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Material: Dry Erase Board or Chalk Board, Calculators, Projector with TI-83 viewer and Handouts. Strands: Content Strands Number Sense and Operations Strand A2.N.1 Evaluate numerical expressions with negative and/or fractional exponents, without the aid of a calculator (when the answers are rational numbers) A2.N.1 Perform arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) with expressions containing irrational numbers in radical form Algebra A2.A.8 Apply the rules of exponents to simplify expressions involving negative and/or fractional exponents A2.A.9 Rewrite algebraic expressions that contain negative exponents using only positive exponents A2.A.12 Evaluate exponential expressions, including those with base e A2.A.46 Perform transformations with functions and relations: f(x+a), f(x)+a, f(x),f(x), af(x) A2.A.51 Determine the domain and range of a function from its graph A2.A.53 Graph exponential functions of the form y = b for positive values of b, including b = e Strands (cont.): Process Strands Problem Solving A2.PS.1 Use a variety of problem solving strategies to understand new mathematical content A2.PS.2 Recognize and understand equivalent representations of a problem situation or a mathematical concept

x

A2.PS.3 Observe and explain patterns to formulate generalizations and conjectures A2.PS.4 Use multiple representations to represent and explain problem situations (e.g., verbally, numerically, algebraically, graphically) A2.PS.7 Work in collaboration with others to propose, critique, evaluate, and value alternative approaches to problem solving Reasoning Proof A2.RP.1 Support mathematical ideas using a variety of strategies A2.RP.5 Develop, verify, and explain an argument, using appropriate mathematical ideas and language Communication A2.CM.3 Present organized mathematical ideas with the use of appropriate standard notations, including the use of symbols and other representations when sharing an idea in verbal and written form A2.CM.4 Explain relationships among different representations of a problem A2.CM.5 Communicate logical arguments clearly, showing why a result makes sense and why the reasoning is valid A2.CM.7 Read and listen for logical understanding of mathematical thinking shared by other students A2.CM.8 Reflect on strategies of others in relation to ones own strategy A2.CM.11 Represent word problems using standard mathematical notation A2.CM.12 Understand and use appropriate language, representations, and terminology when describing objects, relationships, mathematical solutions, and rationale Connections A2.CN.1 Understand and make connections among multiple representations of the same mathematical idea A2.CN.2 Understand the corresponding procedures for similar problems or mathematical concepts A2.CN.3 Model situations mathematically, using representations to draw conclusions and formulate new situations A2.CN.4 Understand how concepts, procedures, and mathematical results in one area of mathematics can be used to solve problems in other areas of mathematics

A2.CN.6 Recognize and apply mathematics to situations in the outside world A2.CN.7 Recognize and apply mathematical ideas to problem situations that develop outside of mathematics Representation A2.R.1 Use physical objects, diagrams, charts, tables, graphs, symbols, equations, or objects created using technology as representations of mathematical concepts A2.R.2 Recognize, compare, and use an array of representational forms A2.R.3Use representation as a tool for exploring and understanding mathematical ideas A2.R.4 Select appropriate representations to solve problem situations A2.R.5 Investigate relationships among different representations and their impact on a given problem Objectives For students to comprehend and explore exponential functions and graphs, and apply them to real life situations Anticipatory Set Students will be asked to answer the following: Imagine being given two pieces of candy the first day of class, four the second day of class, eight on third and so on. How many pieces of candy with you have after five days? How many pieces of candy would you have after 50 days? After discussing these questions we will move into the lesson on exponential functions to help aid the students in solving these questions. Learning Activity x The lesson will begin with the basic equation for exponential functions, y=b where b is the base defined by b>0 and b 1, and x is the exponent. These restrictions are placed on b because if b=1, then y=1 for all x. If b=0 we will get the x-axis like we get a straight line when b=1. Also, if we use b<0 we will not get a predictable result. When integral exponents are odd the results are negative. When the integral exponents are even the results are positive. Once the equation and the restrictions are discussed we will examine the graph of y=b . The graph passes through the point (0,1), has a domain of all real numbers, the range is Re>0, the graph is increasing, and is asymptotic to the x-axis as it approaches negative infinity and increases without bound. It is also continuous and smooth.

x

Asymptote- A line whose distance to a given curve approaches zero but never actually touches it. The definition of an asymptote as found in your textbooks is a line that a graph gets closer and closer to, but never touches or crosses. Students will be given graph paper and the function y= 2 and be asked to graph the function by substituting in values for x and sketching their corresponding graphs. The students will make a table that shows their work. Finally they will be allowed to use their calculators to check their graphs. After looking at the graphs of positive values of x, we will then look at x. the standard -x equation is now y= b . I will ask if anyone knows what the graph of this looks like. If someone knows, I will ask them to explain it to the rest of the class, and if no one knows -x the answer I will show them. The graph of y= b will be the reflection about the y-axis of the equation y= b . Reflection- the image of something as reflected by a mirror. Students have previously learned that when a base is raised to a negative power they can take the reciprocal of that base and make the exponent positive, the same applies for the -x x general equation y= b . Thus, this equation can be written as y= (1/b) . We will examine the graph of this function. The graph passes through (0,1), the domain is all real numbers, the range is Re>0, the graph is decreasing, and it becomes asymptotic to the x-axis as x approaches infinity. After looking at y= b students will be given the equation y= 2 which can also be written as y= (1/2) . They will be asked to graph the function by substituting values for x. Students should make a table to show all their work. They will then be allowed to check their graphs with their calculators. Any questions or points of confusion will be answered at this time. Students will compare the graphs and functions of the two previous equations. Then we x will discuss what occurs when the equation is negated. This can be written as y= (b) not y= (-b) , and will result in a reflection about the x-axis. The graph of this function will pass through (0,-1), the domain will remain the same, but the range will change to x Re<0. It is also important to mention that when a number is added or subtracted to b the graph will be translated up or down the y-axis. Also, when a number is added or subtracted to the exponent, the graph will shift up or down y-axis. In this case, the shifts will also affect where the asymptotes will occur. Finally, after examining exponential functions and their reflections about the y and x axes, we will examine irrational numbers such as and e, to show that the basic equations for exponential functions will still hold true for irrational bases.

x x -x -x x x

The lesson will contain both auditory and visual learning activities. The students will have the chance to practice recently learned material throughout the lesson and at the end as well. The students will be working on and learning exponential functions and the characteristics of their graphs. The will have previously studied graphing other types of functions. Students will also have prior knowledge dealing with negative exponents. The lesson will contain the three types of teaching methods. Students will investigate exponential functions and their graphs. The second is instruction; students will take the basic equation for exponential functions then apply it to equations with numerical values. The third is exploration; students will see that this can be used to solve the problem posed at the beginning of the lesson. They will also learn about the real-world implications of exponentials. Provision for Diversity Gearing Up There will be students who may already know some of this material from previous classes. Students who have previous knowledge might not be as enthusiastic about learning the material again. However, they will be encouraged to help their classmate understand the subject matter. Students will also be encouraged to find or look for more relationships dealing with exponential functions. This will be a great way to get the students more active in the class. These functions are used in the outside world to help compute statistics and data for companies. Students can also look at exponential functions to see how a stock maybe be altered in the future. Gearing Down There will be some material that might need some review before the students will be able to completely pull the material together. Students may need to review the Number Sense and Operation Strand dealing with negative exponents. There may be students that have trouble putting together notes, in this case the problems and the lesson will be provided for them. There may be students who are struggling or having difficulty throughout this lesson. They will be encouraged to come see me for extra help in order to get a better understanding of the material. Questions for Understanding Knowledge What is the basic equation for exponential functions? What are the definitions of asymptote, reflection? Comprehension x Create a table and graph the function y= 2 without using your calculator.

Use your calculator to check your points of the graph to see if they match. Determine what the function is doing by examining your graph. Application Write out the information concluded from the properties of the graph of the function x y= 2 . What happens to the graph and function of y= 2 when the exponent becomes negative? What happens to the graph and function when y= 2 is multiplied by a negative one? (y=1(2 ) ) What happens when it is an irrational number being graphed, such as or e? Analysis What is the relationship between exponential functions with both positive and negative exponents and their graphs in terms of transformations? What is the relationship between a positive exponential function y= 2 and a negative exponential function y= 1(2 )? Synthesis What patterns do you see among the different exponential functions and their graphs? Explain the relationships between an exponential function and its graph. How do exponential functions relate to the rules and properties of transformations? Evaluation When what kinds of real-world situations require the use of an exponential function? What is the general formula for determining whether a function is an exponential function? Practice Guided Students will work on problems in class with one another as I walk around the room to help answer any questions. Independent Students will solve problems after going over each type of exponential functions. They will also have the opportunity to do class work or start homework at the end of class.

x x x x x

Technology Integration For this lesson a projector with a TI-83 view screen will be used, along with the use of calculators. Closure To conclude, exponential functions can be used to predict increasing or decreasing increments, for a given set of data. For example, reconsider the candy question posed at the beginning. Students will be encouraged to use exponential functions in the real world. For example predicting salary, stocks and the cost of items in the future. However these are just a few ways in which students can use exponential functions. Assessment Immediate (Formative) Throughout class students will be observed to make sure that they are taking notes in their notebooks designated for this class. They will also be observed to make sure that they are completing the problems given throughout the class. If the material is either too difficult or too easy adjustments will be made to accommodate the students. Every student will be given the chance to answer questions and give solutions to problems posed during the class. The class can agree or disagree with the solutions given. The last type of assessment will be the class work/homework assignment given at the end of class. The results on these problems will allow me to give an assessment of the students understanding of the material. Long Range (Formative) Students will be given assignments that will allow them to practice these specific types of problems. All assignments will be checked for completion at the beginning of the class. Homework will be assigned to students, it will also be collected and graded and returned to the students the next day. The students understand the point value of homeworks towards their overall grade. After the students have had time to learn the material and get a strong understanding for it, there will be a quiz to assess their knowledge. However there will be review and discussion on the material before the quiz.

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