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1 Problem formulation

As this dissertation work is based on Finite Element Analysis, so it is required that a component on which analysis is to be done should have practical application and result of experimental analysis could be compared with FE analysis results for validation. The component chosen for this purpose is a Tail Lamp of a bike which finds widespread applications in all vehicles. The availability of the design of Tail Lamp is made possible due to the kind assistance of Altair-Design Tech, New Delhi. The CAD model of Tail lamp has been generated in CATIA. The main objective in Tail Lamp is to restrict the temperature of a device within its permissible range under worst operating conditions. The temperature can be kept within the permissible range by mounting the device on a heat sink which conducts the heat away from the junction of the device thereby keeping the temperature to a safe limit. As tail lamp is subjected to heat generated by the bulb which leads to thermal stresses in components of tail lamp so a coupled thermal and structural heat conduction linear static analysis of heat sink has been carried out. The main objective of this dissertation work is to perform the Finite Element Analysis of Heat Sink of a Tail Lamp so as to determine the maximum deflection, temperature, stress distribution and its location in the tail lamp. The temperature, displacement and thermal stress contours have been plotted and patterns are studied. The results are compared and verified with available experimental and standard results.

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1.2 Introduction

Auto lights are very important, because they enhance visibility on the road and keep the driver and the passengers’ safe especially in driving through poorly lit areas. There are many types of lights used in vehicle; each has its own vital function and specific location in the vehicle. The lighting system of a motor vehicle consists of lighting and signaling devices mounted or integrated to the front, sides and rear of the vehicle. The purpose of this system is to provide illumination for the driver to operate the vehicle safely after dark, to increase the conspicuity of the vehicle, and to display information about the vehicle's presence, position, size, direction of travel, and driver's intentions regarding direction and speed of travel.

**1.3 Types of lamps 1.3.1 Forward illumination- Headlamps
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Forward illumination is provided by high and low beam headlamps, which may be augmented by auxiliary fog lamps, driving lamps, and/or cornering lamps. Dipped beam Dipped-beam (also called low, passing, or meeting beam) headlamps provide a light distribution to give adequate forward and lateral illumination without blinding other road users with excessive glare. This beam is specified for use whenever other vehicles are present ahead. The international ECE Regulations for headlamps specify a beam with a sharp, asymmetric cutoff preventing significant amounts of light from being cast into the eyes of drivers of preceding or oncoming vehicle. Main beam Main-beam (also called high, driving, or full beam) headlamps provide an intense, centreweighted distribution of light with no particular control of glare. Therefore, they are only suitable for use when alone on the road, as the glare they produce will dazzle other drivers.

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Rallye and off-road lamps Vehicles used in rallying, off-roading, or at very high speeds often have extra lamps to broaden and extend the field of illumination in front of the vehicle. On off-road vehicles in particular, these additional lamps are sometimes mounted along with forward-facing lights on a bar above the roof, which protects them from road hazards and raises the beams allowing for a greater projection of light forward. Front fog lamps Front fog lamps provide a wide, bar-shaped beam of light with a sharp cutoff at the top, and are generally aimed and mounted low. They may be either white or selective yellow as shown in fig. 1.1. They are intended for use at low speed to increase the illumination directed towards the road surface and verges in conditions of poor visibility due to rain, fog, dust or snow. As such, they are often most effectively used in place of dipped-beam headlamps, reducing the glare back from fog or falling snow, although the legality varies by jurisdiction of using front fog lamps without low beam headlamps.

Fig 1.1 A pair of yellow fog lamps Cornering lamps On some models, white cornering lamps provide extra lateral illumination in the direction of an intended turn or lane change. These are actuated in conjunction with the turn signals, though they burn steadily, and they may also be wired to illuminate when the vehicle is shifted into reverse gear.

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or the front fog lamps. These are not the same as the sidemarker lights described below.g. to maintain the visual signature of a dual-track vehicle to oncoming drivers in the event of headlamp burnout With the vehicle's ignition switched off. Daytime running lamps Some countries permit or require vehicles to be equipped with daytime running lamps (DRL). emergency vehicles. the operator may activate a low-intensity light at the front (white or amber) and rear (red) on either the left or the right side of the car. The front position lamps may emit white or amber light Fig. This function is used when parking in narrow unlit streets to provide parked-vehicle conspicuity to approaching drivers. the low beam or high beam headlamps. Front position lamps (parking lamps) Nighttime standing-vehicle conspicuity to the front is provided by front position lamps. the front turn signals. in a swivel-mounted housing attached to one or both a-pillars.Spot lights Police cars. These may be functionally-dedicated lamps. 1. known as parking lamps or parking lights and front sidelights as shown in fig. 4 . depending on local regulations.2. and those competing in road rallies are sometimes equipped with an auxiliary lamp. sometimes called an alley light. or the function may be provided by e. directable by a handle protruding through the pillar into the vehicle.2 Parking lamps Since the late 1960s. 1. front position lamps have been required to remain illuminated even when the headlamps are on.

position and direction of travel clearly visible from oblique angles as shown in fig. 1. Turn signals Fig.3 with an intensity of at least 400 candelas on axis and no more than 1200 candelas in any direction. a functionally-dedicated DRL must emit white light as shown in fig. Sidemarker lights Fig.3 LED daytime running lights In ECE Regulations.4.4 Amber rear sidemarker Side-facing devices make the vehicle's presence. 1. 1. The lights are wired so as to illuminate whenever the vehicles' parking and tail lamps are on.Fig. 1. 1. including when the headlamps are being used.5 Vehicle with front turn signal and side repeater illuminated 5 .

This light is used to illuminate the rear of the vehicle when backing up.2 Rear position lamps (Tail Lamps) The taillight. Tail lamps consist of lens and frames called the tail lamp bezel or tail light frame. Tail light or tail lamp is a lighting system that is part of the vehicle usually mounted at the rear of the vehicle. Another part of the tail light system is the park light. The signal lights or the turn lights are part of the tail light. This is used to indicate whether the vehicle is turning left or right. They are mounted on the rear fender. is found at the rear end of the vehicle. The park light is also used as the brake light. and sometimes on the sides as shown in fig. rear lamp or stop lamp. also known as tail lamp. It usually emits red light when the brake is stepped on. As a regulatory standard. "blinkers". These lights have the highest illumination among the set of lights but not as bright as the head light. thereby warning the vehicle at the back that the vehicle would stop. and informally known as "directionals". as a hazard. The reverse lights are another set of lights that are part of the tail light assembly.3. It has the largest part on the tail light assembly which automatically turns on when the driver hits the brake or if the headlight is turned on. This group of lights on one mounting is consisting of different lights with different function.5.Turn signals — formally called directional indicators or directional signals. The park light signals the drivers 6 . "indicators" or "flashers" — are signal lights mounted near the left and right front and rear corners of a vehicle. used to indicate to other drivers that the operator intends a lateral change of position (turn or lane change). The reverse lights are automatically turned on when the driver puts the vehicle in the reverse shift. thus they are also called rear lamps. This gives the driver of the following vehicle time to slow down so as not to bump into the preceding vehicle. 1. the turn lights are colored yellow. 1. These same set of lights are also used during emergency.

The tail lamp mainly consists of four parts as shown in figure 1. and reverse lights. park lights. Most vintage cars have glass tail light covers. Reflector distributes the energy evenly in intended directions. Without it. The park light is also used during foggy and rainy weather as an early warning to the vehicle at the rear. With each function to perform the tail light is standard to every vehicle on the road. Heat sink is used to restrict the temperature of a device within its permissible range under worst operating conditions thereby prolonging the life and usefulness of the lamps. which also come in several colors matching the car giving it a monochromatic effect. Reflectors perform the very important function of gathering the light emitted by the lamp and then directing it as required.behind the presence of other vehicle at night. Latest models of cars use clear bulbs and red reflector instead of clear rear lamps that use red taillight bulb. From signal lights. • • • • Body Heat sink Reflector Lens Body of tail lamp protects the whole assembly from damage. Mostly owners replace OEM tail lamps with specialty taillights to achieve -Euro look. brake lights. The plastic covering the taillight is called taillight lens.6. which may come in various shades. the whole tail light assembly is very important in every vehicle. Some have wire covering fixed over the lenses for protection and added tough and trendy look. These specialty lenses enhance the cars style while adding safety to the driver and the passengers. drivers cannot detect whether there are presence of other vehicles around him. There are the so-called Euro Altezza tail lights that use clear or smoked lens over red or amber lamps to provide a sporty and modern 7 .

It became popular that the name was used to refer to these taillights.look. 8 . Altezza tail lights were first used by Toyota’s Altezza sedan model marketed in Europe. also known as Euro Tails.

Rear fog lamps Fig. 1. The tail and brake light functions may be produced separately and/or by a dual-intensity lamp. which serve as high-intensity rear position lamps to be energized by the driver in conditions of poor visibility to enhance vehicle conspicuity from the rear. This is to maximize the sight line of following 9 . If a single rear fog is fitted. taillights or tail lights). In combined-function installations. and to be wired such that they are lit whenever the front position lamps are illuminated including when the headlamps are on. or separate from them. Regulations worldwide stipulate minimum intensity ratios between the bright (brake) and dim (tail) modes.Night time vehicle conspicuity to the rear is provided by rear position lamps (also called taillamps or tail lamps.7. the lamps produce brighter red light for the brake lamp function. so that a vehicle displaying rear position lamps will not be mistakenly interpreted as showing brake lamps.7 Rear fog lamps in the bumper of a European-spec Chevrolet Corvette In Europe and other countries adhering to ECE Regulation. 1. and dimmer red light for the rear position lamp function. and vice versa. most jurisdictions require it to be located at or to the driver's side of the vehicle's centerline whichever side is the prevailing driver's side in the country in which the vehicle is registered. vehicles must be equipped with one or two bright red "rear fog lamps" (or "fog taillamps") as shown in fig. These are required to produce only red light. The allowable range of intensity for a rear fog lamp is 150 to 300 candelas. Rear position lamps may be combined with the vehicle's brake lamps. Most jurisdictions permit rear fog lamps to be installed either singly or in pairs.

On passenger cars. where red rear turn signals identical in appearance to break lamps are permitted. It also helps to disambiguate brake vs. Centre High Mount Stop Lamp (CHMSL) Fig.8 Centre High Mount Stop Lamp The CHMSL is intended to provide a deceleration warning to following drivers whose view of the vehicle's left and right stop lamps is blocked by interceding vehicles. and also can provide a redundant brake signal in the event of a brake lamp malfunction. They are required to be fitted in multiples of two. 1. These are called brake lights or stop lamps. If two rear fog lamps are fitted. affixed to the vehicle's interior just inside the back glass as shown in fig. turn signal messages. it is not permitted to flash except in certain cases under severe braking. The range of acceptable intensity for a brake lamp containing one light source (e.g. brighter than the rear position lamps. The CHMSL is required to illuminate steadily.drivers to the rear fog lamp. they must be symmetrical with respect to the vehicle's centerline. Reversing lamps 10 .8 or it may be integrated into the vehicle's deck lid or into a spoiler. are activated when the driver applies the vehicle's brakes. bulb) is 60 to 300 candelas. Stop lamps (brake lamps) Red steady-burning rear lights. symmetrically at the left and right edges of the rear of every vehicle. 1. the CHMSL may be placed above the back glass.

rear-facing reversing lamp (or "backup light") as shown in fig. for example. Emergency warning devices-Hazard flashers Also called "hazards". Rear overtake lights Until about the 1970s in France. However. International regulations require vehicles to be equipped with a control which. This could be operated by the driver to indicate that it was safe for the following vehicle to overtake. and to warn adjacent vehicle operators and pedestrians of a vehicle's rearward motion. 1.9 Illuminated reversing lamps These are currently required to produce white light by U. Spain. many commercial vehicles had a green light mounted on the rear offside. it must be illuminated whenever the position lamps are lit. when activated. and possibly other countries. an exceptionally slow-moving vehicle (including.S. "hazard warning flashers". or simply "flashers". each vehicle must be equipped with at least one rear-mounted.9. front and rear. a disabled vehicle. Fig. Rear registration plate lamp The rear registration plate is illuminated by a white lamp designed to light the surface of the plate without creating white light directly visible to the rear of the vehicle. and international ECE regulations. or the presence of 11 . "4-way flashers". some countries have at various times permitted amber reversing lamps. trucks climbing steep grades on Canadian expressways). 1. all at the same time and in phase. This function is meant to be used to indicate a hazard such as a vehicle stopped in or alongside moving traffic.To provide illumination to the rear when backing up. flashes the left and right directional signals.

e. Some people are known to use them in severe fog conditions.brake lamps that use the normal brake light. An experimental study at the University of Toronto has tested brake lights which gradually and continuously grow in illuminated area with increasing vehicle deceleration rate (i. However. plus illuminating the normal rear running lamps to the same high intensity under a panic stop. Emergency Braking Display Mercedes-Benz. as for example in an emergency. studies of vehicles in service have not shown any significant such improvement. The Volkswagen Group of manufacturers (VW. The idea behind such emergency-braking indicator systems is to catch following drivers' attention with special urgency. To date. 1. and BMW uses "Adaptive Brake Lights" . Volvo makes the brake lamps brighter. and a unique appearance when the driver applies the brakes rapidly and severely. there remains considerable debate over whether the system offers a measurable increase in safety performance.stopped/slow moving traffic ahead on a high speed road. Audi. increasing brake application pressure).4 History and development of Tail Lamps How would one react if he saw an automobile without any taillight parts fitted to its rear? He would obviously conclude that the car or truck has not been completely manufactured yet. or simply when the vehicle has become a traffic hazard. Now 12 .. Seat & Skoda) also have a system on all newer models that will turn on the hazard flasher under braking conditions hard enough to activate the Emergency Brake Assist or ABS. and BMW have released vehicles equipped with brake lamps having a standard appearance when the driver brakes normally. Mercedes' concept is to flash the brake lamps rapidly under heavy deceleration. Volvo.

Budget cars did not come with tail lights on both sides. Even then. One had to buy the other part and get it fitted into the car separately. installing a pair of taillights became very common. The first two decades of automobile history did not have auto tail lights fitted in each and every car.go back to the 1900's or the 1910's. People often viewed the automotive tail light as unnecessary expense. the auto tail light was nothing more than a safety accessory that was unavoidable. The bulb was fitted to the assembly and was wired to the engine of the vehicle. The entire industry was geared towards the war effort. budget vehicles came with just one tail light. Even the slightest bump would crash the glass and render the 13 . the number of parts used in tail lights has undergone numerous changes. the condition and status of the taillight improved in the 1950's when the automobile manufacturing industry boomed. Such a vehicle would have been the norm then. Traffic safety regulations made it mandatory for a pair of tail lights to be fitted in all vehicles and this was the final nail in the coffin. Throughout the 1930's. The idea of informing other car drivers on the road about the presence of the car using an auto tail light was yet to become important. Automobile manufacturers practically ceased to build automobiles for civilians. As people had more money to spend. However. Soon. Its presence was an unnecessary expense and was preferred only as an accessory to make the vehicle look different. Over the years. it became the standard norm and single tail light vehicles ceased to be manufactured. That is the reason why cars often were fitted with just one tail light until the 1930's. It was only when the roads were paved and cars started going faster with more powerful engines did this idea catch on. The position of the tail light was no different than the position of the passenger side view mirror today. The factory designed taillight was usually fitted to the left and this was enough to comply with the safety norms existing then. The end of the 1930's saw the beginning of the World War. The fact that the Great Depression had left very little money in the hands of the ordinary man did not help either. The earliest tail light was nothing more than a metal plate with the electric socket fitted to it.

Moore et. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW There is a vast amount of literature related to Finite Element Analysis. The capabilities of the finite element method and the computer programs are evaluated by the examples of: (l) heat transfer in amplifier fins. The invention of plastic lenses made it easier to make taillight assemblies that were lighter. and (2) thermal stress in an engine piston. Glass covers were then used to protect the bulb. Results from these examples demonstrate the efficiency of the method for the analysis of heated products that have complex geometries. vibrations made it very difficult to hold the glass properly in its place. Pramote Dechaumphai and Wiroj Lim [1] presented the Finite element analysis procedures for predicting temperature response and associated deformation including thermal stresses of heated products. journals. The literature review presented here considers the major development in implementation of FEA. newspaper articles.taillight useless. al. The code has been applied to automotive lamp thermal analysis to accurately predict lamp surface temperatures resulting from radiation and natural convection heating. The code predictions were consistently within ±10% of measurements. The code can be applied to large 14 . handbooks. less prone to damage and easier and cheaper to replace. [2] has developed a code which has the capability to perform coupled specular radiation and fluid flow analysis using a ray tracing method. books are available of national and international editions dealing with basic concepts of FEA. The results have been successfully correlated with empirical data using an infrared thermal imaging camera. Many research publications. reference manuals. Toughened glass reduced the intensity of the light but this was considered an acceptable compromise. Many other publications indicate the success story of implementation of FEA on various components. Finite element computer programs that can be used on standard personal computers have been developed. However. William I.

The extruding phenomenon. Authors have shown the efficient experimental verification which uses kinds of physical sensors to measure the temperature variation and thermal stresses on the surface of LCD-TV cell. The study successfully simulates and predicts the process by finite element analysis (FEA). Globally. The ADINA-F Computational Fluid Dynamics code can now be used to perform thermal validation of automotive lamps for a wide variety of large and complex lamp designs. leads to defects in display of the TFT-LCD TV.M. The interaction of the main vortex flow with the stream of colder fluid entering the enclosed volume through the venting aperture contributes significantly to increase the complexity of the basic flow pattern. Sousa et. al. 15 . Thermocouples have been used to characterize the temperature distributions in the walls of the reflectors under transient and steady operating conditions. J. [3] have described that the heat source from cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs) in the backlight module of a TFT-LCD TV causes the cell assembly to warpage. This capability can significantly reduce design costs and expensive prototyping. Significant thermal stratification occurs in the headlight cavities. and structure heat transfer. al. [4] presented detailed measurements of wall temperatures and fluid flow velocities inside an automotive headlight with venting apertures. The regime corresponding to steady operating conditions is characterized by the development of a vortex-dominated flow.FEA models of unstructured three-dimensional meshes with four-node tetrahedral elements.M. Chung-Yi Chu et. computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Quantification of the markedly three-dimensional flow field inside the headlight cavities has been achieved through the use of laser-Doppler velocimetry for the latter condition only. the results have improved the understanding of the temperature loads and fluid flow phenomena inside a modern automotive headlight. appearing between the cell and its bezel. The achievements and techniques can be employed to analyze and design the geometric parameters of different components in LCD-TV modules for product optimization.

The temperature distribution on reflector. lens and enclosed air were calculated by coupling the fluid flow and heat transfer analysis. al. Fornace [6] investigated & utilized the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) topology optimization software in the analysis & design of the 2006 UC San Diego Formula SAE vehicle as a means to determine the optimum material distribution within a component for a given set of loading and boundary conditions. Through the use of Altair OptiStruct® topology optimization software. Next. The finite element thermal model for a lighting system was built to predict the thermal behavior due to conduction. The thermal results can be used as a guideline for material selection or venting design of the lamp. The beam shift due to the thermal deformation of reflector and lens was also presented. With the same thermal model. a weight savings of 24. Both are based on temperature measurements. but the indirect method also requires a thermal resistance specified by the 16 . the thermal performance of a simple lighting system. the beam pattern and irradiance of the lighting system was predicted by using a ray tracing method. similar to automotive forward projector was predicted by using a finite element analysis.3% coupled with an increase in yield strength of 29. The multiphysics analysis was employed to account for heat transfer mechanism and thermal deformation in the lighting system. convection and heat radiation within the lamp. Lucas V. Firstly. [7] described two methods of determining the junction temperature of automotive lamp direct and indirect. A hydraulic load cell system was created to simulate the vehicle suspension forces and was used to physically test the original and optimized parts to failure.Piyapong Premvaranon et. al.7% was realized in the optimized design of the 2006 bell crank. the thermal deformation of reflector and lens was predicted by using the thermal distribution result as a thermal load for structural analysis. Joseph Bielecki et. Rear suspension bell crank component using modern topology optimization techniques was designed and compares the end product to that of the 2005 model bell crank component. [5] proposed an application of CAE technology in automotive lighting design.

A computer model for a typical plate finned heat sink design for a high power automotive lamp was experimentally calibrated. designing adequate heat sinks for the most stringent standard test environment. The Vonmises stress and displacement contours have been generated. Maintaining Tj of the lamp below its temperature limit by being able to measure Tj directly. Numerical simulation was also used to analyse the temperature distribution of the lamp. Sixteen thermocouples were used to measure the temperatures at 16 different positions of the street lamp. convection coefficient correlated to an airflow. X. and the bulk material resistance of the heat sink could be neglected. FE model has been solved using Radioss Linear. Devender Kumar and Amit Kumar [9] carried out Finite Element Analysis of Rear Engine Semi Floor (RESLF) city bus body structure with actual design considerations and loading conditions.manufacturer. al. Luo et. The reliability of the numerical model was proven by a comparison of simulation results with the experimental data. and guarding the device from other heat sources in the lamp can be addressed by applying the techniques in this study. Design of experiment analysis was performed using a 3 level 3 input factor full factorial test matrix. The results demonstrated that the temperature of the frame and the heat sink of the 80 W street lamp remained stable at about 42C after several hours of lighting at a room temperature of 11C. Through simulations and the corresponding analyses it was found that the tested 80 W LED street lamp would have poor reliability at an environment temperature of 45C. [8] carried out thermal analysis of an 80 W street lamp. and environment temperature. Vinod Chaudhari and Chandrakant Naiktari [10] has explained that reducing design cycle time by using state of art CAE software is no longer sufficient to meet design 17 . The factors were defined as an active heat sink surface area. The CAD model of the bus body structure has been generated which has been exported to hypermesh for preprocessing. It was observed that stresses and displacements have been found within prescribed limits and structure could withstand the load under the given conditions.

A pseudo standard of the optical system for these headlamps seems to be the projector type. exhibiting significant weight advantages over glass lenses. meshing was performed using Hypermesh. injection molded silicone lenses could be an interesting alternative to conventional glass projector lenses. Benefits. R. the lower temperature levels in LED headlamps permit the use of alternative lens materials. Thermoplastics allow for cost effective production of highly customized lenses.For FEA. The preliminary design was carried out as per Telcon standards and modeling was done using standard CAD tools. Sandhya Rani and Kanchan Bag [11] described the validation of Dumper body design through Finite Element Analysis. challenges and ways for further development of thermoplastic lenses in automotive headlamps have been discussed. However. Linear static analysis was carried out for various load cases and all stress results are found to be within safe limit. al. [12] have described that the first series cars with LED frontlighting are already on the roads. 18 . The design community needs to customize CAE software like HyperMesh and standardize in-house design processes to improve productivity dramatically and reduce learning time of CAE software to zero. However. and further projects using HB LEDs for forward lighting are under development. A method to build automated shell meshing for complex surface model using HyperMesh is presented to reduce meshing time. contrary to the situation for Halogen and Xenon systems. allowing for a styling freedom similar to thermoplastic lenses. if multilens approaches are applied for adaptive LED headlamps. Also learning curve of getting familiar with new release of CAE software often create hurdle for reduction in design cycle time. slight modification in design was done to reduce cost and weight without compromising functional requirements. Author proved that even for Xenon applications. Linear static analysis was performed with the same load cases and in order to find out the reliability of the body and to investigate mechanical failures Drop/Impact test analysis was performed Thomas Luce et.community productivity requirements. This becomes even more important.

19 . pressure and temperature. In addition to the non-linearity. The work started form single LED and examined its thermal behavior and analysis its prediction of the thermal point. The modeling of lamps requires sophisticated analysis tools incorporating computational fluid dynamics and specular radiation. aerodynamic packaging and the use of less expensive plastic materials for the lens and housing. Kwok et. advanced meshing capability. These tools use a finite element method to solve a system of non-linear equations for velocity. They provide an analysis of the thermal design of the heat sink that is amounted with LEDs. Thermal design examines by using the thermal analysis. The smaller packaging and lower melting point of plastics have increased the need for a predictive tool for simulating the lamp temperature rise under operating conditions. William I. Moore et. al. [13] studied the high power Light Emitted diode (LED) and the heat distribution of the heat sink. al.F. ease of applying loads and boundary conditions and effective post-processing capability for displaying results. the complex parabolic shape of the lamp reflector and lens requires very powerful mesh generation capability in order to produce an adequately refined mesh. The analysis provides an analytical study of the thermal data for a heat sink unit under the fabrication of the LED. [14] described the advance in automotive lamp designs result in a more compact. MSC/PATRAN has become a common pre/post-processor for many analysis codes because of the open CAE environment.K.

and manufacture of products. CAE embraces the application of computers from preliminary design (CAD) through production (CAM). also includes such diverse application programs such as those for calculating the dimensional stack-ups due to tolerances. 20 . CAE system will be major providers of information to help support design teams in decision making. design. planning. ergonomic studies with virtual people and design optimization. simulation. Computer Aided Design. diagnosis and repair. It encompasses simulation. which is usually associated with computerized drafting applications. for example. fluid mechanics and heat transfer. but it also includes diverse program for specialized analyses such as rigid body dynamics and control system modeling. In the future. analysis.1 Introduction Computer-aided technologies are a broad term describing the use of computer technology to aid in the design. Software tools that have been developed for providing support to these activities are considered CAE tools. Computer Aided Engineering is Computer Aided technology for supporting engineers in tasks such as analysis. Computer Aided Analysis includes finite element and finite difference method for solving the partial differential equations governing solid mechanics.CHAPTER 3 INTRODUCTION TO CAE AND ITS TOOLS 3. manufacture. CAE tools are being used. to analyze the robustness and performance of components and assemblies. validation and optimization of products and manufacturing tools.

Areas covered by CAE tools: • • • • • Stress analyses on components and assemblies using FEA (Finite Element Analyses) Thermal and fluid flow analyses by Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) Kinematics Mechanical Event Simulation (MES) Analyses tools for process simulation for operations such as casting . 30% of time and cost by CAE tools. and this aspect of engineering will undoubtedly fall under the umbrella of CAE. molding .Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) includes programs for generating the instructions for computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining to production and process scheduling and inventory control. Studies say that any design engineer can save approx.2 Application Area • • • • • Aerospace Automobiles Metal Forming Sheet Metal Forming Drop testing 21 . Analyses solver Post-processing of results 3. manufactures have been asked to design their products for eventual recycling. there are three phases in any Computer Aided Engineering task: • • • Pre-processing – defining the model and environmental factors to be applied to it. but as of yet it doesn’t have its own acronym. Recently. and die press forming • Optimization of the product or process In general.

3 CAE and Process Management The various activities that make up Computer Aided Engineering are an essential part of the product design cycle to speed up the design cycle. to ensure that the products designed are of higher quality. while the second covers reporting and interpretation of results. mold and blow forming Biomedical Metal cutting Earthquake engineering Failure analyses Sports equipments Civil engineering 3. and to reduce cost of the final product. Other Computer Aided Technologies are:- 22 . exists in two categories the first is model creation. suppose the designer has neglected to report any assumptions in the model and suppose the violation of these assumptions can lead to disaster: Clearly. requiring a considerable attention to detail. Regardless of the category. many of the tasks are tedious. the potential impact of CAE errors can be very high. the tasks the designer has to carry out. One way to improve a model is to use a checklist: element quality checks are an excellent example of checklists. But suppose as a result of oversight or of ignorance. the checklist has not been applied? Even worse.• • • • • • • • • • Can and shipping container design Electronic component design Glass forming Plastic. Broadly.

1.The term CAD/CAM (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) is also often used in the context of a software tool covering a number of engineering functions as shown in fig 3. Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) Computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) Computer-aided drafting (CAD) Computer-aided electrical and electronic design (ECAD) Computer-aided industrial design (CAID) Computer aided engineering (CAE) Knowledge-Based Engineering (KBE) Manufacturing Process Management (MPM) Manufacturing process planning (MPP) Manufacturing resource planning (MRP) Product data management (PDM) Product lifecycle management (PLM) Reverse engineering (RE) 23 .

Fig – 3. 24 . fluid mechanics. and heat transfer. Computer Aided Analysis (CAA) Computer Aided Analysis (CAA) is a technique by which approximate solution of a numerical problem can be carried out. The later are used mainly for problems in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). but it also includes diverse programs for specialized analysis such as rigid body dynamics and control system modeling. while the former is used in a wide range of applications.4. Computer Aided Analysis includes finite element analysis for solving the partial differential equations governing solid mechanics. The two most widely used methods in computer aided analysis are Finite Element methods and Finite Difference method.1 Various Computer Aided Technologies 3.

2. 5. Inc Dassault System Ansys. 3. List of such software and name of company providing the software is given in Table. Abaqus Abaqus Explicit Adams Ansys CASTFLOW CATIA CFX Software Company Dassault System Dassault System MSC software Corporation Ansys. 6.Ins 25 .NO. 7. 4.CHAPTER-4 INTRODUCTION TO CAE SOFTWARE 4.1 List of available CAE Software For the purpose of CAD model generation and Finite Element Analysis there are many software packages available in the market [15].4.1 S.Ins Walkingtone Engg. 1.

20. 27. Inc. 3D Vision Technologies Altair Engg. 12. 21. Inc. Inc. Table. 26. Group The Mathworks Altair Engg. Inc. Inc. MSC software Corporation MSC software Corporation SIEMENS-UGS SIEMENS-UGS Altair Engg. 23. 10. 15. Altair Engg. Altair Engg.1 Software and their provider companies From all of the above software’s we have used Altair Hyperworks 9. ESE Group Altair Engg. Altair Engg. 17. Inc. 11.Ins UGS-SIEMENS CD-adapco Liver more softwareTech.8. 22. Inc. 24. 9. 14. 25.0 package consists of: (1) Altair Hypermesh (2) Altair Hyperview (3) Altair Motion Solve (4) Altair Batchmesher (5) Altair Radioss 26 (6) Altair Optistruct (7) Altair Hyperstudy (8) Altair Data Manager (9) Altair Assembler . 19. 13. FE-safe Fluent Unigraphics Star-CD Ls-dyna MATLAB Motion-solve MSC Fatigue MSC Nastran NX-Ideas NX-Nastran Optistruct Pam crash Radioss Solid WORKS Batchmesher Hyperview Player HyperMesh Hypergraph Hypercrash Safe Technology Ltd Ansys. 18. 16. Inc.4. Altair Engg.0 Altair Hyperworks 9.

• Graphics adapter: Graphics card compatible with the supported operating systems.2 Altair HyperWorks HyperWorks [16] is an enterprise simulation solution for rapid design exploration and decisionmaking. • Disk drive: 2. or Windows XP x64.2 GB Disk Drive space (Minimum recommended size). Altair HyperWorks is one of the leading softwares used in the industry with the broadest interoperability to commercial CAD and CAE solutions. visualization. fluids and fluid-structure interactions 27 .0 applications: Hypermesh HyperCrash MotionView RADIOSS Finite Element Pre and Post Processor Finite element pre-processor for crash analysis Multi-body dynamics pre. and a 17-inch monitor compatible with this type of graphics card. running Microsoft 2000 Professional Edition. 4. 1 GB of RAM is the minimum requirement. HyperWorks provides a tightly integrated suite of best-in-class tools for modeling. and performance data management.4. for 64bit systems.2.2.2 HyperWorks 9. optimization. However.and post-processor Finite element solver for the analysis of linear and Non-linear structures. • Memory: 512 MB of RAM is the minimum requirement for all applications. • A DVD drive is required for the program installation. Windows XP 32-bit. 4. reporting.1 System Requirements The following are the system requirements to ensure the smooth running of Hypermesh on system: • System unit: An Intel Pentium 4 or AMD 64. capable of supporting 1024x768 High Color (16-bit). analysis. As one of the most comprehensive CAE solutions in the industry.

4. exploration and Optimization A solution that organizes.and post-processor for major finite element solvers.3 Pre-Processor-HyperMesh 9. and stores CAE and test data throughout the product design cycle. providing robust interoperability and efficiency. and robustness engine Design support system for evaluation. HyperMesh’s user-interface is easy to learn and supports the direct use of CAD geometry and existing finite element models. under dynamic or static solicitations. Advanced automation tools within HyperMesh allow users to optimize meshes from a set of quality criteria. or fluidstructure interaction problems resolution. The structures 28 .OptiStruct Finite element and multi-body dynamics based design and Optimization software HyperView High performance finite element and mechanical system Post-processor. DOE. engineering plotter and data analysis tool HyperView Player Plug-in and stand-alone utility to share and visualize 3-D CAE models and results HyperGraph HyperGraph 3D HyperStudy HyperStudyDSS Data Manager Engineering plotter and data analysis too Engineering 3-D plotter and data analysis tool Integrated optimization.1 RADIOSS RADIOSS is Finite Element software which allows mechanical. which allows engineers to analyze design conditions in a highly interactive and visual environment. structure.4 Solvers 4. and generate mid-surfaces from models of varying thickness. change existing meshes through morphing.0 Altair HyperMesh is a high-performance finite element pre. Process Manager Process automation tool for HyperWorks and third party Software 4. manages. fluid.4.

multi-body dynamics. Finite Elements Analysis capabilities of Optistruct Different solution sequences are available for the analysis of structures and structural components.0 Altair OptiStruct is a finite element and multi-body dynamics software. analyze and optimize structures and mechanical systems. Altair Optistruct 9. RADIOSS is well suited to the simulation of rapid dynamic phenomena. and sheet metal stamping analysis. 4. and is also used for simulating shocks and crash in the automobile. rail. RADIOSS provides small and large deformation finite element. aeronautics. Basic analysis features include: Linear static analysis Normal modes analysis Linear buckling analysis Frequency response analysis using the direct or modal method Transient response analysis using the direct or modal method Transient response analysis based on the Fourier method using direct or modal frequency response analysis Non-linear gap analysis Structural Design and Optimization capabilities 29 .can be subjected to large strains. and marine industries.4. and large rotations by using the materials non-linear behaviors. large displacements.0 can be used for solving FEA problems as well as Optimization problems.2 Altair OptiStruct 9. such as the study of hyper-velocity impacts in space. OptiStruct can be used to design.

synthetic response. and free-size optimization.0 . acceleration. inertia relief. center of gravity. and pattern repetition.These three can be combined for the solution of a general problem. topography. displacement. buckling factor. Sizing. The design space can be defined using shell or solid elements. Variables can be assigned to perturbation vectors. frequency. force. mass. and external (user defined) functions. or both. The problem set up is simply done by defining the design region. pattern grouping. Manufacturing constraints can be imposed using symmetry planes. Static. composite failure. stress. and shape optimization are the three types of Optimization Methods used in Altair Optistruct 9. Variables can also be assigned to 30 . velocity. which control the shape of the model. moment of inertia. Topology Optimization Topology optimization generates an optimized material distribution for a set of loads and constraints within a given design space. buckling. volume. normal modes. the following responses can be applied as the objective or as constraints: compliance. OptiStruct automatically provides the design variable creation and optimization control. and frequency response solutions can be included in a multidisciplinary optimization setup. size. strain. Size and Shape Optimization General size and shape optimization problems can be solved. Constraints on Von Mises stress and buckling factor are available with limitations. nonlinear gap. shape and free shape optimization are available for structural optimization. Topology. The classical topology optimization set up solving the minimum compliance problem.Structural design tools include topology. as well as the dual formulation with multiple constraints are available. the maximum bead depth and the draw angle. Topography Optimization Topography optimization generates an optimized distribution of shape based reinforcements such as stamped beads in shell structures. topography. In the formulation of design and optimization problems.

moments of inertia. All of the variables supported by OptiStruct can be assigned using Altair HyperMesh.5 Post-processors and Data Analyzers Altair HyperView HyperView enables to visualize data interactively as well as capture and standardize postprocessing activities using process automation features. stiffness. which control the thickness. area.properties. 4. and non-structural mass of elements in the model. HyperView also saves 3-D animation results in Altair's compact H3D format so as to can visualize and share CAE results within a 3D web environment using Altair HyperView Player. 31 .

the simplifying assumptions required to make any calculations possible can lead to a conservative and heavy design. The properties of each type of finite element is obtained and assembled together and solved as whole to get solution.. Using these nodal values. the domain in which the analysis to be carried out is divided into smaller bodies or unit called as finite elements. for each element is 32 . This method can able to solve physical problems involving complicated geometrics. heat transfer. For complex structures. In structural problems. properties like heat flux. A considerable factor of ignorance can remain as to whether the structure will be adequate for all design loads. Similarly. The typical use of this method is to solve the problems in the field of stress analysis. Finite Element Analysis (or other numerical analysis). 1 Introduction The finite element method is a numerical method for solving engineering and mathematical physics problems. Based on application. Using these displacement solutions. displacement at each nodal point is obtained.CHAPTER 5 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (FEA/FEM) 5. the problems are classified into structural and nonstructural problems. a temperature or fluid property at each nodal point is/are obtained. stress and strain in each element are determined. fluid flow etc. development of structures must be based on hand calculations only. and mass transfer and electromagnetic. fluid flow. In this method. the non-structural problems. loadings and material properties which cannot be solved by analytical method.

In a paper by Gauss in 1795. But term FEA is more popular in industries while FEM is famous at universities. Galerkin introduced a particular type of weighted residual method which is called by his name as “Galerkin weighted residual method”. the development is occurred along two major paths. Both of which requires trial functions to effect a solution. at element level) instead of applying it globally which is made him to solve the real world problems. In the early 1940’s. The use of trial functions is neither considered as development in pure mathematical field nor in engineering field. In 1943. aircraft engineers were developing and using analysis method called force matrix method which is recognized as early form of finite element method.determined. When the displacements of each node are taken as unknown. trial functions were used in what is now called as the method of weighted residuals. Rayleigh used these functions in variational method in 1870 and by Ritz in 1909. this method requires high-speed computation facility with large memory. Courant introduced piecewise trial functions which are now called as shape functions. 5. In a landmark paper in 1915. These shape functions are applied in a smaller region (i. one in mathematics and other in engineering. In this method. The use of these functions data is sent back to almost 250 years. Later. Since large computations are to be carried out.e. somewhere in between these two paths are variational and weighted residual methods.2 Brief history The finite element method used today was developed to its present state very recently. the nodal unknowns are forces not the displacements. Finite element method (FEM) and Finite element analysis (FEA) are both one and same term. According to Zinckiewicz [17]. the method is called as “St method”. These trial functions are assumed based on physical intuition and they are applied globally to get the solution for the problem. 33 .

Szabo & Leo showed how the weighted residual method. Zinekiwicz and Cheung applied FEM. Just as the set of elements would be joined together to build the whole structure. while the engineers are interesting in applications where FEM can be used. 5. FEM is A numerical method Mathematical representation of actual problem Approximate method Definition of FEM is hidden in the world itself. applying loads and constraints. However. these developments have made the FEM as one of the most powerful numerical solution method.In a paper in 1960. the present day FEM does not have its roots in any discipline. stresses. Clough first introduced the term “Finite element”. In most branches of engineering. temperature. 34 . particularly the Galerkin method could be used in non-structural problem analysis. the equation describing the behaviors of the individuals elements are joined into a set of equations that describe the behaviors of the whole structure. pressures etc. The behavior of an individual element is usually described by a relatively simple set of equations. In 1965. Mathematicians are trying to improve the mathematical background of FEM. then calculating variables of interest – deflection. Basic theme is to make calculation at only limited number of points and then interpolate the result for entire domain (surface & volume). to solve the non-structural problems.3 Finite Element Method (FEM) Finite Element method (FEM) simulates a physical part or assembly’s behavior by dividing the geometry of the part into a number of elements of standard shapes.

e. K is often called stiffness matrix. 5. and each node has 6 unknowns. Other analyses programs are less stringent in their requirements unstructured grids or blocks are supported. and f is called the load vector. To get value of variable (say displacement) at where between the calculation points.Finite. puts them together as a matrix equation. A Finite Element program takes the elements one has defined. Finite Element Method reduces degree of freedom from infinite to finite with the help of discretization i. 5. then stiffness matrix would be 600 X 600. K is a square matrix. (nodes & elements). Element. is known as Element.5 Comparison of FEM and FDM 35 . lists the equations for each unknown value. Entity joining nodes and forming a specific shape such as quadrilateral or triangular etc. u and f are each column-matrix which has 1 column and 600 rows. If there are 100 nodes in a model. It is used in fluid flow analysis.all the calculations are made at limited number of points known as nodes.any continuous object has finite degree of freedom & it’s just not possible to solve in this format. and then solves all these for the values of the unknown parameters [18]. Finite Element Analysis belongs to numerical method category. u is called the deformation vector. The equilibrium equation is of the form: [K] [u] = [f] Since it’s analogous to the equations of spring deflection.4 Finite Difference Method (FDM) In this approach. interpolation function (as per the shape of element) is used. with one row and column for each unknown variable in the problem definition. Method. there are no elements – the discrete points are referred to as grid points or grids some analyses program call for “Structured “ grids the numbering of and positioning of grid points must follow specific patterns.There are three methods to solve any engineering problem.

The finite element is a geometrically simplified representation of a small part of the physical structure. There are reasons to consider the mathematical foundation of the finite element approximation more sound. Example: Determination of the area of a circle using the areas of triangles Finite-element discretization [17]: First the continuous region (i.6 Basic Concept of FEM The basic concept of FEM is that the structure to be analyzed is considered as an assemblage of discrete pieces called “Elements”. • The quality of a FEM approximation is often higher than in the corresponding FDM approach. but this is extremely problem dependent and several examples to the contrary can be provided. 5. 36 . because the quality of the approximation between grid points is poor in FDM. 2. Assembling the finite elements to get the property of whole domain. 3. which are connected together at a finite number of points (or) nodes. Divide the domain in which analysis is to be carried out. Isolating one of the elements from each type and get the property of them. 5. the circle) is represented as a collection of a Finite number ‘n’ of sub regions say triangles.1. Consider the two methods of discretizing of circle with triangular elements as shown in fig.The major difference between FEM and FDM are: • • The most altercative feature of finite difference is that it can be very easy to implement. This is called discretization of the domain by triangles.e. Concept: 1. Each sub region is called as an “element”. for instance.

areas of triangle fig.3. this process is called assembly of the element.) Assembly of elements and solution: The approximate area of the circle is obtained by adding all areas of triangles..5.e. Total area = Sum of the area of individual elements.2 & 5. 5. Isolate one of the elements and get the property (i.1 Two methods of discretizing circle with triangular elements Element equation: From each method of discretization.Fig . 37 .

4 Elemental Error The error estimate for an element in type 1 and 2 are given by: 38 . Fig 5.Convergence and error estimate: The error in the approximation is equal to each difference between the area of the sector and that of the triangle as shown in fig. 5.4.

7 FEM Procedure 39 . 5.Total error (global error) is given by multiplying e1 or e2 by n We now show that E1 and E2 tend to zero as n tends to infinity.

Similarly for solution in MSC Nastran. • Preprocessing The preprocessing is a program that processes the input data to produce the output that is used as input to the subsequent phase (solution). Following are the input data that needs to be given to the preprocessor: 40 . and post processing. in Altair Hyperworks.5 Procedure of FEM 5. In Femap with Nx Nastran . Hypermesh which is one of the best pre processing tool is used as Pre Processor and Otpsitruct/RADIOSS are used as Solvers and then after solution Hypermesh and HyperView are used for Post Processing. Femap is used as Pre. preprocessing. Some software such as ANSYS and ABAQUS are used for all the three phases and some software used different softwares for these three phases.processor and Post-processor and Nx Nastran is used as Solver.Here HyperMesh is used as a Pre-Processor. MSC Patran is used as pre processor and Post processor.g. the general process of finite element method is divided into three main phases.8 Practical FEM through FEA Softwares/FEA Tools In FEA softwares.The following steps summarize the finite element procedure: Fig – 5. E. There are a lot of softwares used for these three phases. solution.

Real constraints. • Post processing The output from the solution phase (result data files) is in the numerical form and consists of nodal values of the field variable and its derivatives. These files are further used by the subsequent phase as for this purpose (postprocessor) to review and analyze the results through the graphic display and tabular listings. Element type.1. Optistruct and RADIOSS are used as Solver in this problem. The input data will be preprocessed for the output data and preprocessor will generate the data files automatically with the help of users. The FEA software generates the element matrices. 3. and stores the result data in files. For example. and linear or nonlinear) 2. Meshed model. These data files will be used by the subsequent phase. The graphical output gives the detailed information about the required result data. 7. Loadings and boundary conditions. static or dynamic. The postprocessor phase is automatic and generates the graphical output in the form specified by the user. in structural analysis. 6. Material properties. Geometric model. HyperMesh and HyperView are used for Post-Processing in this problem. • Solution Solution phase is completely automatic. computes nodal values and derivatives. 5. The postprocessor processes the result data and displays them in graphical form to check or analyze the result. Type of analysis (structural or thermal. the output is nodal displacement and stress in the elements.9 Key Assumptions in FEA 41 . 4. 5.

it is understood that either the stress levels exceeding the yield point or excessive displacement will cause a component failure.There are four basic assumptions that affect the quality of the solution and must be considered for finite element analysis. make sure to use only those assumptions that apply to the analysis under consideration. Decorative external features will be assumed insignificant for the stiffness and performance of the part and will be omitted from the model. Material properties are not affected by the load rate. unless otherwise specified. Only internal fillets in the area of interest will be included in the solution.Assumptions Related to Geometry 1. 2. 6. so the geometric simplifications in those areas will not affect the outcome. and intersection of geometries is of primary interest. 42 . No compensation will be made to account for the effect of chemicals. joints. but cover a wide variety of situations applicable to the problem. 5. do all the following assumptions apply to all the situations. by no means. corrosives. Moreover. wears or other factors that may have an impact on the long term structural integrity. 6. The variation in mass due to the suppressed features is negligible. Displacement values will be small so that a linear solution is valid. These assumptions are not comprehensive. 3. The effects of relative humidity or water absorption on material used will be neglected. therefore no special modeling of these areas is required. 4. 3. All simulations will assume room temperature. • . 5. 2. So. The component is free from surface imperfections that can produce stress risers. Local behavior at the corners. Stress behavior outside the area of interest is not important. For example. Material properties will remain in the linear region and nonlinear behavior of the material property cannot be accepted. • Assumptions Related to Material Properties 1. 4.

Failure to consider that a particular type of analysis was needed 5. Experience of the analyst inappropriate to the task at hand plus inadequate errors in applying design codes 6. and review results in sufficient detail. All interfacing components will be assumed rigid.11 Advantages and Disadvantages of FEA Advantages of FEM: I. Frictional loss in the system is considered to be negligible.• Assumptions Related to Boundary Conditions 1. run nonlinear analysis. and distribution of the load remain constant throughout the process of deformation. 43 . or details are inappropriate 2. The loads or boundary conditions may not represented properly 4. The portion of the structure being studied is assumed a separate part from the rest of the system. The model contains fundamental flaws: parts missing not connected. Irregular geometries can be modeled more accurately and easily. 3.10 Sources of Errors in FEA 1. therefore so that any reaction or input from the adjacent features is neglected. 5. 5. orientation. Displacements will be small so that the magnitude. The model may not properly represent the structure as built. 2. 2. 4. Implementation of any type of boundary conditions is very easy. Computer is too small and slow to use fine meshing. or recorded in the engineering drawings 3.

12 Applications of FEA [18] The FEA can be used to analyze both the structural and non-structural problems. (i) Stress analysis a).e. 7. 6. Whether the problem is linear or non linear. (a) Types of structural problems. we should know about its capabilities and nature. when the body is modeled with fine mesh when compared to body modeled with course mesh. Linear Analysis-Fig. boundary conditions and other changes on the model can be done easily. steps followed/implemented) of FEA remain same. Wherever it is necessary. 2. FEA softwares are costlier. 3.6 44 . Even though the FEA softwares are user friendly but they are not relatively easier for use. 4. 4. Output result will vary considerably.3. Before using an element for a problem. heterogeneous and anisotropic materials can be modeled. Altering the element model with different loads. 5. The element sizes can be varied throughout the model. 5. 5. Disadvantages: 1. the basics (i. because no single element is available for all applications. we can use fine meshes. With very little effort. Any type of loading can be handled.

Fig. I-deas NX. ProMechanica.Fig. 5. Radioss. Ansys. b). UG.Plate with hole subjected to inplane loads. Abaqus. 45 . Cosmos. Catia etc. Fig.7. 5.7 Non Linearity Analysis Material Non-linearity .Fig 5. 5. Commonly used softwares: Nastran.Machine element members are subjected to stress more than elastic limit as shown in fig.8. Non-linear analysis.6 Linear Analysis Example: Linear Analysis: .

Ansys. 5. LS Dyna etc (ii) Eigen Buckling Analysis: Example: Connecting rod subjected to axial compression.Thin shell structures are subjected to mechanical loading with high temperature creep effect. Marc. Radioss.9.9 Types of Dynamic Analysis 46 .8 – Material Non-Linearity Geometrical non-linearity: . Commonly used softwares: Abaqus.Fig 5.Thin shell structure is subjected axial or torsional loads. This analysis can be used to determine mode shape of buckling load and its critical loads. Commonly used softwares: Nastran. Abaqus (iii) Dynamic Analysis-Fig. Ansys. Nastran. Both material and geometrical non-linearity: . Fig 5. Though component is within the elastic limit but due to very large length even small force causes large deformation.

(b) Types of non-structural problems (i) Heat Transfer Analysis: Thermal Analysis. (ii) Fluid-flow Analysis: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a branch of Fluid mechanics which uses Numerical Methods to analyse fluid dynamics problems. Matlab.Example: Beams subjected to different types of loading.Steady state thermal analysis on composite wall. It is based on Navies-Strokes equation (Mass Momentum and Energy conservation equations) Example: Fluid flow through pipes or channel. I-deas NX. exhaust system. Abaqus.10 Modes of heat transfer analysis Linear: . Non-linear:. Commonly used softwares: Nastran. This analysis can be used to determine the mode shape of vibration with its natural frequencies. radiator. Commonly used softwares: Ansys. Nastran. Abaqus. Radioss etc. (iii) Electromagnetic Analysis: 47 . heat exchangers.10 Fig 5. 5. I-deas NX etc. The heat transfer problem can be further classified as Steady state (time independent) and Transient (time dependent) Practical applications: Engine. power plants.Fig. Ansys.Thermal Analysis with anisotropic materials. satellite design etc.

aeroplane and aerospace designers as customers always prefer a low noise level Computing the response at the driver’s feet (brake pedal). mirror mounts. joints. tooth etc.11. (iv) Fatigue Analysis Calculations for life of the structure when subjected to repetitive load. Commonly used softwares: Sysnoise.N (alternating strain vs. steering column and seats plays a crucial role as the driver must be comfortable. reversals) is the base for fatigue calculations (like a .Example: Modeling of electromagnetic field of motor. For example. 48 .N curve (alternating stress vs. skull. S. Recently FEM is used in Bio-Mechanical Engineering field.11 – S N Curve for fatigue analysis (v) Noise Vibration and Harshness Analysis (NVH) Practical applications: Computing the sound pressure levels is of utmost importance to automobile. 5. Matlab etc. Fig 5. LMS — Virtual Lab. stress analysis on human parts like bones.E diagram for static analysis) as shown in fig. cycles) or E .

CATIA is having special tools in generative surface design to construct typical surfaces. Solid models of all parts of the structure are the assembled to make a complete structure.CHAPTER 6 FE MODELING METHODOLOGY There are three steps in software based Finite Element Analysis1) Preprocessing 2) Proprocessing 3) Post processing FE Modeling Methodology-Pre processing.The first step in preprocessing is to prepare a CAD Model of Tail Lamp. which are later on converted into solid. The process of assembly is very 49 . CAD modeling of the complete Tail Lamp is generated using CATIA software [19].

which are assembled together in assembly design to make a complete Tail Lamp model. After preparing the Tail Lamp FE Model is generated in Hypermesh. The CAD model of Tail Lamp used for analysis is shown in Fig. CAD model of our problem consists of four parts.hm as shown in fig. 6.1 Fig 6.1 Importing the CAD Model The model used in this dissertation is prepared in IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) format which is compatible with all CAD software.hm format (say Tail Lamp. it is then saved in form of . 6.2) until the FE model is not completed. Lens 50 . Step by step procedure of preparing Finite Element model is given in this chapter.much analogous to general process of fabricating structure while real production. 6. After importing the CAD file into Hypermesh.1-CAD Model of Tail lamp in CATIA The CAD model has been prepared from various 2D drawing.

Hm Model of Tail Lamp in Hypermesh 6.2-. Geometry cleanup is one of the most time consuming task in the project. Geometry cleanup tools are used to restore proper surface connectivity to part geometry [20]. the first step is geometry cleanup. The Geometry panel contains tools like quick edit. For example if the time allotted for a project is sixteen hours then fourfive hours should be spent in geometry editing and cleanup and properly understanding the geometry Before starting the job geometry should be carefully checked for' • • Duplicate surfaces Small fillets 51 . point edit. which help in preparing surface geometry for meshing. According to FEA engineers around one fourth of the total time of a project should be utilized in studying and editing the geometry before doing meshing.Body Reflector Heat Sink Fig 6. especially the automesh panel.2 Geometry Visualization and Geometry Cleanup Geometry can be imported into HyperMesh from many sources. edge edit. Meshing quality depends very much on the quality of geometry. autocleanup etc. So after importing the CAD data. A number of HyperMesh functions rely on having surfaces properly connected.

The model is symmetrical about XY plane.• • • • Scar lines Beads Intersection of components Small Holes The benefits of repairing CAD are: • • • • Correcting any errors in the geometry from import Creating the simplified part needed for the analysis Ensuring proper connectivity of mesh Obtaining a desirable mesh pattern and quality 6. etc. Types of Symmetry: • • • • Reflective (mirror.e. post processing effort.) • Simplifying the modeling task In Tail lamp model there is reflective symmetry in two components i. So this 52 . A structure possesses symmetry if its components are arranged in a periodic or reflective manner. Heat sink and reflector as shown in fig. 6.3 Symmetry Check After geometry visualization and check it is found out whether there is any symmetry in the model or not. bilateral) symmetry Rotational (cyclic) symmetry Axisymmetry Translational symmetry Applications of the symmetry properties: • Reducing the size of the problems (save CPU time.3. disk space.

certain details in the geometry may be ignored as shown in fig. This may depend on: • Importance of the part in the overall assembly • Location of the feature relative to the area of interest in the analysis • Size of the feature vs.symmetry can save a lot of time in meshing because we have to mesh only half part of these two components & similar meshing can be reflected on other half. the average size of the mesh being used 53 . such as small holes or blends. 6.e. Heat sink and Reflector 6. This involves the task of removal of features. extraction of mid-surfaces.3 Symmetrical components i. Depending on the analysis. may simply not be necessary for the analysis being performed. changing the shape of a part in order to simplify the geometry. Certain details of the shape.4. Fig 6.4 Geometry Preparation or Simplification Then after the first task that most analysts are faced with is that of preparing the geometry for analysis.

have been removed that were considered too small to be captured by the desired element size of 2(defined later). Additionally. If we compare this model with the previous one as shown in figure 6.5 shows the Tail Lamp model after geometry simplification.Fig. Changing the geometry to match the desired shape can also allow a mesh to be created more quickly. 6. These details may not reflect any major feature 54 .1 we can observe that all the complex features like thread. Once a set of surfaces has been obtained that accurately reflects the intended shape for the analysis. further geometry cleanup may still be necessary. fillets etc. Fig 6. The model is now represented in a much simpler form that suits the analysis that will be performed. mesh quality is often improved as well. the analysis can run more efficiently.5 Refining Topology to Achieve a Quality Mesh “Topology refinement” is modifying topology in order to obtain a quality mesh [21].4 Surface after Geometry simplification When these details are removed. projected ribs. Figure 6.5 Tail Lamp after Geometry Simplification 6. Topological details of the geometry may affect the quality of the mesh created from the surfaces.

Other times. When modifying the topology affects the shape of the surfaces. adding topological features that do not change the shape of the part may actually help create a better quality mesh as shown in fig. 6.6 Topological refinement Similar split surface and suppress operations are performed on Heat sink and Reflector to produce quality mesh. Fig-6. and can be removed without concern.6 Meshing 55 . a compromise must be made between the part shape and the element quality necessary for the analysis. 6.of the part’s shape.6.

Remaining two dimensions i. clutch. column. Any continuous object has infinite degree of freedom and it is not possible to solve the problem in this format. The third dimension i. beam.∞ DOF per point = 6 Total equations = ∞ No. 2-D Meshing is used when two dimensions are very large in comparison to third one. meshing as shown in fig. 2-D and 3-D 1-D Meshing is used when one dimension is very large in comparison to other two dim. area of c/s must be defined by the user as additional input data & assigned to respective elements Practical Example: Long shaft. 6. rod. thickness has to provided as an additional input data. Generally 2-d meshing is carried out on mid surface of the part. 3-D Meshing is used when all the three dimension are comparable in all dimensions. of Points . 6. Practical example: Transmission casing. bearing modeling etc.e.e. Finite element method reduces the degree of freedom from infinite to finite with the help of discretisation i. 56 .e. pin joints.7. Practical example: Sheet metal parts. By creating 2-d element software comes to know 2 out of 3 required dimensions.7 Meshing Basic Theme of FEA is to make calculations only at limited number of points and then interpolate the results for entire domain. spot welding. of Nodes = 8 DOF per Node = 6 Total equations = 48 Fig. engine block. 2-d elements are planer just like paper of this page. Element type can be decided on the base of a) b) Geometry shape and size Type of analysis a) Geometry shape and size Geometry shape and size are categorized as 1-D.No. plastic components like instrument panels etc. software comes to know about only one out of 3 dimensions. bolted joints. & is created by connecting two nodes.

hex elements are preferred over trias.6. results get close to the actual results. As much as the element size is reduced. 6.2 Element Length The results of the analysis depend very much on the element size. Crash and Non linear analysis .Triangular element are preferred over quadrilateral.Priority to mesh flow lines and brick elements over tetrahedron.When the geometry is border case as per above classification of 2-d & 3-d. Dynamic analysis .Quad. tetras and pentas.b) Based on type of analysis: Structural & fatigue analysis .1 Element Type Options for 2D Shell Meshing Different type of options for shell meshing: 1) Pure quad elements 2) Mixed mode 3) Equilateral triangle 4) Right Angle (R-tria) Mixed mode is commonly preferred due to better mesh transition pattern (restriction: total tria % <5). Mould flow analysis . 6. 57 .6. The judgment of element size is taken on the basis of: 1) Based upon previous experience of similar type of problem or calculate the ratio of total size of model to the size of element. That’s why Tail lamp is first meshed with 2D mixed element. Greater the ratio between sizes of model to the size of element. more accurate will be the results. As all the three dimension of Tail Lamp are comparable so 3-D mesh & Tetra element is preferred for meshing all the four components.

6. 1) Automatic 2) Mapped(or interactive) 3) Manual Automatic Time required for meshing Geometry required No. line drag etc.3 Meshing Techniques 2-D Meshing Technique There are three techniques used for 2D mesh. ruled. Therefore based upon the above points element length is taken as 2.1 Comparison b/w various types of 2D mesh Based upon the above table we have selected Manual 2D mesh for meshing all the components. of nodes and elements generated User friendliness User's control over the mesh Structural mesh ( flow lines ) Experience or skill required ↓ √ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ↓ Mapped(or interactive) ~(Intermediate i. drag. 58 .2) Type of analysis: Linear static analysis could be easily carried out that too quiet fast with high no of nodes and elements 3) Hardware configuration and graphics card capacity of available computer.6. But some of the main commands used for meshing are spline. Depending upon the needs automesh is also utilized. The automesh allows creating meshes or re-meshing existing meshing interactively or automatically on surfaces or groups of elements. more than auto but less than manual) Manual ↑ X ↓ ↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ √ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ↓ ~ Patience Table 6.e. The sub-panels on the automesh panel can be used to provide specific meshing parameters. There are lots of commands in manual meshing.

Fig. points. the surfaces are meshed to optimize the quality index (QI) of the elements generated. or lines. or nodes when creating a spline surface. Here we can adjust the element size and mesh style.8 shows the size & bias subpanel. The placement of the nodes on the surface is also optimized to improve the QI. 6. Lines or nodes can be picked in any order-. Fig 6. or a surface without a mesh.9 Automeshing of a surface using size and bias command having mixed element In QI optimized meshing. points. A mesh and surface can be created using nodes. The spline is used to create a shell mesh and/or surface. The disconnected entities can be 59 . A criteria file can be provided or the quality index panel can be updated with desired quality criteria. 6.The size and bias options is used for meshing surfaces or re-meshing existing meshes with a great deal of control over how the mesh is created.8 Automesh panel when Size and Bias subpanel is on Mixed element Fig 6. HyperMesh determines the correct order when creating the mesh/surface. There is no limit on the number of lines. The surfaces are then meshed with algorithms that produce the best quality index.9 shows the automeshing of a surface using size and bias command having mixed element Fig. Spline function can be used to create a mesh without surface.

8.4 Meshing around holes For better representation of hole geometry and smooth mesh flow lines. 60 . If the lines selected to create a spline are edges of an adjoining surface.6. of elements (like6. Each of the three methods presented on this panel (drag along vector.10 Meshing of surface by using spline command The ruled panel is used to create surfaces and/or meshes of plate elements from nodes. Fig 6. and considers the curvature of the adjoining surfaces when creating the spline surface. holes should be modeled with even no. Nodes in the mesh being created are placed on a surface created on a linear basis between the two sets of selected entities.) as shown in fig. lines. 12 etc. and spin) is a different means of creating mesh.connected with straight lines and creates a spline surface and/or mesh within the boundary formed by the chosen entities and the constructed lines.10are selected for creating mesh by using spline command. drag along line. 6. and/or line segments. The line drag panel is used to create a two or three dimensional surface and mesh or elements by dragging nodes. The four lines in the fig. One method can be used at a time. in any combination.11.6. 5. the software updates the edge topology to make them shared edges. lines or elements along another line.

6. of nodes and elements. 6. 1) Automatic mesh-This approach is limited to simple geometries and pre-requisite is error free CAD model. 61 .Fig 6.12 Tail lamp after 2-D mesh Fig.5 3-D Meshing Technique-As all the three dimensions of Tail Lamp are comparable so we have selected 3D tetramesh. 2) 2D (Tria) to 3d (Tetra)-Most commonly used method. 6. It is very quick method but results in very high no.12 represents the Tail Lamp after 2D mesh using various commands of meshing as described above. There are two techniques for tetramesh. There is no control on mesh flow lines and specific mesh pattern requirement.11 Meshing around hole of Heat sink Figure 6.

6. quad split to trias and converted to tetras. Mixed meshing (combination of quad & tria element) is carried out on all the outer surface of the geometry. Figure 6.7 Quality checks [18] 62 . Ensure that geometry/mesh is close only then one can convert 2D mesh to 3D.1. Steps to convert 2D (Mixed) to 3d (Tetra) 1) Study the geometry 2) Mesh all the surfaces of model one by one to have smooth desired mesh flow pattern & connectivity of one surface node with other surface. Jacobian>15 degree etc. tria angle>0.2D (Tria) to 3d (Tetra)-Meshing Technique is utilized to mesh all the components of Tail Lamp.) 4) Covert mixed element to Tetra elements as shown in fig.13.13 Tail lamp after 3-D mesh 6. 3) Quality check for triangular elements (Min.

After completing meshing part of the model, than quality check is performed to check the quality of elements. Depending on the type of mesh, this can be done either semi-automatically or manually. Result quality α Element quality Ideal shape for rectangular element - Square Ideal shape for triangular element - Equilateral triangle Different quality parameters like skew, aspect ratio, included angles, jacobian, stretch etc. are the measures of how far a given element deviates from ideal shape. Square means all angle 90° and equal sides, while equilateral triangle is all angles 60° and equal sides. Some of the qualities checks are based on angles (like skew, included angles) while others on side ratios & area (aspect, stretch). Following are general definitions of various quality checks: Warp angle: Warp angle is out of plane angle. Warp angle is not applicable for triangular elements. It is defined as angle between normal to two planes formed by splitting the quad element along diagonals as shown in fig. 6.14. Max. angle out of two possibilities is reported as warp angle. Ideal value = 0 degree (Acceptable < 10°)

Fig 6.14 Wrap angle b/w normals of two plane of an element Aspect ratio: Ratio of longest side to the shortest side of an element or max. as shown in fig. 6.15. Element edge length/minimum element edge length. 63

Ideal value = 1 (Acceptable < 5)

Fig. 6.15 Aspect Ratio Skew: Skew for quadrilateral element = 90° minus minimum angle between two lines joining opposite mid-sides of the element (α) as shown in fig. 6.16. Skew for Triangular element = 90° minus minimum angle between the lines from each node to the opposing mid-side and between the two adjacent mid-sides at each node of the element.

Fig. 6.16 Skew Jacobian: It is a scale factor arising because of transformation of co-ordinate system. Ideal value= 1.0 (Acceptable> 0.6) Distortion: Ideal value= 1.0(Acceptable> 0.6) Distortion is defined as – (Jacobian)* Area Lcs /Area Gcs LCS- Local Coordinate system GCS - Global Coordinate system

Included Angles: Quad: Ideal value = 90 deg. (Acceptable= 45<θ<135) 64

Tria: Ideal value = 60 deg. (Acceptable= 20<θ<120) % of Trias: Should be less than 5% of total number of elements.

Fig:-6.17 Quality Check panel Same quality criterion has been done on tail lamp .Fig 6.17 shows the tail lamp quality check index. Coloured elements are failed elements which can be edited by using various commands in quality index panel such as swap edge, place node, element optimize and node optimize to improve Component Q.I. Comp. Q.I. should be less than 100. The FE model satisfy the quality criterion described above.

Duplicate elements:

65

Connectivity between 66 . Tail Lamp is checked for free edges. results in duplicate elements. As long as there are free edges 2D mesh can’t be converted in to 3D mesh. 6.18. Two elements In this case middle edge is shared and no more free edge. translate etc. These extra duplicate elements do not cause any error during the analysis but increases stiffness of the model and results in lesser displacement and stress. free edges should match with geometry outer/free edges. Element free edges: Any single quad element has 4 free edges. Free edge & unconnected nodes Fig. 6. For a real life FE model. Additional free edges are an indication of unconnected nodes as shown in fig.Mistakes during operations like reflect.18 White line indicates free edge & unconnected nodes After maintaining the desired quality index.

elements can be checked by using free edge command. therefore they are also known as rigid bodies or constraint elements. Rbar. Rigid.8 Rigid elements Rigid elements function as rigid bodies. Rigid element (node to node connection) has infinite stiffness and transfers all the forces and moments or in other words dofs from one node to other as it is.20. Fig 6. If there is no connection between two nodes then the results will not come accurately or the stress distribution is disturbed. In order to represent the connection b/w body and reflector two RBE2 elements are used as shown in figure 6.19 RBE2 Element –Centre node independent (DOF-1234656) RBE2 elements are used to simulate the bolt connection for heat sink and reflector at four places. Rigid link are examples of rigid elements. The RBE1 and RBE2 elements are rigid bodies connected to an arbitrary number of grid points. RBE2 element distributes the force and moment equally among all the connected nodes irrespective of position of force or moment application. So that the load will transfer from node to node and we can obtain the results at every node 6. 67 . so there should be node to node connectivity between the various elements.

2 Material Collector The next step after putting elements in various component collectors is to create material collector and assigning the material to the elements. material collector. various component collectors are created. property collector.Rigid Element Fig 6. Lens_tetra. Reflector_tetra etc.e. ABS. each having different material so create four material collectors i. Separate color is given to different collectors for easy recognition of mesh. Each collector type holds a specific type of entity. Most entities in HyperMesh must be placed in a collector. The meshes of the different surfaces are put together in different component collectors. As there are four components of Tail lamp.9. There are many types of collectors like component collector. Nylon-6 & Acrylic.2.9. load collector etc.9 Collectors The HyperMesh model is organized using “collectors”. Similarly other elements are placed in other collectors such as Body_tetra.g. While creating the material collector specify the card image as MAT1 & MAT4 and specify properties corresponding to each material as shown in table 6. Aluminium. the mesh created on the Heat Sink is placed in a collector named Heatsink_tetra. 6. MAT1 card is used to 68 . 6. E.1 Component collector After meshing.20 RBE2 element joining the nodes on the periphery of hole & reflector to body 6.

Assign the component created in component collector to material in material collector. MAT4 uses the same material ID as MAT1. Then element type. constraints and any other condition required for complete analysis.70E-09 1. For the Tail Lamp model element type is 3D. To check whether the property is assigned or not to all the components we can check property table and component table in utility menu.1X10^5 0. Aluminium_solid etc.9.2E-6 m/mk 85E-6 m/mk 81E-6 m/mk 0. 6.4 Load collector-Boundary Conditions After creating property collector. velocity.8E-6 m/mk 22.2 ABS Aluminium Nylon-6 Acrylic 0. card image and material are assigned to various property collectors.75X10^5 1. 6. Applying boundary condition is one of the most 69 . different forces.19E-09 Table 6. Load collector is the collection of boundary conditions i.25 0. ABS_solid.9.7X10^5 1. Heatsink_tetra to Aluminium & Lens_tetra to Acrylic_solid.4X10^5 1. Link Reflector_tetra to Abs_solid.05E-09 2. Material Thermal Young’s coefficient of Density(tonne/mm3) modulus(N/mm2) expansion 73.e. supports. The various properties collectors are named according to their material. MAT4 card is for the constant thermal material.16E-09 Thermal conductivity K(KW/mm c) 0. Body_tetra to Nylon_solid.3 Property collector After creating material collectors. Once the material and property are defined. properties collectors are created. Aluminium etc. pressure.g. card image used is PSOLID and material is ABS. load collector is created. E.define the isotropic structural material.78 237 0.2 Material specification The same numerical values have been taken as used in Tail Lamp industry. they need to be linked to the component.

Element based boundary condition 2. property. The thermal boundary conditions and heat flux will be applied on the model and saved in heat and heat flux respectively. ‘Heat’ and ‘Heat flux’. A load collector ‘Con’ is created & structural constraint ‘con’ is applied on the RBE2 element to fix the Heat sink on the ground. Assign different color to each load collector for easy recoganization. Then load is applied on this surface element which distributes load equally on all the nodes of elements. have been created. material etc. Fig.typical processes of analysis. Boundary condition is of two types: 1.21 shows the various load collectors created for analysis of Tail Lamp.21 Component. Two empty load collectors. A special care is required while assigning loads and constraints to the elements. Fig 6. Whereas in node based boundary condition nodes of mesh are selected for applying loads and forces. 6. For analysis of the Tail lamp both boundary conditions are used. Node based boundary condition In element based boundary condition a group of elements is selected on which various load is to be applied. A bunch of nodes is selected and surface elements are created. collector 70 .

All the six degree of freedom is constrained.6.22 Structural constraint at centre node of RBE2 Element Fig 6. Detailed view Fig. These nodes are constrained as shown in fig.Structural & Thermal Constraints The Tail Lamp is constrained at four positions around the bolt.23. 6.23 Thermal constraint around holes 71 .22. 6. Set ‘Con’ as the current load collector & in constraint panel select the centre (calculated) node of RBE2 element located at centre of each bolt. This applies structural constraints to the selected nodal set. Similarly apply the thermal constraint to the nodes around the bolt area in Heat load collector as shown in fig.

(Ts-Ta) = 150 (Given data) L-Thickness=2. face defined is slot face on heatsink.0023m A-Area on which heat flux is applied=432 mm2 = 0. as shown in Figure 6. From the analysis panel create the ‘Heat transfer’ surface elements Then type and face are defined on which heat flux to be applied.11 Heat flux on surface elements The uniform heat flux into CHBDYE elements will be defined with QBDY1 entries.6.24 CHBDY Surface element 6. Hence the surface elements CHBDYE for defining heat transfer boundaries must be created first.3 mm = 0.6. CHBDY elements Fig.0023 = 6687 W 72 .00043264 X (150)}.24.10 CHBDYE Surface Elements After applying the constraint to model heat flux is applied on the surface of the heat sink. Of Heat sink Ta-Atmospheric temp. Heat flux applied to CHBDY elements is calculated as [22]:Heat flux=Q=KA (Ts-Ta)/L Where K-Thermal conductivity=237W/mk Ts-Surface temp. For the Tail Lamp model type is Conduction. This adds the CHBDYE surface elements on all the solid elements.00043264 m2 Q= {237 X .

6. flux. 6. of nodes on CHBDY elements=121 Heat Flux on each node= Total Discharge/No. Fig. 73 . and temperature output for the heat transfer analysis are selected in load steps panel.25 Heat flux of 56 w on surface elements 6. The gradient. No. of nodes Heat Flux on each node = 6687/121 = 56w So apply a flux of 56 w on each node of CHBDY element in heat flux load collector as shown in fig.25.This load is applied on this CHBDY element which distributes load equally on all the nodes of elements.12 Heat transfer load step A RADIOSS steady state heat conduction loadstep is created which refers the thermal boundary conditions in the load collector ‘heat’ and the heat flux in the load collector ‘heat flux’.

6.13 Structure load step To perform a coupled thermal/structural analysis. 74 . the heat transfer subcase is referred by a structural subcase by ‘Temp’. Displacement and stress output are selected in the loadstep information.

material properties and boundary conditions. The assembly process depends not only on the type of analysis (e. The chances of directly solving these equations are slim to none for anything but the most trivial geometries. Static or dynamic).1 Linear Static Analysis While the pre-processing and post-processing phases of the finite element method are interactive and time-consuming for the analyst. the assembled equation is of the form [K] [u] = [F]. Where K is the system stiffness matrix.CHAPTER 7 ANAL YSIS 7. This analysis is used when the response of the body is linear.g. F is the applied nodal load vector To appreciate this equation. the solution is often a batch process. The governing equations are assembled into matrix form and are solved numerically. which in turn determines the strain and stress fields. and is demanding of computer resource. one must begin with the underlying elasticity theory. u is the nodal degree of freedom (dof) displacement vector. the differential equations of equilibrium in concert with the boundary conditions then determine a unique displacement field solution. model is appropriate when operating within elastic region (stress strain curve is linear) and when the deformations are small and load do not vary with time. hence the need for approximate numerical techniques presents itself For the FEA of Tail Lamp the case chosen is linear static. and there is no variation with time. but also on the model element types and properties. In the case of a linear static structural analysis. 75 . It is the simplest and most commonly used type of analysis. The strain-displacement relation may be introduced into the stress-strain relation to express stress in terms of displacement. In stress analysis. Under the assumption of compatibility.

e. It shows single unbroken part with red color zone at the location of failure.E is equation of straight line (y = m x) passing through origin.6. For complete model summation of external forces and moment is equal to reaction forces and moments. My. Mz) = O. Component brake into two separate pieces after crossing ultimate stress but software based analysis never show failure in this fashion. no variation with respect to time (deadweight) dF/dt = 0 as shown in fig. "E" Elastic Modulus is slope of the curve & is a constant.1 Static Force 2) Equilibrium condition . 7. 7. Thermal analysis is investigation of the part or a system.1.forces ∑ (Fx. FE model fulfils this condition at each and every node. σ = t.2 Thermal Analysis Heat transfer is defined as energy in transit. Fig 7. to calculate heat transfer rate and temperature distribution. Fy. Fz) and Moments ∑ (Mx. Analyst has to conclude whether the component is safe or failed by comparing the maximum stress value with yield or ultimate stress. Different approaches for thermal analysis are. Analysis of a system using the laws of heat transfer is named as Thermal Analysis. Heat transfer is a branch of thermodynamics which deals with rate of heat transfer between two or more equilibrium states of a system. In real life after crossing yield point material follows non liner curve but software follows same straight line as shown in fig 5. 76 . There are two conditions for static analysis 1) Force is static i.Linear means straight line.

The forth approach.e. pressure. Theoretical approach of thermal analysis is applicable to simple geometries (exact solution). liquid & gas. temperature difference and inversely proportional to thickness. solid. that heat transfer rate is proportional to area. Diamond . Fourier proved by experiments. In solids it is due to lattice vibration (translational & rotational) & mainly due to free electrons. induced errors( Instrumental. Experimental approach is limited by the time. conduction is due to molecular movement & in gases due to molecular collisions. the surprising thing is. aluminium are good conductors of electricity and also good thermal conductors. 7. using the present high end hardware & software computational support &validated computer codes.2. cost and uncertainty in measuring the property data ( e. velocity) due to complexity of geometry.g.e. Conduction heat transfer is observed in all types of phases i.used in special cutting tool). human) and environmental disturbance. In liquids. But. Numerical approach is probably the best approach i.1) Theoretical (Analytical) 2) Experimental 3) Numerical 4) Graphical Why thermal analysis? To understand the physical phenomenon either natural or manmade & most important to control them. Hence pure metals like copper. sometimes a bad conductor of electricity can be a very good conductor of heat (e. using graphical techniques is a history & now outdated. temperature.1 Conduction Heat Transfer The transfer of heat is normally from a high temperature object to a lower temperature object [18]. Fourier's law governs conduction heat transfer.g. Q = -k A * [dT / dX] 77 .

7. 7. as the temperature gradient vector is in opposite direction of heat flow as shown in fig. data for the specific solution algorithm to be employed. 7.g. This direction of maximum heat transfer will be perpendicular to the equal-temperature surfaces surrounding a source of heat. the conditions on the boundaries ( restraints. initial conditions. Conduction heat transfer is significant in solids.2.. Fig. known temperature. and so on. 78 . since net energy transfer will be from high temperature to low. heat source/generation.3 Preparing for analysis Once the mesh is ready.the properties of the materials used . the thickness or cross sectional properties of shell or beam elements. convective like known heat transfer coefficient or radiation). kind of output required for text and graphics records. it’s been assigned with negative sign.2 The net heat transfer is in the direction of negative of the temperature gradient The direction of heat transfer will be opposite to temperature gradient. loads or excitations). Any heat transfer problem obeys the first law of thermodynamics (Energy is conserved) & to satisfy this. heat flux. (e. we have to apply boundary conditions. additional data is specified .Where Q= Heat transfer rate (W) A=Area (m2) dT = Temperature differential (ºC/K/ ºR) dX = Thickness (m) k= Thermal conductivity (W/m K) The bracketed term is called as temperature gradient.

If the solution seems to be evolving in an unexpected direction. thereby saving valuable time. calculates matrix entries. solves the matrix equation and writes the data out for interpretation. Each line of the text in the deck is commonly referred to as a card. This task is CPU intensive. Data is often returned out in the form of a text file. the analyst can stop the solver and modify the model.dat file obtained from solver [23] gives the information and result such as: • • • • • • • • Number of elements in the model Number of nodes Memory used for analysis Time taken for analysis Volume of the model Weight of the model Animated file of the displacement Finite element file 79 . very little interaction from the user is required. and is often called processing. the analyst periodically monitors the result to check that they are indeed on the right track. which is referred to as a deck. A card image is the format followed by the analysis program to interpret the text on the line. the data is turned over to solution program for the next phase -solving. Most of the time.4 Proprocessing The model created in the earlier steps is now taken up for solution . The procedure of building the finite element model is sometimes referred to as FEM-short for finite element modeling. 7.the computer program reads the data. In some cases. The analysis of tail lamp produces different type of data files having different type of information .After doing this.

Y and Z direction Resultant displacement contours Von Misses stress contours Temperature distribution contour Element Temperature gradient Element flux 80 . Different data files and the graphic visualization are available at that helps in looking for errors or improvements in design such as: • • • • • • Displacement contours in X. we have to examine and interprets the result which in our case has been done in Hyperview [24].7.5 Post Processing After the program has evaluated the results.

and compare the results. Shading and wireframe options. The output file . 8.CHAPTER 8 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This chapter deals with the results of coupled thermal and structural heat conduction linear static analysis of the Tail Lamp of a bike. and material and property information. load and boundary information. The results include temp gradient. For this purpose all experimental as well as FEA results are organized in the tabular form which shows the variation among the various parameters. Inc. The post processing has been done in Radioss Linear which can read the . The analysis has also been shown.fem file. total number of degree of freedom. Maximum memory used gives the information about the memory used during pre-processing. ** ** ** ** ** ** Windows XP Professional SP2 (Build 2600) SUNNY-8A705A651 ** 81 .out gives the detail about total number of nodes. The FEA results of the Tail Lamp have been compared with available experimental and standard results for validation. The sample result file generated which gives all the information related to FE analysis of Tail Lamp.hm files written as output from Hypermesh.1 Result File ************************************************************************ ** ** ** ** ** RADIOSS 9. animation options and contour colours are used to study. Maximum disk space used gives the information about the amount of space used by temporary files for preprocessing. element type.0 ** ** ** ** Finite Element Analysis Software ** ** from Altair Engineering.hm file to . thermal stress and displacement contours for a calculated flux. The elapsed time is the time taken by software to convert the model from .

o.f. Copyright notice does not imply publication. of this rigid element is removed. of this rigid element is removed.f.o. INFORMATION # 742 The dependent rotational d. of any of the dependent grids. INFORMATION # 743 The total number of rigid elements.cfg INFORMATION # 742 The dependent rotational d.f. 2441 MB swap ** ** ** ** Build tag: 0413758_5333O90_Ci3242M-000 14000 ** ************************************************************************ ** COPYRIGHT (C) 1996-2008 Altair Engineering.0/hwsolvers/hwsolver.00GHz ** ** CPU speed 3000 MHz ** ** 648 MB RAM. of any of the dependent grids. is 6 ************************************************************************ OPTIMIZATION FILE AND PARAMETER INFORMATION : --------------------------------------------Optimization parameters from : C:/Documents and Settings/sunny/Desktop/86 ass4 loadstep2.f.o.o. ** ** All Rights Reserved. ** ** Decompilation or disassembly of this software strictly prohibited.f.f. of this rigid element is removed.. Inc. ** ************************************************************************ *** OptiStruct defaults set from: install config file: C:\Altair\hw9. ** ** Contains trade secrets of Altair Engineering. of any of the dependent grids. RBE2 element id = 162605 independent grid id = 61553 a dependent grid id = 36941 This is because there is no need to constrain the rotational d. RBE2 element id = 162607 independent grid id = 61556 a dependent grid id = 32021 This is because there is no need to constrain the rotational d.f.fem Output files prefix : C:/Documents and Settings/sunny/Desktop/86 ass4 loadstep2 ************************************************************************ 82 .o.o. are removed because there is no need to constrain those d. Inc.o. whose rotational dependent d. RBE2 element id = 162606 independent grid id = 61554 a dependent grid id = 36668 This is because there is no need to constrain the rotational d.f.** 2 CPU: Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 3.o.fem FEM model file : C:/Documents and Settings/sunny/Desktop/86 ass4 loadstep2. INFORMATION # 742 The dependent rotational d.

000 -------------: ANALYSIS ONLY ------------------------------Heat Transfer Subcase Summary : ---------------------------------------Subcase ID ----------------SPC ID --------------LOAD ID -------- 83 .************************************************************************ FINITE ELEMENT MODEL DATA INFORMATION : --------------------------------------Total Total Total Total Total Total # # # # # # of of of of of of Grids (Structural) Elements Rigid Elements Rigid Element Constraints Degrees of Freedom Non-zero Stiffness Terms : : : : : : 25900 76833 6 975 78693 1348014 Element Type Information -----------------------CTETRA Elements : 76833 Load and Boundary Information ----------------------------FORCE Sets SPC Sets : : 2 2 Material and Property Information --------------------------------PSOLID Cards MAT1 Cards MAT4 Cards : : : 4 4 4 ************************************************************************ ************************************************************************ OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM PARAMETERS : --------------------------------NO DESIGN MATERIAL OR DESIGN VARIABLES FOUND ---------------------Load Subcase Summary : ------------------------------Subcase ID ---------2 ----------------SPC ID -------1 --------------FORCE ID -------0 --------------------Weight = w(i) -------------1.

************************************************************************ ANALYSIS RESULTS : -----------------Element Quality Check Summary ----------------------------Total # of elements that exceeded recommended range (warning) = (Scratch disk space usage for starting iteration = (Running in-core solution) Volume Subcase 2 Compliance 5.06995E+05 Mass 33 MB) = 1./ Free space: 2305 MB : 1 ************************************************************************ ************************************************************************ MEMORY ESTIMATION INFORMATION : ------------------------------Solver Type is: Sparse-Matrix Solver : : : : 179 52 57 179 MB MB MB MB Current Memory (RAM) Estimated Minimum Memory (RAM) for Out of Core Solution Recommended Memory (RAM) for Out of Core Solution Recommended Memory (RAM) for In-Core Solution DISK SPACE ESTIMATION INFORMATION : ----------------------------------Estimated Disk Space for Output Data Files Estimated Scratch Disk Space for In-Core Solution Estimated Scratch Disk Space for Out of Core Solution : : : 12 MB 40 MB 212 MB ************************************************************************ BEGINNING ANALYSIS SOLUTION .602406E+01 = 1.37969E-04 61 84 ...1 ---------- 2 -------- 3 -------- --------------------------Design Parameters Summary : --------------------------- Run Type Scratch file directory Number of CPU processors : Analysis Only : ..

************************************************************************ RESOURCE USAGE INFORMATION -------------------------MAXIMUM MEMORY USED MAXIMUM DISK SPACE USED 179 MB 45 MB ************************************************************************ ************************************************************************ COMPUTE TIME INFORMATION -----------------------EXECUTION STARTED EXECUTION COMPLETED ELAPSED TIME CPU TIME Wed Jun 30 21:29:41 2010 Wed Jun 30 21:30:07 2010 00:00:25 00:00:14 ************************************************************************ ***** END OF REPORT ***** RADIOSS 9.fem • Finite element model: C:/Documents and Settings/sunny/Desktop/86 ass4 loadstep2.0 Report Problem submitted Wed Jun 30 21:31:02 2010 Input file C:/Documents and Settings/sunny/Desktop/86 ass4 loadstep2.fem • Output files prefix: 86 ass4 loadstep2 Finite element model information Number of nodes: Number of elements: 25900 76833 Number of rigid elements: 6 Number of rigid element constraints: 975 85 .************************************************************************ PROGRAM STOPPED FOR ANALYSIS ONLY.fem Problem summary • Problem parameters: C:/Documents and Settings/sunny/Desktop/86 ass4 loadstep2.

Number of degrees of freedom:

78693

Number of non-zero stiffness terms: 1348014 • Elements 76833

Number of TETRA elements: • Loads and boundaries 2 2

Number of FORCE sets: Number of SPC sets: •

Materials and properties 4 4

Number of PSOLID cards: Number of MAT1 cards:

Subcases & loadcases information • Static subcases SPC ID Force ID Weight

Subcase ID

________________________________________ 2 1 0 1.00

Results summary Subcase 2 - Structure • • Maximum displacement is 0.122E-01 at grid 7889. Maximum 3-D element stress is 41.0 in element 50471.Temperature Contour

8.2 Temperature Contours

86

The figure 8.1 shows temperature distribution in the heat sink of the tail lamp. It is observed from the temperature contours that temperature is decreasing towards fixed end of the Heat sink. The maximum temperature observed is 22.7ºC at the centre of the heat sink as per expectations.

8.3 Element Temperature Gradient Contours

87

The figure 8.2 shows element temperature gradient in the heat sink. The maximum element temperature gradient observed is 1.5 ºC/mm at the location of the heat sink where thickness of the heat sink changes. This location is critical for observation of thermal stresses.

8.4 Element Flux Contours

88

As temperature gradient increase.5 Displacement Contours 89 . The maximum element flux observed is 357.3 shows element flux in the heat sink.5 W/mm2. The element flux pattern is similar to element temperature gradient pattern because flux and temperature gradient have direct relationship.The figure 8. flux also increases as per the below relation: [Q/A] α [dT/dX] 8.

With the same thermal model. The deformation observed is very less which indicates that there is no chance of warpage of the Tail Lamp.012mm in the heat sink at the free end.6 Thermal Stress Contours 90 . The figure 8.4 shows displacement contours of the heat sink and reflector. 8. The maximum deformation observed is 0. the deformation of reflector and heat sink is also predicted by using the thermal distribution result as a thermal load for the structural analysis.

8. the results have been compared with the available experimental and standard results. the same FE analysis has been carried out for the load of 80 W. As the experimental results were available [8] for the street light of 80W lamp.7 Comparison of FEA Results To validate the analysis. The maximum stress observed is 37 N/mm2 in the heat sink which is well below the yield stress (45 N/mm2 for Aluminium).5 shows Thermal stress contour of the heat sink and reflector. The figure 8.With the same thermal model. the thermal stress of reflector and heat sink is also predicted by using the thermal distribution result as a thermal load for the structural analysis. The maximum temperature 91 .

92 .observed in this trial is 32ºC.012mm (negligible) 37 N/mm2 Variation 23% Nil 17% Table 8. The maximum element flux observed is 357. The results of the present analysis are better than experimental results of street lamp for the same load because of the efficient design of the tail lamp than a street lamp. The maximum temperature observed in FE Analysis of the tail lamp is 22. The results of the comparison have been depicted in tabular form in table 9. 1 2 3 Parameters Temperature Displacement Thermal Stress Experimental Results 42ºcelcius By observation -No warpage 45 N/mm2 FEA Results 32ºcelcius 0. 2. No. which is well below the experimental and FEA results of 42ºC for 80 W lamp. The thermal stress and displacement comparison also validate the FE analysis of the tail lamp. 3.1.7ºC for the load of 56 W.5 ºC/mm. The maximum element temperature gradient is 1.1 Comparison of Experimental and FEA Results CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION 1.5 W/mm2. Sr.

6. The design can be further improved by installing fins so as to have better heat dissipation. 3. The results are well in agreement with the similar available experimental results. 5.4. CFD analysis can also be performed to validate the results. The maximum stress for the heat sink is 37 N/mm2 which is below the yield stress for Aluminium.012mm which is negligible and harmless. optimization of the reflector and heat sink can be performed to save the material and reduce cost. The maximum deformation is 0. Once the thermal stress is further reduced. 93 . 2. CHAPTER 10 SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK 1.

94 .

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