mae 3309 - Thermal Engineering This covers the basic principles of Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer with Engineering

applications. Part I Thermodynamics 1 Concepts and Definitions

Definition: Thermodynamics is a science that deals with Heat, Work and Properties of the substance in a process. Applications: Steam power plants, Refrigeration and Air-conditioning devices, Propulsion power plants (automobiles, rockets, air-breathing vehicles etc.) and so on. Analytical Approaches: 1. Statistical Analysis (Microscopic approach): A more elaborate approach, based on the average behavior of a large group of individual particles. 2. Classical Analysis (Macroscopic approach): An approach based on the time-averaged influence of many particles, perceived by our senses and measured by instruments. Dimensions and Units: 1. English system : ft (in, mile), lbm, sec, lbf, ft lbf (Btu), hp, ….. 2. S.I. (System International) : m (mm, cm), gm (kg), sec, N, J (kJ), W (kW) …. Terminology System - quantity of matter or region in space chosen for study. Surrounding - everything else external to the system. Boundary - that separates system and surrounding – may be fixed or movable. 1. Closed system - consists of fixed mass; only energy (Heat and/or Work) crosses the boundary; volume of the system not necessarily fixed. e.g. a gas in a piston-cylinder device. 2. Open system – a selected region within a device, also referred to as Control volume; involves flow of mass across the boundary; energy (Heat and/or Work) may cross the boundary. e.g. compressor, turbine, nozzle, water heater. 3. Isolated system - uninfluenced by the surroundings; no mass, work or heat transfer takes place across the boundary. e.g. Universe.

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Its value depends on the state of the system and is independent of the path by which the system arrived at the given state. Property is any characteristic of a system. vibrational.pressure P.can exist in different forms – thermal. Components of internal energy: Sensible energy – owing to translational. electric. chemical. and mass m. potential.g familiar ones . electric resistivity. mechanical. volume V. Heat transfer and Work transfer are referred to as interactions between system and surrounding. less familiar ones . temperature T. electric. KE = mV2/ 2 arises by virtue of motion relative to some reference frame. e. and surface tension effects are considered as insignificant. and nuclear – and their sum constitutes the total energy. The total energy of a system is then expressed as E = U + KE + PE E = U + mV2/ 2 + mgz on a unit mass basis. and rotational kinetic energies of the individual molecules of the system – depends on temperature of the system. velocity.Energy . Chemical energy – associated with chemical reaction. The magnetic. Macroscopic (external) forms of energy with reference to some outside reference frame: (a) Potential energy (PE) and (b) Kinetic energy (KE). magnetic. Latent energy – owing to inter-molecular forces – associated with the phase of the system. Nuclear energy – associated with nuclear reaction. PE = mgz arises by virtue of the system’s elevation in a gravitational field. Classification of total energy: 1. modulus of elasticity. Thermodynamics deals with the change of the total energy rather than its absolute value.viscosity. e = u + V2/ 2 + gz kJ kJ/kg Mass transfer. thermal conductivity. 2 . 2. thermal expansion coefficient. kinetic. the total energy of a system is assigned a value of zero at some reference point. Microscopic (internal) forms of energy – related to molecular structure and molecular activity – Internal energy (U). elevation etc. For convenience.

V. and the interactions with the surroundings. as well as the path it follows. At a given state. P.value depends on the size of the system. specific internal energy (u = U/m). Process: Change of state of a system occurs due to a process. Mechanical equilibrium. total volume and total energy Specific property . Quasi-equilibrium process . v etc. e. Process diagrams plotted by employing thermodynamic properties (T.g. e.condition of a system – described by a set of properties.) as coordinates are useful for visualizing the processes. specific volume (v = V/m). intensive properties. Many actual processes can be modeled as quasi-equilibrium with negligible error and analysis is much easier.g. Thermodynamic equilibrium . To describe a process completely. as a result values of one or more properties change.extensive property per unit mass. Types of processes: based on a particular property that remains constant during the process. one should specify the initial and final states of the process. all the properties of a system have fixed values. e.an idealized process – equilibrium is maintained at all times – A process in which deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium is infinitesimal and the states can be considered during the process as equilibrium states. The properties describe the state of the system only when it is in equilibrium.Classification of properties: Intensive property . Types of equilibrium: Thermal equilibrium. Polytropic process a general process P Vn = constant Isothermal Process – temperature remains constant n=1 Isobaric process – pressure remains constant n=0 Isochoric process specific volume remains constant n=∞ Isentropic process entropy remains constant n = k (ratio of specific heats) 3 . mass.no unbalanced potentials or driving forces within the system. A system in equilibrium experiences no changes when it is isolated from its surroundings. temperature and density Extensive property . The state of a system is specified by two independent.g pressure. Path of a process: The series of equilibrium states passed through by a system during a process. specific total energy (e = E/m) State .independent of the size of the system. phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium.

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics and Temperature It states that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body. the pressure at a given point is the same in all directions. Vacuum pressure – pressure measured below atmospheric pressure. Pressure: Force exerted by a fluid per unit area.325 Pa = 101.01325 bars Absolute pressure . absolute pressure is almost always used.measured relative to absolute vacuum The pressure measuring devices are calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere. they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. Temperature – a measure of “hotness” or “coldness”. Temperature scales in SI system .1 MPa. For a fluid at rest.Cyclic process: Initial and final states of the system during a process are same.Celsius scale and in English system – Fahrenheit scale Thermodynamic temperature Scale – developed in conjunction with II law – a temperature scale independent of the properties of the thermometric substance. It serves as a basis for temperature measurement.named after Lord Kelvin Rankine (R) in English system – named after William Rankine A temperature scale identical to Kelvin scale is the Ideal gas temperature scale – measured using constant-volume gas thermometer based on the principle that at 4 . Non-cyclic process: The initial and final states are not same. Gauge pressure – pressure measured above atmospheric pressure.325 kPa = 1. Pgauge = Pabs Pvac = Patm Patm Pabs (for pressures above Patm ) (for pressures below Patm ) In thermodynamic relations. Unit – N/m2 called Pa (pascal) in SI system and lbf / in2 or psi in English system. Several properties of materials change with temperature and this forms the basis for temperature measurement. Kelvin ( K) in SI . 1 atm = 101. Other units are: 1 bar = 105 Pa = 100 kPa = 0.

If ice point and steam point are assigned the values of 0 and 100.15oC. T = a + b P. or a combination of these. A mixture of oil and water is not a pure substance as oil is not soluble to make the mixture chemically homogeneous. a system consisting of water or steam or a mixture of ice & water or water & steam. In this case the value of a (corresponding to an absolute pressure of zero) is determined to be -273. The refrigerant turns from liquid to vapor in the freezer of a refrigerator 5 . i. a system consisting of oxygen as vapor. Properties of Pure Substance A process is carried out in a thermodynamic device with the help of some working fluid or system. liquid or gas) but the chemical composition is same in all phases. (liquid phase is richer in nitrogen in a combination.e. The relationship between Kelvin and Celsius scales is T(K) = T(oC) + 273.low pressures. Phases of pure substance – solid. e. or liquid. though a mixture of several gases is considered a pure substance as long as it is all gas or all liquid. Water exists as a mixture of liquid and vapor in boiler and condenser of a steam power plant. It may exist in more than one phase (physical structure-solid.15 The relationship between Kelvin and Celsius scales is T(R) = T(oF) + 459. where the constants a and b are experimentally determined.8 T((oC) +32 2. liquid and gas Phase-change process of pure substances: There are many practical situations where two phases of a pure substance coexist in equilibrium.8 T(K) and T(oF) = 1. the temperature of a gas is proportional to its pressure at constant volume.g.67 T(R) = 1. hence not homogeneous in composition). however. A pure substance is one that has a homogeneous and invariable chemical composition. Then the absolute gas temperature scale is given by T = bP. The working fluid is generally a pure substance that may change its phase. It is therefore necessary to have information on the properties of such working fluids. The effects produced on this working fluid are considered to analyze the process. then the gas temperature scale will be identical to the Celsius scale. Air. respectively.

v and P– v diagrams Critical Point . but we can never tell when the change has occurred. it will resemble a vapor.the substance is not about to vaporize.14 0C Pcrt = 22. The critical properties of water are: Tcr = 374. Water boils at 100 0C at 1 atm. Instead. For each 1000 m increase in elevation. At pressures above the critical pressure.is the point at which the saturated liquid and saturated vapor states are identical (saturation line will become a point). vcrt = 0.vapor that is about to condense Superheated vapor . These two lines meet each other at the critical point forming a dome. means shorter cooking times. In saturated liquid-vapor mixture (wet vapor). there will not be a distinct phase-change process. 6 .003155 m3 /kg Saturated liquid line – connecting the saturated liquid states. Compressed liquid. drops by a little over 30C. Eventually. Superheated vapor and Saturated liquid-vapor or wet regions are shown in the figure. but the T=constant lines on this diagram have a downward trend. Saturation liquid: the liquid that is about to vaporize. the boiling temp. Compressed liquid or sub-cooled liquid . and at all times there will be only one phase present. Above the critical state.vapor that is not about to condense or vapor having a temperature above saturation temperature. there is no line that separates the compressed liquid region and the superheated vapor region. the specific volume of the substance will continually increase. Saturation temperature (Tsat) .09 MPa.pressure at which the pure substance starts boiling. pressure. Boiling temp.temp. Higher boiling temp. at which the pure substance starts boiling – depends on the pressure for a given pure substance. Property Diagrams for Phase-change Processes: T. Saturation pressure (Psat) . Saturated vapor line – connecting the saturated vapor states.Constant pressure heating of water (say at one atm. liquid and vapor phases coexist in equilibrium Saturated vapor . hence it takes longer to cook at higher altitudes. decreases with altitude. The general shape of the P-v diagram is very much like the T-v diagram. pressure): Refer to the T-v and P-T diagrams.

Enthalpy.uf vfg = vg . vf = specific volume of saturated liquid. It is also used to represent the properties of steam in tabular or graphical form (Mollier chart). the subscript g is used to denote the properties of a saturated vapor. Psat kPa sp. denoted as H = U + PV (kJ) and h = u + Pv (kJ/kg) This property is very useful in the analysis and graphical representation of the processes. hfg = hg .Enthalpy In the analysis of certain types of processes. and the subscript fg is used to denote the difference between the saturated vapor and saturated liquid values of the same property. Table . Mollier referred to the group (u + Pv) as Heat contents and Total heat Steam Property Tables the subscript f is used to denote the properties of a saturated liquid. particularly in power generation (turbines) and refrigeration. For the sake of simplicity and convenience. Psat kPa sp.hf (enthalpy of vaporization or latent heat). we frequently encounter the combination of properties U + PV .A-5 Press. volume vf vg internal energy uf ufg kJ/kg ug enthalpy hf hfg hg kJ/kg entropy sf sfg sg C m3 /kg kJ/(kg. T o sat. volume vf vg internal energy uf ufg kJ/kg ug enthalpy hf hfg hg kJ/kg entropy sf sfg sg C m3 /kg kJ/(kg.vf .K) 7 .K) Table . ug = internal energy of saturated vapor sf = entropy of saturated liquid. hg = enthalpy of saturated vapor uf = internal energy of saturated liquid.pr. sg = entropy of saturated vapor ufg = ug . T o sat. this combination is defined as a new property.temp.A-4 Temp. vg = specific volume of saturated vapor hf = enthalpy of saturated liquid.

x) uf or u = h = x hg + (1. the state of saturated liquid at 0. and mass of saturated liquid = (1 – x) kg hence. and the reference state chosen is of no consequence in calculations.x) vf or v = vf + x vfg m3 /kg m3 /kg and x = ( v . u = x (uf + ufg ) + (1.vf ) / vfg Similarly. That is.x) uf uf + x ufg kJ / kg and we get and we get u = x (hf + hfg ) + (1. a substance exists as part liquid and part vapor. and the internal energy and entropy are assigned zero values at that state.x) hf hf + x hfg sf + x sfg kJ / kg kJ / kg 8 . It has no meaning in the compressed liquid or superheated regions. However.for saturated liquid-vapor mixture During a vaporization process.Quality of steam ( x ) . Reference state For water. in thermodynamics we are concerned with the changes in properties. Its value is always between 0 and 1. the internal energy and enthalpy of wet steam are expressed as u = x ug + (1. In 1 kg mass of wet steam (saturated liquid-vapor mixture) of quality x.01 oC is taken as the reference state. x = 0 (0%) for saturated liquid and x = 1 ( 100%) for saturated vapor. it is a mixture of saturated liquid and saturated vapor. specific volume of wet steam is given by v = x vg + (1. mass of saturated vapor = x kg. a superheated vapor can be approximated as an ideal gas. At pressures sufficiently below the critical pressures or at temperatures sufficiently above the critical temperature. Quality x is a measure of the proportions of the liquid and vapor phases in the mixture and is defined as x = mvapor / mtotal where mtotal = mliquid + mvapor = mf + mg Quality has significance for saturated mixture only.x) hf or h = s = Superheated vapor The temperature and pressure are no longer dependent properties.

the property tables should be used for these substances. Where R is gas constant given by R = Ru / M Ru = universal gas constant = 8. the water vapor in the air can be treated as an ideal gas with essentially no error. neon. In the range of practical interests.Ideal – gas equation of state Equations of state . hydrogen. however.relations involving properties of a substance at equilibrium states Gas and vapor are often used as synonymous words. many familiar gases such as air. helium. with P-v-T relationship given by Pv = RT called Ideal gas equation of state Because of its simplicity. At low pressures and high temperatures. Instead. should not be treated as ideal gases. From experimental observations. P V = N Ru T The properties of an ideal gas of fixed mass at two different states are related to each other by P1 V1 = P2 V2 T1 T2 An ideal gas is an imaginary substance that obeys the relation P v = R T. R) M = molar mass (mass of one mole). mass m = M N. Vapor usually implies a gas that is not far from a state of condensation. It has been experimentally observed that the ideal gas relation closely approximates the P-v-T behavior of real gases at low density. The vapor phase of a substance is customarily called a gas when it is above the critical temperature. it has been established that at very low density all gases and vapors approach ideal gas behavior. oxygen. the ideal gas equation of state is very convenient to use in thermodynamic calculations. K) 1545 ft lbf / (lbmol .314 kJ / (kmol . and the gas behaves as an ideal gas under these conditions. krypton and even heavier gases such as carbon dioxide can be treated as ideal gases with negligible error (often less than 1%). since the pressure of water vapor is very low. P V = m R T. the density of a gas decreases. where N = mole number Other forms of this equation of state are. argon. Dense gases such as water vapor in steam power plants and refrigerant vapor in refrigerators (where high pressures are involved). 9 . In air-conditioning applications.

given by Z = Pv / RT or Pv=ZRT Z = 1 for ideal gases.Compressibility Factor (Z) . For real gases Z can be greater or less than unity. 10 .a measure of deviation from ideal gas behavior.Equation of state for real gases is given by ( P + a / v2 ) ( v – b ) = R T The intermolecular attraction forces and the volume occupied by the gas molecules themselves are not taken into account in the ideal gas equation of state. An ideal gas can be defined as a gas at sufficiently low density so that intermolecular forces and the associated energy are negligibly small. Van der Waals equation of state . The term a / v2 accounts for the intermolecular forces and the term b for the volume occupied by the molecules.