelf. which has caused intense fishing pressure near villages and the depletion of near-shore fish species. A stream on Efate island Vanuatu’s growing population (estimated in 2008 at 2.800 sq mi)). Vanuatu's total area is (roughly 12.[17] Vanuatu is recognised as a distinct terrestrial ecoregion.[13] Freshwater is becoming increasingly scarce and many upland watersheds are being deforested and degraded. which includes New Caledonia. on the island of Espiritu Santo. dropping rapidly into the ocean depths. It is part of the Australasia ecozone. Australia. 2% arable land).[13] There are several active volcanoes in Vanuatu. a recent nearby undersea eruption of 6.[13] Additionally.274 square kilometres (4. Volcanic activity is common with an ever-present danger of a major eruption.[13] One estimate (2005) is only 9% of land is used for agriculture (7% permanent crops.[13] While well vegetated.4 magnitude occurred in November 2008 with no casualties. and an eruption occurred in 1945. New Guinea. with unstable soils. most of the islands are steep. subjected to wide-scale slash-and-burn agriculture.

[13] Southeasterly trade winds occur from May to October. There are 3 or possibly 4 adult saltwater crocodiles living in Vanuatu's mangroves and no current breeding population. While the small Polynesian rat is thought to be indigenous. (Discuss) 2009 . The ant species of some of the islands of Vanuatu were catalogued by E. Wilson. the days become hotter and more humid starting in October.found only on Efate. and cattle.[13] The driest months are June through November.[22] [edit] Climate The climate is sub-tropical with approximately nine months of warm to hot rainy weather and the possibility of cyclones and three to four months of cooler drier weather characterized by winds from the southeast.[13] Cool between April and September. with significant rainfall usually occurring almost every month.000 millimetres (160 in) in the northern islands.[19][20] There are 11 species of bats (3 unique to Vanuatu) and 61 species of land and water birds.[20] It is said the crocodiles reach the northern part of the islands after cyclones.360 millimetres (93 in) per year but can be as high as 4. The Fiji Banded Iguana (Brachylophus fasciatus) has been introduced as a feral animal since the 1960s.[13] The water temperature ranges from 72 °F (22 °C) in winter to 82 °F (28 °C) in the summer.[13] Rainfall averages about 2. given the island chain's proximity to the Solomon Islands and New Guinea where crocodiles are very common. as did domesticated hogs. Coneshell and stonefish carry poison fatal to humans.[13] The wettest and hottest months are December through April. the large species arrived with Europeans.000 species of marine mollusks. with more than 4.[13] Vanuatu has a long rainy session.[16] [edit] Earthquakes It has been suggested that this section be split into a new article titled Earthquakes in Vanuatu. The giant East African land snail arrived only in the 1970s but already has spread from the Port-Vila region to Luganville.[21] The region is rich in sea life.[13] The daily temperature ranges from 68 °F (20 °C) to 90 °F (32 °C). dogs. which also constitute the cyclone season. O.

Moderate aftershocks occurred and those with magnitude 6.Earthquakes near Vanuatu. October 7–8.6 Mw.554° S 166.8 (Mw) [27] 2009-10-07 23:13:49 13.8 (Mw) [30] 2009-10-08 08:34:38 12.0 or higher are listed below (there were a dozen ranging from 5. The initial earthquake was re-designated as a foreshock because it was followed by a shock of 7. and occurred mostly at a depth of 35 kilometers (22 mi). 2009 and measured 7.[25] On 2009-10-07 22:03:15 a large 7. Several moderate to major earthquakes affected the vicinity of Vanuatu and also of Santa Cruz Islands between October 7 and 8.297° W 33 km (21 mi) 7. 2009. Date Time Latitude Longitude Depth Magnitude Ref (YYYY-MM-DD) (UTC) 2009-10-07 22:03:15 13.298° S 165. The circle sizes indicate magnitude and the black line shows the plate boundaries. The first earthquake struck at 2203 UTC on October 7.170° W 35 km (22 mi) 6. 2009. and Vanuatu is in the region of the Pacific called the "Ring of Fire" that is known for producing dramatic earthquakes.0 or higher are highlighted in light blue and the main shock of 7.8 magnitude 15 minutes later in the same area. This boundary region is among the most seismically active areas in the world.8 within the 12 hours following the initial event).448° W 35 km (22 mi) 6.879° S 166.200° W 11 km (7 mi) 6.6 earthquake occurred (see table below). tsunamis.951° W 35 km (22 mi) 6.6 (Mw) [26] 2009-10-07 22:18:26 12.[23][24] The Vanuatu earthquakes occurred on (or near) the boundary of the Australia Plate and the Pacific Plate.145° S 166.6 (Mw) [29] 2009-10-08 08:28:49 13. A tsunami warning was issued for 11 countries throughout the region although this was canceled within two hours after only a minor tsunami formed.2 (Mw) [32] 2010 .320° W 35 km (22 mi) 7.650° S 166. Shocks with magnitude 7. and other geologic phenomena.5 (Mw) [31] 2009-10-08 21:16:12 12.0 to 5.187° W 35 km (22 mi) 7.3 (Mw) [28] 2009-10-08 02:12:39 11. volcanoes.8 is highlighted in dark blue.276° S 166.052° S 166.

[37] July.0-magnitude earthquake struck Vanuatu at 5 minutes to 4am Local Time. 31 July 2011: An undersea earthquake with a magnitude of 6. 2010 at 12:16:37 AM local time: A magnitude 7. The epicenter was 50 miles from Port Vila with a depth of 25. The largest of these included:    28 May 2010. 25 August 2011: A 6.S.0 occurred in June. Tanna. all of which were at least a 6.4 occurred at sea 300 miles northwest of Port Vila at a depth of 22 miles. there have been no reports of damage. Geological Survey.[41] 2011 Six earthquakes.1 miles (19. 04 September 2011: A 7. July 31.2 miles according to the U.[34] Port Vila experienced telephone and power outages as a result. it caused a tsunami that was a few inches high but there was no damage.Vanuatu continued to experience significant earthquake activity in mid-2010. Vanuatu.[35] December 26. and no tsunami alert has been issued.2-magnitude earthquake struck ~50 miles southwest of Port-Vila at 10:06 PM Local Time. This prompted an immediate tsunami warning. but did not cause any damage. Geological Survey said the earthquake occurred shortly after midnight on Sunday.1-magnitude earthquake struck ~85 miles southwest of Port-Vila at 10:36 PM Local Time.5 km).S. 04:14 AM local time: An earthquake measuring 7.3 quake – originally estimated at 7.1 struck near Vanuatu. 21 August 2011: A 7.[42] thus far. 26 August 2011: A 5. have been recorded so far in 2011:  16 March 2011: A 6.5-magnitude earthquake struck Vanuatu.0-magnitude earthquake struck ~216 miles SSE of Port-Vila at 09:55 AM Local Time.0 and 7.[38][39] August.[33] 2010 August 10.57.      .3 quake struck 145 km (90 mi) west of Isangel. 2011. 16:23 local time: A magnitude 7. The U. about 226 miles (364 km) east of the Vanuatu capital of Port Vila.[36] A few other earthquakes between magnitude 6. though it was later then canceled. and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre reported that the quake resulted in a 23-centimeter tsunami at that location.0 magnitude on the Richter scale. It was at a depth of 12.6 – struck 22 miles (35 km) west-northwest of Port-Vila at a depth of 22 miles (35 km).[40] and September.

in 1999. which essentially combines a typically Melanesian grammar with a mostly English vocabulary.996 females.000 speakers per language. [edit] Religion .5%) of Melanesian descent. The official languages are Bislama. per capita. life expectancy and Ecological Footprint and estimated Vanuatu to be the most ecologically efficient country in the world in achieving high well-being. Bislama is a pidgin language. although Port Vila and Luganville have populations in the tens of thousands.000 population in 1967 to 25 per 1.[4] The population is predominantly rural.[43] Official statistics show infant mortality declined during the last half of the twentieth century.000 Ni-Vanuatu live and work in New Caledonia. All of these vernacular languages belong to the Oceanic branch of the Austronesian family. In addition 113 indigenous languages are still actively spoken in Vanuatu.000 in 1999. are in the majority (98.506.682 males and 90. Asians and other Pacific islanders. It is the only language that can be understood and spoken by the majority of Vanuatu's population as a second language. there were 95. Number of inhabitants in thousands. Three islands were historically colonized by Polynesians.85 infant deaths per 1. About 2. The principal languages of education are English and French. from 123 deaths per 1. In 2006 the New Economics Foundation and Friends of the Earth environmentalist group published the Happy Planet Index which analysed data on levels of reported happiness. and now a creole in urban areas. English and French. Vanuatu has a population of 221.[14] Males outnumber females. The inhabitants of Vanuatu. is the highest of any nation in the world[citation needed] with an average of only 2. according to the Vanuatu Statistics Office. Data of FAO. the CIA states 46. or Ni-Vanuatu. with the remainder made up of a mix of Europeans. year 2005 . [edit] Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Vanuatu and Languages of Vanuatu Demographics of Vanuatu.[44] However.1-magnitude earthquake struck ~100 miles SSE of Port-Vila at 08:44 AM Local Time.[46] The density of languages.[45] The national language of the Republic of Vanuatu is Bislama. 05 September 2011: A 6.000 live births in their 2011 estimates.

Many died out.[48][49] [edit] Government [edit] Administrative divisions Main article: Provinces of Vanuatu Provinces of Vanuatu Vanuatu has been divided into six provinces since 1994. fit the description exactly and is therefore revered and even held as a god around the isle of Tanna. Others are the Seventh-day Adventist Church. and has adherents in the parliament. Also on Tanna is the Prince Philip Movement. as well as many other religious groups and denominations. Prince Philip. adhered to by about one third of the population. Neil Thomas Ministries (NTM). The Presbyterian Church.Main article: Religion in Vanuatu Christianity is the predominant religion in Vanuatu. each claiming about 15% of the population. consisting of several denominations. but the John Frum cult on Tanna is still large. several cargo cults developed.[47] Villagers of the Yaohnanen tribe believed in an ancient story about the pale-skinned son of a mountain spirit venturing across the seas to look for a powerful woman to marry. The names in English of all provinces are derived from the initial letters of their constituent islands: . the Church of Christ. having visited the island with his new wife Queen Elizabeth. Roman Catholic and Anglican are other common denominations. is the largest of them. Because of the modernities that the military in World War II brought with them when they came to the islands. which reveres the United Kingdom's Prince Philip.

They are headed by a chairman elected from among the members of the local parliaments and assisted by a secretary appointed by the Public Service Commission. Paama) Penama (Pentecost. They collect local taxes and make by-laws in local matters like tourism. Aneityum – in French: Taféa) Torba (Torres islands. Aniwa. Ambae. The provinces are in turn divided into municipalities (usually consisting of an individual island) headed by a council and a mayor elected from among the members of the council. like the national government. The provincial president is constitutionally a member of the electoral college that elects the President of Vanuatu. [edit] Politics Main article: Politics of Vanuatu The Parliament of Vanuatu . Their executive arm consists of a provincial government headed by an executive officer who is appointed by the Prime Minister with the advice of the minister of local government. Banks islands) Provinces are autonomous units with their own popularly elected local parliaments known officially as provincial councils. is advised in Ni-Vanuatu culture and language by the local council of chiefs.      Malampa (Malakula. Futuna. Efate – in French: Shéfa) Tafea (Tanna. Malo) Shefa (Shepherds group. Erromango. Maewo – in French: Pénama) Sanma (Santo. Ambrym. the provincial budget or the provision of some basic services. The provincial government is usually formed by the party that has the majority in the provincial council and.

advises the government on all matters concerning ni-Vanuatu culture and language. who is elected for a 5-year term by a two-thirds majority of an electoral college. which declares that the "head of the Republic shall be known as the President and shall symbolise the unity of the nation. who are elected by popular vote every four years unless earlier dissolved by a majority vote of a three-quarters quorum or by a directive from the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. The prime minister. The President may be removed by the electoral college for gross misconduct or incapacity. ." The powers of the President of Vanuatu. The prime minister and the Council of Ministers constitute the executive government. in turn. is elected by a majority vote of a threefourths quorum of the Parliament. called the Malvatu Mauri and elected by district councils of chiefs. who is the head of government. The Parliament of Vanuatu is unicameral and has 54 members. are primarily ceremonial. appoints the Council of Ministers. The national Council of Chiefs. The Prime Minister.[50] The electoral college consists of members of Parliament and the presidents of Regional Councils. whose number may not exceed a quarter of the number of parliamentary representatives.Map of Vanuatu The Republic of Vanuatu is a parliamentary democracy with a written constitution.

Direct aid from the UK to Vanuatu ceased in 2005 following the decision by the UK to no longer focus on the Pacific. Australia. and New Zealand have provided the bulk of Vanuatu's development aid.[52] based in the London area. Vanuatu also has high-placed people at the village level. . feasts are graded through the nimangki-system. la Francophonie and the Commonwealth of Nations. Magistrate courts handle most routine legal matters. Vanuatu's military consist of a small. Chiefs were and are still the leading figures on village level. France. including to the police force. Australia now provides the bulk of external assistance. mobile. but the British Friends of Vanuatu. which has a paramilitary wing. has proved problematic at times due to differences between English and French speakers. the World Bank. however. Vanuatu retains strong economic and cultural ties to Australia. and welcomes new members (not necesarily resident in the UK) interested in Vanuatu. Forming coalition governments. The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and up to three other judges. In northern Vanuatu. the International Monetary Fund. [edit] Foreign relations and military Main article: Foreign relations of Vanuatu Vanuatu has joined the Asian Development Bank. more recently new donors such as the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) and the People's Republic of China have been providing increased amounts of aid funding. Government and society in Vanuatu tend to divide along linguistic French and English lines. the Vanuatu Mobile Force (VMF). The association's Charitable Trust funds small scale assistance in the education and training sector.[51] One becomes such a figure by holding a number of lavish feasts (each feast allowing them a higher ceremonial grade) or alternatively through inheritance (the latter only in Polynesian-influenced villages). Total military expenditures are not available. The constitution also provides for the establishment of village or island courts presided over by chiefs to deal with questions of customary law. corps of 300 volunteers. the United Kingdom (UK).Besides national authorities and figures. the Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique. In 2005 the MCA announced that Vanuatu was one of the first 15 countries in the world selected to receive support—an amount of US$65 million was given for the provision and upgrading of key pieces of public infrastructure. There is no Vanuatu High Commission or other Vanuatu Government office in Britain. It has been reported that even politicians need to oblige them. Since 1980. which forms part of the Vanuatu Police Force (VPF). Two or more members of this court may constitute a Court of Appeal. and can often offer advice and contacts to persons seeking information about Vanuatu or wishing to visit it. The legal system is based on British common law and French civil law. provides support for Vanuatu visitors to the UK. the European Union (in particular France and UK) and New Zealand. However.

and fuels. crop gardens (93).000 from Europe. 8. In particular.000 from Japan. and imports include machinery and equipment.000 from New Zealand. yams. vanilla (both green and cured). Exports include copra. and the average number of weekly fishing trips was 3. pepper.000 from North America. production of copra and kava create substantial revenue. leaf spices. and long distances between constituent islands and from main markets. copra (195). although this industry does not bring in much foreign exchange.[54] Cocoa is also grown for foreign exchange. cucumber.134 arrivals. A small light-industry sector caters to the local market.000 visitors (of these. cattle (135).758.[53] In contrast. offshore financial services. forestry (56). was estimated for different products: kava (341 million vatu).[58] Tourism brings in much-needed foreign exchange. pineapples. Agriculture is used primarily for consumption as well as for export. the value (in terms of millions of vatu – the official currency of Vanuatu). foodstuffs. and use earnings from kava cultivation to buy food. eggplants. mainly for consumption (99%). Vanuatu is widely recognized as one of the premier vacation destinations for scuba divers wishing to explore coral reefs of the South Pacific region. 1. watermelons. by Vanuatu being the site of several reality-TV shows.[60] Tourism has been promoted.[edit] Economy Main article: Economy of Vanuatu A market in Port Vila The four mainstays of the economy are agriculture. It provides a living for 65% of the population. peanuts. Tax revenues come mainly from import duties and a 12. tourism. cabbage. and cattle raising. coffee (12). cocoa. for agricultural products. The ninth season of the reality TV series Survivor was filmed . mining activity is unsubstantial. kava. (Note: figures rounded to the nearest thousand).[57] In 2007. in part.[53] The country has no known petroleum deposits. 3. 6.[51] Kava has also been used in ceremonial exchanges between clans and villages. Tourism increased 17% from 2007 to 2008 to reach 196. Economic development is hindered by dependence on relatively few commodity exports. according to one estimate.[56] The tropical climate enables growing of a wide range of fruits and vegetables and spices. There is substantial fishing activity. radishes. including banana. vulnerability to natural disasters. carrots. sugarcane. cocoa (59).[55] In 2007.000 from New Caledonia.5 percent VAT on goods and services.000 were from Australia. garlic. 1. While manganese mining halted in 1978. and timber. 37. taro.[59] The 2008 total is a sharp increase from 2000. Many farmers have been abandoning cultivation of food crops. there was an agreement in 2006 to export manganese already mined but not yet exported. beef. in which there were only 57. fishing (24). the number of households engaged in fishing was 15. and many others.

have chosen to incorporate in Vanuatu to avoid regulation and legal challenges. Commercial agriculture. entitled Survivor: Vanuatu—Islands of Fire. capital gains tax.[62] On average.[61] Several file-sharing groups. or exchange control. Many international shipmanagement companies choose to flag their ships under the Vanuatu flag. International pressure. and while cattle are the "most important livestock". corporations (17%). influenced the Vanuatu government to begin adhering to international norms to improve transparency. each household has 5 pigs and 16 chickens. In mid-2002. with revenues of 533 million vatu and expenses of 329 million vatu in 2007.on Vanuatu. such as the providers of the KaZaA network of Sharman Networks and the developers of WinMX. inheritance tax. Two years later. followed by a tsunami. North Efate Cattle raising leads to beef production for export. Australia's Celebrity Survivor was filmed at the same location used by the U. In Vanuatu. because of the tax benefits and favorable labor laws (Vanuatu is a full member of the International Maritime Organization and applies its international conventions). version.[63] There are 30 commercial farms (sole proprietorships (37%). In response to foreign concerns the government has promised to tighten regulation of its offshore financial centre. One estimate in 2007 for the total value of cattle heads sold was 135 million vatu. Another powerful earthquake in January 2002 caused . mainly from Australia. cattle were first introduced into the area from Australia by British planter James Paddon. Vanuatu is a tax haven that until 2008 did not release account information to other governments or law-enforcement agencies. the government stepped up efforts to boost tourism. caused extensive damage to the northern island of Pentecost. partnerships (23%). Vanuatu receives foreign aid mainly from Australia and New Zealand. pigs and chickens are important for subsistence agriculture as well as playing a significant role in ceremonies and customs (especially pigs). Vanuatu is recognized as one of the largest and most notorious[dubious – discuss] "flag of convenience" countries.S. withholding tax. A severe earthquake in November 1999. Financial services are an important part of the economy. leaving thousands homeless.[64] Earthquakes can negatively affect economic activity on the island nation. there is no income tax.

agriculture for sale at 561.[66] Total annual household income was 1. "electricity costs are among the highest in the Pacific" among developing countries. It noted the economy was "expanding".472 million vatu included industrial materials (4. there were 33. consumer goods (2. Of this income. A government network is under construction. timber (80).803 millions of vatu.570 households with at least one crop garden. 80% of the population lives in rural areas where "agriculture is the main source of their livelihood". Since a private monopoly generates power.[65] The Vanuatu National Statistics Office (VNSO) released their 2007 agricultural census in 2008. fuels and lubricants (187) and other imports (4.060).9% rate from 2003 to 2007.[71] This is higher than in the 1990s. education and services (56). slightly hilly slope (31%). aquarium. shell.[72] [edit] Communications Mobile phone service in the islands is provided by TVL and Digicel.[66] The largest expenditure by households was food 300 million vatu. to provide email. noting that the economy grew at an impressive 5. internet and video conferencing facilities to government offices throughout the country.extensive damage in the capital. fish (live fish. food and drink (3. According to the study. and of these.888 in 2007 – many on flat land (62%). and even on steep slopes (7%). and surrounding areas. almost all (99%) engaged in agriculture.087).261). telephone. handicrafts at 33. and of these households. and was also followed by a tsunami. alcohol and tobacco (39). fisheries and forestry.[73] [edit] Culture Main article: Culture of Vanuatu .125). button) (28). beef (fresh and chilled) (180). transportation (59). gifts received at 38.[70] The economy grew about 6% in the early 2000s. Another earthquake of 7.2 struck on 2 August 2007. Port Vila. followed by household appliances and other necessities (79 million vatu).[71] Vanuatu was ranked the 173rd safest investment destination in the world in the March 2011 Euromoney Country Risk rankings.[68] Total imports of 20. clothing and footwear (17). machinery (3. fisheries (for sale) at 18. and lauded "positive signals regarding reform initiatives from the government in some areas" but described certain binding constraints such as "poor infrastructure services".984). and included copra (485). when GDP rose less than 3%. agricultural exports make up about three-quarters (73%) of all exports. cocoa (221).038 million vatu. One report from the Manila-based Asian Development Bank about Vanuatu's economy gave mixed reviews.[69] There are substantial numbers of crop gardens – 97. agriculture grown for their own household use was valued at 683 million vatu.[67] Exports were valued at 3. kava (442). transport equipment (2. The report also cited "weak governance and intrusive interventions by the State" which reduced productivity.788 households sold some of these crops over a twelve month period.767). housing (50). on average. 10.

Vanuatu may be divided into three major cultural regions. These sections are situated all over the villages. are considered a symbol of wealth throughout Vanuatu. is known as string band music. More recently the music of Vanuatu. special spaces are provided for females when they are in their menstruation period. among others. usually including circumcision. Most villages have a nakamal or village clubhouse which serves as a meeting point for men and as a place to drink kava. . wealth is established by how much one can give away. Bishop Museum Vanuatu culture retains a strong diversity through local regional variations and through foreign influence. more traditional Melanesian cultural systems dominate. The traditional music of Vanuatu is still thriving in the rural areas of Vanuatu. In the south. It combines guitars. as an industry. Popular genres of modern commercial music. played alongside its own distinctive beat. ukulele. as well as rattles. In the centre. Bernice P. is especially played in the local nightclubs of Vanuatu with. Another musical genre that has become widely popular during the 20th century in all areas of Vanuatu. a variation of hip-hop rapped in Spanish language. particularly those with rounded tusks.Wooden slit drums from Vanuatu. an audience of Westerners and tourists. in nakamals. slit gongs. a system involving grants of title with associated privileges has developed. and popular songs. grew rapidly in the 1990s and several bands have forged a distinctive ni-Vanuatu identity. Pigs. which are currently being played in town include zouk music and reggaeton. Reggaeton. Musical instruments consist mostly of idiophones: drums of various shape and size. mostly. Villages also have male and female-only sections.[46] Young men undergo various coming-of-age ceremonies and rituals [74] to initiate them into manhood. In the north.

These geographically isolated communities have minimal access to basic health and education services. root vegetables such as taro and yams. each speaking a distinct language.[13] [edit] Health and education Vanuatu has a tropical climate and over 80% of the population lives in rural.There are few prominent ni-Vanuatu authors. who settled the New Hebrides in the 19th century.4% in 2007.[13] Papayas. and food shortages are rare. The campus in Port Vila. The British and French.[75] There is also some rugby union played in Vanuatu.[76] Health services in Port Vila and Luganville provide reasonable health care.[13] Most island families grow food in their gardens.2% in 1999 and then to 93. Churches and non-government organizations provide a minimal level of support to many rural villages. very little food is fried. known as the Emalus Campus. who died in 2002. A 1999 estimate for the literacy rate of people aged 15–24 years was about 87% and a 2006 estimate for adult literacy was 78% in 2006. and vegetables. when the new name of Vanuatu was adopted. and sweet potatoes are abundant through much of the year. and three other centres. an educational institution co-owned by twelve Pacific countries. The rate of primary school enrollment rose from 74. are locations of the University of the South Pacific. Volleyball is considered a 'girls' sport' and males play soccer. achieved international notability as a descriptive poet.[13] Coconut milk and cream are used to flavor many dishes. agreed in 1906 to an Anglo-French Condominium. There are 8000 registered cricketers. Sport varies depending on the gender of those involved.[76] In Port Vila. with its own national team. which administered the islands until independence in 1980. Introduction ::Vanuatu Background: Multiple waves of colonizers. The proportion of pupils completing a primary education fell from 90% in 1991 to 72% in 2004. plantains.overview: . Women's rights activist Grace Mera Molisa. Cricket is very popular in Vanuatu. Education is not compulsory. pineapples. migrated to the New Hebrides in the millennia preceding European exploration in the 18th century. fruits. The cuisine of Vanuatu (aelan kakae) incorporates fish.5% in 1989 to 78.0% in 2004 but then fell to 85. often supported and enhanced by visiting doctors. Vanuatu government health and education services are hard pressed to deal with the rapid increase of urban and periurban populations in informal and squatter settlements around Port Vila and to a lesser extent in Luganville. and school enrollments and attendance are among the lowest in the Pacific. although the actual figures are likely to be much lower.[13] Most food is cooked using hot stones or through boiling and steaming. isolated villages with access to their own gardens and food supplies. mangoes. This settlement pattern accounts for the complex linguistic diversity found on the archipelago to this day. houses the University's law school. Economy .

the government stepped up efforts to boost tourism through improved air connections.5% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 146 $5.3% industry: 10. resort development. are other mainstays of the economy.) country comparison to the world: 142 3. A small light industry sector caters to the local market.) 6. and tourism.137 billion (2010 est. GDP (purchasing power parity): $1. which provides a living for about two-thirds of the population. Tax revenues come mainly from import duties. offshore financial services.per capita (PPP): $5.) $1. Australia and New Zealand are the main suppliers of tourists and foreign aid.) GDP . Mineral deposits are negligible.composition by sector: agriculture: 21. Fishing. In mid-2002.100 (2010 est.000 visitors in 2008. vulnerability to natural disasters.) note: data are in 2010 US dollars GDP (official exchange rate): $693 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 196 $1. and long distances from main markets and between constituent islands.113 billion (2009 est. Agriculture.2% (2010 est.) . the government has promised to tighten regulation of its offshore financial center. is a second target for growth.4% services: 68.100 (2009 est.2% (2008 est. with nearly 197.000 (2008 est. Economic development is hindered by dependence on relatively few commodity exports. and cruise ship facilities.) $5.by occupation: agriculture: 65% industry: 5% services: 30% (2000 est.real growth rate: 2.900 (2007) country comparison to the world: 180 Labor force .) GDP . especially livestock farming.3% (2010 est.075 billion (2008 est.This South Pacific island economy is based primarily on small-scale agriculture. In response to foreign concerns.) note: data are in 2010 US dollars GDP .) Labor force: 115. the country has no known petroleum deposits.

) country comparison to the world: 200 Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): 0.) country comparison to the world: 178 $117.) country comparison to the world: 172 .) Stock of narrow money: $149.2 million (31 December 2010 est.9% of GDP (2010 est.) Taxes and other revenues: 11.23 million (2005 est.1 million (31 December 2010 est.4% of GDP (2005 est.Unemployment rate: 1.) country comparison to the world: 33 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.) Commercial bank prime lending rate: 5.) country comparison to the world: 92 Budget: revenues: $78.5% (31 December 2010 est.5% (31 December 2009 est.) Stock of broad money: $607.8% (2010 est.7 million expenditures: $72.8 million (31 December 2009 est.9% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 67 6% (31 December 2009 est.) Central bank discount rate: 20% (31 December 2010 est.2% (2009 est.7% (1999) country comparison to the world: 10 Population below poverty line: NA% Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA% Investment (gross fixed): 21.) country comparison to the world: 156 5.) country comparison to the world: 93 4.

taro. wood processing. coconuts. vegetables.) Electricity .) country comparison to the world: 196 Oil .8 million (31 December 2009 est. coffee.products: copra. cocoa.) country comparison to the world: 204 Electricity .imports: 0 kWh (2009 est.production: 0 bbl/day (2010 est.consumption: 1.) country comparison to the world: 173 .99 million kWh (2008 est.2 million (31 December 2009 est.exports: 0 kWh (2009 est.) Stock of domestic credit: $439. fruits. fish Industries: food and fish freezing. beef.) Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA Agriculture .consumption: 39.) country comparison to the world: 207 Oil .) country comparison to the world: 202 Oil .proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.$614.) country comparison to the world: 144 Oil .000 bbl/day (2010 est.imports: 761 bbl/day (2009 est.production: 43 million kWh (2008 est.1 million (31 December 2010 est. meat canning Electricity .) country comparison to the world: 204 Electricity .exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est. yams.) country comparison to the world: 167 $378.) Oil .

China 6. Japan 12.2%.) country comparison to the world: 72 Exports: $40 million (2006) country comparison to the world: 198 Exports . coffee Exports .external: . fuels Imports . Fiji 8. cocoa.9%.6%.8% (2010) Imports: $156 million (2006) country comparison to the world: 206 Imports .commodities: copra.4%.) country comparison to the world: 140 Natural gas .) Debt .partners: Thailand 57.) country comparison to the world: 160 Natural gas . Singapore 17.4 million (2003) country comparison to the world: 169 $148.Natural gas .6%.2%. kava.production: 0 cu m (2009 est.6% (2010) Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $161.imports: 0 cu m (2009 est.4%. NZ 8.2%. timber. New Caledonia 4.consumption: 0 cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 107 Natural gas .commodities: machinery and equipment. US 5. beef.partners: Australia 18.6 million (31 December 2009 est.proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2011 est. foodstuffs.exports: 0 cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 152 Natural gas .) country comparison to the world: 174 Current account balance: -$60 million (2007 est. Japan 24.

79 (2004) Vanuatu country brief Introduction Vanuatu is an archipelagic nation of about 80 islands in a Y-shaped chain. Sato Kilman. Vanuatu was jointly governed by both British and French administrations before attaining independence on 30 July 1980. at similar latitudes to Cairns and North Queensland. Edward Natapei was elected Prime Minister by two votes in a secret ballot at the first sitting of the new parliament. elected to a four year term by universal adult suffrage. It lies some 2000 kilometres to the northeast of Brisbane in the Coral Sea.93 (2009) NA (2007) 111. Political overview Government The President of the Republic (Constitutional Head of State) is elected for a five-year term through secret ballot by an electoral college comprising Parliament and the Presidents of Vanuatu's six provincial governments. Vanuatu has a unicameral 52-member Parliament. extending over 1000 kilometres in a north-south direction between the equator and the tropic of Capricorn.$81.2 million (2004) country comparison to the world: 186 Exchange rates: vatu (VUV) per US dollar 97. Formerly known as the New Hebrides. After facing numerous votes of no confidence the Natapei government was defeated on 2 December 2010. On 22 September 2008. (People's Progressive Party) became the new Prime Minister. . Recent political developments Vanuatu held national elections on 2 September 2008. HE Iolu Johnson Abbil Kaniapnin. The current President. The Kilman-led government is a loose alliance of eight parties. The Deputy Prime Minister under the Natapei government. was elected on 2 September 2009.93 (2006) NA (2005) 111.

In 2008.3 per cent in 2008. Tourism and tourism. strengthening further in 2012 (IMF/EIU forecast). Vanuatu's economy (real GDP) grew by 6. Future growth is projected to be 3. This sector will continue to grow in 2011 and 2012 at an average rate of 11 per cent each year. Continuing growth in Vanuatu's tourism sector will be crucial to providing further employment opportunities for Vanuatu's young and rapidly growing population (60 per cent of which is under 25 years). A limited revenue base continues to constrain government efforts to deliver services and implement reforms. Increased tourism has had direct and indirect benefits for the wider economy.0 per cent in 2010 due to the impact of the global recession. and transport and communication) account for approximately 40 per cent of GDP. The construction sector is also driving growth in the Vanuatu economy. with expenditure now more carefully controlled through an accountable and transparent process. The Vanuatu Government will also commence a number of major donor-funded construction projects in 2011.Economic overview Vanuatu's economic growth continues to be driven largely by tourism and construction. stronger interest in locally-owned bungalows and industry interest in the backpacker market also point to further growth in this industry. slowing to 3. After negative growth in the early 2000s. but there are concerns within Government that Vanuatu has become too reliant on tourism whose infrastructure is particularly vulnerable to natural disasters. incorporating expenditure funded from domestic and external sources. making up well over a third of formal employment.75 per cent in 2011. Vanuatu recorded over 100 000 air arrivals for the first time with air arrivals increasing to 119 000 in 2010. up from US$2643 in 2009. Vanuatu adopted a new fiscal format. Development has largely been focused on the island of Efate. as well as reform of its tariff structure. GDP per capita for 2010 was US$2917. Land speculation has become a political issue. it remains centred on tourism. illustrated by the Government's decision to place a moratorium on the leasing of all disputed land in July 2010. particularly the capital Port Vila. refurbishment of larger resorts. The private sector is driving construction activity with large retail and residential projects currently underway. hotels and restaurants.related services sectors (wholesale and retail trade. part of which was the introduction of a Value Added Tax. Increasing investment in new boutique-style hotels. The government continues to make efforts to increase revenue through improvements in tax collection and compliance.6 per cent in 2009 and 3. The arrival of Pacific Blue into the aviation market in September 2004 stimulated competition. Tourism and related sectors employ around 10 000 people. on 1 August 1998. A new program-budgeting format was introduced in 1998 and Vanuatu now has an integrated recurrent development budget. Bilateral relationship . Fiscal reform has led to better management systems Vanuatu's economic reform in recent years has led to a major improvement in the management of its public sector finances. While Vanuatu's economic growth is starting to become more broad-based. Fares fell and air tourist arrivals increased by 21 per cent in its first year of operation.

The Partnership for Development is intended to accelerate progress towards the UN Millennium Development Goals. Mr McMullan visited Vanuatu in February to consult his counterparts on development issues. Former Foreign Affairs Minister Stephen Smith led the Australian Delegation at the Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) in Port Vila 4-6 August 2010. Vanuatu Attorney-General Alatoi Ishmael Kalsakau and former Finance Minister Sela Molisa visited Australia in April 2010 to sign a Tax Information Exchange Agreement with Australia. Development assistance Official Development Assistance (aid) from Australia to Vanuatu has increased in recent years. . including the Cairns Compact. rising tourism numbers. in Canberra on 27 May 2009. health and law and justice. This Partnership has seen some significant early results: continuing economic growth. visited Vanuatu to attend Vanuatu's 30th Anniversary of Independence celebrations on 29-30 July 2010. who is currently Leader of the Opposition. There is also a significant resident population of Australians (approximately 1300). Australia's development assistance in Vanuatu is governed by the Australia-Vanuatu Partnership for Development. In February 2010. economic governance. visited Vanuatu in October 2010 and again in February 2011 to attend the meeting of the Pacific Islands Forum Ministerial Contact Group on Fiji. which was signed at prime ministerial level in 2009. It emphasises the principles of mutual respect and mutual responsibility. Australia and Vanuatu enjoy a very broad range of links at government.Australia has an important and close relationship with Vanuatu. expansion of telecommunications services (even as costs have decreased) and a rise in the number of children attending primary school. also visited Australia as a Guest of Government for the signing of the Australia-Vanuatu Partnership for Development with (then) Prime Minister. Kevin Rudd. business and community levels. Her Excellency Ms Quentin Bryce AC. This includes A$50 million for the bilateral program. the Hon Richard Marles MP. infrastructure. the Governor-General. Immediately prior to the PIF. and is consistent with the Vanuatu Government's own development plan. Former Vanuatu Prime Minister Edward Natapei and former Foreign Minister Natuman visited Australia for the Pacific Islands Forum in Cairns 5-7 August 2009. Australia is the largest aid donor and the main source of tourists (65 %) and investment. The joint priorities of the partnership are education. the Priorities and Action Agenda 2006-2015. which was also attended by former Parliamentary Secretary for International Development Assistance Bob McMullan. Natapei. Recent visits The Parliamentary Secretary for Pacific Island Affairs. with the Australian Government allocating A$66 million in 2010-11.

donated by Australia in 1987. as well as providing support to exercises and infrastructure projects. effective service delivery and poverty reduction. Australia is working with the Vanuatu Government and women's organisations to improve women's participation in decision-making. as well as in the urban centres of Port Vila and Luganville. the Vanuatu Transport Sector Support Program is designed to tackle infrastructure constraints and enhance economic growth. AusAID. Australia assists Vanuatu in maintaining and operating its Pacific Patrol Boat. through the GFG program. The introduction of competition has led to a decrease in costs and greater coverage: the proportion of Vanuatu's population with access to mobile telephony increased from 20 per cent in 2007 to approximately 90 per cent in 2010. Advancing gender equality is a core feature of all AusAID programs in Vanuatu. grants. and brokering the involvement of international organisations and other donors. Vanuatu and Australia are working jointly to identify and overcome governance obstacles to broad-based growth. accommodation requirements. which has massively expanded access to telecommunications in rural areas.A key feature of Australia's development assistance to Vanuatu is the Governance for Growth (GFG) program. foster public engagement in policy-making and build the demand for better governance. Through GFG. In the health sector. The program draws on a wide range of aid modalities including technical assistance. and to reduce the high rates of violence against women. National Christian Council. Australia also provides assistance to the Mobile Force element of the Vanuatu Police Force (VPF). refurbishments. The project has also assisted the VPF both with professional development of its executive and by providing activities focused on infrastructure in the form of police stations/posts. The Pacific Malaria Program has made strong early progress in contributing to a reduced malaria death rate. provided support to end the telecommunications monopoly in Vanuatu in 2007-08. economic empowerment. Vanuatu Women's Centre. Defence cooperation Australia's Defence Cooperation Program with Vanuatu was established in 1983 and comprises a number of elements. direct investment as incentives. This has extended the reach of police operations in rural Vanuatu. with two Royal Australian Navy advisers located in Vanuatu. maternal mortality at Vila Central Hospital has continued to fall and Australia is helping address a major nurse shortage across Vanuatu by doubling the student nurse intake. vehicles and marine capability in the form of donated vessels to meet the requirements of remote communities. and the local NGO Won Smolbag underpin the priority outcomes of the bilateral partnership. communications systems. more reliable shipping services and more efficient wharves. An important element of Australia's longstanding support for agencies of the law and justice sector has been support for the Vanuatu Police Force by AusAID through the engagement of long term advisors provided by the Australian Federal Police. . Community partnerships with the Malvatumauri National Council of Chiefs. Beginning in 2009. Major industries such as tourism have benefitted from improved roads.

Members of the Vanuatu Police Force. dependent largely on economic growth and development in Vanuatu. . and of the Non-Aligned Movement.95 million. Two thirds of long stay tourists to Vanuatu and almost all cruise ship passengers are Australian. Solomon Islands and the Front de Liberation National Kanak et Socialiste (FLNKS) of New Caledonia) signed an MSG Constitution in Vanuatu on 23 March 2007. Vanuatu and other MSG members (Fiji. Vanuatu is a member of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). finance and construction. Australia is the major source of foreign investment in the Vanuatu economy with a focus on agriculture. Australian imports from Vanuatu in the same period totalled A$0. Vanuatu has also resumed its accession process to join the World Trade Organization (WTO) after withdrawing its bid several years ago. tourism. In August 2008 Vanuatu was selected (along with Tonga. Noumea and the United Nations in New York. including the Mobile Force. Papua New Guinea. the People's Republic of China and the European Union. have served in UN Peacekeeping missions in East Timor. The first small group of ni-Vanuatu workers were in Australia from April to October 2009 and two further group of workers arrived in Australia in October 2010 and February 2011. including one in Sydney. New Zealand. Resident diplomatic missions in Port Vila are maintained by Australia. Suva. France. The Vanuatu Government plans to establish a High Commission in Canberra in mid 2011. Haiti. Kiribati and Papua New Guinea) to participate in the Australian Government's Pacific Seasonal Workers Pilot Scheme (PSWPS). Vanuatu is also a member of La Francophonie. New Zealand. Foreign relations Vanuatu joined the Commonwealth and the Pacific Islands Forum at the time of its independence in 1980. Brussels. the United Nations and several specialised agencies. and in the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands.Bilateral economic and trade relationship Vanuatu remains a modest market for Australia with some growth potential. in the Peace Monitoring Group and Transition Team in Bougainville. as well as a number of honorary consulates. World Bank. Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the African Caribbean Pacific (ACP) grouping enjoying special relations with the European Union. Vanuatu currently has diplomatic offices in Beijing. Sudan and Bosnia. Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG) Vanuatu has been a strong supporter of the Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG) as a reference point for Vanuatu's regional policies and the MSG Trade Agreement provides for free trade in goods produced by Melanesian countries. Australian exports to Vanuatu in 2009-10 totalled A$69 million.

eastwindcats. Sign Up &Find a Girl of your dreams AmoLatina. www. Websites Australians wishing to visit Vanuatu should consult our travel advice at Smartraveller and the Australian High Commission in Port Vila website.GeneBase. Vanua means "land" in many of Vanuatu's one hundred five languages. Vanuatu is complex. . and in others it depends on possession of chiefly titles or personal ability. and translations of the new name include "Our Land" and "Abiding Land." Culturally.com Explore the BEST of PR Snorkeling. Island & Bio bay trips Food & beverages included www. Visitor information Australians visiting Vanuatu do not need to apply for a visa prior to travel to Vanuatu as tourist visas are given on arrival in Port Vila.co. Leaders of the Vanua'aku Party. Australian currency is accepted in some establishments in Port Vila and is easily exchanged at banks.com Hot Mexican Girls to Date Beautiful Girls.com Identification. The name "Vanuatu" is an important aspect of national identity. money changers and the larger hotels. Great Dates. Some of the people follow matrilineal descent rules. which led the first independent government. while others follow patrilineal rules. find long lost relatives. Australian passport holders are permitted to stay in Vanuatu for up to four months provided they can produce evidence of an onward air or sea ticket. Ads by Google Home cooked seasonal food Derbyshire Dales sourced produce Freshly cooked to order www. Vanuatu's currency is the Vatu. Leadership on some islands depends on advancement within men's societies.A new MSG Secretariat building was opened in Port Vila on 30 May 2008. invented the term in 1980 to replace the colonial name New Hebrides.uk Trace your ancestry Discover your ancestry. family tree search.thecrowninnderbyshire.

however. the economy of the seaboard differs from that of interior mountain plateaus. Location and Geography. New Caledonia to the south. but many people are multilingual. sixty-five of which are inhabited. There are strong links between local language. while educated urbanites. Fiji to the east. Most national discourse takes place in Bislama." After independence. Vanuatu is a Y-shaped tropical archipelago of over eighty islands.700 square miles (14. Although they instituted a joint court and a few other combined services. Most children pursue elementary schooling in English or French. and identity." These languages overlie one hundred five indigenous Austronesian languages. and carved slit gongs. including political slogans such as "Unity in Diversity. is essential for public discourse. Espiritu Santo is the largest island. Many aspects of the national culture are phrased in Bislama. Chinese. Port Vila. Objects selected to represent the nation come principally from those regions. refer to supranational identities such as Melanesian. The 1997 population of 185. English and French are recognized as "official languages. and the Coral Sea and Australia to the west. The mostly volcanic archipelago extends 560 miles (900 kilometers) from north to south and has an area of 5. which governed during the nation's first eleven years. although few residents are fluent in either language. Leaders of the Vanua'aku Party. Symbolism. is on the south-central island of Efate. the capital. Bislama. and other Pacific Islander). the nation's pidgin English which emerged in the nineteenth century. Political leaders have consciously cultivated national culture to foster a national identity. which is becoming creolized. which was also the colonial headquarters. Alongside Bislama. the vatu ("stone") derives from central northern languages. came mostly from the central and northern areas. palm leaves. holidays were established to celebrate the nation and promote national identity and unity.Although most people depend on subsistence farming and fishing. The New Hebrides was a unique "condominium" colony ruled jointly by Great Britain and France after 1906. and 4 percent other (Vietnamese. The national motto is Long God Yumi Stanap ("In (or with) God We Stand/Develop"). Demography. each ran separate and parallel administrative . which has become an important marker of national identity. 4 percent European (mostly French)." Many rural people. three of which are Polynesian in origin. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. The politicians who forged independence emphasized shared culture ( kastom ) and shared Christianity to create a national identity and iconography. The Solomon Islands lie to the north.000 is 94 percent Melanesian. as does the name "Vanuatu.760 square kilometers). place. Linguistic Affiliation. The name of the national currency. including circle pig tusks. are attached primarily to their home islands.

economic. medical systems. Urbanism. These wealthy families are linked by kinship. Competition and conflict between Anglophones and Francophones culminated in the 1970s. Ethnic Relations. the French have provided aid in periods when the country has been ruled by Francophone political parties. and other relations with the majority Melanesian population. The main parties in favor of independence in the 1970s were British-supported and Anglophone. and school systems. Architecture. leaving a legacy of Francophones who commonly find themselves opposed politically to their Anglophone compatriots. The French had greatly expanded their educational system. when both groups backed different political parties in the run-up to independence. Still. and the Use of Space .Vanuatu bureaucracies. A relatively small population of Vietnamese (which the French recruited as plantation workers beginning in the 1920s) and overseas Chinese control a significant proportion of the economies of Port Vila and Luganville. Australia and New Zealand have largely replaced British assistance and influence. Since independence. police forces. drawing on English and Protestant roots more than on French and Roman Catholic. all the citizens distinguish themselves from European colonialists as they assume their national identity.

Transportation costs are high. although they also use cement brick and aluminum sheet roofing. corn. Most ni-Vanuatu are subsistence farmers who do cash cropping on the side. coconut. pudding made of grated root crops or plantain mixed with coconut milk and sometimes greens and meat. tropical nuts. Ceremonies typically involve an exchange of food. Most ni-Vanuatu live on their home islands. and the House of Custom Chiefs. and seafood. banana. they prepare earth ovens and bake laplap for the evening meal and a Sunday feast. greens. papaya. The latter two also model the traditional nakamal (men's house or meeting ground). and in many churches. Local notions of gender and rank influence village layout. In rural areas. an infusion of the pepper plant. although the population of the two towns has increased significantly since independence. pigs. bread. along with a feast. a ritual space where public discussion and decision making take place. during the week many people rely on simple boiling to cook roots and greens. After contact.Vanuatu is still a rural country. The urban diet relies on rice. Major export crops include copra. Rural architecture remains largely traditional. After independence. men and women sit on opposite sides of a central aisle. supplementing this with luxury foods (rice and tinned fish) purchased in stores. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. and tinned fish supplemented with rural products. such as the traditional taro and yam. Rural people typically produce most of what they eat. including a national museum. plantain. The exchange. Women's mobility is more restricted than that of men. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. men and occasionally women retire each evening to the nakamal to prepare and drink kava. mango) and temperate crops (cabbage. and cyclone damage is common. The mode of production is swidden ("slash-and burn") horticulture. In many cultures. the economic infrastructure is undeveloped. and government centers around the islands. peppers. and baked for hours in a traditional earth oven. and consumption of kava are integral parts of ceremonial occasions. sweet potato. On weekends. Ni-Vanuatu combine traditional south Pacific cuisine with introduced elements. People use "bush" materials in the construction of housing. kava. Town layout and architecture reflect French and British sensibilities. preparation. beans. tropical woods. Houses have one or two rooms for sleeping and storage. squash. wrapped in leaves. Basic Economy. Scores of urban kava bars have opened in Port Vila. pigs. pumpkin) were added to the diet. taro. and cacao. beef. A huge American military base that grew up around Luganville during the World War II still displays that heritage. fowl. sugarcane. Vanuatu has significant economic difficulties. Before contact with the West. the House of Parliament. The national ceremonial dish is laplap . just as their rural kin congregate at nakamal on their home islands. Vanuatu is a tax haven that earns income from company registrations and fees and an offshore shipping . other tropical crops (manioc. staple foods included yam. Port Vila. and chicken. Cooking is done in fireplaces or lean-to kitchens outdoors. Luganville. fowl. and Luganville have restaurants that serve mostly the foreign and tourist communities. carrots. These buildings incorporate slit gongs and other architectural details that display the cultural heritage. Pigs are exchanged and eaten at all important ritual occasions. the government erected several public buildings. with farmers clearing and then burning new forest plots each season. Employed urbanites gather there at the end of the day.

registry. and jewelry. However. and rural subsistence farmers. The middle-class elite is relatively small. Leadership in the north rests largely on a man's success in "graded societies" which able individuals work their way up a ladder of status grades by killing and exchanging circle-tusked pigs. most of whom live in urban areas. With the growing tourist industry. adornment. and New Caledonia Social Stratification Chiefly status exists in many of the indigenous cultures. the acquisition of titles also depends on individual effort and ability. Only citizens may own land. Tourism has become a major growth area. The government remains the largest employer of wage labor. elected officials have mostly been educated younger men who were originally pastors and leaders of Christian churches. there is a small market for traditional handicrafts. although they can lease it to foreigners and investors. Manufacturing and industry contribute only 5 to 9 percent of the gross domestic product. and few employment activities exist outside the towns and regional government centers. Men typically have greater management fights to land than do women. The elders remain in the islands. Commercial Activities. In the central and southern regions. a man and his family's possession of a title is often marked in details of dance costume. advises the parliament on land tenure and customs. Vanuatu is a republic with a unicameral parliament with fifty seats. Leadership and Political Officials. The opening of urban kava bars has stimulated an internal market for kava. Japan. Rural families produce cash crops (coconut. though the . and age. though differences between chiefly and commoner lineages are slight. and foodstuffs) for sale in local markets. including woven baskets and mats. beef. Land Tenure and Property. New Zealand. and wood processing for export. France. land belongs jointly to the members of lineages or other kin groups. there is increasing economic stratification between the educated and employed. Political Life Government. serving as village chiefs. and Trade. Since independence. economic and political inequalities are muted. all alienated plantation land reverted to the customary owners. wood cavings. Since rural society is still rooted in subsistence agriculture. Major Industries. gender. Everywhere leadership correlates with ability. older men typically being the most influential members of their villages. cacao. After independence. The major trade partners are Australia. although women may control land. An electoral college elects a nonexecutive president every five years. Symbolically. the Malvatumaori. and urbanites remain connected by important kin ties to their villages. coffee. and architecture. Generally. and this mostly consists of fish. An elected national council of chiefs. There are six regions whose elected councils share responsibility for local governance with the national government. particularly in matrilineal areas. with able.

Several organizations work with rural youth and women. presidents. Many underemployed people live in periurban settlements. Unofficial settlement procedures frequently are used to handle disputes in rural areas. Social Welfare and Change Programs State and nongovernmental organizations have focused on developing economic infrastructure and public services. and urban migration has correlated with increasing rates of burglary and other property crimes. The pattern of "circular migration" between rural village and urban center from the colonial era has broken down as more people have become permanent residents of Port Vila and Luganville. Vanuatu is a mostly volcanic archipelago of over eighty islands. Leading elders in the towns meet to resolve disputes and punish offenders. Demonstrations associated with political factions occur occasionally. mostly in international endeavors such as serving as peacekeepers. and many people lack access to piped water despite efforts to expand rural water systems. Punishment sometimes involves the informal banishment of an accused person back to his or her home island. country's prime ministers. The urban crime rate is very low.Children from the Jon Frum Cargo Cult Village play in the black sand beach on Tanna Island. The National Council of Women sponsors programs to improve women's access to the cash economy and reduce domestic violence. The Vanuatu Mobile Force has been active only occasionally. and members of parliament have typically acquired honorary chiefly titles from various regions. Most villages have no electricity. An informal system of "town chiefs" supplements the state police force and judiciary. Social Problems and Control. which is a short distance from the active volcano Yasur. . Military Activity.

civil. Family. Marriage is an important event in ongoing exchange relations between kin groups and neighborhoods and typically involves the exchange of goods. are less mobile. including money. notable amounts of goods (bride wealth) change hands. Traditionally. kava. Traditionally. Few women drive cars. Marriage. food. Marriage rules identify certain kin groups as the source of appropriate spouses. Both men and women farm. In some cases. In matrilineal regions. leaders of kin groups arrange the marriages of their children. In other areas. Many international donors are encouraging a comprehensive reform program to make government more efficient and honest and lower deficit spending. however. polluting effects of menstrual blood and other body fluids. Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations The principal nongovernmental organizations are the Christian churches. In the northern region. in other cases. mats. marriage is patterned as "sister exchange. The marriage rate approaches 100 percent. although men are responsible for clearing forest and brush for new garden plots. and only a handful have been elected to the parliament and the regional and town councils. Religious affiliation is second in importance only to kinship and neighborhood ties. Both men and women fish and reef gather. although after missionization. Many ni-Vanuatu continue to believe in the deleterious. forming the basic household and being responsible for day-to-day economic production and consumption. The nuclear family is the principal domestic unit. Domestic Unit. Some educated urban residents have adopted Western notions of romantic love and arrange their own marriages with or without family approval. when women often give up cooking. continue to rely on extended kin groups in significant . this woman is an actual sister who marries one of her brother's new wife's brothers. though only men undertake deep-sea fishing. powerful leading men might marry polygynously. Gender Roles and Statuses Generally." in which a man who marries a woman from another family owes a woman in return. women have less control of land and other property. Although women have excelled in the school system. women participate in graded societies that parallel those of men." Divorce rates are very low. There are three types of marriages: religious. and cotton cloth. the woman is a classificatory sister or even a future daughter. men continue to monopolize economic and political leadership positions. and "customary. monogamy became the norm. women have better land and sea rights. and men and women sleep apart during women's menstrual periods. and Kinship Marriage.A number of international and nongovernmental organizations are active in Vanuatu. Households. A few labor unions have attempted to organize urban and rural salaried workers (such as schoolteachers) but have not been effective in industrial action and political campaigning. In the southern region. Women do much of the work in town and roadside marketplaces. pigs. and have less of a say in marriage.

especially older sisters. Land rights pass patrilineally or matrilineally to surviving members of kin groups. Except in urban areas. many men and initiated boys lived in separate men's houses. Most people's access to land and sea rights derives from membership in lineages and clans. mats. clear garden land. Surviving spouses and children inherit what is left. but siblings. child initiation. Babies are held by caregivers almost constantly until they can walk. however. Babies often nurse until they are three years old. Inheritance. Both parents are involved in child care. Kin Groups. feeding. Formerly. today families typically live together as one unit. People call on extended kin as a labor pool when they build new houses. people follow local customs. Families are organized into larger patrilineages or matrilineages. Child Rearing and Education. where inheritance is modeled on European precedent. men. Both spouses may be involved in managing family affairs. and raise money and collect goods for family exchanges (marriage. ways. Younger children may strike their older siblings. while older siblings are restrained from hitting back. as kin live together on or near lineage land. do much of the carrying. who themselves live with their fathers' families. kava. citing custom and Christian scripture. and other goods . Women move to live with their new husbands. people destroy much of dead person's goods. Physical punishment of children is not common. typically assert basic authority their families. patricians or matriclans.A mask from Vanuatu. The membership of larger clans is dispersed across a region or island. Socialization Infant Care. and amusing of infants. There is a strong belief in the power of ancestral spirits. Residence typically is patrivirilocal. Many communities and ensure the growth of children through ritual initiation ceremonies that involve the exchange of pigs. funerals). and moieties. Lineages tend to be localized in one or two villages. In some areas.

The most spectacular celebration is the "land jump" on southern Pentecost Island. divine the causes of disease and other misfortunes. The adult literacy rate has been estimated at 55 to 70 percent. pastors. Boys age six to twelve typically undergo circumcision as part of a ritual event. In many places. an agricultural school. and visitors often receive food and other gifts that should be reciprocated. Rituals and Holy Places. Other people specialize in rain. several church seminaries. The largest denominations are Presbyterian. Most families have been Christian since the late nineteenth century. Others belong to syncretic religious organizations that mix Christianity and local belief. earthquake. and the handshake is an important aspect of initial encounters. Anglican. These people. particularly the Christmas and New Year's season. Roman Catholic. Lines in rural stores are often amorphous. and a branch of the University of the South Pacific in Port Vila. and other sorts of magical practice. ministers. Baha'i and Mormon missionaries have attracted local followings. A woman traveling alone through the countryside may receive unwelcome attention from men. Tourists sometimes attend other traditional rites. people form choruses and visit neighboring hamlets to perform religious and secular songs. wind. but clerks commonly serve overseas visitors first. Less than 10 percent of children go on to attend one of the twenty-seven secondary schools.At the year's end. Etiquette Customary relationships are lubricated by the exchange of goods. A number of people are recognized as clairvoyants and diviners. Tertiary education includes a teachers' training college. which they call Bonane . Christian priests. tidal wave. People passing on the trails or streets commonly greet one another. and deacons lead weekly services and conduct marriages and funerals. Most children receive several years of primary education in English or French. and sometimes undertake antisorcery campaigns to uncover poesen (sorcery paraphernalia) hidden in a village. particularly for the annual yam crop. who are often women. Ni-Vanuatu celebrate the Christian calendar. Religious Practitioners. locate lost objects. and Church of Christ. Seventh-Day Adventist. working sometimes within and sometimes outside the Christian churches. Many ni-Vanuatu also suspect the existence of sorcerers. Nearly everyone maintains firm beliefs in the power and presence of ancestral spirits. Some people reject Christianity and retain traditional religious practices. islanders organize firstfruit celebrations. such . Many walk to the nearest school or board there during the week.between a child's father's and mother's families. urbanites return to their home islands. Higher Education. In villages. A few students pursue university education abroad. Ni-Vanuatu continue to celebrate traditional holidays. Religion Religious Beliefs.

the dancing and feasting that accompany male initiation and grade-taking ceremonies in many of the cultures and the Toka (or Nakwiari ). Nearly all families turn to Christian funerary ritual to bury their dead. People avoid these locations or treat them with respect. Death and the Afterlife. Most sick people turn initially to local diviners and healers Villagers congregate in the protection of the shade on Ambrym Island. offshore reef formations. or rocky outcroppings. Medicine and Health Care The national health service emerged from the separate French and British colonial systems. . These "taboo places" may be mountain peaks. Every community recognizes important places associated with ancestral and other spirits. Households rely on extended kin groups. Many people experience their spiritual presence and receive their advice in dreams. a large-scale exchange of pigs and kava celebrated with two days of dancing. Ancestral ghosts continue to haunt their descendants.

bamboo flutes and panpipes. Since independence. and marine biology in Vanuatu. The tourist industry supports an active cottage handicraft and carving industry. and legends. and their music has been important in the emergence of a national culture. such as France's ORSTOM. shell jewelry. The Vanuatu Cultural Center supports a succesful local fieldwork program in which men and women are trained to study and document anthropological and linguistic information. an orthography committee has attempted to standardize Bislama spelling. Small community theater organizations whose dramas often address national issues perform in Port Vila. and Unity Day (29 November). emphasizes ornithology. indigenous literature is mostly oral. miniature slit-gongs and other carvings.who determine whether the source of disease is supernatural or natural and concoct medicines. particularly at the University of the South Pacific. and occasionally tour the hinterlands. myths. Bibliography . have studied agriculture. Secular Celebrations In addition to Independence Day (30 July). geology. mostly infusions of leaves and other plant material. Folk pharmacology includes hundreds of medical recipes. geography. Graphic Arts. Popularized on cassette tapes or broadcast on the two radio stations. some of those songs have become national standards. A few art galleries in Port Vila sell the work of local artists. and pamphlets. volcanism. Although nineteenth-century missionaries created orthographies and dictionaries for some of the languages. Publications mostly consist of biblical material and newspapers. Ni-Vanuatu appreciate oratory and storytelling and have large archives of oral tales. Hundreds of bands perform at village dances and weddings. including woven baskets and dyed mats. Constitution Day (5 October). The string band is the preeminent musical genre. penis wrappers. Many bands travel to Port Vila in June to compete in an annual competition. A local amateur society. the Vanuatu Natural Science Society. newsletters. Organized and impromptu sports matches are popular. as are money-raising carnivals. agricultural fairs. Performance Arts. and arts festivals. Writers working in English or French have published poems and short stories. Young musicians sing of local and national issues in local languages and Bislama. The Arts and Humanities Literature. the government has established Family Day (26 December) and Custom Chiefs Day (5 March). bark skirts. The University of the South Pacific Centre in Port Vila houses that university's Pacific languages unit and law school. The State of the Physical and Social Sciences Several international research associations.

S. eds. 1980. 1998. McClancy. Lini. The Tree and the Canoe: History and Ethnography of Tanna . Barry. Traditional Architecture in Vanuatu . 1980. Haberkorn. 1994. Walter. 1996. Christian Kaufmann. ed. 1988. Robert J. 1989. William F. 1987. To Kill a Bird with Two Stones: A Short History of Vanuatu . Jolly. 1990. Van Trease. Michael. 1995. Lamont. 1989. Rodman. Coiffier. Nation Making: Emergent Identities in Postcolonial Melanesia . Joël. 1994. Crowley. Economics and Ritual in Island Melanesia . Gerald. Beyond Pandemonium: From the New Hebrides to Vanuatu . Agriculture in Vanuatu: A Historical Review . ed. Bonnemaison. Margaret C. Terry. Knowledge and Power in a South Pacific Society . Weightman. ——. Colonialism and Gender in Vanuatu . ed. v . Christine. Bridging Mental Boundaries in a Postcolonial Microcosm: Identity and Development in Vanuatu . 1995. 1981. Melanesian Politics: Stael Blong Vanuatu . Margaret.Allen. Lindstrom. 1991.. Jeremy. and Darrell Tryon. Vanuatu: Politics. Port Vila: Transit Station or Final Stop? . Kirk Huffman. Beach-La-Mar to Bislama: The Emergence of a National Language in Vanuatu . Arts of Vanuatu . Miles. Vanuatu . Masters of Tradition: Consequences of Customary Land Tenure in Longana. Women of the Place: Kastom. Foster. Howard.

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