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VIII. Historische Entwicklung der Namen

104. Illyrian-Albanian Toponyms
1. 2. Some Historical Toponyms of Illyrian-Albanian Origin Selected Bibliography

1.

Some Historical Toponyms of Illyrian-Albanian Origin

In this short paper we analyze some historical toponyms in ethnic Albania, or in the lands where Albanians, the real successors of ancient Illyrians in the Balkans, are living today. Illyrian tribes spread almost throughout the Balkans. Like many other ancient peoples, the Illyrians were pagans and believed in several gods. That is why Illyrian and Albanian toponyms and anthroponyms are of pagan origin, derived from the names of plants, animals and different kinds of superstition. During the Roman domination the Albanians were converted to Christianity (from the beginning of the first century A. D.). In the Illyrian toponym Dimallum in present-day Albania (including the Balkan toponyms Malontum, Maloventum, Malontina), which B. Dautaj identifies in the village Allambrez in the surroundings of Berat, Eqrem Çabej and other scholars, for instance, trace the Albanian word mal. This Illyrian-Albanian word mal has been preserved and appears in many late and modern patronyms and toponyms, out of which we mention the name of the eastern region of Malesheva (Macedonia), which Milivoje P avlović and others derive from Illyrian-Albanian as of Thracian-Albanian origin. Even in the present Mali i Zi (Montenegro) the word mal, according to Milan Shuflay, besides being found in the name Mali i Zi itself (“Mal’si, Malcija, 1452 — Malisium ... 1463 — Malici, it bears also the Serbian name Crna Gora ... Muzaka, in 1512 was called Montenegro”), can also be found in the Albanian patronym assimilated in malazezë-serbë as Malonšić “with pure Albanian blood in the valley of the river Zeta”, or according to Branislav Djurdjev: “even Albanian villages were slavonized, and this is also proved by the cases Malonšić and Golemad”. As for the function of the IllyrianAlbanian word mal in onomastics as well as for its eventual calque in the same function in lat. montanj, in gr. oros, in lat.-vlah. plana — planina, and in sl.-srb. gora — šuma, see Doçi (1983).

The ancient toponym Durrahion — Durracium and the present Durrës on the Albanian coast are (according to J. Kastrati) of Albanian origin, from the Albanian words dy + rrahe. From the same word rrahe (forest clearing), but from the plural with metaphony rrih (rrah : rreh : rrih) and with a radix -hand a suffix and metathesis in the toponyms Rhizona : Risani in Montenegro was formed. According to Dujo Rendić Miočević, that place is considered as “an area of the Illyrian town Rhizona (probably from Rihesona — R. Doçi) at the Bay of Kotor ... which used to be the centre of Illyrian rulers and dynasties (Teuta, Baley) ... and Risinium is a Roman successor of Rhizona”. The name of the Illyrian castle Bauton, Butua (today Budva) in present-day Montenegro, has its origin also from an Illyrian-Albanian word (i,e) but-ë. There are more anthroponyms, patronyms and toponyms of Illyrian-Albanian origin in ethnic Albania which are connected with the word rrah (the names of present and medieval villages: Rahove and Rahavec in Kosovo; Rehove and Rinas in present-day Albania; Rahovicë and Reincë (?) in Southern Serbia; Rahovë in Montenegro etc.); cp. also the word i,e butë in the names of villages: Butoc in Kosovo; Butka in Albania; Bytol and Boutelis in Macedonia (Doçi 1990). According to the German scholar J. G. von Hahn, the name of the Illyrian tribe Dardan and its ancient territory Dardania (now diminished Kosovo) has its origin from the Illyrian-Albanian word dard — dardhë. E. Çabej agrees with him about the words Dardan and Dardani, but he associates them even with the names of the ancient Dardan towns and the present-day towns of Nish and Shkup, which, according to him, are words built up on the basis of the historical phonetics of Albanian. The name of the Dardan castle Ulkianum (“Hierher auch Ulcianum, in der Dardania”, Krahe 1925) derives from the Illyrian-Albanian word ulk : ujk : uk (wolf); in the same way this word (ulk : ujk, plural ulq : ujq) accounts for the name of the ancient and present town of Ulqin in Montenegro (Mayer 1957; Çabej 1977). During the reign of the Roman Emperor P rimus Justinianus (527—565), who is thought to have built the town of Prishtina (Prima Justiniana = Prishtina?), Ulpiana became a well-known Christian centre, which was replaced by the Cath-

105.  Etruskische Personennamen

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olic Church of Gracanica during the later Slavic-Serbian rule (Gjini 1986). In Dardania Anton Mayer mentions two other Illyrian castles, Gurbikon in Nish and Gurasson, which derive from the Illyrian-Albanian word guri (stone) (Domi 1983).

2.

Selected Bibliography

Çabej, E. (1977): Studime gjuhësore. Bd. IV, V. Prishtinë. Dautaj, B. (1965): Zbulimi i cytetit illir Dimal. In: Studime historike 2 (Tirana 19), 93—105. Djurdjev, B. (1951): Iz istorije Crne Gore. In: Radovi Bd. II. Sarajevo. Doçi, R. (1983): Antroponimia e Llapushës (P rekuropës). Prishtinë. Doçi, R. (1990): Antroponimia e shqiptarëve te Kosovës. Bd. I. Prishtinë. Domi, M. (1983): P roblemë të hitsorisë së formimit

të gjushës, shquipe. In: Iliria Bd. I. Tirane. Gjini, G. (1986): Skopsko-prizrenska biskupija kroz stoljeća. Zagreb. Hahn, J. G. von (1853): Albanesische Studien. Wien. Kastrati, J. (1977): Jeronim De Rada për toponiminë historike shqiptare. In: P uka dhe shkolla. Pukë. Krahe, H. (1925): Die alten balkan-illyrischen geographischen Namen. Heidelberg. Mayer, A. (1957): Die Sprache der alten Illyrier. I. Wien. Miočević, D. R. (1989): Iliri i antični svijet. Split. P avlović, M. (1969): Onomastica Illyrica. In: Onomastica Jugoslavica I, 24—46. Shuflay, M. (1968): Serbët dhe shqiptarët. P rishtinë.

Rexhep Doçi, Prishtina — Kosova

105. Etruskische Personennamen
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Vorbemerkung Das Namenformular freier Bürger Bezeichnung von Nicht- und Neubürgern Anfänge und Entwicklung des Gentilnamensystems in Etrurien Herkunft der Namen Literatur (in Auswahl)

1.

Vorbemerkung

Das Etr(uskische) ist aus knapp 9000, mit Ausnahme eines Leinwandbuchs inschriftlichen Texten bekannt, die in Etrurien und seinen Nachbarregionen gefunden wurden (dazu vereinzelte Streufunde) und aus der Zeit von ca. 700 v. Chr. bis ca. 20 n. Chr. stammen. Das Jahrzehnt um 480 v. Chr. scheidet die archaischen Texte von den (sehr viel zahlreicheren) rezenten, in deren Wortformen die kurzen Binnenvokale lautgesetzlich geschwunden sind. Die meisten Texte enthalten auch oder ausschließlich P ersonenbezeichnungen, die unabhängig von den bekannten Deutungsproblemen bei etr. Appellativtexten voll verständlich sind (puia, clan, seχ = ‘Gattin, Sohn, Tochter’; -i, -(n)ia Fem.Suffixe, -(V)s, -(V)l Gen.-Endungen; -σa Artikel ‘die, der’, enklitisch am Genitiv, vertritt puia/clan/ seχ).

etr. Bürgers die gleiche Grundstruktur wie bei Römern und Sabellern (→ Rix, Art. 106, 1.1.). Den Kern bilden P ränomen (P R) und (vom Vater ererbtes) Gentile (GE); daran schließen sich Filiationsangabe (FA) und Cognomen (CO) an. Dazu kommen im Etr. noch das Metronymikon (ME), das den Gentilnamen der Mutter angibt, und in Namen von Frauen das Gamonymikon (GA), dargestellt durch Gentile oder Cognomen des Gatten, ebenfalls in Genetiv (→ 2.4.). Beispiele: Männername Aule P R eiante GE Śinu CO Larθal FA Tiscusnal clan ME (Cl 1. 2261); Frauennamen (nirgends sind alle 6 möglichen Namenglieder zusammen belegt): Larθia P R Latini GE Ceunia CO Tutnaa GA Ultimnial śec ME (Cl 1.1885) und Larθi P R Veti GE Uari CO Au(leś) FA Faruś puia GA (Pe 1.524) Noch deutlicher als bei den röm. ist bei den etr. P N die Diskrepanz zwischen langue und parole, d. h. zwischen vollständigem Formular und konkret verwendeten Namengliedern. In den rezenten Texten haben sich auch regionale, d. h. auf bestimmte Stadtgebiete beschränkte Normen, Quasi-Normen oder P räferenzen entwickelt. 2.1.  Das P ränomen kann z. B. in Tarquinia und Vulci (nie im Norden Etruriens) seinen P latz mit dem Gentile tauschen, das dann als

2.

Das Namenformular freier Bürger

In rezenten Texten hat die Bezeichnung eines