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Class WARWICK2005

PX132 Mechanics Assignment 2 (NOT assessed)

Assignment is due at 5:00pm on Monday, November 14, 2005

Credit for problems submitted late will decrease to 0% after the deadline has passed. There is no penalty for wrong answers to free response questions. Multiple choice questions are penalized as described in the online help. The unopened hint bonus is 2% per part. You are allowed unlimited attempts per answer.

A Gymnast on a Rope

Description: A gymnast climbs up and down a massless rope. Find the tension in the rope, given the weight, velocity, and acceleration of the gymnast. A gymnast of weight rope does not stretch. Part A Calculate the tension Hint A.1 in the rope if the gymnast climbs at a constant rate. climbs a vertical rope attached to the ceiling. You can ignore the weight of the rope and assume that the

A body in dynamic equilibrium

The gymnast is moving at a constant rate, that is, with constant velocity. This means that the gymnast is in dynamic equilibrium and, according to Newton's 1st law, the net force acting on the gymnast is zero.

ANSWER:

= w

Part B Calculate the tension Hint B.1 in the rope if the gymnast hangs motionless on the rope.

A body in static equilibrium

The gymnast is hanging motionless, that is, at rest. This means that the gymnast is in static equilibrium and, according to Newton's 1st law, the net force acting on the gymnast is zero.

ANSWER:

= w

Does it surprise you that the answers to Parts A and B are identical? In both cases, the gymnast is not accelerating. Therefore there must be zero net force acting on the gymnast. Since the only two forces acting on the gymnast are tension and weight, the tension in the rope in each case is equal in magnitude (and opposite in direction) to the gymnast's weight. Part C

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Calculate the tension mass of the gymnast.MasteringPhysics 2. and .1 Newton's 2nd law of motion According to Newton's 2nd law. Take the positive y axis to be upward. the net external force acting on it is equal to the mass of the body times the acceleration of the body. Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = T-w . if a body accelerates.2 Find the net external force The only forces acting on the gymnast are the upward force of the rope on the gymnast (the tension in the rope) and the downward force of the gynmast on the rope (the weight of the gymnast). if a body accelerates. Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = w-m*a Binary Star System 2 of 8 02/11/2005 14:27 . . Part D. Find an expression for the net external force acting on the gymnast while accelerating up the rope.0: Assignment Print View http://session. the net external force body times the acceleration of the body: .. Let be the mass of the gymnast.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentI.2 Find the net external force The only forces acting on the gymnast are the upward force of the rope on the gymnast (the tension in the rope) and the downward force of the gynmast on the rope (the weight of the gymnast). and .masteringphysics.. Take the positive y axis to be upward. Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = w+m*a Part D Calculate the tension in the rope if the gymnast slides down the rope with a downward acceleration of magnitude . Part C. Hint C. Hint D. and . Let be the Newton's 2nd law of motion acting on it is equal to the mass of the According to Newton's 2nd law. Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = T-w .1 in the rope if the gymnast accelerates up the rope with an acceleration of magnitude . and . Find an expression for the net external force acting on the gymnast while sliding down the rope. .

2. the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration of the star with mass What causes acceleration? . 3.3 How to relate acceleration and force .MasteringPhysics 2.. in According to Newton's 2nd law. Description: Given a binary star system with stars of differing mass. the inertia of star 2 causes it to continue moving along its circular orbit. which gravitationally attract each other. find the acceleration of one star in terms of the acceleration of the other using only Newton's Second and Third Laws. The centripetal acceleration is the sum of the acceleration due to gravity and the acceleration due to the circular motion. ANSWER: 1 2 3 4 Part A. revolve has a centripetal acceleration of magnitude . but they act in opposite directions--in fact they pull both planets toward the center of mass (which lies on a line between them). What is the magnitude of the force acting on the star of mass Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = F_1 and .masteringphysics. as dictated by Newton's First Law. 4. The star with mass . The circular motion of the star of mass generates the centripetal acceleration. Part A Find . how can you express terms of ANSWER: and ? = m_1*a_1 Hint A. A binary star system consists of two stars of masses and around the center of mass of the system.2 Relationship between forces on each star ? . Once moving. The gravitational force between the star of mass and the star of mass provides the centripetal acceleration necessary for circular motion. the magnitude of the force that acts on the star with mass . The stars.0: Assignment Print View http://session.. at constant speed. you should be able to find its acceleration by combining the If you now apply Newton's 2nd law to the star of mass formulas from the previous hints.4 Putting it together . the magnitude of the force that acts on the star with mass The forces are equal in magnitude. Note that you do not need to understand universal gravitation to solve this problem. ANSWER: = a_1*(m_1/m_2) 3 of 8 02/11/2005 14:27 . Express the acceleration in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction. Which of the following statements most correctly explains the physical origin of the centripetal acceleration of the star of mass ? 1. Part A. Part A.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentI.1 First consider what makes the stars orbit around their center of mass.

What is the x component of the friction force.masteringphysics. ANSWER: = 0 4 of 8 02/11/2005 14:27 . and Newton's 2nd law allows you to solve for in terms of .. the net external force acting on this star will . drawbridge and the dancer's foot are and represents the gravitational force exerted on the dancer. . think why it might not be required. .) You can therefore write you find the equation gravitational force. Now. This problem contains conceptual questions to clarify the magnitude of the static/kinetic friction force. The actual magnitude of the static friction may be less if friction and the other forces on the object can cause the observed acceleration. Solving for the is the same for the .MasteringPhysics 2. The magnitude of the gravitational force on either star due to the other one is given by .. To make sure you understand this result. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables . and/or . For all the questions. two stars. respectively. it is perfectly level with the ground. Once again. the coefficient of static friction represents the maximum possible ratio of the frictional and normal forces. needed in the answer).0: Assignment Print View http://session. (Think about how this relates to Newton's 3rd law. appears in both the equation for the star of mass . as shown in the drawing . The dancer is standing still on one leg. changing the angle between gravity and friction.e. Part A Before the drawbridge starts to open. where is the separation between the stars. The coefficients of static and kinetic friction between the and . represents the normal force exerted on the dancer by the bridge.. Note that you did not need to know the exact form of the Friction Force on a Dancer on a Drawbridge Description: A dancer stands on drawbridge as it opens/closes. and that for the star of mass . nor did you need to know or . ? Hint A. we can assume that the bridge is a perfectly flat surface and lacks the curvature characteristic of most bridges. so Newton's 2nd law for the star of mass You can see that the same force. Newton's 3rd law allows you to realize that . . so . and . The net external force is .1 What forces are acting? Remember. A dancer is standing on one leg on a drawbridge that is about to open. consider Newton's 2nd law for the star of mass Now consider Newton's 2nd law applied to the star of mass is be . consider the actual gravitational force acting on each star. acceleration .com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentI. If the program tells you that the variable you think should be in the answer is not recognized (i.

then the friction force is determined using Newton's laws of motion in conjunction with the observed motion and the other forces on the object. This shows a very important point. This causes the person to start to slide down the bridge at a constant speed. What is the magnitude of the frictional force now? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables answer. The drawbridge stops just at the point where the dancer of the is on the verge of slipping. .MasteringPhysics 2. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables .com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentI. and/or .1 Calculating the coefficient of static friction The coefficient of static friction is the ratio of the maximum frictional force over a given normal force before the object starts to slip.0: Assignment Print View http://session. The angle should not appear in your answer.masteringphysics. Part B The drawbridge then starts to rise and the dancer continues to stand on one leg.. Under these circumstances the friction force is or but is otherwise not necessarily related to limited by or . it falls a little bit and then jerks. ANSWER: = n*mu_k .. ANSWER: = n*mu_s Part C Then. When you are not told that an object is slipping or on the verge of slipping. The angle should not appear in your Part D 5 of 8 02/11/2005 14:27 . What is the magnitude frictional force now? Hint B. and/or . . because the bridge is old and poorly designed.

one on a table and one hanging. What is the force of friction now? Hint D. Find the kinetic friction for the block on the table knowing that both blocks are moving at a constant speed. . Find the magnitude of the acceleration after an additional weight is added. blocks A and B are in dynamic equilibrium. is between block A and the . you should be able to obtain two different expressions for the tension in the rope. Once block B is set into 6 of 8 02/11/2005 14:27 . ANSWER: theta*F_g sin(theta)*F_g Kinetic Friction in a Block-and-Pulley System Description: Two blocks.2 Find the net force on block A Write an expression for block A.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentI. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables (the tension in the rope). it descends at a constant speed. and other given variables. . Since the dancer isn't accelerating. their velocities are constant. equal to zero. Take positive to be to the right. By setting the sum of the forces acting on both blocks A and B equal to zero. the net force acting horizontally on . . and/or . Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables .0: Assignment Print View http://session.MasteringPhysics 2. The dancer stops sliding. . Hint A. Set these equal to each other and solve for . again because of the age and design of the bridge it never makes it all the way down. and block B has weight Consider the system shown in the figure .masteringphysics. .1 Analyze gravitational components Decompose the force of gravity into its components parallel and perpendicular to the plane. Block A has weight downward motion. Part A Calculate the coefficient of kinetic friction table top.1 How to approach the problem In this problem.. all the forces balance. which has the angle exaggerated). The tension is constant throughout the rope. rather it stops half a meter short. The bridge starts to come back down again. are connected by a pulley. Assume that the mass and friction of the pulley are negligible. This means that the net force on each.. However. Part A. This half a meter corresponds to an angle degree (see the diagram.

Find the net force on block B . and .masteringphysics. and you will have the answer. is weight. . the forces acting on block B in the vertical direction. 7 of 8 02/11/2005 14:27 . solve for the acceleration. (the tension Find an expression for Take positive to be to the right. the net force acting vertically on block .0: Assignment Print View http://session. Take positive to be downward..2 Recall that Part B. .com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentI. the magnitude of the acceleration of blocks A and B.. Hint B. also of weight its acceleration? Hint B.MasteringPhysics 2. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the given variables and in the rope). the net force acting on block A in the horizontal direction. ANSWER: = T-mu*w_A Part A. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the given variables and in the rope).4 . Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables (the tension in the rope).3 How to find the mass . Set both of these variables to Find the net force on block A . the tension in the rope. (These accelerations are equal because the rope connecting blocks A and B constrains their motion. what is the magnitude of How to approach the problem for each of the blocks. (the tension Find an expression for Take positive to be downward. set them equal to each other.) Once you have two expressions for . Your two equations are and your unknowns are . falls asleep on top of block A. If block B is now set into downward motion. ANSWER: = w_B-T ANSWER: = w_B/w_A Part B A cat. note that . Use your answer from Part A for . and other given variables. ANSWER: T-2*w_B Now solve this equation for Part B.3 Find the net force on block B Write an expression for B. and is the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity.1 . where is mass. Also. This problem involves solving two equations with two unknowns.

m/s along the loading ramp? sqrt(2*g*(sin(arctan(mu_s)) .mu_k*cos(arctan(mu_s)))*x) Summary 0 of 5 problems complete (0% avg.0: Assignment Print View http://session.com/myct/assignmentPrint?assignmentI. how fast will the box be moving after it has slid a distance 5. g*(sin(arctan(mu_s)) . ANSWER: w_B-T Now solve this equation for ANSWER: . Part A As the angle ANSWER: is increased.masteringphysics.MasteringPhysics 2.80 . The coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.270 and the coefficient of static friction is 0. Take the free fall acceleration to be ANSWER: = 9.360 .20 Take the free fall acceleration to be ANSWER: = 9. score) 0 of 0 points 8 of 8 02/11/2005 14:27 . find the minimum angle at which the box starts to slip.36 A box of textbooks of mass 25. find the acceleration once the box has begun to move.mu_k*cos(arctan(mu_s))) Part C At this angle. arctan(mu_s)*(180/pi) Part B At this angle.80 ... = g*w_B/(w_B+2*w_A) Problem 5.4 rests on a loading ramp that makes an angle with the horizontal.

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