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Gypsum Plasters (CaSO4.

It is a naturally occurring mineral It is the raw material for a no. of cementing materials such as plaster of Paris, keenes plaster & estrich plaster On heating, Gypsum undergoes partial or complete dehydration to give a series of products 150C 600C 800C

CaSO4.2H2O CaSO4.1/2 H2O CaSO4 CaO + SO3

Hemihydrate anhydrite

Plaster of Paris
PoP is formulated as the hemihydrate (CaSO4.1/2H2O) but commercial plaster is a mixture of the hemihydrate, anhydrite & unchanged gypsum It is manufactured by calcining Gypsum at 150C followed by grinding the product to a fine powder It forms a plastic mass on mixing with water & sets quickly with slight expansion Hardening is due to hydration of hemihydrate & anhydrite to gypsum Uses- for making accurate plaster casting moulds, indoor wall plastering

Keenes plaster & Estrich plaster

Keenes plaster is the anhydrite which is less soluble in water as compared to the hemihydrate & sets slowly
Zinc sulphite, potassium sulphite, alum, sod. Carbonate are used to quicken the setting process USES- for plastering exterior walls and in flooring

Estrich Plaster- It is obtained by heating gypsum above 800C. It sets and hardens very slowly

Cement is a lime based product exhibiting adhesive & cohesive properties It is used for binding together coarse aggregates such as bricks, building blocks and stones Portland cement is the most commonly used cement in the construction industry

Manufacturing of Portland cement

Three distinct operations
Mixing of raw materials- Dry or wet conditions Burning Grinding

Chemical composition of cement

Usually expressed in terms of the Oxides of Ca, Si, Al, Fe as it is a mixture of many compounds Oxide constituents exist in the form of 4 major phases Dicalcium silicate, 2CaO.SiO2 (C2S) Tricalcium silicate, 3CaO.SiO2 (C3S) Tricalcium aluminate, 3CaO.Al2O3 (C3A) by weight Tetracalcium aluminoferrite, 4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3 (C4AF)


Free oxides CaO, MgO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, SO3, H2O, CO2 constitute the remaining 10%

Chemical composition of cement

As per BIS requirement
The ratio of percentage of alumina to that of iron oxide should not be less than 0.66 Ratio of percentage of lime to those of alumina, iron oxide and silica (lime saturation factor, LSF)should not be less than 0.66 & greater than 1.02


Setting & Hardening of Cement

On mixing with half its wt of water (gauging), it forms a plastic pasty mass which gradually looses its plasticity & ultimately becomes hard The setting process occurs in 2 stages
Initial Setting- recognized based on the ability of a weighed needle to penetrate the mass to a certain depth under a set of prescribed conditions
Initial setting time depends on the quantity of water as well as temp. Usually 45 mins for Portland cement (sufficient time)

Final Setting-Occurs over a few hours (10 h for Portland)


Setting & Hardening of Cement

It is a slow process Takes a few days during which crystallization occurs & the strength of cement aggregate increases


Types of Cement
Different types based on the composition, properties and uses. Natural Cement (Portland cement)-prepared by calcining naturally occurring mixture of calcareous and argillaceous materials. White Portland cement- doesnt contain iron oxide as it is prepared from the material free from iron oxide Pozzolana cement (Naturally occurring, volcanic origin) 45% of silica, 10-20%alumina, <10% ferric oxide and oxides of Ca, Mg, Na, K & Ti
Artificial Pozzolana-is made by burning clay or from fly ash Pozzolana cement is usually mixed with Portland cement


Types of Cement
Water Proof Cement- Obtained by grinding portland cement with calcium stearate. Slag Cement- highly resistant to sea water, obtained from blast furnace slag mixed with Ca(OH)2 & CaSO4 Super heated cement & high alumina cement- highly resistant to sea water but with a decreased rate of hardening
manufactured from blast furnace slag

Portland blast furnace cement- Portland+slag mixture Barium and Strontium cements- obtained by replacing Ca with Barium or Strontium salts
It is used for heavy concrete to serve as radiation shields for Xrays and nuclear radiations 14