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# Tube bending

Bent tubing

Shown is a trombone, it displays some U-bends Tube bending is the umbrella term for metal forming processes used to permanently form pipes or tubing. One has to differentiate between form-bound and freeform-bending procedures, as well as between heat supported and cold forming procedures. Form bound bending procedures like press bending or rotary draw bending are used to form the work piece into the shape of a die. Straight tube stock can be formed using a bending machine to create a variety of single or multiple bends and to shape the piece into the desired form. This processes can be used to form complex shapes out of different types of ductile metal tubing.[1] Freeform-bending processes, like three-roll-pushbending, shape the workpiece kinematically, thus the bending contour is not dependent on the tool geometry. Generally, round stock is what is used in tube bending. However, square and rectangular tubes and pipes may also be bent to meet job specifications. Other factors involved in the tube bending

process is the wall thickness, tooling and lubricants needed by the pipe and tube bender to best shape the material.

Contents
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1 Geometry 2 Processes o 2.1 Press bending o 2.2 Rotary draw bending o 2.3 Three-Roll Pushbending o 2.4 Heat-induction o 2.5 Roll benders o 2.6 Sand-packing/hot-slab forming 3 Mandrels o 3.1 Bending springs 4 References 5 External links

 Geometry
A tube can be bent in multiple directions and angles. Common simple bends consist of forming elbows, which are bends that range from 2 to 90, and U-bends, which are 180 bends. More complex geometries include multiple two-dimensional (2D) bends and three-dimensional (3D) bends. A 2D tube has the openings on the same plane; a 3D has openings on different planes. One side effect of bending the workpiece is the wall thickness changes; the wall along the inner radius of the tube becomes thicker and the outer wall becomes thinner. To overcome this the tube may be supported internally or externally to preserve the cross section. Depending on the bend angle, wall thickness, and bending process the inside of the wall may wrinkle.

 Processes
Tube bending as a process starts with loading a tube into a pipe bender and clamping it into place between two dies, the clamping block and the forming die. The tube is also loosely held by two other dies, the wiper die and the pressure die. The process of tube bending involves using mechanical force to push stock material pipe or tubing against a die, forcing the pipe or tube to conform to the shape of the die. Often, stock tubing is held firmly in place while the end is rotated and rolled around the die. Other forms of processing including pushing stock through rollers that bend it into a simple curve.[2] For some tube bending processing, a mandrel is placed inside the tube to prevent collapsing. The tube is also held in tension by a wiper die to prevent any creasing during stress. A wiper die is usually

made of a softer alloy i.e. aluminum, brass to avoid scratching or damaging the material being bent. Much of the tooling is made of hardened steel or tooled steel to maintain and prolong the tools life. However wherever there is a concern of scratching or gouging the work piece, a softer material such as aluminum or bronze is utilized. For example, the clamping block, rotating form block and pressure die are often formed from the hardened steel because the tubing is not moving past these parts of the machine. On the other hand, the pressure die and the wiping die are formed from aluminum or bronze to maintain the shape and surface of the workpiece as it slides by. Pipe bending machines are typically human powered, pneumatic powered, hydraulic assisted, hydraulic driven, or electric servomotor.

##  Press bending

Probably will be the first bending process used on cold pipes and tubing. In this process a die in the shape of the bend is pressed against the pipe forcing the pipe to fit the shape of the bend. Because the pipe is not supported internally there is some deformation of the shape of the pipe giving an ovular cross section. This process is used where a consistent cross section of the pipe is not required. Although a single die can produce various shapes, it only works for one size tube and radius.

##  Rotary draw bending

Rotary draw bending (RDB) are precise in that they bend using tooling or "die sets" which have a constant center line radius (CLR). The die set consists of two parts: The former die creates the shape to which the material will be bent. The counter die does the work of pushing the material into the former die while traveling the length of the bend. Rotary draw benders can be programmable to store multiple bend jobs with varying degrees of bending. Often a positioning index table (IDX) is attached to the bender allowing the operator to reproduce complex bends which can have multiple bends and differing planes. Rotary draw benders are the most popular machines for use in bending tube, pipe and solids for applications like: handrails, frames, motor vehicle roll cages, handles, lines and much more. Rotary draw benders create aesthetically pleasing bends when the right tooling is matched to the application.

##  Three-Roll Pushbending

The Three-Roll Pushbending (TRPB) is the most commonly used freeform-bending process to manufacture bending geometries consisting of several plain bending curves. Nevertheless, a 3Dshaping is possible. The profile is guided between bending-roll and supporting-roll(s), while being pushed through the tools. The position of the forming-roll defines the bending radius. The bending point is the tangent-point between tube and bending-roll. To change the bending plane,

the pusher rotates the tube around its longitudinal axis. Generally, a TRPB tool kit can be applied on a conventional rotary draw bending machine. Bending contours defined as spline- or polynomial-functions can be manufactured.[3]

 Heat-induction
An induction coil is placed around a small section of the pipe at the bend point. It is then heated to between 800 and 2,200 degrees Fahrenheit (430 and 1,200 C). While the pipe is hot, pressure is placed on the pipe to bend it. The pipe is then quenched with either air or water spray. HeatInduction bending is used on large pipes such as freeway signs, power plants, and petroleum pipe lines.

##  Roll benders

During the roll bending process the pipe, extrusion, or solid is passed through a series of rollers (typically 3) that apply pressure to the pipe gradually changing the bend radius in the pipe. The pyramid style roll benders have one moving roll, usually the top roll. Double pinch type roll benders have two adjustable rolls, usually the bottom rolls, and a fixed top roll. This method of bending causes very little deformation in the cross section of the pipe. This process is suited to producing coils of pipe as well as long gentle bends like those used in truss systems.

##  Sand-packing/hot-slab forming

In the sand packing process the pipe is filled with fine sand and the ends are capped. The pipe is then heated in a furnace to 1,600 F (870 C) or higher. The pipe is then placed on a slab with pins set in it. The pipe is then bent around the pins using a winch, crane, or some other mechanical force. The sand in the pipe minimizes distortion in the pipe cross section.

 Mandrels
A mandrel is a steel rod or linked ball inserted into the tube while it is being bent to give the tube extra support to reduce wrinkling and breaking the tube during this process. The different types of mandrels are as follows. 1. Plug mandrel, a solid rod used on normal bends. 2. Form mandrel, a solid rod with curved end used on bend when more support is need. 3. Ball mandrel without cable, unlinked steel ball bearings inserted into tube, used on critical and precise bends. 4. Ball mandrel with cable, linked ball bearings inserted into tube, used on critical bend and precise bends. 5. Sand, sand packed into tube. In production of a product where the bend is not critical a plug mandrel can be used. A form type tapers the end of the mandrel to provide more support in the bend of the tube. When precise

bending is needed a ball mandrel (or ball mandrel with steel cable) should be used. The conjoined ball-like disks are inserted into the tubing to allow for bending while maintaining the same diameter throughout. Other styles include using sand, cerrobend, or frozen water. These allow for a somewhat constant diameter while providing an inexpensive alternative to the aforementioned styles. Performance automotive or motorcycle exhaust pipe is a common application for a mandrel.

##  Bending springs

These are strong but flexible springs inserted into a pipe to support the pipe walls during manual bending. They have diameters only slightly less than the internal diameter of the pipe to be bent. They are only suitable for bending 15-and-22 mm (0.6-and-0.9 in) soft copper pipe (typically used in household plumbing). The spring is pushed into the pipe until its center is roughly where the bend is to be. A length of flexible wire can be attached to the end of the spring to facilitate its removal. The pipe is generally held against the flexed knee, and the ends of the pipe are pulled up to create the bend. To make it easier to retrieve the spring from the pipe, it is a good idea to bend the pipe slightly more than required, and then slacken it off a little. They are less cumbersome than rotary benders, but are not suitable for bending short lengths of piping when it is difficult to get the required leverage on the pipe ends. Bending springs for smaller diameter pipes (10mm copper pipe) slide over the pipe instead of inside.

 References
^ Todd, Robert H.; Allen, Dell K.; Alting, Leo (1994), Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide (1st ed.), Industrial Press Inc., ISBN 0-8311-3049-0. 2. ^ Pipe Bending Methods, http://www.ttb.com/process.htm, retrieved 2009-02-01. 3. ^ Engel, B.; Kersten, S.; Anders, D. (2011), "Spline-Interpolation and Calculation of Machine Parameters for the Three-Roll-Pushbending of Spline-Contours", Steel Research International 82 (10)
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## Pipe Bending by TTB

Pipe Bending Methods The most common processes for bending pipe and tube are: ram, roll, rotary-draw, heatinduction, and sand-packing and hot-slab forming. Ram pipe bending was probably the first pipe bending method used to cold-form materials.

This pipe bending method pushes a die against the tube or pipe by a mechanical force, forcing the pipe to conform to the contours of the die. Lacking internal support in the pipe, this pipe bending process creates some cross section ovality. The thinner the wall the more deformation of the pipe is seen. Maximum pipe bending angle is normally 90 degrees. This is a commonly used pipe bending process where high levels of cross section ovality are acceptable such as furniture tubing, conduit and handrails. During roll pipe bending, a series of spool-like rollers apply pressure to the pipe as it passes through them. Pipe bending Operators change the location of the rollers to produce pipe of the desired radius. This pipe bending process is ideal for forming helical pipe coils for heat transfer applications as well as long sweeping sections such as those used in steel construction-curved trusses and roof components for structures requiring large open spaces. It deforms the pipe cross section very little for such sweeping sections. Using rotary-draw pipe bending machines, a steel plug fits inside the pipe while a rotating steel die forms the pipe to the radius of the die. The steel plug, or mandrel, supports the pipe internally to reduce the amount of pipe cross section flattening during pipe bending . A pipe bending clamp device secures the pipe to the die. The pipe bending machine rotates the die to the desired bend angle as a sliding pressure die forces the pipe to conform to the die radius. After the pipe bending process, the operator extracts the mandrel from the pipe, releases the clamp, then removes the bent pipe from the machine. With proper tooling, this pipe bending process is capable of producing high quality, tight-radius bends for a wide range of applications including football goalposts, davit arms and pneumatic conveying systems. The heat-induction pipe bending process was originally used during World War II to harden surfaces of gears and ball bearings. The pipe bending industry uses the heat-induction pipe bending process by placing an induction coil around the pipe to be bent. The induction coil heats a narrow, circumferential section of pipe to a temperature of 800 to 2,200 F, depending on the material type. At proper pipe bending temperature, the pipe passes through the induction coil at a slow, gradual rate as the bending force is applied.

After bending occurs, the heated area is quenched by a water or air spray. This pipe bending process produces a quality product, however its typical cost is higher than other methods. Pipe sizes up to 48" outside diameter and larger are commonly bent by this pipe bending method for applications including power plants, highway road signs and petroleum pipelines. Sand-packing and hot-slab forming starts with packing pipe to be bent with a fine sand, then capping the ends. The pipe is placed in a furnace and heated to 1600 F or above. After removing it from the furnace, the pipe is secured by one end to a bending slab. Winches, cranes, or some other devices pull the unsecured end of the pipe against pins in the slab until the bend assumes the desired radius. The sand minimizes cross section collapse and ovality. This is an archaic process. However, many pipe bends are still made in this fashion.

Mechanical Pipe Bending and Physical Pipe Bending Effects Like any cold or hot working process, bending pipe and tube alters the mechanical properties of the original material. After cold forming, yield and tensile strengths may rise approximately 10 percent; elongation may decrease approximately 15 percent. Bending of pipe and tube can distort the cross section. This depends on the quality of the pipe bending machine tooling, the difficulty of the pipe bend and the experience of the pipe bender. The greater the radius, the less the resulting distortion; the tighter the radius, the greater the distortion. The inner wall of the pipe bend undergoes compression that thickens the wall. Excessive compression, in the worst case,

can fold the material causing wrinkles or waves. The outer bend wall undergoes tension that thins the back wall. These same forces tend to make a round pipe oval, with the widest dimension of the oval transverse to the plane of the bend