3D printing

This video is a progression of 3D print as done on an FDM printer. The total print time of the sphere was 30 minutes, but the footage has been edited and shortened for the ease of viewing.

For methods of applying a 2-D image on a 3-D surface, see Pad printing. For methods of printing 2-D parallax stereograms that seem 3-D to the eye, see lenticular printing and holography.

Part of a series on the

History of printing

Woodblock printing (200)

Movable type (1040)

Printing press (1454) Etching (ca. 1500) Mezzotint (1642) Aquatint (1768) Lithography (1796) Chromolithography (1837) Rotary press (1843) Offset printing (1875) Hectograph (19th century) Hot metal typesetting (1886) Mimeograph (1890) Screen printing (1907) Spirit duplicator (1923) Dye-sublimation (1957) Phototypesetting (1960s) Dot matrix printer (1964) Laser printing (1969) .

civil engineering. footwear. However. automotive.[2]The technology also finds use in the fields of jewelry. 2003) v·d·e 3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing technology where a three dimensional object is created by laying down successive layers of material.Thermal printing (ca. Contents [hide]    1 Methods 2 Resolution 3 Applications o o 3. aerospace. industrial design. education. 3D printers offer product developers the ability to print parts and assemblies made of several materials with different mechanical and physical properties.[1] 3D printers are generally faster.1 Industrial use 3. architecture. Since 2003 there has been large growth in the sale of 3D printers. dental and medical industries. and easier to use than other additive manufacturing technologies. often in a single build process. the cost of 3D printers has declined.2 Domestic use    4 Vendors and services 5 See also 6 References . geographic information systems. engineering and construction (AEC). 1972) Inkjet printing (1976) Stereolithography (1986) Digital press (1993) 3D printing (ca. more affordable. Additionally. Advanced 3D printing technologies yield models that can serve as product prototypes. the term 3D printing is increasingly being used to describe all additive manufacturing processes. and many others.

..g. The process is repeated until every layer is printed. The printer creates the model one layer at a time by spreading a layer of powder (plaster. But the technology is coming.. Some methods use melting or softening material to produce the layers. The process repeats until the model is built. or the transistor in 1950—it is impossible to foresee the longterm impact of 3D printing. a vat of liquid polymer is exposed to light from a DLP projector under safelightconditions.[4] Generally. This method also allows overhangs. selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM). The .  7 Further reading 8 External links [edit]Methods “ Three-dimensional printing makes it as cheap to create single items as it is to produce thousands and thus undermineseconomies of scale. It may have as profound an impact on the world as the coming of the factory did. in a February 10. In the case of laminated object manufacturing. e. In digital light processing (DLP).[5] One method of 3D printing consists of an inkjet printingsystem. and it is likely to disrupt every field it touches. and consequently some companies offer a choice between powder and polymer as the material from which the object emerges.Just as nobody could have predicted the impact of the steam engine in 1750—or theprinting press in 1450. The exposed liquid polymer hardens. 2011 leader[3] A large number of competing technologies are available to do 3D printing. thin layers are cut to shape and joined together. the main considerations are speed. while others lay liquid materials that are cured with different technologies. cost of the 3D printer. cost of the printed prototype. This technology is the only one that allows for the printing of full colour prototypes. The build plate then moves down in small increments and the liquid polymer is again exposed to light. Each method has its advantages and drawbacks. choice and cost of materials and colour capabilities. ” —The Economist. or resins) and inkjet printing a binder in the cross-section of the part. Their main differences are found in the way layers are built to create parts.

and minimal post printing finish work is needed. leaving the solid model. Yet another approach uses a synthetic resin that is solidified using LEDs. Typically a laser is used to sinter the media and form the solid. making it suitable for visualizing during the conceptual stages of engineering design through to early-stage functional testing. [edit]Resolution Resolution is given in layer thickness and X-Y resolution in dpi. due to the nonlinear nature of photoexcitation. The ZBuilder Ultra is an example of a DLP rapid prototyping system.1 mm). the unfused media serves to support overhangs and thin walls in the part being produced. the desired 3D object is traced out in a block of gel by a focused laser. The gel is cured to a solid only in the places where the laser was focused.05-0. ultra-small features may be made by the 3D microfabrication technique of 2photon photopolymerization. Bonded powder prints can be further strengthened by wax or thermoset polymer impregnation. inkjet 3D printing is optimized for speed. Examples of this are selective laser sintering and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) using metals. a technology developed by Stratasys[6] that is used in traditional rapid prototyping. No toxic chemicals like those used in stereolithography are required. Typical layer thickness is around 100 micrometres (0. FDM parts can be strengthened by wicking another metal into the part.[9] X-Y resolution is comparable to that of laser printers. Another approach is selective fusing of print media in a granular bed. In this approach. [edit]Applications .1 mm) in diameter. and ease-of-use. as well as complex structures such as moving and interlocked parts. and then the remaining gel is washed away.liquid polymer is then drained from the vat. one need only to use the printer itself to blow off surrounding powder after the printing process. In this variation. low cost. although some machines such as the Objet Connex can print layers as thin as 16 micrometres. uses a nozzle to deposit molten polymer onto a support structure.[8] Unlike stereolithography. reducing the need for auxiliary temporary supports for the workpiece.[7] Finally. The particles (3D dots) are around 50 to 100 micrometres (0. Feature sizes of under 100 nm are easily produced. layer by layer. Fused deposition modeling.

particularly with precious or delicate cultural heritage artifacts[14] where the direct contact of the molding substances could harm the surface of the original object. metal casting. EOS GmbH. [12] 3D printing technology is currently being studied by biotechnology firms and academia for possible use in tissue engineering applications where organs and body parts are built using inkjet techniques. healthcare and entertainment/retail.0: How the Material World will Newly Materialise. and even at current printing resolutions the unit will not require polishing. bio-printing. more difficult. replicating ancient and priceless artifacts in archaeology. or too invasive to be performed.A model (left) was digitally acquired by using a 3D scanner. The use of 3D scanning technologies allow the replication of real objects without the use of molding techniques. curated by Murray Moss and focused on 3D Printing. architecture. [edit]Industrial use Industrial 3D printers are made by companies such as Objet Geometries. More recently. the use of 3D printing technology for artistic expression has been suggested. education. 3D Systems. and Z Corporation. The installation was called Industrial Revolution 2. among others. prototyping/CAD. [10] Artists have been using 3D printers in various ways. Layers of living cells are deposited onto a gel medium and slowly built up to form three dimensional structures. took place in the Victoria and Albert Museum (the V&A). and computer-aided tissue engineering. an installation. reconstructing bones and body parts in forensic pathology and reconstructing heavily damaged evidence acquired from crime scene investigations.[13] 3D printing can produce a personalized hip replacement in one pass. with the ball permanently inside the socket.[15] . the scanned data processed using MeshLab. that in many cases can be more expensive. Other applications would include reconstructing fossils in paleontology. geospatial.[11] During the 2011 London Design Festival. Several terms have been used to refer to this field of research: organ printing. Stratasys. and the resulting3D model used by a rapid prototypingmachine to create a resin replica (right) Standard applications include design visualization.

Shapercube. 3D printer kits can also be obtained.[16] RepRap is a project that aims to produce a FOSS 3D printer.[edit]Domestic use RepRap version 2. whose full specifications are released under the GNU General Public License. Much of this work was driven by and targeted to DIY/enthusiast/early adopter communities. and to make this technology available at price points affordable to many individual end-users.[18] to $1800. the RepRap can only print plastic parts.0 (Mendel) There have been several. Ultimaker. As of November 2010. that can copy some part of itself (the printed parts). The MakerBot is an open source 3D printer from MakerBot Industries. The average price of a RepRap printer is about 400 euro (537 USD). Research is under way to enable the device to print circuit boards too. Kits exist for Thing-O-Matic. .[17] Prices of these printer kits vary from 500 USD for the Printrbot derived from previous RepRap models. efforts to develop 3D printers suitable for desktop use. Mosaic. as well as metal parts. Prusa and Huxley 3D printers. with links to both the academic and hacker communities. often related.

[20] . designs are printed via industrial 3D printers and then shipped to the customer. Sculpteo and Ponoko offer an on-line 3D printing service which is open to both consumers and industry[19].MakerBot Cupcake CNC [edit]Vendors and services Some companies such as Kraftwurx. People upload their own 3D designs to the company website. Shapeways.

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