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C ond uc ting Telep hone Survey Resea rc h For the Stud ent-Op era ted Colleg e Ra d io Sta tion

Bruc e C. Klop fenstein a nd Doug la s A. Ferg uson Bow ling Green Sta te University Dep a rtm ent of Ra d io -Television-Film Bow ling Green, OH 43403 (419) 372-2138 (voic e) (419) 372-2300 (fa x) klop fenstein@b g suop ie (BITNET)

Pa p er sub m itted for p resenta tion to the NAB/ BEA Ra d io Only Conferenc e Sep tem b er 1990 Boston

Running Hea d : RADIO SURVEY

Ra d io Survey

Abstra ct Stud ent-op era ted c olleg e ra d io sta tions (esp ec ia lly a d vertiser-sup p orted ones) c a n b enefit from survey resea rc h tha t revea ls p rog ra m m ing p referenc es a nd c onsum er ha b its of p otentia l a ud ienc es. These d a ta m a y b e g a thered throug h a telep hone a ud ienc e survey a d m inistered und er the a usp ic es of a n a p p rop ria te b roa d c a sting c ourse. Broa d c a st stud ents ha ve m uc h to g a in from d irec t exp osure to the tec hnic a l a sp ec ts of survey resea rc h. This p a p er rep orts on the c rea tion a nd selec ted results of one suc h survey (n=522) a t a m id w estern university in fa ll 1989 a s a n exa m p le of the p ossib le a p p lic a tion of a p p lied resea rc h in the c olleg e ra d io sta tion environm ent.

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Introduction Most c olleg e ra d io sta tions a re not in a p osition to b enefit from c om m erc ia l a ud ienc e resea rc h suc h a s tha t p rovid ed b y Arb itron, Birc h/ Sc a rb oroug h, or c ustom m a rket resea rc hers. Yet c olleg e c om m erc ia l ra d io sta tions a nd their stud ent op era tors ha ve m uc h to g a in b y b eing a b le to inform their a d vertising c lients a b out the p urc ha sing , enterta inm e nt, soc ia l a nd m ed ia use ha b its of their p otentia l listening a ud ienc e. Even nonc om m erc ia l sta tions would b enefit from this inform a tion for b oth p rog ra m m ing a nd p rog ra m und erw riting p urp oses. These d a ta m a y b e rea d ily g a thered throug h a telep hone survey a d m inistered und er the a usp ic es of a n a p p rop ria te c ourse suc h a s a ud ienc e resea rc h, a d vertising , b roa d c a st m a rketing or b roa d c a st m a na g em ent. i This p a p er d esc rib es the d evelop m ent a nd results of one suc h survey a t a m id w estern sta te university in the fa ll of 1989. Need For a nd Utility of Re sea rch While m a ny c olleg e sta tions c a nnot exp ec t to d ra w la rg e a ud ienc es, the fina nc ia l suc c ess of c om m erc ia lly-sup p orted sta tions will b e a ffec ted b y a ud ienc e size. Bec a use m a ny stud ent-op era ted c olleg e ra d io sta tions a re d irec ted a t a c ohort a ud ienc e, stud ent p rog ra m d irec tors a nd m usic d irec tors m a y a ssum e tha t they know who listens a nd wha t their c ohort wa nt to hea r. Som e feed b a c k m a y b e ob ta ined b y telep hone req uests, b ut not a ll listeners a re eq ua lly likely to c a ll in m usic req uests. Music form a t c om p etition from a rea c om m erc ia l sta tions will a lso ha ve g rea t im p a c t on how a ny p a rtic ula r stud ent -run sta tion m a y b e p rog ra m m ed to a ttra c t m ore listeners. Just a s im p orta ntly, sta tion sa les p ersonnel need evid enc e tha t the sta tion a ud ienc e is a ttra c tive to p otentia l a d vertising c lients. As is the c a se in the off-c a m p us world , p otentia l loc a l a d vertisers m a y b e m ore ea sily p ersua d ed to b uy sp a c e in the c a m p us new sp a p er tha n to invest in the less ta ng ib le p rod uc t of the stud ent -run ra d io sta tion. While ra d io a c c ount exec utives c a n p rom ise results, resea rc h d a ta g round s the sa les p resenta tion in a m uc h m ore firm found a tion.

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From a n ed uc a tiona l p ersp ec tive, there is m uc h to b e g a ined b y c ond uc ting a ud ienc e resea rc h for a stud ent-run ra d io sta tion. C lea rly the tec hnic a l a sp ec ts of the survey resea rc h p roc ess c a n b e ta ug ht in a n a c tive wa y via a n a c tua l resea rc h p rojec t. Perha p s m ore im p orta ntly, b oth sta tion p ersonnel a nd c la ss m em b ers c a n d irec tly see the b enefits of c ustom resea rc h. This know led g e is b e ing rec og nized a s c ritic a l for those wishing to p ursue a c a reer in b roa d c a st or other m ed ia m a na g em ent (Ad a m s, 1989). They will a lso b e in a b etter p osition to b oth sp ec ify resea rc h need s a s well a s c ritic a lly a na lyze resea rc h rep orts they will enc ounter in the future. A review of rec ent b roa d c a st resea rc h litera ture revea ls tha t little a ttention ha s b een foc used on ra d io, w hile television a nd other vid eo tec hnolog ies ha ve a ttra c ted the energ ies of b roa d c a st resea rc hers. Exa m p les of survey resea rc h for stud ent-op era ted ra d io sta tions in p a rtic ula r a re not rea d ily a va ila b le, p ossib ly b ec a use of b oth the lim ited num b er of stud ies und erta ken a s well a s the d esc rip tive na ture of the d a ta a na lysis. This p a p er is one a nsw er to tha t la c k of a ttention. Resea rch Aids The ra d io p rog ra m m ing resea rc h litera ture is lim ited . Rothenb uhler (1985) stud ied the p rog ra m d ec ision m a king p roc ess a t one ra d io sta tion, a nd Fletc her (1987) c ited p a st m usic a nd ra d io resea rc h. While m ore sc hola rly ob jec tives m a y b e woven into a ra d io resea rc h p rojec t, the c a m p us sta tion m a y b e b est served b y m ore d esc rip tive ob jec tives. Wim m er a nd Dom inic k (1987) noted tha t d esc rip tive resea rc h in b roa d c a sting is useful "to d eterm ine p rog ra m m ing ta stes, c ha ng ing va lues, a nd lifestyle va ria tions tha t m ig ht a ffec t p rog ra m m ing " (p . 102). Moreover, inform a tion a b out c onsum er b eha vior of ra d io listeners c a n b e hig hly useful for m a rketing p urp oses. Wim m er a nd Dom inic k (1987) listed severa l a d va nta g es of survey resea rc h for the stud y of m a ss m ed ia : (1) b eha vior is exa m ined und er rea listic setting s, (2) the c ost is rea sona b le, a nd (3) la rg e a m ounts of d a ta c a n b e c ollec ted with rela tive ea se from a va riety of resp ond ents. The m a in d isa d va nta g e is the ina b ility to m a nip ula te va ria b les for a na lytic resea rc h. How ever, d esc rip tive

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resea rc h need p rim a rily c onc ern itself with tw o a d d ressa b le c onc erns: p rop er word ing of q uestions a nd rep resenta tive sa m p ling tec hniq ues. Using a b roa d c a st resea rc h or m a na g em ent c la ss to a d m inister a listener survey of a stud ent-op era ted ra d io sta tion c a n overc om e these d isa d va nta g es. First, the instruc tor c a n c a refully m onitor the c onstruc tion, p retesting a nd a d m inistra tion o f the q uestionna ire instrum ent. Sec ond , stud ent resid enc e ha lls (d orm itories) m a y m a ke up the entire p op ula tion of p otentia l listeners to c losed -c irc uit, c a rrier-c urrent c a m p us sta tions; w here this is the c a se, sa m p ling m a y b e q uite sim p le.ii Third , stud ent telep hone d irec tories a re usua lly rea d ily a va ila b le, a nd where d ifferent exc ha ng es a re used , on-c a m p us num b ers m a y b e ea sily d ifferentia ted from off-c a m p us num b ers. Bec a use stud ent d irec tories m a y c onta in few er unlisted o r b usiness num b ers tha n c ity d irec tories, sa m p ling m a y a lso b e m ore rep resenta tive. Telep hone resea rc h is the m ost effec tive m ea ns for

g a thering inform a tion q uic kly a nd inexp ensively from a sta tistic a lly-ra nd om sa m p le. Nonresp onse ra tes a nd the p rolifera tion of a nsw ering m a c hines, how ever, m a y p resent p rob lem s. iii This p a p er d esc rib es how one survey wa s c ond uc ted b y a n a ud ienc e resea rc h c la ss for the c losed -c irc uit c om m erc ia l sta tion a t the university. The results of the listener survey p resent a sna p shot of c olleg e stud ents' a ttitud es a nd b eha viors. Telephone Resea rch Guides

A num b er of sourc es a re a va ila b le for a ssista nc e in the b roa d c a st survey resea rc h p roc ess. In their text Ma ss Med ia Resea rc h, Wim m er a nd Dom inic k (1987) p rovid ed a wea lth of inform a tion on telep hone survey resea rc h a nd d a ta a na lysis. They ha ve exp la ined sa m p ling tec hniq ues a nd c ited interview ing tec hniq ues sug g ested b y tw o p ub lic a tions a va ila b le from the Na tiona l Assoc ia tion of Broa d c a sters: Web ster (1983) a nd Sa xton (1983). Hib er (1987) inc lud ed a c ha p ter on telep hone resea rc h for ra d io. Fletc her (1987) g a ve exa m p les of telep hone q uestionna ire item s a s well a s insig hts into ties b etw een p rog ra m a nd a ud ienc e typ es. Frey (1983) p resented d eta iled p roc ed ures a nd tec hniq ues for a ll p ha ses of the telep hone

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survey. He a d d ressed q uestionna ire c onstruc tio n, sa m p le selec tion, tra ining of interview ers, a nd d a ta a na lysis. For c la sses with m ore of a resea rc h foc us, Willia m s (1988) is

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a g ood d esc rip tion of the utility of va rious sta tistic s; b ec a use c a lc ula tions a re kep t to a m inim um , this sup p lem ent should b e less intim id a ting to the b roa d c a st stud ent. Ad a m s' (1989) text is a m ore g enera l overview of survey resea rc h m ethod s a nd rep orting . Our Ca mpus Ra dio Sta tion : "WRC K"

Throug hout this p rojec t, the c la ss a c ted a s a m a rket resea rc h firm a nd the c om m erc ia l stud ent sta tion, w hic h we will c a ll "WRC K," wa s trea ted a s a c lient. iv C la ss m em b ers were exp ec ted to lea rn a s m uc h a b out WRC K a nd its resea rc h need s a s p ossib le, a nd sta tion p ersonnel were exp ec ted to p oint the c la ss to the m ost need ed inform a tion. This a lso a llow ed b oth p a rties to lea rn even m ore a b out the c om m erc ia l resea rc h p roc ess. WRC K is a c losed -c irc uit ra d io sta tion tha t m a y b e hea rd b y AM ra d io rec eivers in m ost d orm itories via c a rrier c urrent tra nsm ission.v C a m p us d orm c a feteria s a re a lso ha rd -w ired to p la y WRC K via their loc a l p ub lic a d d ress sound system s, a nd this c a n b e a very im p orta nt sourc e of c a p tive listeners for "WRC K." Ind ivid ua l c a feteria m a na g ers (w ho a re resp onsib le for running their food servic e op era tions p rofita b ly in p a rt throug h a ttra c ting c a sh-p a ying c ustom ers) c a n a lso selec t ra d io sta tions from a n FM tuner instea d . This p la c es a further d em a nd on WRC K to p rec isely c a ter to stud ents' ta stes. WRC K ha s b een m a d e a va ila b le to a ll c a b le television sub sc rib ers in the system 's fra nc hise a rea , w hic h inc lud es the university c om m unity a nd severa l surround ing tow ns. WRC K is used a s the a ud io sup p lem ent to a sop histic a ted elec tronic c a b le p rog ra m g uid e ("Preview Guid e"), w hic h is c a rried on the c a b le system 's television c ha nnel 14. vi One key q uestion a d d ressed b y the survey is the extent to whic h stud ents a re exp osed to the ra d io sta tion via c ha n nel 14. WRC K c om p etes with ra d io sta tions from a nea rb y, m ed ium -sized m a rket whic h offers one AOR, tw o CHR, three old ie, tw o lig ht roc k, a nd other p op ula r m usic sta tions. vii The c a m p us sta tion's form a t is a n a m a lg a m of AOR, C HR, a nd c la ssic roc k form a ts, w ith freq uent p rom otiona l c ontests a nd g ive a w a ys. All m usic req uests whic h fit the form a t a re p la yed a s q uic kly a s p ossib le. The

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req uest fea ture is a ssum ed to b e one strong a d va nta g e WRC K enjoys over the other sta tions, m a ny of whic h a re either a utom a ted or p rog ra m m ed b y form a t c onsulta nts with n o room for a c tua lly resp ond ing to req uests (Rothenb uhler, 1985, review s the p rog ra m d ec ision-m a king d ec isions a t one suc h sta tion). The m ost im p orta nt a d vertising c om p etitor to WRC K is the c a m p us new sp a p er, w hic h is d istrib uted free four d a ys p er week (Tuesd a y-Frid a y). In a n effort to enha nc e sta tion a w a reness, ra ise revenues, a nd d irec tly c om p ete with the new sp a p er in p rovid ing c oup ons, WRC K p ub lishes a m onthly ra d io m a g a zine c a lled Sound Ad vic e . The m a g a zine is sent to a ll d orm itory a d d resses throug h the (free) c a m p us m a il system . The ta rg et a ud ienc e for WRC K is und erg ra d ua te stud ents a t the university. The m a jority of the und erg ra d ua te stud ent b od y is wom en (a b out 60%), a nd the va st m a jority of und erg ra d ua tes (a b out 94%) a re tra d itiona l stud ents (a g e s 18-22). WRC K exp ec ts to a ttra c t som e a rea hig h sc hool stud ents a nd university g ra d ua te stud ents a s listeners throug h the c a b le system . Resea rch Area s The survey ha d severa l a p p lied resea rc h g oa ls in m ind . Questions g enera lly foc used up on p rog ra m m ing issues a nd sa les-rela ted issues. Sp ec ific a lly, resea rc h a rea s fell into six g enera l c a teg ories: leisure -tim e a c tivities, soc ia l b eha viors, c onsum er ha b its, g enera l a ttitud es a nd b eha viors w ith reg a rd to ra d io listening , sp ec ific a ttitud es a nd b eha viors to w a rd the c a m p us sta tion, a nd d em og ra p hic inform a tion. These a rea s a re d eta iled g enera lly in the ord er in whic h they a p p ea red on the q uestionna ire whic h is a va ila b le from the a uthors. Student Leisure Activities C losed -end ed q uestions were a sked reg a rd ing the resp ond ent's a c c ess to c onsum er elec tronic s, c a b le television, a nd vid eo renta ls (inc lud ing the m ost p referred sourc e of renta ls). Resp ond ents were a sked a b out their m onthly p urc ha ses of c om p a c t d isc s, rec ord a lb um s, a nd c a ssettes. These d a ta c a n b e used to show a d vertisers how la rg e the p otentia l m a rket is for these

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p rod uc ts a s well a s g ive WRC K id ea s for p ossib le p rom otiona l g ivea w a ys. Med ia usa g e q uestions were inc lud ed so WRC K c ould g et som e id ea a b out b oth c om p etitive m ed ia outlets a nd hours listened to ra d io. Questions reg a rd ing rea d ership a nd fa vorite sec tions of the c om p etitive c a m p us new sp a p er were a sked . The survey c ollec ted resp onses of w eekly use of the ra d io for new s, w ea ther a nd sp orts to a id sta tion p rog ra m m ers. Tw o key unknow ns to WRC K were how m a ny listeners either (1) a re exp osed to the sta tion via c a b le without rea lizing it or (2) a re likely to use the television set for ra d io listening . Thus, d a ily television use wa s of interest a s a n ind ic a tion of p otentia l exp osure to WRC K. Resp ond ents were a lso a sked how often they ha d the television set on while b oth stud ying a nd d oing other a c tivities, how often they wa tc hed m usic vid eos, a nd a b out their sourc e of television p rog ra m listing s. Socia l Activities of Students Resp ond ents were a sked how often they tra veled to their hom etow ns on the weekend s; these d a ta a re useful in show ing a d vertisers how la rg e WRC K's p otentia l a ud ienc e is on weekend s a s w ell a s their a va ila b ility to p urc ha se loc a l m e rc ha nts' g ood s a nd servic es. Questions on soc ia l a c tivities d elved into the freq uenc y of "p a rtying " in g enera l, a s well a s a ttend a nc e a t the follow ing events: sp orts, p la ys, m ovies, g reek events, d a nc es, m usic rec ita ls, a nd m ovies (inc lud ing whic h thea ters were m ost p op ula r). The stud ents' sourc e of inform a tion a b out these events wa s req uested to see wha t role WRC K d id or c ould p la y in p ub lic izing or p rom oting c a m p us events. Student Consumer Ha bits Loc a l m erc ha nts c a n b e im p ressed b y d a ta show ing the sp e nd ing p otentia l of university stud ents, a nd item s a b out sp end ing ha b its were written with the m ost likely WRC K a d vertising c lients in m ind . These inc lud ed b a rs, resta ura nts, fa st food outlets, p izza p a rlors, g roc ery stores, servic e sta tions, reta il stores, a nd a rea shop p ing m a lls. Resp ond ents were a sked to ind ic a te freq uenc y of p a trona g e, a vera g e d olla rs sp ent p er visit, a nd usa g e of c oup ons a t the va rious esta b lishm ents. Resp ond ents were a sked their weekly a m ount of d isc retiona ry inc om e. Another ind ic a tion

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of stud ents' p otentia l p urc ha sing p ow er wa s the p ossession a nd use of c red it c a rd s. Resp ond ents w ere a sked whic h c red it c a rd s they ha d a nd how often they were used . Stud ents were a lso a sked a b out use of a utom a ted -teller m a c hines a s b oth a n ind ic a tio n of c a sh a c c ess a nd a sourc e of m a rket inform a tion of interest to p otentia l b a nk a d vertisers. Ra dio Attitudes a nd Listening Beha viors Resp ond ents estim a ted d a ily num b er of hours listened to ind ivid ua l ra d io sta tions. C orresp ond ing a ttitud es tow a rd those sta tions were m ea sured b a sed up on 5-p oint Likert item s (strong ly a g ree throug h strong ly d isa g ree). Sp ec ific a ttitud es inc lud ed sta tion sa tisfa c tion g enera lly, p erc eived rep etition of the sta tion's m usic , lika b ility of d isk joc keys, uniq ueness of the sta tion, the lika b ility of the m usic , a nd whether the sta tion p la yed new a rtists a nd new relea ses. Stud ents ra nked their fa vorite a nd sec ond fa vorite a rea ra d io sta tions. Bec a use a ra d io listener m ig ht only b e som ew ha t sa tisfied even b y a "fa vorite" sta tion, resp ond ents were la ter a sked to c ontra st a c tua l sta tions with their im a g ined , "id ea l" sta tion. With a fic tiona l id ea l sta tion in m ind , ea c h of the loc a l sta tions wa s ra ted on a sc a le of one (c lose to resp ond ent id ea l) to five (d ifferent from resp ond ent id ea l). Resp ond ent m usic p referenc es were sim ila rly m ea sured on va rious m usic typ es with exa m p les of typ ic a l a rtists g iven for ea c h: viii m usic of the 60s a nd 70s, c urrent hits, hea vy m eta l, m ellow , ja zz/ new a g e, reg g a e, a nd p rog ressive. Should "fa vorite" sta tions d iffer from "id ea l" sta tions, this would b e a n ind ic a tion of som e d issa tisfa c tion with a va ila b le off-c a m p us sta tions. To help the WRC K p rom otions sta ff d eterm ine the m ost a ttra c tive c ontests a nd p rizes, a ttitud es tow a rd va rious p rem ium s were m ea sured . Other sp ec ific ra d io listening b eha viors m ea sured inc lud ed c om m erc ia l a void a nc e, listening while stud ying , c a lling in song req uests, a nd c ontest p a rtic ip a tion. C a mpus Ra dio Sta tion Awa reness The survey a sked the resp ond ents to na m e the a c a m p us ra d io sta tion via una id ed rec a ll. If

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the c losed -c irc uit sta tion (WRC K) wa s na m ed , the stud ent wa s a sked how m a ny hours p er week w ere sp ent listening a long with listening to sp ec ia lty show s on WRC K. Fina lly, a n op en-end ed q uestion foc used on the stud ent's im a g e of WRC K: "Wha t d o you think of when I sa y WRC K ra d io?" Demogra phics The fina l p a rt of the survey a sked d em og ra p hic inform a tion: g end er, a g e, c la ss ra nk, a nd num b er of hours p er week sp ent working if the resp ond ent wa s em p loyed . This inform a tion wa s g a thered to see if c erta in stud ents were m ore a ttra c ted to sp ec ific sta tions or m usic form a ts. It a lso p rovid ed d a ta whic h c ould b e c ross-referenc ed with c onsum er ha b its a nd sp ec ific soc ia l b eha vior. Method A list of a ll a c tive resid enc e telep hone num b ers wa s sec ured from the university, a nd num b ers were system a tic a lly selec ted from the list. ix Bec a use the c a m p us ra d io sta tion tra d itiona lly op era ted via c a rrier-c urrent, the a ssum p tion wa s m a d e tha t m ost stud ent listeners re sid e in the d orm itories. Num b ers from off-c a m p us resp ond ents were d ra w n from a university d irec tory of stud ents, a lso using system a tic sa m p ling . Ab out one -third of the sa m p le wa s d esig ned to m ea sure off-c a m p us stud ents who c ould rec eive WRC K via the c a b le system 's elec tronic p rog ra m g uid e (c ha nnel 14); off-c a m p us stud ents without c a b le were exc lud ed from the survey, w hile a ll resid enc e ha ll loung es ha ve "free" c a b le g iving a ll d orm resid ents a c c ess to c a b le. Bec a use off -c a m p us stud ents without c a b le were exc lud ed , the results a re not rep resenta tive of the entire stud ent b od y. Pa rtic ip a nts in the survey were told tha t they were c om p leting a "survey reg a rd ing c olleg e life" a nd tha t the interview er need ed to sp ea k to a c urrent stud ent a t the loc a l universit y, loc a ted in a m id w estern tow n of 30,000 resid ents (inc lud ing stud ents). A filter q uestion wa s used to d eterm ine if the p erson who a nsw ered the p hone wa s a n em p loyee of a ra d io sta tion. Off -c a m p us resp ond ents were lim ited to those with c a b le television (w hic h p ut them in the c a m p us sta tion's p otentia l a ud ienc e). The q uestionna ire took a b out ten m inutes to a d m inister. Bec a use a b roa d c a st resea rc h c la ss wa s used to c ollec t the d a ta , there wa s c onsid era b le

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op p ortunity to tra in the interview ers in p rop er t elep hone survey tec hniq ues. Stud ents were exp osed to survey m ethod s, sa m p ling theory a nd q uestionna ire d evelop m ent in c la ss. Stud ent ra d io sta tion sta ff (the c lient) p resented p rog ra m m ing , sa les, im a g e, a nd p rom otiona l ob jec tives to the c la ss (the resea rc h c onsulta nt). Projec t g roup s then d evelop ed a p p rop ria te resea rc h q uestions follow ed b y d esig n of their ow n survey instrum ents to a d d ress those q uestions. Group q uestionna ires were review ed in c la ss a nd b y sta tion p ersonnel b efore the q uestionna ires were red uc ed to one fina l survey instrum ent b y the instruc tor. The q uestionna ire wa s p re -tested b y c la ss m em b ers whic h help ed c orrec t a ny p rob lem s with the instrum ent. Interview tra ining a nd p ra c tic e wa s a lso a p a rt of c la ss a c tivities.x The survey wa s c ond uc ted over one week in the evening from 5 p .m . to 10 p .m . Mem b ers of the fa c ulty a llow ed the use of their offic e telep hones for the survey, und er the d irec t sup ervision of the c ourse instruc tor. Stud ents were req uired to log in a nd out of the fa c ulty offic e, a nd sig ned a form ind ic a ting their a ssum p tion of resp onsib ility for use of the offic e. Fa c ulty m em b ers were enc oura g ed to sec ure their offic es a s well a s rep ort a ny p rob lem s im m ed ia tely; none oc c urred . xi Use of fa c ulty offic es p erm itted a n im p orta nt d eg ree of c entra lized c ontrol nec essa ry for c onsistent a d m inistra tion of the survey b y the 45 stud ents in the c la ss. Up to three c a ll-b a c ks were used to rea c h the sa m p led num b ers.xii There were 522 c om p leted interview s. Da ta entry wa s m a d e b y ha ving stud ents c od e the d a ta onto fa m ilia r op tic a lly-sc a nned sheets norm a lly used to rec ord a nsw ers from ob jec tive exa m s; the d a ta were then sc a nned with outp ut a va ila b le on either p ersona l c om p uter d iskette or m a infra m e ta p e . The d a ta were a na lyzed using SPSSX V4.0 with freq uenc ies first b eing c a lc ula ted . Som e c rossta b ula tions for m a rketing p urp oses a re rep orted in this p a p er, a nd others a re a va ila b le from the a uthors. A m ultip le reg ression w a s run on ra d io listening p er w eek for five of the six p red ic tors (from the fourth set of resea rc h q uestions m entioned a b ove). Results

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Nea rly 49% of the stud ents surveyed were 18 or 19 yea rs old . Ab out 55% of the resp ond ents w ere freshm en or sop hom ores. Fem a les a c c ounted for 57% of the c om p leted surveys, a nd this is sim ila r to the g end er m a ke -up of the overa ll stud ent p op ula tion. 42% of the resp ond ents held p a ying job s, a nd 44% of these workers were em p loyed fifteen or m ore hours p er week. ___________________________ Insert Ta b le 1 a b out here ___________________________

Ta b le 1 show s the p resenc e of enterta inm ent d evic es a nd servic es a m ong the resp ond ents. Over 92% of the sa m p le ha d a television set in their room s, w ith 76% c olor TV p enetra tion. Ab out 87% of the stud ents ha d a stereo a nd / or c a ssette p la yer in their room s. Both the vid eoc a ssette rec ord er a nd the c om p a c t d isc p la yer ha d a 30% p enetra tion a m ong those surveyed . Only 20% ha d c om p uters a nd 15% ha d vid eo g a m es. C a b le television p enetra tion (not inc lud ing a c c ess to d orm itory loung es) wa s 47% in the entire stud ent sa m p le (off-c a m p us stud ents ha d to ha ve c a b le to b e inc lud ed ) a s c om p a red to 67% of a sep a ra te c ity sa m p le a c c ord ing to a m ore rec ent survey, a lso a va ila b le from the a uthors. Over 21% of a ll resp ond ents sub sc rib ed to a t lea st one p a y m ovie c ha nnel, w herea s the na tiona l a vera g e is a b out 29.7% ("By the num b ers," 1990). Nea rly 61% of the stud ents c la im ed to rea d the c a m p us new sp a p er every d a y, w ith new s b eing the m ost p op ula r item (32.8%). Ra d io new s wa s tune d to reg ula rly b y a b out 28% of the resp ond ents, w ith 50% ha ving c la im ed tha t they never d id so. Over 52% never tuned to ra d io w ea ther a nd 66% never tuned to sp orts sc ores. The m ost p op ula r resp onse (23%) for the num b er of hours of TV wa tc hed d a ily wa s "b etw een tw o a nd three," a lthoug h 45% sa id they wa tc hed three or m ore hours p er d a y; nea rly 44% of the stud ents wa tc hed TV while stud ying a t lea st onc e p er week. Alm ost 60% of the sa m p le sa id they wa tc hed m usic c ha nnels (e.g ., MTV) a t lea st onc e p er week.

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Nea rly 43% of a ll resp ond ents sa id they tuned to Ca b le Cha nnel 14 oc c a siona lly, w ith a b out 22% c onfirm ing d a ily use. When non-sub sc rib ers to c a b le were d eleted from the resp onses, the p erc enta g e of d a ily users c lim b ed to 42% of c a b le sub sc rib ers. Over 67% of the c a b le sub sc rib ers rep orted using Ca b le Cha nnel 14 a t lea st onc e p er week. ___________________________ Insert Ta b le 2 a b out here ___________________________

Persona l soc ia l ha b its a re sum m a rized in Ta b le 2. Alm ost 40% of the stud ents sa id they g o hom e onc e a m onth. Of the 46% who went out to loc a l b a rs every week, 21% went tw o or three tim es a week a nd 22% went onc e p er week. Fully 89% of the resp ond ents who knew a b out tw o non-a lc oholic b a rs on c a m p us sa id they ha d never visited either of them . Sp orts events were very p op ula r (82%), m ovies som ew ha t p op ula r (42%), Greek events less so (32%), a nd only 20% a ttend ed a t lea st one p la y, rec ita l, or d a nc e tha t sem ester. The m a in sourc e of inform a tion on soc ia l events w a s the c a m p us new sp a p er (66%), follow ed b y word -of-m outh (35%) a nd flyers or sig ns (15%). ___________________________ Insert Ta b le 3 a b out here ___________________________

Not surp rising ly, b ec a use freshm a n a nd sop hom ores a re housed in d orm itories, ha lf of the stud ents sa id they ea t on c a m p us every d a y. Nea rly 53% d id not know wha t ra d io sta tion wa s b eing p la yed m ost often in their c a feteria . Over 60% a te a t a c a sua l (sit -d ow n) resta ura nt in the p revious m onth, w ith 80% sp end ing und er $19 p er visit. Over 68% sa id they a te a t a fa st food resta ura nt the p revious week; the m ost p op ula r suc h resta ura nt wa s Mc Dona ld 's (45%), p erha p s b ec a use it wa s c losest to m ost of the d orm ito ries. Less tha n 36% thoug ht c oup ons were im p orta nt or very im p orta nt for c hoosing where to g o for fa st food , w herea s 66% sa id they d id a ffec t where they c a lled for

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d elivered food . Alm ost 35% of the stud ents ha d c a lled out "onc e or tw ic e" the p revious m on th for food d elivery. Som e loc a l sup erm a rkets offer "d oub le c oup ons" a nd this a p p ea rs to b e im p orta nt a s 28% view ed g roc ery c oup ons a s im p orta nt in their c hoic e of where to shop . Just und er 54% of the stud ents ha d a n a utom ob ile in tow n, w hic h m a y exp la in w hy few er tha n ha lf of them shop p ed a t out -of-tow n m a lls (g ood new s for loc a l m erc ha nts). Ab out 45% ha d a t lea st one m a jor c red it c a rd ; of those, a b out 24% used one less tha n onc e a m onth, 33% onc e or tw ic e a m onth a nd 44% three or m ore tim es a m onth. Three out of four stud ents ha d und er $30 p er w eek of sp end ing m oney, w ith 30% b etw een $20 a nd $29 a nd 27% b etw een $10 a nd $19. Ab out 58% p a id to see a n off-c a m p us m ovie a t lea st onc e p er m onth. ___________________________ Insert Ta b le 4 a b out here ___________________________

Ta b le 4 sum m a rizes the find ing s c onc erning ra d io listening ha b its. Nea rly 84% never listen to AM ra d io over a week's tim e. When a sked how m a ny hours in a n a vera g e d a y they listened to the ra d io, m ore tha n 64% estim a ted und er thre e hours, w ith "one to tw o hours" the m ost p op ula r resp onse (25%). C lose to 49% of the stud ents "reg ula rly" a void ed c om m erc ia ls, w herea s nea rly 60% listened to the ra d io while stud ying . Over 80% of the sa m p le "never" c a lled in song req uests a nd 79% "never" p la yed ra d io c ontests. When a sked to id entify their fa vorite a nd sec ond fa vorite sta tions, three FM sta tions em erg ed a s d om ina nt, a c c ounting for nea rly 84% of the resp onses. The three top sta tions were ra nked on severa l item s: freq uenc y of listening , p erc enta g e of first p la c e ra nking , sec ond p la c e ra nking , g enera l sa tisfa c tion, rep etitive m usic , likea b le d isk joc keys, uniq ueness, likea b le m usic , a nd a ttention to new a rtists a nd new relea ses. These three sta tions b roa d c a st from the m ed ium m a rket loc a ted 20 m iles a w a y. The a lb um -oriented roc k sta tion, na m ed "WAOR" here, fea tures a long -sta nd ing , suc c essful, na tiona lly-c onsulted AOR form a t. The

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tw o other top sta tions a re b oth hig h energ y c ontem p ora ry hit ra d io sta tions, a nd a re la b elled "WC HR-1" a nd "WC HR-2." The m ost im p orta nt d ifferenc e b etw een these tw o very sim ila r sta tions is tha t WC HR-2 ha d c ha ng ed its form a t from a m ore a d ult c ontem p ora ry sound severa l m onths ea rlier in d irec t resp onse to WC HR-1's hig hly suc c essful form a t. WAOR ha d the la rg est seg m ent of self-d esc rib ed d a ily listeners (35%). Over 66% sa id they listened onc e a week or m ore. Only a b out 22% felt tha t the m usic on WAOR wa s rep etitive. More tha n 82% of the stud ents liked the d isk joc keys on WAOR. WC HR-1 ha d the sec ond la rg est g roup of d a ily listeners (31%). Over 65% sa id they listened onc e a week or m ore. In c ontra st to their b eliefs a b out WAOR, stud ents a g reed tha t m usic on WC HR-1 wa s rep etitive (73%). Nea rly 74% of those surveyed liked the d isk joc keys on WC HR-1. WC HR-2 ha d the third la rg est p erc enta g e of d a ily listeners (25%). Over 62% sa id they listened onc e a week or m ore. Around 70%, slig htly less tha n WC HR-1, felt tha t the m usic on WC HR-2 w a s rep etitive. Slig htly few er stud ents (65%) liked the d isk joc keys on WC HR-2 tha n on WC HR-1. When a sked a b out their "id ea l" ra d io sta tion, the resp ond ents va lid a ted the ra nking of the top three sta tions. The five -p oint sc a le m ea sured how c lose e a c h sta ion wa s to the resp ond ents' id ea l sta tion with 1, 3 a nd 5 resp resenting "c lose," "neither," a nd "d ifferent," resp ec tively. Using the a g g reg a te of va lues 1 a nd 2 to m ea sure a p erson's sup p ort for a sta tion, WAOR ha d over 40% of the stud ents' sup p ort, WC HR-1 ha d over 31%, a nd WC HR-2 ha d c lose to 25% of the sc a led resp onses (n=503). These three sta tions c lea rly a re the sta tions of c hoic e for university stud ents. A less d irec t m ethod of c ross-va lid a ting the ra nking s involved a selec tive freq uenc y p roc ess. Selec ting out only those resp ond ents who ha d m entioned a set of c a ll letters a s their "fa vorite" sta tion ea rlier in the survey, 74% of the sup p ort went to WAOR, 72% to WC HR-1 a nd 74% to WC HR-2. How ever, w hen "sup p ort" wa s m ore na rrow ly d efined a s a c loseness va lue of 1, only 23%, 28% a nd 21% of the resp ond ents na m ed their fa vorite sta tion (WAOR, WC HR-1 or WC HR-2) a s their id ea l sta tion, resp ec tively.

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___________________________ Insert Ta b le 5 a b out here ___________________________

A m ultip le reg ression wa s run to p red ic t the num b er of hours p er week in whic h listening wa s rep orted (see Ta b le 5). The ind ep end ent va ria b les were the five Likert item s d esc rib ing ea c h of the three sta tions a s rep orted a b ove. The resp onses g a ug ing sa tisfa c tion a nd lika b ility of m usic were hyp othesized to b est p red ic t hours of listening . Both va ria b les were interc orrela ted a t a b out 67%, how ever, m a king it nec essa ry to d elete sa tisfa c tion a s a p red ic tor of d a ily listening . Althoug h the ind ep end ent va ria b les d id not exp la in m uc h of the va ria nc e a m ong the tota l listening for ea c h sta tion, a c oup le of the sta tions were sig nific a ntly a ffec ted b y the lika b ility of d isk joc keys, a fter c ontrolling for lika b ility of the m usic p la yed . WAOR, for exa m p le, show ed sig nific a nt (p < .05) inc rem ent to R2 for lika b ility of DJs over a nd a b ove the va ria nc e exp la ined b y lika b ility of m usic . __________________________________ Insert Ta b les 6 a nd 7 a b out here __________________________________

WAOR wa s m ost often ra nked a s fa vorite sta tion (41%), w herea s WC HR-1 a nd WC HR-2 tied for sec ond -p la c e sta tion (31% ea c h). WRC K wa s ra nked first a nd sec ond p la c e b y only a b out 1% a nd 3%, resp ec tively. Using a n una id ed rec a ll item , WRC K wa s id entified b y nea rly 35% of the stud ents a s b eing a c a m p us sta tion. Of the 19% who listened to WRC K, m ost (56%) estim a ted their listening a t just one hour p er week. All resp ond ents were a sked d irec tly a b out their im a g e of WRC K w hether they listened or not (see Ta b le 7). Asid e from the 29% who resp ond ed tha t they ha d no thoug hts a b out the sta tion, 17% sa id they liked it, 11% thoug ht it a m a teurish, a nd 42.6% m entioned others resp onses. There wa s a lso evid enc e of c onfusion with the university's FM b roa d c a st stud ent sta tion whic h fea tures a n ec lec tic a nd p rog ressive form a t.

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___________________________ Insert Ta b le 8 a b out here ___________________________

Ta b le 8 sum m a rizes m usic listening p referenc es of the stud ents. Overa ll m usic p referenc es ("m ost fa vorite") were e q ua lly sp lit (24% ea c h) b etw een c urrent p op ula r hit song s a nd m usic from the 1960s a nd 1970s. The "lea st fa vorite" or "not fa vorite" m usic c a teg ories were hea vy m eta l (60%), p rog ressive (55%), reg g a e (50%), a nd ja zz (48%). __________________________________ Insert Ta b les 9 a nd 10 a b out here __________________________________

Further a na lysis revea led m usic p referenc es b y resp ond ent a g e. A one -w a y a na lysis of va ria nc e wa s em p loyed to test for these d ifferenc es. As seen in Ta b le 9, d ifferenc es d id exist. Old er resp ond ents a p p ea red to like 60s/ 70s a nd ja zz/ new a g e m usic m ore b ut p op ula r m usic less tha n young er resp ond ents. Ta b le 10 ind ic a tes g end er d ifferenc es in ra nking s of the m usic c a teg ories. Men ra nked 60s/ 70s m usic a nd hea vy m eta l hig her tha n w om en (a lthoug h hea vy m eta l wa s not p op ula r a m ong either g end er), w herea s wom en ra nked p op ula r hits a nd soft roc k hig her tha n m en. Pop ula r m usic p rod uc ed the la rg est g end er d ifferenc e in m usic p referenc es (F=48.0, p < .01). ___________________________ Insert Ta b le 11 a b out here ___________________________

Ta b le 11 c ontinues the investig a tion b y exa m ining the three top sta tions in the nea rb y m a rket. WAOR is c lea rly m ore p op ula r with old er stud ents in this sa m p le wherea s the c onverse is

true for WC HR-2. Althoug h WC HR-1 a nd WC HR-2 m a y ob jec tively seem to ha ve very sim ila r form a ts,

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WC HR-2 c ha ng ed form a ts only a few m onths p rior to the survey. Thus, old er resp ond ents m ig ht ha ve b a sed their ra nking s m ore on the esta b lished p erc ep tion of the sta tions form er form a t. Discussion a nd Implica tions The results of this survey c a n b e p ut to use b y WRC K. Althoug h the c a m p us sta tion listening w a s lim ited , there is evid enc e tha t stud ents m ig ht tune into WRC K's p rog ra m m ing if p otentia l a ud ienc e m em b ers a re m a d e a w a re of the sta tion. WRC K c a n b uild up on the overa ll p op ula rity of ra d io listening b y c om p eting for a sig nific a nt sha re of the la rg e ra d io listening p ie. WRC K is neither a n AOR form a t nor a CHR form a t entirely. By c om b ining these tw o form a ts, w hic h a p p a rently a p p ea l to tw o d ifferent a ud ienc es, WRC K m a y not b e p rec isely ta rg eting the c olleg e a ud ienc e. Ra d io ha b its in this stud y c onfirm ed a na tiona l trend : few er a nd few er p eop le a re listening to AM ra d io. Bec a use c a m p us sta tions using c a rrier-c urrent tec hnolog y a re a lw a ys on the AM b a nd , this d oes not b od e well for sta tions like WRC K. If stud ents a re som ehow c ond itioned to a void AM ra d io b efore they a rrive a t c olleg e, there is little hop e for g row th in listening a t suc h c a m p us sta tions. How ever, others m a y a rg ue tha t c om p elling p rog ra m m ing would a ttra c t a n a u d ienc e. The low a w a reness of WRC K is a key p rob lem , a nd the a ssoc ia tion with AM is not a p erc ep tua l a sset. Ironic a lly, stud ent op era tors of WRC K a re reluc ta nt to g ive up on the AM sig na l whic h, in their view , a t lea st m a kes the sta tion a va ila b le to a ll d orm room s. Evid enc e from this survey, how ever, is a ssisting the fa c ulty a d visor in c onvinc ing WRC K p ersonnel tha t a sw itc h to c a b le FM stereo c a rria g e is c ritic a l. The utility of c a b le FM is lim ited tod a y a s b oth a w a reness of its a va ila b ility a nd p rom otion of the servic e b y c a b le op era tors is very lim ited . xiii The c a rria g e of WRC K on the c a b le p rog ra m g uid e a p p ea rs to b e a sub sta ntia l a sset to the sta tion's rea c h. Althoug h sta tion p ersonnel were d ub ious a b out the p ossib ility of sig nific a nt list ening to WRC K b y exp osure to c a b le c ha nnel 14, the results show ed d a ily exp osure a m ong c a b le sub sc rib ers. WRC K is in a p osition to ta ke a d va nta g e of this exp osure b y introd uc ing stud ents to the sta tion's p rog ra m m ing a nd p rom otiona l a c tivities.

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New s on ra d io g enera lly wa s not d esired b y m ost stud ents. Althoug h the la c k on interest in new s from stud ents wa s not surp rising , the exp la na tion c ould lie in the rea d y a va ila b ility of new s from other sourc es suc h a s CNN a nd USA Tod a y, a lthoug h evid enc e is b uild ing tha t tod a y's stud ents a re not interested in c urrent a ffa irs. The sta tion's resp onse to this find ing ha s b een to inc rea se the rep orting of "c a m p us inform a tion" a nd a c tivities d uring new sc a sts while red uc ing the a m ount of sta te a nd na tiona l new s ta ken from the wire servic e. Another id ea for the c a m p us sta tion is to loc a lize sta te a nd na tiona l new s b y g etting rea c tions from loc a l p rofessors a nd c onc entra ting on stories with d irec t im p a c t on stud ents. If the sta tion b ec om es know n a s the sourc e for im p orta nt c a m p us inform a tion, it will ha ve a n a d va nta g e over the m etrop olita n sta tions loc a ted 20 m iles a w a y. Jud g ing from the eva lua tions of the fa vorite sta tions m entioned in this survey, c olleg e -a g e listeners wa nt a va riety of m usic a nd p ersona b le d isk joc keys. A p erc eived wea kness of the top three (esp ec ia lly CHR) c om m erc ia l sta tions is the p erc ep tion tha t they a re rep etitive. The c a m p us sta tion c a n ta ke a d va nta g e of this p erc eived wea kness b y p rom oting its g rea ter va riety of m usic m a d e p ossib le b y b oth its c rossover AOR/ C HR form a t a s well a s its p la ying req uests. The fa c t tha t the resp ond ent's fa vorite sta tion wa s often not c lose to a p erc eived "id ea l" sta tion m ea ns tha t WRC K p rog ra m m ers c a n a ttem p t to p osition the sta tion c loser to tha t id ea l, a nd tha t sa le s sta ff m em b ers c a n show existing ra d io a d vertisers the d ifferenc e. The p op ula rity of m usic from the 1960s a nd 1970s wa s som ew ha t surp rising . Althoug h WAOR p rovid es m usic from the era , the p la ylist is g enera lly lim ited to c la ssic roc k sta nd a rd s. These results w ere inc orp ora ted into the c a m p us sta tion's p rog ra m p la nning , a nd the m usic d irec tor ha s step p ed up efforts to retrieve this old er m usic , now a va ila b le on c om p a c t d isks, from va rious rec ord la b els. The find ing tha t ha ving lika b le DJs sig nific a ntly a d d s to the p red ic tion of the q ua ntity of listening to the num b er-one ra d io sta tion would ind ic a te tha t m usic is only a p a rt of the form ula for a suc c essful form a t. The sa m e result wa s not sta tistic a lly sig nific a nt for the id ea of rep etition.

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Freq uent c ha nnel sw itc hing m a y b e a result of the tend a nc y of c om m erc ia l sta tions to p la y the sa m e song s rep ea ted ly. Mea suring other va ria b les whic h m a y c ontrib ute to the p red ic tion of ra d io listening c ould b e enlig htening . The d a ta c ollec ted in this survey a re va lua b le for m a rketing p urp oses. The sta tion sa les sta ff c a n b uild a p rofile of its p otentia l a ud ienc e a nd their sp end ing , c onsum p tion, a nd m ed ia ha b its. Som e a d vertisers m a y find these d a ta to b e a s m uc h of va lue a s the help p rovid ed b y the sta tion throug h a d vertising a nd other p rom otiona l a c tivities. These d a ta a re not rea d ily a va ila b le esp ec ia lly in the sm a ller c olleg e tow n. Reg a rd less of the interp reta tion of the d a ta , there a re c lea r b enefits to c ond uc ting resea rc h for the stud ent-op era ted c a m p us ra d io sta tion. The p rog ra m m ing a nd sa les sta ff rec eive useful inform a tion. The m a na g em ent c a n g et id ea s a b out wha t need s to b e d one to inc rea se listening . La st a nd c erta inly not lea st, the resea rc h c la ss g ets a c ha nc e to d o a "rea l survey" whic h p rovid es m ore m ea ning ful d a ta . Often the sa m e stud ents who d o the resea rc h a re involved with the sta tions. Som etim es they lea rn tha t there is m ore to ra d io tha n the hig hly visib le on a ir p ositions. A telep hone survey c a n q uic kly c rea te la rg e a m ounts of useful info rm a tion. Prob lem s in g a thering inform a tion in this stud y were kep t to a m inim um d ue to the sup ervision of the stud ent interview ers from a c entra l loc a tion. Althoug h it m a y seem ea sier to a llow stud ents in a b roa d c a st resea rc h c la ss to c ond uc t their telep hone surveys from their resid enc es, the effic ienc y, relia b ility a nd va lid ity of the d a ta c ollec tion a re g rea ter from the c entra l loc a tion (Wim m er & Dom inic k, 1987). Ga thering c ustom resea rc h d a ta for the a d vertiser-sup p orted c olleg e sta tion is m ore im p orta nt tod a y tha n ever. C om p etition for loc a l a d vertising d olla rs is inc rea sing a s loc a l c a b le system s m ove into p rovid ing inexp ensive, loc a lized vid eo a d s inserted into c a b le netw ork a va ils. "Prop rieta ry" resea rc h c ond uc ted for the c a m p us sta tion g ives tha t sta tion m ore a m m unition for its m a rketing a rsena l.

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There is a need for m ore rep orting on suc h c a se stud ies of listener surveys. C a m p us ra d io listening surveys serve to ed uc a te those who op era te or sup ervise c olleg e ra d io sta tions. Given p rop er a d m inistra tive c ontrols, suc h work m a y a lso b e used to c ontrib ute to serious sc hola rly stud y. Pa rt of the need stem s from a d esire to help stud ents find their ow n a nsw ers. Another a im is to find b etter wa ys to help them a c c om p lish their g oa ls.

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Endnotes i. Even in sm a ller p rog ra m s w here the num b er of b roa d c a st c la sses m a y b e lim ited , stud ents m a y b e tra ined a s interview ers. Ind eed , m a ny tec hniq ues for b roa d c a st a nnounc ing a re a p p lic a b le to telep hone interview tra ining . ii. Perm ission w a s req uired from our university's resid enc e life d irec tor to c ond uc t this survey, a nd this w a s rea d ily g iven to us. The m a in c onc ern wa s tha t our survey wa s not intend ed to sell resid ents a ny p rod uc t or servic e, a nd tha t the survey wa s for re sea rc h p urp oses. iii. Another survey c ond uc ted b y one of the a uthors in the sp ring of 1990 found tha t a nsw ering m a c hines a c c ounted for 28% of non-c om p letions from c onta c ted , elig ib le telep hone num b ers. iv. The university ha s tw o c a m p us ra d io sta tions tha t a re b oth stud ent op era ted . The one not inc lud ed in this stud y is a non-c om m erc ia l, p rog ressive sta tion whic h rec eives university fund ing . v. This c a m p us ra d io sta tion w ill not b e a b le to d ep end up on its c a rrier c urrent tra nsm ission m uc h long er. The va c uum tub e -b a sed tra nsm itters a re not exp ec ted to b e rep la c ed . Instea d , the sta tion w ill b e up g ra d ed to full stereo tra nsm ission c a p a b ility over the c a b le television system 's c a b le FM servic e. The university a lso houses a nonc om m erc ia l, p rog re ssive m usic , b roa d c a st FM sta tion, further red uc ing the a lrea d y slim c ha nc es of g etting a b roa d c a st lic ense for the c a rrier-c urrent sta tion. Should c a b le system s c hoose to b oth d eliver a nd p rom ote new "d ig ita l" a ud io servic es, this unta p p ed m ed ium m a y b ec om e a via b le m ed ium for d istrib ution of c a m p us ra d io p rog ra m m ing . vi . Althoug h rela tions b etw een the c a m p us sta tion a nd the loc a l c a b le op era tor ha ve b een exc ellent, the d istrib ution of WRC K on c ha nnel 14 w a s inc lud ed in the c ontra c t w hic h a llow ed the c a b le op era tor to offer servic e to d orm itory resid ents a long w ith fra ternity a nd sorority houses on c a m p us. vii. The university a lso ha s a stud ent -run FM b roa d c a st sta tion w ith a p rog ressive form a t; resea rc h c ond uc ted in 1985 sug g ested som e c onfusion a m ong c a m p us resid ents in d isting uishing the id entity of the 2 sta tions. viii. While this c a n lea d to p ossib le va lid ity p rob lem s, a rtists w ere c hosen w hic h the 45 c la ss m em b ers a g reed w ere ind ic a tive of the m usic c a teg ories. These a rtists w ere a lso p a rt of the p retest of the survey instrum ent. ix. This w a s only p ossib le throug h w ritten a ssura nc e tha t the survey w a s for resea rc h p urp oses a nd resp onses w ould b e kep t a nonym ous. Som e c a m p uses m a y not b e a s c oop era tive in g iving out resid enc e num b ers. x. Interesting ly, stud ents were orig ina lly q uite skep tic a l of the resp ond ents' w illing ness to p a rtic ip a te in a 10-m inute survey. Bec a use survey term ina tions w ere not a p rob lem , stud ents lea rned tha t telep hone surveys m a y b e m ore va lid tha n they orig ina lly b elieved . xi. This survey w a s so suc c essful tha t a nother survey using the sa m e p roc ed ure w a s c ond uc ted in the sp ring 1990. Only one fa c ulty m em b er refused use of a n offic e d ue to a n a p p a rent theft w hic h ha d oc c urred the p revious yea r (not d uring a telep hone survey). In p rog ra m s w here g ra d ua te stud ents

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a re a va ila b le, they m a y a ssist in the a d m inistra tion (a nd other a rea s) of the survey. xii . An oversig ht in the d esig n of this instrum ent w a s the exc lusion of a q uestion c onc erning resp ond ent use of a telep hone a nsw ering m a c hine. The p rolifera tion of these d evic es a long w ith their utility a s a sc reening d evic e is ha ving serious im p lic a tions for telep hone survey resea rc h. Stra teg ies m ust b e c rea ted to enc oura g e p a rtic ip a tion b y those w ho c hoose not to ta ke c a lls until they know who is c a lling . xiii. The a va ila b ility of "d ig ita l ra d io sta tions" on c a b le FM m a y m a ke this neg lec ted m ed ium m ore a p p ea ling to c a b le sub sc rib ers (e.g ., Ca rter a nd Kob b , 1990). Ha rm on (1989) d eta iled the p rob lem s of c a b le FM from b oth the sub sc rib er a nd c a b le op era tor's p oint of view .

Ra d io Survey

References Ad a m s, R. C . (1989). Socia l Survey Methods for Ma ss Media Resea rch. Hillsd a le, New Jersey: La w renc e Erlb a um Assoc ia tes. By the num b ers 2. (1990, June 15). Broa dca sting, p . 15. C a rter, A., & Kob b , B. (1990, June 13). Tw o file for d ig ita l ra d io. Ra dioWorld, p p . 1, 7. Fletc her, J. E. (1987). Music & Progra m Resea rch. Wa shing ton, D.C.: Na tiona l Assoc ia tion of Broa d c a sters. Frey, J. H. (1983). Survey Resea rch by Telephone . Beverly Hills, C a lifornia : Sa g e Pub lic a tions. Ha rm on, J. (1989). A study of diffusion theory a nd ca ble a udio. Unp ub lished m a sters thesis, Bow ling Green Sta te University, Bow ling Green, Ohio. Rothenb uhler, E. W. (1985). Prog ra m m ing d ec ision m a king in p op ula r m usic ra d io. C ommunica tion Resea rch, 12(2), 209-232. Sa xton, J. (1983). Audience resea rch workbook. Wa shing ton, D.C.: Na tiona l Assoc ia tion of Broa d c a sters. Willia m s, F. (1986). Rea soning with sta tistics: How to rea d qua ntita tive resea rch. New York: CBS C olleg e Pub lishing . Web ster, J. (1983). Audience resea rch. Wa shing ton, D.C.: Na tiona l Assoc ia tion of Broa d c a sters. Wim m er, R.D., & Dom inic k, J.R. (1987). Ma ss Media Resea rch. Belm ont, C A: Wa d sw orth.

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Ta b le 1 Pre se nc e o f e nte rta inme nt d e vic e s a nd se rvic e s a mo ng c o lle g e stud e nts (n=522) __________________________________________________________________________________ De vic e o r Se rvic e Pe rc e nta g e

__________________________________________________________________________________ Te le visio n Bla c k a nd White Co lo r Ste re o Re c e ive r Aud io Ca sse tte Pla ye r VCR Co mp a c t Disc Pla ye r Pe rso na l Co mp ute r Vid e o Ga me s Ca b le TV Pa y Cha nne ls Ca mp us ne w sp a p e r (d a ily) Ra d io ne w s w e a the r sp o rts TV (d a ily) (d a ily) (d a ily) 22.7 21.6 21.3 60.8 27.6 29.3 10.6 20.4 15.0 47.1 92.1 33.0 76.4 86.8 87.9 29.7 30.4

(tw o to thre e ho urs d a ily) (d a ily)

Ch. 14 e xp o sure

__________________________________________________________________________________

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Ta b le 2 Pe rso na l so c ia l ha b its a mo ng c o lle g e stud e nts (n=522) __________________________________________________________________________________ Ac tivity Pe rc e nta g e

__________________________________________________________________________________ Trip s ho me (mo nthly) Ba r visits (w e e kly o r mo re ) Onc e a w e e k 2 to 3 time s p e r w e e k Visits to no n-a lc o ho lic b a rs Sp o rts Mo vie s Gre e k e ve nts Da nc e s Pla ys Music re c ita ls 19.5 42.7 31.7 18.5 19.1 11.5 82.1 39.7 46.5 22.0 21.4

__________________________________________________________________________________

So urc e o f info rma tio n __________________________________________________________________________________ Ca mp us ne w sp a p e r Frie nd s Flye rs 66.1 35.5 15.1

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Ta b le 3 Ea ting a nd fina nc ia l tra nsa c tio ns a mo ng c o lle g e stud e nts (n=522) __________________________________________________________________________________ Ac tivity Pe rc e nta g e

__________________________________________________________________________________ Ca fe te ria a tte nd a nc e (d a ily) Ca sua l re sta ura nt (mo nthly) Sp e nd le ss tha n $19 Fa st fo o d (w e e kly) Fo o d d e live ry (mo nthly) Onc e o r tw ic e mo nthly 60.3 79.9 68.2 54.6 34.8 49.3

__________________________________________________________________________________ Fina nc e s Pe rc e nta g e

__________________________________________________________________________________ At le a st o ne ma jo r c re d it c a rd Sp e nd ing mo ne y (w e e kly) Le ss tha n $10 $10-19 $20-29 $30-39 $40-49 $50 o r mo re Pa id mo vie a tte nd a nc e (mo nthly) 58.7 19.2 27.4 30.0 8.6 6.0 8.8 45.4

__________________________________________________________________________________

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Ta b le 4 Ra d io liste ning ha b its a mo ng c o lle g e stud e nts __________________________________________________________________________________ Ac tivity Pe rc e nta g e

__________________________________________________________________________________ AM ra d io (o nc e in a w hile ) Ra d io ho urs p e r d a y Le ss tha n o ne ho ur 1 to 2 ho urs 2 to 3 ho urs 3 to 4 ho urs 4 o r mo re Co mme rc ia l a vo id a nc e Ca ll-in re q ue sts Pla y c o nte sts 21.0 18.0 25.0 21.4 13.0 22.6 49.2 19.9 16.4

__________________________________________________________________________________ Sta tio n Da ily Liste ne rs To o Re p e titive Lika b le Disk Jo c ke ys (%) n=500 (%) n=355 (%) n=343 __________________________________________________________________________________ WAOR WCHR-1 WCHR-2 35.0 31.2 24.7 21.9 73.0 70.4 82.2 73.6 64.9

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Ta b le 5 Multip le re g re ssio n o f ra d io sta tio n a ttrib ute s o n ho urs o f liste ning __________________________________________________________________________________ WAOR De p e nd e nt va ria b le : WAOR liste ning e a c h w e e k (six-p o int sc a le ) SD = 2.10

M = 2.71

Ste p 1 Ste p 2

Lika b ility o f Music Lika b ility o f DJs N = 338

R2 = .122 F = 46.90 R2 = .134 F = 26.08

R2 c ha ng e = .012 F c ha ng e = 4.74 Sig nific a nc e o f c ha ng e = 0.03

__________________________________________________________________________________ No te :The six-p o int sc a le use d 1=d a ily a nd 6=ne ve r. WCHR-1 a nd WCHR-2 d id no t ha ve va ria b le s w hic h w e re p o sitive ly re la te d to w e e kly liste ning .

Ra d io Survey

Ta b le 6 Ra d io sta tio n ra nking s a mo ng c o lle g e stud e nts __________________________________________________________________________________ Sta tio n First p la c e (n=481) Se c o nd p la c e (n=436)

__________________________________________________________________________________ WAOR WCHR-1 WCHR-2 WRCK 40.5 28.1 15.2 1.2 16.5 31.2 31.2 0.0

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Ta b le 7 Attitud e s to w a rd the c a mp us sta tio n

Wha t d o yo u think o f w he n I sa y "WRCK" ra d io ?

(N=508)

__________________________________________________________________________________ Attitud e Pe rc e nta g e

__________________________________________________________________________________ Clue le ss Like it Ama te ur Ta lk/ Ne w s/ Sp o rts Co nte mp o ra ry hit ra d io AM Po o r re c e p tio n Othe r 25.8 6.3 2.0 0.8 29.3 17.3 10.8 7.7

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Ta b le 8 Music p re fe re nc e s a mo ng c o lle g e stud e nts (n=515) __________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Mo stFa vo rite Ne utra l No t Le a st fa vo rite fa vo rite ________________________________________________________ Fo rma t Pe rc e nta g e

__________________________________________________________________________________ 60s/ 70s music Po p ula r hits He a vy me ta l So ft ro c k Ja zz/ ne w a g e Re g g a e Pro g re ssive 7.4 10.1 7.6 7.0 12.2 24.3 24.1 31.1 29.9 15.5 34.8 16.8 19.2 14.9 24.7 21.6 16.7 29.8 27.3 24.0 18.2 13.8 12.2 18.1 18.7 28.3 22.9 23.9 6.2 12.2 42.3 6.6 20.1 26.9 30.8

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Ta b le 9 Me a n Sc o re s fo r Music Fo rma ts b y Ag e __________________________________________________________________________________ Ag e __________________________________________________________________________________

Music Fo rma t 60s/ 70s music Po p ula r hits He a vy me ta l So ft ro c k Ja zz/ ne w a g e Re g g a e Pro g re ssive n=

18 2.70A 2.27A 3.55A 2.70ABC 3.59A 3.41ABC 3.54A 515

19 2.65A 2.44A 3.61A 2.83ABC 3.52A 3.56B 3.54A 515

20 2.38AB 2.66A 3.77A 2.97B 3.48A 3.54ABC 3.54A 515

21 2.32AB 2.64A 3.83A 2.52C 3.29A 3.54ABC 3.58A 515

22 2.06B 3.19B 4.01A 2.77ABC 2.80B 3.07C 3.08A 515

F 4.92** 6.92** 1.84 2.17 6.50** 2.18 1.92

__________________________________________________________________________________ No te :Ce ll e ntrie s a re me a n sc o re s b a se d o n music p re fe re nc e ra ng ng fro m 1=mo st fa vo rite to 5=le a st fa vo rite . In e a c h ro w , me a ns c o d e d w ith a sa me le tte r d o no t d iffe r sig nific a ntly a t the p <.05 le ve l, b a se d o n a Tuke y/ Kra me r te st. F-te sts re sult fro m o ne -w a y a na lyse s o f va ria nc e a mo ng the five g ro up me a ns fo r e a c h va ria b le . *p <.05; **p < .01

Ra d io Survey

Ta b le 10 Me a n Sc o re s fo r Music Fo rma ts b y Ge nd e r __________________________________________________________________________________ Ge nd e r __________________________________________________________________________________ Music Fo rma t 60s/ 70s music Po p ula r hits He a vy me ta l So ft ro c k Ja zz/ ne w a g e Re g g a e Pro g re ssive n= Ma le 2.24 3.04 3.51 2.90 3.31 3.48 3.45 510 Fe ma le 2.63 2.26 3.88 2.67 3.40 3.43 3.47 510 F 13.50** 48.00** 10.04** 5.51* 0.60 0.17 0.02

__________________________________________________________________________________ No te :Ce ll e ntrie s a re me a n sc o re s b a se d o n music p re fe re nc e ra ng ng fro m 1=mo st fa vo rite to 5=le a st fa vo rite . F-te sts re sult fro m o ne -w a y a na lyse s o f va ria nc e a mo ng the tw o g ro up me a ns fo r e a c h va ria b le . *p <.05; **p < .01

Ra d io Survey

Table 11 Association Between Favorite Station and Age "What is your favorite radio station in this area?"

Age 12.2%

Station 18

19 20 n=105 n=105 n=75 26.1% 26.1%

n=69 18.6%

21 22+ n=49 17.1%

WAOR WCHR-1 WCHR-2

35.2% 38.1% 26.7%

40.0% 35.2% 24.8%

56.0% 36.0% 8.0%

60.9% 24.6% 14.5%

65.3% 28.6% 6.1% 29.59***

Association Between Favorite Station and Gender

Gender

Male n=151 37.9%

Female n=247 62.1%

WAOR WCHR-1 WCHR-2

68.2% 23.2% 8.6%

36.8% 40.1% 23.1% 38.02***

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*** p < .001