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Tore H. gglund* a

Department of Automatic Control, Lund Institute of Technology, Box 118, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden Received 6 April 2001; accepted 6 April 2001

Abstract The paper treats the problem of ratio control. Previous solutions based on simple Ratio stations perform poorly during transients caused by setpoint changes. A new solution, the Blend station, that improves control during transients, is proposed. Both a constant-gain and an adaptive version are presented. r 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Ratio control; Ratio station; Blending; In-line blending; Mixing

1. Introduction Process control problems are traditionally solved using PID controllers that are connected through wellknown couplings such as cascade control, feedforward control, ratio control, split-range control, etc. See ( . Seborg, Edgar, and Mellichamp (1989); Astrom and H. gglund (1995); and Dumdie (1996). Logic, selectors a and sequence functions are also used to obtain the desired overall control function. This distributed approach was previously accomplished using singlestation controllers, function modules, relays etc. Nowadays, most functions are incorporated in DCS systems. The use of the basic PID controller has been improved since the introduction of computers in process control. Facilities such as automatic tuning, adaptation, gain scheduling, anti-windup, back-calculation, alarms and supervisory functions, are examples of such ( . improvements. See Astrom and H. gglund (1995). a However, very little research and development has been devoted to the basic couplings. These are often performed in the same way as before the computer implementations, i.e. when function modules and hard wiring had to be used. In modern DCS systems, there is a potential for improvement of these functions as well. This paper treats ratio control. Ratio control is applied when the control objective is to keep the ratio between two variables, often ows, at a certain ratio a:

*Tel.: +46-46-2228798, fax: +46-46-138118. E-mail address: tore@control.lth.se (T. H. gglund). a

In combustion, e.g., it is desired to control the fuel to air supply ratio, in order for the combustion to be as ecient as possible. Blending of chemicals is another example where it is desired to keep the ratio between dierent ows constant. In in-line blending systems, when there are no downstream mixing tanks, this is of special importance. If the composition is not maintained, quality problems may occur. Ratio control is traditionally obtained using simple Ratio stations. See Shinskey (1981); Shinskey (1996); and Seborg et al. (1989). These are explained in the next section. Using Ratio stations, the desired ratio may be kept during a steady-state operation. However, during transients the Ratio station fails to retain the desired ratio a: This is a serious problem, since ratio control is normally applied to problems where the ows are supposed to vary and where steady-state conditions are uncommon. This paper suggests a new ratio control structure. The Ratio station is replaced by a Blend station that improves the ratio control during transients. The paper suggests both a constant-gain and an adaptive Blend station where no parameter tuning is required from the user.

2. Ratio control Ratio control is normally solved in the way shown in Fig. 1. There are two control loops. The main loop consists of process P1 and controller C1 : Output y1 is the

0967-0661/01/$ - see front matter r 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 9 6 7 - 0 6 6 1 ( 0 1 ) 0 0 0 6 7 - 3

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main ow and the external setpoint r1 is the desired main ow. In the second loop, consisting of process P2 and controller C2 ; it is attempted to control the ow y2 so that the ratio y2 =y1 is equal to ratio a: In Fig. 1 this is obtained using a Ratio station where setpoint r2 is determined by r2 t ay1 t 1

i.e. simply by multiplying the main ow y1 with the desired ratio a: In Eq. (1), parameter a is assumed to be constant. This is not necessary. The desired ratio a is often timevarying. In combustion, e.g., the ratio a is often adjusted based on O2 measurements in the exhaust. Provided the controllers have an integral action, the solution given in Fig. 1 will work in a steady-state, i.e. y1 r1 and y2 ay1 : However, using the simple Ratio station to form the secondary setpoint r2 according to Equation (1) is not ecient during transients. The second ow y2 will always be delayed compared to the desired ow ay1 : The length of this delay is determined by the dynamics in the second loop. When setpoint r1 is increasing, the delay causes an under-supply of the media corresponding to ow y2 ; and conversely when r1 is decreasing there is an excess of the media corresponding to ow y2 : There are cases when it is important never to get any under-supply of one of the two media. In the combustion case, one gets an under-supply of air during the transient part when the external set point increases, but an excess of air when the set point decreases. To prevent the fuel from being fully burnt by an under-supply of air, the solution in Fig. 1 has to be complemented with ( . some logic using MAX=MIN selectors. See Astrom and H. gglund (1995). a A suggested approach to overcome the transient problems is to apply the Ratio station to setpoint r1 instead of measurement signal y1 ; see Fig. 2. Here, setpoint r2 is determined by r2 t ar1 t: 2

Now, the second ow is not necessarily delayed compared to the main ow as in the previous approach. The transient behaviour is determined by the dynamics in both loops. By tuning the controllers so that the loops get the same closed-loop dynamics, the ratio y2 =y1 may be kept equal to a even during setpoint changes. There are, however, some severe drawbacks with the solution proposed in Fig. 2. The procedure is a kind of open-loop approach. If the dynamics in one of the loops change, so may the ratio y2 =y1 : Process dynamics often change in process control, mostly due to nonlinearities. To obtain the same closed-loop dynamics in the two loops, one of the loops in Fig. 2 has to be detuned. Normally, the secondary loop is the fastest, and consequently the one that has to be detuned. Therefore, this loop will give unnecessarily slow responses to load disturbances. An advantage with the solution in Fig. 1, where the true main ow y1 is used to form the setpoint, is that the ratio will be kept even if the main ow cannot be kept close to the setpoint r1 : If e.g. a load disturbance causes the primary ow y1 to deviate from set-point r1 ; the secondary loop will try to keep the ratio y2 =y1 close to a even during the load transient. There are situations when this feature is important from a security point of view. So, even if the approach given in Fig. 2 has some desirable features at setpoint changes, the approach given in Fig. 1 is normally preferred and has become an industrial practice.

3. The Blend station The main drawback with the simple Ratio station approach shown in Fig. 1 is that the secondary ow y2 is delayed compared to the desired ow ay1 : This problem can be solved if not only y1 is used to form the secondary setpoint, but also the main setpoint r1 : The structure, called the Blend station, is shown in Fig. 3.

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Fig. 3. Ratio control using the Blend station BS: Fig. 4. Setpoint responses for dierent choices of g: Flow y1 is shown in dashed line. Flow y2 is shown for g 0; 0:2; 0:4; 0:6; 0:8; and 1.0.

In the Blend station, the secondary setpoint is determined according to r2 t agr1 t 1 gy1 y: 3

Gain g is a weighting factor that determines the relation between setpoint r1 and main ow y1 when forming secondary setpoint r2 : Choosing g 0 means that the standard Ratio station given in Fig. 1 is obtained. Choosing g 1 means that the structure given in Fig. 2 is obtained. The Blend station provides the possibility of combining the advantages of two approaches. The following example illustrates the benets of using the Blend station instead of the simple Ratio station. Example 1 (The Blend station). Consider two processes, P1 and P2 ; both with structures given by the transfer function 1 : 4 1 sT2 The main process, P1 ; has the time constants T 10; and the secondary process, P2 ; has the time constants T 2: The processes are controlled using the Blend station conguration in Fig. 3. The controllers C1 and C2 are both PI controllers with settings: K1 1 K2 1 Ti1 7:0; Ti2 2:8: 5

subsection. Even better results would have been obtained by shaping the setpoint r2 : This is of less importance when setpoint r1 is changing smoothly instead of stepwise. This is demonstrated in the next section. 3.1. Choice of g Assume that the two closed loops can be approximated by rst-order systems with time constants T1 and T2 ; respectively. This means that Y1 s 1 R1 s; 1 sT1 1 R2 s: Y2 s 1 sT2

From Eq. (3), the second setpoint is given by R2 s agR1 s 1 gY1 s 1 a g 1 g R1 s 1 sT1 1 sgT1 a R1 s: 1 sT1

For simplicity, the desired ratio a is chosen to be a 1; which means that it is desired to keep the two ows equal, y1 y2 : Fig. 4 shows responses using dierent values of g: The case g 0 corresponds to the standard use of the Ratio station given in Fig. 1. The delay of the second ow y2 during transients causes a signicant deviation from the desired ratio a: The case g 1 corresponds to use of the Ratio station given in Fig. 2, but without detuning the second loop to obtain the same closed-loop dynamics. The optimum choice of g seems to be somewhere around g 0:4: The choice of g is treated in the next

This means that the relation between the main setpoint r1 and the second ow y2 can be approximated by Y2 s 1 1 sgT1 a R1 s 1 sT2 1 sT1 1 1 a R1 s E 1 sT2 1 s1 gT1 1 R1 s: Ea 1 s1 gT1 T2

The rst approximation is that the zero in gT1 is replaced by a pole in gT1 : The second approximation is that the two poles are replaced by one single pole with the time constant equal to the sum of the two time constants.

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Since it is desired to obtain the same time constant in the transfer function from r1 to y2 as from r1 to y1 ; the following relation is desired 1 gT1 T2 T1 : Hence, the optimal value of g is close to g T2 : T1 10 9

Eq. (10) is obviously true for the case T1 T2 : In this case, when both loops have the same dynamics, the external setpoint r1 should be applied on both loops simultaneously in order to keep the ratio equal to a: This is accomplished using g 1: Eq. (10) is also true when T2 0; i.e. when the second loop lacks dynamics. Since no delay is present, the ratio is kept equal to a using the standard Ratio station, i.e. by using g 0: Note that when T1 oT2 ; that is when the main ow dynamics is faster than the dynamics in the second loop, Eq. (10) suggests that the gain should be chosen such that g > 1: The two closed-loop time constants T1 and T2 are normally not known. If the controllers are properly tuned, it is, however, often possible to approximate the relation between T1 and T2 with the relation between the integral times of the two controllers, i.e. g Ti2 : Ti1 11

in this section. The structure of the adaptive Blend station is given in Fig. 5. In the adaptive Blend station, gain g is adjusted on line based on the actual values of the two ows y1 and y2 : The following adaptation mechanism is suggested: dg S ay1 y2 : 13 dt Ti In Eq. (13), gain g is adjusted based on the integral of the dierence between the two ows, properly scaled with the desired ratio a: Equilibrium occurs when ay1 y2 or S 0: Integral time Ti determines the adaptation rate. It is reasonable to determine it automatically as a factor times the longest integral time of the two loops. In the simulation examples shown later in this paper, the value Ti 70 is chosen, corresponding to a value that is 10 times longer than the longest integral time of the two controllers C1 and C2 : The sign parameter S takes the values +1, 1; or 0. When the main setpoint r1 increases, gain g should increase if ay1 > y2 ; and decrease if ay1 oy2 : However, when r1 decreases, the opposite is true. When r1 decreases, gain g should decrease if ay1 > y2 ; and increase if ay1 oy2 : The sign parameter S takes care of this in the following way: S IF r1 > MAXy1; y2=a eps then 1 ELSE IF r1oMINy1; y2=a eps then 1 ELSE 0: A hysteresis, eps, is introduced to avoid adaptation when the signals are close to the setpoints. The main reason is to avoid adaptation when the signal to noise ratio is small. The hysteresis eps can be xed once and for all, or it may be determined from the noise levels in the signals. The hysteresis is chosen as 0.01 in the simulations presented in this paper.

The ratio between the two integral times used in Example 1 gives the gain g 2:8 0:4: 7:0 12

This gain is shown to be close to optimal in Fig. 4. 3.2. Load disturbances An advantage with the original Ratio station proposed in Fig. 1, is that the ratio may be kept close to the desired ratio even if the main ow for some reason cannot be kept close to the setpoint r1 : This advantage is lost in the Blend station when ga0: If this is a problem, g may be set equal to zero during periods of constant setpoint r1 : In this way, the nonzero value of g is only used during setpoint changes.

4. The adaptive Blend station In the previous section, guidelines for choosing the gain g were given. However, in process control it is highly desirable not to introduce further parameters to be tuned by the users. Furthermore, since the processes often are time varying and nonlinear, optimal choices of parameters vary over time. Therefore, an adaptive procedure to automatically obtain gain g is proposed

Example 2 (The adaptive Blend station). In this example, the same processes and controllers as used in the

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Fig. 6. Control using the adaptive Blend station. The upper diagram shows setpoint r1 ; main ow y1 (dashed line), and secondary ow y2 : The middle diagram shows corresponding control signals u1 and u2 : The lower diagram shows gain g:

Fig. 7. Control using the adaptive Blend station. The upper diagram shows setpoint r1 ; main ow y1 (dashed line), and secondary ow y2 : The middle diagram shows corresponding control signals u1 and u2 : The lower diagram shows gain g:

previous example are considered. The gain g is adjusted according to Eq. (13), with integral time Ti 70; i.e. ten times the longest integral time of the two controllers C1 and C2 : Fig. 6 illustrates control using the adaptive Blend station, when the external setpoint r1 varies in the form of a square wave. The gain converges to a value close to g 0:4; which is the ratio suggested by Eq. (11), i.e. the ratio between the integral times of the two controllers C1 and C2 : Fig. 6 clearly demonstrates how the variations in the ratio y2 =y1 decreases signicantly when g is increased from 0 to 0.4. In Fig. 7, the same experiment is performed, but now the external setpoint r1 is varied in the form of a sinusoid instead of a square wave. Again, the Blend station manages to keep the two ows closer to each other. The gure also demonstrates that smooth setpoint changes result in smaller deviations in the ratio y2 =y1 : &

Fig. 8. Ratio control of a pulp bleaching process using the original Ratio station. The gure shows two changes in the pulp setpoint, the pulp ow (fastest response) and the Hydrosulphite ow (slowest response).

5. Industrial eld test The Blend station has been eld tested in a paper mill. This section shows the results from a process section where pulp is bleached by adding Hydrosulphite to the pulp ow. The goal is to keep the ratio between the pulp ow and the Hydrosulphite ow constant. Originally, a Ratio station congured according to Fig. 1 was used. The pulp ow controller, C1 ; is a PI controller with settings K1 0:2 and Ti1 4s: The

Hydrosulphite controller, C2 ; is also a PI controller with settings K2 0:078 and Ti2 1:07s: The results obtained using the original Ratio station are shown in Fig. 8. The gure shows the responses to two setpoint changes in the pulp ow. The Hydrosulphite ow is scaled with the desired ratio and translated, so that the desired ow rates become identical. The gure clearly demonstrates the deviation between the two ows during the transients. The Hydrosulphite ow is delayed compared to the pulp ow.

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Fig. 10 shows the results obtained using gain factor g 0:75: Here, the dierence between the two ows is almost eliminated. This eld test conrms the advantages of using the Blend station instead of a Ratio station during ratio control. The simple rule of thump for choosing gain factor g as the ratio between the integral times of the two loops does not hold in this case. Eq. (11) suggests a value gE0:27; while the experiments show that the optimal value is close to g 0:75: Therefore, this eld test indirectly also shows the advantages of using the adaptive Blend station, so that an optimal value of g can be obtained without user interaction.

Fig. 9. Ratio control of a pulp bleaching process using the Blend station with gain g 0:5: The gure shows two changes in the pulp setpoint, the pulp ow (fastest response) and the Hydrosulphite ow (slowest response).

6. Conclusions This paper treats the problem of ratio control. The industrial standard for solving ratio control problems is to use a simple Ratio station. This solution works in steady state, but during transients the Ratio station fails to keep the ratio between the two ows. The suggested Blend station improves ratio control during transients. Both a constant-gain and an adaptive version of the Blend station is presented. The benets of replacing Ratio stations with Blend stations are demonstrated through simulations as well as industrial eld tests. This work was partially supported by the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK), and the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF). The Blend station is patent pending.

Fig. 10. Ratio control of a pulp bleaching process using the Blend station with gain g 0:75: The gure shows two changes in the pulp setpoint, and the pulp and Hydrosulphite ows.

References

( . Astrom, K. J., & H. gglund, T. (1995). PID controllers: theory, design, a and tuning. Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Dumdie, D. P. (1996). Desire good process control? Try a systems approach. InTech, 43(9), 6569. Seborg, D. E., Edgar, T. F., & Mellichamp, D. A. (1989). Process Dynamics and Control. New York: Wiley. Shinskey, F. G. (1981). Controlling multivariable processes. Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Shinskey, F. G. (1996). Process-control systems. Application, design, and tuning (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Fig. 9 shows the results obtained when a Blend station was applied to the process. Here, gain factor g was chosen to be g 0:5: A Comparison of Figs. 8 and 9 reveals that the Blend station reduces the ow dierences during transients signicantly. However, there is still a delay in the Hydrosulphite ow. Therefore, gain factor g was increased further.

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