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6.720J/3.

43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2004

Lecture 14-1

Lecture 14 - p-n Junction (cont.) March 8, 2007 Contents: 1. Ideal p-n junction out of equilibrium (cont.) Reading assignment: del Alamo, Ch. 7, 7.2 (7.2.3) Announcements: Quiz 1: March 13, 7:30-9:30 PM; lec tures #1-12 (up to SCR-type transport). Open book. Calculator required.

Cite as: Jess del Alamo, course materials for 6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2004

Lecture 14-2

Key questions
What are the dominant physics of current ow in a p-n junction under bias? What underlies the rectifying behavior of the p-n junction? What are the key assumptions that allow the development of a simple model for the I-V characteristics of a p-n diode? What are the key dependencies of the current-voltage character istics of the p-n diode?

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6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2004

Lecture 14-3

1. Ideal p-n junction out of equilibrium (cont.) I-V characteristics


Fe=0 Ec R G a) equilibrium R G Ev Fh=0 Fe

Ec R G R G Ev Fh b) forward bias

Fe Ec R G c) reverse bias

G Ev

Fh

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6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2004

Lecture 14-4

In TE: balance between electron and hole ows across SCR balance between G and R in QNRs I=0 In forward bias: energy barrier to minority carriers reduced minority carrier injection R > G in QNRs I eqV/kT In reverse bias: energy barrier to minority carriers increased minority carrier extraction G > R in QNRs I saturates to a small value

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6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2004

Lecture 14-5

Key thinking to construct model for I-V characteristics: junction voltage sets concentration of carriers with enough en ergy to get injected; rate of carrier injection set by minority carrier transport and G/R rates in quasi-neutral regions; SCR is in quasi-equilibrium.
Fe

Ec R G R G Ev Fh

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6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2004

Lecture 14-6

Fe

Ec R G R G Ev Fh

-xp xn

Strategy for deriving rst-order model for I-V characteristics: Compute diode current density as follows:
J = Je(xp ) + Jh(xn )
Compute each minority carrier current contribution as follows: Je (xp ) = qn(xp)ve (xp) Jh(xn ) = qp(xn )vh(xn ) Use expressions of ve(xp ) and vh(xn) derived for similar minor
ity carrier type problems in Ch. 5.
Derive expressions for n(xp ) and p (xn) assuming quasi-equilibrium across the space-charge region. Unied result for forward and reverse bias.

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6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2004

Lecture 14-7

Boundary conditions across SCR. In thermal equilibrium, Boltzmann relations:

(xn) (xp) = bi =

kT no (xn) ln q no(xp ) kT po (xn) ln q po (xp )

(xn) (xp) = bi =

If net current inside SCR is much smaller than drift and diusion components, then quasi-equilibrium Boltzmann relations apply:

bi V

kT n(xn) ln q n(xp ) kT p(xn ) ln q p(xp )


kT q

bi V

In LLI, n(xn ) ND , and p(xp ) NA . Also bi = Then:

ln ND NA . n2
i

n2 qV n(xp) i exp NA kT 2 n qV p(xn) i exp ND kT

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6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2004

Lecture 14-8

In terms of excesses:

n2 qV n (xp) i (exp 1) NA kT n2 qV p (xn) i (exp 1) ND kT

Boundary conditions have all expected features. For electrons (for example): For V = 0:
n (xp ) = 0
For V
kT : q

n2 qV n (xp) i exp NA kT

For V kT : q n2 n (xp ) i NA

Cite as: Jess del Alamo, course materials for 6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2004

Lecture 14-9

Minority carrier velocity at edges of SCR (long diode: Wn Lh, Wp Le). Problem identical to long bar studied in Ch. 5: exponentially decaying excess minority carrier proles.
n', p'

p'(xn) n'(-xp) p'(x) n'(x)

-wp

-xp

xn

wn x

n (x) = n (xp ) exp

x + xp Le x + xn p (x) = p (xn ) exp Lh

in p-QNR: x xp in n-QNR: x xn

Carrier velocities: De Le Dh diff vh(xn) = vh (xn) = Lh

diff ve(xp ) = ve (xp ) =

Cite as: Jess del Alamo, course materials for 6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2004

Lecture 14-10

Excess minority carrier currents:

Je (xp ) Jh(xn )

dif qve f (xp) n (xp )

De n2 qV i =q (exp 1) Le NA kT

dif qvh f (xn) p (xn)

Dh n2 qV i =q (exp 1) Lh ND kT

Total current: sum of electron and hole current: J = Je(xp ) + Jh(xn) = qn2( i 1 Dh qV 1 De + )(exp 1) NA Le ND Lh kT

Dene Js saturation current density (A/cm2 ): J = Js(exp If diode area is A, current is: I = Is(exp qV 1) kT qV 1) kT

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6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2004

Lecture 14-11

I = Is(exp Classic rectifying behavior


I

qV 1) kT

log |I|

0.43 q kT IS 0 IS linear scale 0

0 semilogarithmic scale

Should test quality of quasi-equilibrium approximation [problem #7.13].

Cite as: Jess del Alamo, course materials for 6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2004

Lecture 14-12

Rectifying behavior arises from boundary conditions across SCR:


n, p

p(x) n(x)
increasing forward bias increasing forward bias

ni2 NA

ni2 ND
increasing reverse bias

0 -xp 0

increasing reverse bias

xn

-In forward bias: carrier concentrations at SCR edges grow up expo nentially I eqV/kT -In reverse bias: carrier concentrations at SCR edges reduced quickly to zero (cant go below!) I saturates

Cite as: Jess del Alamo, course materials for 6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2004

Lecture 14-13

Experimental verication:

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6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2004

Lecture 14-14

Universality of exponential relationship: I = IS (exp Then: I qV = exp 1 IS kT qV 1) kT

Reprinted with permission from Anonymous, G. F. Cerofolini, and M. L. Polignano. "Current-voltage Characteristics of Ideal Silicon Diodes in the Range 300400 K." Journal of Applied Physics 57, no. 2 (1985): 646-647. Copyright 1985, American Institute of Physics.

Cite as: Jess del Alamo, course materials for 6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2004

Lecture 14-15

In short diodes with S = , G&R takes place at surfaces:


n', p'

p'(xn) n'(-xp) p'(x)

n'(x)

-wp

-xp

xn

wn x

dif ve f (xp) =

De wp xp Dh diff vh (xn ) = wn xn

Js is: Js qn2( i 1 De 1 Dh + ) NA wp xp ND wn xn

Cite as: Jess del Alamo, course materials for 6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2004

Lecture 14-16

Quasi-Fermi levels across long diode:

Ec Efe qV Efh Ev
forward bias

Ec

Efh qV Efe

Ev
reverse bias

Inside SCR: Efe Efh = qV Then: np = n2 exp i From here can get also BCs.
qV kT

Cite as: Jess del Alamo, course materials for 6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.720J/3.43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2004

Lecture 14-17

Key conclusions
Forward bias: junction barrier carrier injection recom bination in QNRs I eqV/kT Reverse bias: junction barrier carrier extraction gener ation in QNRs I saturates with reverse V Rectifying characteristics of pn diode arise from boundary con ditions at edges of SCR. Excess minority carrier concentration at edges of depletion re gion: n2 qV n2 qV i n (xp ) = (exp 1), p (xn) = i (exp 1) NA kT ND kT

I-V characteristics of ideal pn diode: I = Is(exp qV 1) kT

Quasi-Fermi levels at across SCR: np = n2 exp i qV kT inside SCR

Cite as: Jess del Alamo, course materials for 6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].